Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 28, 1848, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 28, 1848 Page 1
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.? ? T H ] NO. 5321. IMPORTANT MOVEMENTS. < -WVWWVVV^/VV>/VAA, i The Great Slavery ami Anti-Slavery Meet- ' Ingt?Th? Separation of the Union. THE SOUTHKHN MOVKMKNT. [Correspondence of the I'hiluditlphiu inquirer.] ' Wmhiudtob, Deo. 25,1848 The convention of Southern members of the two houses of Congress, occupies much of the attention of ; public men here. The U&llim >re American contains a very accurate nketch of the proceedings ofthat assemblage, which 1 subjoin, with some further particulars :? Kx-Oovernor Metcalfe, Senator from Kentucky, preaiUed. assisted by Senator Atchison and ex-Uorernor Gayle, a representative from Alabama, as V'ee Presidents; and Mr. Venablo, representative from North Carolina, as Secretary. Between sixty and seventy members of the two houses, 1 am informed, were prese nt Mr. Bayly,of Virginia, offered aserles of resolution*, embracing essentially, in regard to the righti of tti<? States and the powers of the gene'al government, the principles of the resolutions of 1798. Th">y do not recommend resistance, but insist upon a firm m*in tenance of the oonstitutional rights of tlie South, an 1 assert the right of the people of the States to resist, in such manner as they may deem proper, auy unconstitutional aot of the general government in regard to the institution of slavery. The resolutions turlher propose the appointment of a committer to draft an address to the people of the slave-holding States. mir<fy showing the progress of abolitionism, and not suggesting auy mode of remedy, leaving that to be devised by the people of the States and the State legislatures. These resolutions. Mr. Stephens, of Ueorgia, after aom? remarks, moved to refer to u committee of ooe member from each of the slave-holding States, to report upen the whole subjeot Involved, at an adjourned mtetlng, to be held l&th January ensuing. An animated debate ensued, in whloh Messrs. Bayley, Stephens. Toombs, Koote, Pendleton, Woodward. Sutler, Tompkins, Chapman, Morse, Holmes, Jtusk, Calncun, and Westcott. and one or two others, whose names J have not ascertained, participated. The meeting was oonduoted with jreat order and deoornm throughout, very little excitement being manifested, and even the ultras were very moderate in the expression of their sentiments. UeB. Rusk, one ef the Senators from Texas, I presume. from the information whloh I have reoeived from various sources, must have expressed the sentiments of the majority of the meeting. Like those of Mr. Calhoun, his remarks were listened to with the most profound attention. He said that some seemed to think that the object for which they had assembled was to inform the people of the unwarrantable steps taken within the last few days, in derogation of the rights of the southern portion ef the confederacy, and of the rights of the people in the District of Columbia If this were so, the resolusions fall far short of the object intended, for they did not pretend to set out the notion of the House of Representatives on these subjects. A true account of that aotion was now travelling through the press to all parts of the Union. He deemed the object of the meeting to be, however, to devise some means by which to oheok a blind and prejudiced majority in Congress from trampling upon the constitution, and violating the constitutional rights of one half the States of this Union. How, he inquired, wai this to be effected ? Was it te be the act of one, or two, or any select number of men t Was it to be the act of one or a few States T "Wan it to be effected by passion, violent language, and precipitate action ? All these, if resorted to, would fail, ft must be effected, he Insisted, by cautious, prudent, and firm aotion, upon the part of all Interested. To be of anjr service, there must be unanimity of feeling and action, under the guidance of patriotism and not of passion. Tbey had just come out of a heated political contest, in which they had been divided into two parties? mutual crimination and recrimination had taken piaoe?no time had elapsed in which to pour oil on the troubled waters. He did not wish to b? understood as con ' .in? the resolutions of Mr. Bayly, but he thought it pre. mature to aet upon them now. The call, even to was not twel7e hours old, not more than two-th of the members fiom the Southern States were pi t, and aotion then would not only be preolpitate.but * id be more likely to produce division than harmon He was, therefore, obliged to the gentleman m Georgia, (Mr Stephens) for his motion to refer <e resolutions, and adjourn until the 16th of January. There was to his mind a manifest impropriety in pass idg then nam. The subject snouia do tnorougniy invertigated, and the resolutions aad address (if such an on m spoken cf ought to be adopted) should correspond with each other, and both be calm, just, and dignified, as well as firm. He hop?d, therefore, the proposition of the gentleman from Georgia would be unanimously adopted. Mr. Westcott. I learn, advocated the adoption of Mr. Bayly's resolutions, and of his proposed addressconfined to an historical detsil of the aggresnions upon the South?as all that should be done by members of Congrotf*, beyond the exeroise of their constitutional duty in the two houses. He denounced, as presumption on their part, any attempt to diotate the mode or form of resistance This, he contended, was the exclusive province of the sovereign States wijioli are aggrieved, and of the people. The mode thus devised, n<embtre of Congress from thore States were bound to sustain, or they were false to their allegiance. Others advocated the reference of the resolutions, as proposed, on the ground, that if the action of Congress, at this session, consummated what was proponed, more cogent, efficacious, and direct measures should be taken by the representatives of the States here. The object of others was further time for consultation The proposition ef Mr. Stephens was finally agreed to with great unanimity. Moderate inen, and prudent counsels, 1 believe, will prevail at the South The resolutions offered by Mr Bayly, and finally referred to a committee of one from each sUve State, I learn authentically, deolare, first, the deep attachment of the South to the union of these States; second, that in ease of the violation of the constitutional rights of any portiou ot the confederacy, it is the privilege and the duty of the States aggrieved thereby, themselves to devise the mode and measure of redress,thirdly, that In case the aggressions on the rights of the South, threatened by the reoent action of the Honse of Representatives on the subject of slavery, ball be consummated, it will become the right and the duty of the slaveholding States to devise proper measures to redress their wrongs. The resolutions were drawn by Mr. Bayly himself, and 1 am very confident that the abstract above given, embraces the substance of them. They will not be officially published, I am assured, for some days yet, and the only true copy of them is in the hands of Mr. Bayly. mk. calhoun's spkech. In addition to the remarks of Messrs. Husk and Westcott, coined above from the +1mrricnn, I will give you * reliable sketch of those made by Mr. Calhoun, who,?e specoh was considered one of the ablest cf the evening. Mr. Calhoun said:? "The resolutions of the gentleman from Virginia (Mr. Bayly) are good; and coasiderlngjthe length of time which he has bad to prepare them, do him great credit But they ate not pe*tect. They are defective in several particulars. I am therefore less unwilling to agree to the motion of the gentleman from Georgia, (Mr. Stephens.) Another consideration strongly impels to the same course. I am thoroughly impresss ed with the necessity of harmonious and united action, both on our part and on the part of the Southern community. 1 am opposed, however, to too great delay, and consequently would prefer that the committee should report to a mesting t? be hold on the 10th in* attad of the 15th of January. "The Legislatures of reveral of the Southern States are now in session, and it would be well that an address should reach them in time to be acted upon by them before their adjournment. I consider the address indispensable. Whatever aotion is taken, muit proceed ft<>m the slaveholding States. If the constitution be violated, and their rights encroached upon, it is for them to determine the mode and measure of redress. We can only suggest and advise We are in the theatre cf aotion?the %itiie*ees of the alarming encroachments which have been going on upon the rights of the slaveholding part of the confederacy. We see them plainly?we feel them deeply. They nre rapid and alarming; for who would nave believed, even three yeais ago, that preparations which have within a few dajs past commanded the support ot a majority of the lower House of Congress, would have been tolerated by an; respectable portion of either house ' VVe *re in the midst ol events scarcely or less import than those of our revolutionary era. The question is. are m to hold our position in thin confederacy upon the ground of equals, or sre to to centent ourselves with the condition of colonial dependence ? Sir, It will \>e worse than colonial dependence. Kor who would net prefer to be taxed and governed without pretence of representation, than under the forms of representation to be grievously oppressed by measures oyer which we have no control, and against which our remonstrances are unavailing' " It la undeniable that the encroachments upon our rigkti have been rapid and alarming They must be E et. 1 eonatiive that no Southern man can entertain Jul axe nomwit the Idea of tame aubmisilon. The action o( the South should ne united, temperate, but decided. Our position must be taken deliberately, but held at .every h*r.ard. We wage no war of aggression. W' ask cnly for the constitution, una union, and government of our father*. We ask of our Northern brethren to leave us those rights and privilege* which our fathers held, asd without securing rhioh for their obildren. all .know tcey would not have entered Into this I'nlon. These we must maintain. ' It appear* to me proper that we, who are on the theatre at action, should address our constituent* of thoslavehcldlng States, briefly and aootirately portray , the progress ol usurpation and aggression, vividly exhibit the dangers which threaten, and leave It in their hands to markont the proper line of action. What thai bfuld I* needless here to discuss. Whatever It i?,It should bu temperate, united, and decided. " Having expressed these view*, I have to say that 1 make no .ityection to the motion of the gentiemsn from (JeOkVia (Mr. Stephens) to refer the whole matter to a select committee, to consider maturely, and re port to ? fa lor* meeting , i>?.. i ?vmu >?u? ... ftrllftr dftjr ' &*' rankling than th? loth or J*nu? Tj. 1 Km, a bo ? ?ll. for union, hftrmony and (i?ol:lon, on th? port of ti. South " Mr P. nolrtot.. who?? , remark*, mftda Rometlma prrvioBAlj to ihoiA of Mr. Cnkhoun. nre atao under Hood to h?ra boonriry aenetbla and rtty eff<>otlra, Xpr**r?d hi* genera) apquleecenca In tha roaoluJl<n of hi* aoifc>*KMv, (Mr. 'Wy) tlioi^tU tia did not *o wrll 1U# tbe I'jiprncBlon >,"? t|?om? 'inoaiure* of r? ( | 1 E NE MrmNi lress." That seemsd to contemplate that the South tbnuld wait until the wrong* had been coasu-nm*te<l, ind then undertake to redress them. He preferred rather, measures of " notioe and preoautlon " lie was willing, atonee. to lay down a line, and let their Northern brethren know that they must not transcend it. He subsequently, however, acquiesced entirely in the proposition of Mr. Stephens, of Qeorgla. The substance of Mr Foote's remarks wai, I underitand, that he was ready for instantaneous action, and was willing to Tote at once for the resolution of Mr. Bayly. The only point of difference between the member* was, as to whether this was a proper time/or any astion. Some held that the South should wait until the measures lately threatened should become law J ?that they ought to resor' u> all constitutional means to defeat those MM If all these should be unavailing, then the time for separate action on the part of the South would have arisen. Others held, on the contrary, that action now. In the form of notice and preoautlon, was advisable. It would be well, they said, to lay down the lin? beyond whloh they should conceive it wrong to submit to the aggressions of the majority, to warn their Northern brethren against any aggression beyond that liue. If, afterward,!.they resolved to make that aggression, the responsibility of the consequences would be theirs The South, in that case would have done everything in their powei to avert any serious discord. All sides, however, held that when the proper time should arrive, if it had not al ready arrived, the South should take firm and decided meaiures to maintain its constitutional rights. [From the Washington Union.] We learn there were sixty-eight Senators and Representatives present Fifteen who were in the oily, were absent from unavoidable circumstances, and were represented by friends In the meeting; aud most of the rest were absent from the city. Several mom' bers who had arranged to leave Washington for their homes, deUyed their departure to attend the meeting The details of the proceedings of the meeting have not transpired , and we understand they will not until they are officially published. We learn, however, that Gen. Metoalle. a Senator from Kentnoky,wa6 called to the ohair ; Mr. Venable, of North Carolina, appointed tec re tar y; Mr. Atchison. of Missouri, first vice president; and Gov. Gayle, of Alabama, sesond vice president. After the organization. Gov Bayly, of Virginia, was oalled upon by Gen. Foot*, one of the Senate Committee, to explain the object of the meetlog, and to present a series of resolutions, as a basis of its notion, which, at the request of that oommittee, he had prepared. Mr. Stephens, of Georgia, moved to refer them to a select oommittee, composed of one mem ber from each of the slaveholding States, whioh should take charge of the whole subject, and report to a future meeting, appointed to be held the 15th of January. We regret we are unable to prooure a copy of Gen. Bayly's resolutions. They will not be published until the offloial proceedings are given to the world. We learn they are of a firm and decided, but conciliatory character. They ask nothing for the South but that its rights ihall be respected ; but they express a firm determination to defend and proteot taese rights t all hazards, as the only means of preserving the Union Strong approbation, as we are teld, was expressed of them by the meeting. We also understand that tbere was great harmony. A very free exchange of opinion took place ; but in the final resolution which was adopted, there -as perfect unanimity. [Washington Corr. of the Phlla Bulletin.] Such orellmiiiarv stens being adODted. as 1 have men tioned, the Senate chamber was selected for a general evening meeting; and, 1 believe, with few Individual exceptions, the entire Southern delegation were in attendance. A number ?f resolutions were offered, adopted, and rejected; but the charaoterof none has transpired to the publio in anything like authentic form. 1 bare, however, ueen enabled to get a copy of a teries of resolves, said to have been concurred ia by the convention, a skeleton abstract of which 1 append. They were, as 1 am informed, proposed by General Foote Rf lvtd 1st, That the Sonth having an equal interest in the terri rles ot New Mexico and Califemia, ia willing, as a princi; f e quity, tu ac> opt the terms of the Compromise act of 30 dt, nil. K' W(d, 2d. That the |Soiith is willing that said territories I hall be admitted into the I niou as States, upon the presentation of constitution, in which the subject of slavery is referred, upon appeal, to tfcu decision of the Supreme Court of the United States; suoh question to be omitted in said eoastitaUon, until the decision, as aforesaid, is awarded. Resolved, 3d, Tbat the South will acaept of a bill, for territorial governments, upon the principles of the act of last session, in troduicd by Bet. at or John M. Clayton. Resolved, 1th, Thai the South will aeoept of the aot Introduced the present session, by Senator Douglass, with csrtain modifications, relative to appeals, as in the 2a resolution. Resolved, 6ih, J hat the South pre/cm a tepa ration of the Union to that of accepting the Hilmot provuo, mtui the faith of each State it vied</ed to protect her interest? ir? said territories, at the point of the ba yonct. Resolved, That this is tile unanimous sense of this meeting, representing the South." If 1 oould assert positively that these resolutions were really adopted, they would show conclusively that any compromise would be " thankfui'y received,' rather than be driven to the alternative of accepting the proviso. At all events, the fifth paragraph partake* strongly of Southern humor, and tends to give point and wit to the whole series. I have no doubt they formed a portion of, and were Incorporated in, the proceedings of the evening. Kx-Uovernor Metcalfe was chairman upon the occasion. [From the Philadelphia Republic ] ANTI-SLAVERY CONVENTION IN THE AbSEMBLY 1JU1L.DINOS. At the oneninr of the convention. J. M. MoKlm. on behalf of the Committee on Petitions, presented the following drafts of petitions, stating that they were adapltd to various CUM of the people, and with their various opinions and desires. These petitions were afterwards adopted, and ordered to be printed for circulation :? 1. To the Stnale and IIouh of Repi esentatives. in Congirts assembled : The petition of the undersigned inhabitants of county, in the State of Pennsylvania, respectfully asks that you will pass a law for the immediate abolition of slavery In the District of Columbia. 2. To the Senile and House of Representatives, in Congress assembled : The petition of the undersigned Inhabitants of County, in the State of Pennsylvania, respectfully asks that you will, by a change of the Constitution, or otherwise, take such measures as will either abolish slavery throughout the IInited States, or relieve the people of Pennsylvania from the responsibility of aiding in Its support. 3. To the Senate and House of Representatives, in Congress assembled : we, the undersigned, inhabitant* of Pennsylvania, believing that the Federal Constitution, in pledging the strength of the whole nation to the support of slavery. violates the divine law, makes war upon huntn rights, and is grossly inconsistent with republican principles; that its attempt to unite freedom and sla very in one body politic has already brought upon the country great and manifold evils, and has fully proved that no such union can exist, but by the sacrifice of freedom to the supremacy of slavery ; respectfully ask y?u to devise and propose, without delay, some plan for the immediate and peaceful dissolution of the American Union. 4. To the Senate and House of Representatives ?f the Slate of 1'enntylvania : The undersigned, inhabitant* of Pennsylvania, respectfully Mk that you wilt take measures to amend the Constitution of the State so as to procure to all its citizens, otherwise duly qunl fied, the right oj suffrage, without regard to completion The encouraging news from Congress, so clearly ra? ported in this morning's Republic, was read and remarked upon to the convention by Mr. MoKlm. a-i a new Incentive to activity and promptness in the olroulation of petitions for the abolition of slavery. The resolutions offered by C. C. Burlkkiii, upon the free soil party, were the next topic of discussion. Thoiui Whitsom, of Lancaster county, said that the free soil party were responsible for the government under (Jen Taylor as truly as they would have been under Van Buren. The parties and their members have all virtually agreed to support, as their President, the candidate who should be elected. The free soil voters entered ine game va uii.i onuuuiuii 11 iuey Diomunu, the wriigs were to sustain their candidate. If the whigs succeeded, they must adopt the whig government m their own government. I n the parable of the scripture, the act of benevolence to the poor, the oppressed, the suffering, Is recognized as done to Jesus hlmnelf?" Inasmuch as ye have doce it to the least of these my brethren," was his declaration. " ye have done U unto me.'' Yet in the oapital of this Christian country. Drayton and Sayeraare imprisoned for an aotof Christian Kindness De*s the denunciation of the parable, ' Depart, ye cnrsed for inxtmuch as ye have not done It to the least of tnese, ye have not done It to me," mean any thing T What will it avail, when we are brought to answer for our conduct, before Heaven's high chancery, to say that the constitution or laws required us to return slaves? All political are engaged to sustain tbe constitution. If slavery Is ever overthrown, whether by the abolition or alteration of tbe constitution, it must be done by the doctrine that the.conxtitntion, in sustaining slavery, Is a violation of the law of (Jt.d. When the constitution is so altered as to give no tnpporl to slavery, we may consistently vote? not till thsn. The free soil party, like the respectable rum tavern, throws eut enticements to wrong doing. It is inducing abolitionists to join a pro slavery gmrament Under no name can we eunsiatently support a pro-slavery constitution. Hknht 0?tt? urged all to stand on the rook of principle, and otyected to the free aoil party that it eld lay not the axe at the roet of the tree by assailing slavery where it new exists Our duty to oppose slavery everywhere is as obligatory as the duty to love man We are depriving three millions of men a foot of free soil In the whole land to stand upon, and the free soil party is a party to sustain the constitution whioh does this. Tell uie not of the privileges granted by the conatitutlrnto the white niau , I demtnd the same for the colored man. I believe the United States constitution was quashed in the Court ot Heaven the moment of Its pronlamation on earth. Men say. work under it till we can get a better " Cease to do evil" is the first duty?the only way to" learn to do well " C. I. Ui uid not Intend to defend the free soil party. for their principles or their platform, or to maintain hi* cmn strict oonsiitenoy in voting the State free Foil ttvket in Massachusetts, but only to ask justice to tbe paity. f** 'li* antl slavery work it has done and Is doit.g Har thought that upon stnot prmoiples, pstithan * narl v I a this irnfummunt Ma would not rod (or national nfltnora btotuu, th? l/nltf J 8t*t?t goTirnn.f it dcntfd him Dm righto; but Mwirhur?tu acknuwlf. dg?d them, unci, therefore, h? h?l rotfd the Stat* rromiaent free >H m?n tn Mnmchu??tt* d.-clarf. th.V thcjr will nnrer g,ra up till el?\rry W dbo.isht'J tbrcMs'ioat the country II <n n >t W 10 :ng edition?thurs that movement done much to bring the people to act rightly on slavery ' Witness the reoent action of Congress. Let ua do theoi justice. H. C. Wiiuht defended his former rema-k. that th? free aoil party carried a He upon Iteface. It* motto la, '' free loll, free 1? bor, free speeoh. free men." What is free soli ? Where men may stand an free men. la there ? foot of aoil In this oountry to which the slave can fly and be free ? No. They with to extend the same oonstitution over that which makes the Mare ft slave all over the nation, atad binds every State to deliver him up to his master. Our constitution joins the North in ft confederacy with slaveholders, mansteftlen?to do what' " Kstftbllsh justice''?with the destroyers of the mftrriageinstitution, to ''promote domestic trftnquili tywith the worst enemies of hum?n rights, to ' promote the general welfare." And how have they promoted it for fifty years past ? With the most despntio of tyrants, to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and posterity." What could be more absurd? As well unite with thlevea to promote honesty, or plrfttes to secure virtue. Wm b. Thomas thought the convention should have given the free soil men notioe that It intended to disoussthis question, that they be here to defend them selves. He thought also thftt this warfare among abolitionist* of different opinions did harm. The voting men must <io the prftoticftl work; ftnd the constitution gives no power to return a fugitive slave. H. C. said that Mr. Van Buren believed the constitution did require the return of fugitive slaves, ...? Ulm fA AnfuKAo f n?A talon. Men voting for him made him their agent to do this. The discussion was farther continued by Remond, Bias, Burris, and others. In the afternoon, speeches were made by 0 M. Burleigh, B. Rush Plumly, Wm. W. Brown, and others, on the progress <>f the cause Tiios. Eaile, passed some strictures upon the cause of the Anti-Slavery Society. Mrs. Mott urged that we press forward to higher principles, rather than yield to the seductive enticeme nts of expediency to lower them. "New occasions teach new duties, Time makes olden good uncouth; Tl.ey mutt upward nili and onward, Who would keep abreast of truth." Let us side with reform when we " share its wretched crust," and the greater will be our blessing The resolutions on the progress of the oaaje, and those upon the free soil party were, adopted, and the following offered by J. M. MoKim, also pissed unanimously:? Kesolved, That the incarceration of Captain Driyton and Sajres, ol the schooner I'earl, in the L'nited Status pris>n, at Washington, fot tlieir praiseworthy attempt to rescue fro in silvery of their fallow-beings, is a deep and damning diturace to the country, while at the same time it is uu instructive comncnt on the professions which this nation is daily making ot regard lor equal justice and liberty. Kesolved, That this convention deonly sympathises with these martyrs in the cause of liberty, ana confidently ho es tlist the change which is now going on in public seutiment, cn|K)eially in regard to slavery and the slave trade in the Distriot ol Columbia, w ill have the effect of opening tlieir prison doors and restoring them to the enjoyment of liberty and the bosoms of their bereaved families. The resolutions on free produce were laid on the table, and those on land reform, on motion of their mover, Mr. Rosenheim, were indefinitely postponed, and the convention adjqprned. Its friends evidently hitrV.1v with its rnapiict.i?r nnH rMlilt.A Thftii. sands of people in f'hiladelphia little know how muoh they have loet in not attending its free and able debates. Another Snow Ktorm_Tlie W'catUtr_\a. vlgatlon, dcc. The weather yesterday. unlike the day provious, was gloomy and unpleasant. At an early hour the faee of the sky was covered with heavy clouds, which portended an approaching snow storm. About half past ten o'olonk the snow begin to fall gently, but in a very short time it came down thick and fast, which continued without abatement until about five o'clock, 4he snow then being about four inches deep. The opportunity was eagerly embraoed, and the merry sleigh bells sounded their approach from every quarter. But that pleasure was of short duration, for at the time last named, the oold decreased, and, instead of snow, the rain began to fall, which increased and continued up to a late heurlast night, rendering the streets and sidewalks almost impassable, in consequence of the melting snow. The night was dark and gloomy, and gave no promise of a speedy return of clear weather; though to-day, like some lately passed, which were the successors of storm, may be beautiful and clear. The Kennebee wag closed by lee at Hallowell, an the 21st. [From the Boston Transcript, Dec. 26 ] The reoentatorm was quite extensive. Tile snow at Buflalo is two feet deep, and from Albany, west and north, from eight to eighteen inches in fleptn, as far aa heard from Last night, about midnight, the wind was very strong from the Northwest, and must have been a diMual night for vessels on the whole Atlantio coast, and many serious marine disasters must hare occurred. Holmes' Hole and the Vineyard Sound is full of inward and outward bound vessels. [from the Boston Traveller, Dec. 26.] Thermometer on Saturday, when highest, 20; on Sunday, at sunrise. 9; do. at 2 P. M., 'Ai% j do. at 10 T. M.. 34>a; on Monday, at sunrise. SOX; do atOP. M , 36do when highest, (6 P. M.,) 44.'.,; on Tuesday, at sunrise. 31. Baiometer on Sunday, at sunrise, (highest,).'to 47; on Moi day at sunrise, 29.94; do. when lowest, (9 P.M.,) 29.f>8; this morning, at sunrise, 30.01. Saturday was very line and clear throughout; Sunday and Monday were cloudy throughout, and to-day cry clear again. The wind ou Sunday, in the forenoon, was N. \V , but changed about noon to S. K. Atl P. M.,thu thermometer being 11 degrees briow the freezing point, it began to rain, and continued to do so (with some intermission) until about 11 P. M. on Monday. The wind yesterday morning was very light from the South, then S. K. until 9 P. M., when it became very fresh Iro a the 8. W.; to-day W. It is difficult to acoount for this singular rain, as the thermometer at sunrise, on Sunday, was as low as 9. (the lowest this season,) and although rising at 1 P. M.. had only risen te 21 when the rain commenced, and did not reaeh the freeiiag point until about 7 !'. M . or after rain had been falling about six hours We believe we havaonee ortwice seen rain to fall, with the thermometer as low as 30, but never before when it was as low as on Sunday, by several degrees. F* [ From the Bangor Courier, Deo. 28 ] On Thursday, our river was free of ice, the navigation entirely clear, and neveral vessels left the harbor ? one of them in the evening of that day. On Friday, the river was closed, and in the afternoon persons walked over the ioe. Jaok Frost has not lost any of iiIB eutrgjr. irnwru^jr vuo uivruurj wm uviuir eeru. [from the Albany Argus, Deo. 26.] The rWer wan an tight as a drum yesterday morning. The cold wan intense on Saturday night. No b >at from below, yesterday afternoon. [Krom the Albany Jeurnal. Deo. 26 ] Our sleighing waB threatened with annihilation during Sunday and Monday. But it resisted the pressure of rain and a south wind, and was last night reinforced by a keen frost. The tun is out to-day, bat the air is bracing. T iie Execution of ErrKs ?On Friday last, 22d December, in pursuance of sentence passed by tlie Hon. Judge Nash, William Dandridge E,ipes sullered the penalty i>4 the law for the crime ot murder, perpetrated on the body ol Francis Adolphus Muir, Esq., on the 2d day of February, 18-Hi. At about 20 minutes to one o clock, the prisoner, accompanied by the Kev. Messrs. Hargrove and Withers, left the jail. The prisoner was dressed in his grave clothes, (all white,) and, with the exception of paleness produced by confinement, looked remarkably well. His carriage was erect and his step lirm. Arrived at the spot, the Wev. Mr. Withers addressed the multitude collected, closing with a prayer appropriate to the occasion. The prisoner then mounted the cart, n?d in u clear, audible voice, indicating no signj ot emotion, made the following remaiks:? ' Oentlimkn:? It waa not my object to baTO anything to cay on the present occasion, but as it may do good, I have determined to nay something. I htve been charged with many crimes. I have been ohvge.1 with the murder of my mother-in-law?I hare bee a charged with the murder of my son?aod I have b"> n charged with the murder of my own servant; but, gentlemen, all these charges me false ? til false. Would to Ood I could cay an much of that other oharge i:ut of that I am guilty. I murdered Kranois Adolplim Mulr. I murdered him. He fell by my haad 1 nave regretted the act ever since It wa? cunmltted-it has been before my eyes ever since. I have the graduation to state that I believe he is in heaven, and I trust I may inert him there In his dying moments he said he hoped to meet me there. I hop* I shall mset hi in there, and I believe I will meet him there, for I trust in (?od s promises. ''Uhntlkmfh:?I hare seen better days, and many of you knew it But when the tempter is atoused, we know not what we may do. i hope that my fate may be a warning to you to shun my example. I leave this world, at peace with all mankind I feel that I am at pesce with my Ood I trust to meet you all in he*v*n." The sheriff proceeded in the performance of ilie duties ot his olfice. While the preliminaries were arranging, the criminal displayed the same fortitude thai he had shown throughout the trial, an ! at the pronunciation of the sentence. While the bandage was beingtied over his eyes he muttered "Ashes to ashes, dust to dust;" and all things being ready, the part was moved, and immediately the soul ot William lUndndge fcppta was in the presence ol its Creator and Judge He died with scarcely u Btruggle.?Petert burg; H< publican I Mr 25. Sk\?kk iu'T .Itist Skmtknik -The Pouzhkeepsie

Jt hi mil ol Saturday says a man named Charles ^mith was lound guilty, at the recent dyer and Terminer tn that village, of gouging out the eye of another man, with whom he was fighting, and Judge Itarculn sentenced him to twrnty-one years' imprisonment in the State prison. The law* of this State in reference to in timing are very severe, and we thirk very justly 10. It is ?ne ol the mvh? iivihviis viiii'in v. ninvii uiau I uu U : g liiiy * >R K E SDAY, DECEMBER 28, Movements for California, dir. The steamer Falcon, which sailed from New Orleans on the l!tih, had on board 173 passengers lor Chagres. The greater portion of these will take the steamer California, at Panama, on the 5th of January, for San Francisco. In order to relieve those who are apprehensive of difficulty arising out of the return of the Panama, we will Btate that those who purchased tickets for passage from Panama to San Francisco will have the privilege of taking bertha on board the Oregon, which vessel left only five days after the Panama, and will no doubt reach there before the 16th ofFebruary?the period announced for her departure ; bo that no disappointment need be an ticipated upon thiB head, particularly as there have been no tickets sold for passage in her. One of these vessels was originally intended by the company as a reserve boat, two being fully capable ot performing the service required j and should the Panama fail to reach 1'anama in season, her place will be supplied by the Oregon ; and the California, which is announced to leave Panama on the 5th of January, would have ample time to make a voyage to San Francisco, and leave again on the 'at of March, thus completely 1'ullilhng all that has been promised by the company. For the benefit of those who contemplate going o San Francisco, via Cape Horn, we consider it our duly to inform them that there are all kinds and classes of vessels up for passengers, some of which are unworthy and unsafe. The best place 10 inquire for correct information relative to every thip on the list, is at the insurance offices, in Wall street. We do not doubt but that there are many fine vessels about leaving thiB port for the outside route; but w? know there are others hardly fit to venture out sight cf land, even in the most favorable weather. The voyage round Cipe Horn is particularly dangerous, at this season ot the year; and people not used to sea life want a good thip under them. (From the Boston Dee, Deo. 20 ] The Boston and California trading and mining expedition, whose organization has b?en caronioled iu ibe bee, is carrying out its projects with a systematic precision that cannot fall to eaHure sucoess. inaddi. tion to the officers who will go out with the expedition, one of the oldest established commercial houses In the city will act as agents here, and a gentlemen will visit W ashington before the " Edward Everett" sails, to obtain the countenance of the general government. The otHcers of the expedition .are well supplied with Introduotory letters of credit, to enable them to carry on coasting or other commercial transactions to advantage should it be detmed advisable. A steam engine forms a part of the equipment, to be used for propelling a beat on the rivers and along the coast Every man in to carry a rifle, and a revolver or braoe of pistols, with ammunition. The roll nf mjj company bears the names of on* hundred and fifty men. who are well known to 6&oh other, or to strongly reoommended that a perfect harmony maybe counted on ?twenty-one of tne number have been liberally educated. The professions and trades are well assorted, as we llnd on tne roll, which embraces merchants, tin plate workers, bakers, painters, engineers, mariners, jewelers, machinists, boat-builders, tanners, five printers, blacksmiths, ship carpenters, houte carpenters, boot and shoe makers, masons, clerks, founders, teamsters, doctors, hatters, geologists, tailors ?two or mere of each, and one surgical instrument maker, varnisher, furrier, glass blower, smelter, surgeon, barber, lawyer, editor, reporter, and coppersmith. The ship Montreal is now being fitted out by a firm, on Commercial wharf, and will sail lor San Kranolsco on the 10th of January, touohing at the Sandwich Irlands. The price of passage is $iaO. and for steerage passengers, living with the crew, $160. The Bunker Hill Mining Company, in our sister city of Cliarlektown, have purchased the brig l'aullne, aud are fitting her for sea. Some ten or tHelve members of the association ?U|o oufcia the hrl#. mil iwifcmw, and Win V* n?pw<l to entry on tneir different trades, taking with them all necessary tools, and provinions for eighteen months' supply. Tnsy will aise take out the frame of a house, blajkumilu's shop, ko. Salem has sent several vessels to San Francisco, in raiber a qu>et way; and one of her oitizens, Mr. Alfred Peabody, nas gone oat to establish hlmielf as a commission merchant. When the bark Eliza sailed, on Saturday last, there was a large gathering at the pasm-ngers appeared on the quarter-deck, and noj a humorous ditty, which we annex. When they bad concluded, the congregation on the wharf gave tttree timer, three, and the bark filled away and took her departure. THE CALIFORNIA EMIGRANT. ?V uOSK OF 'KM." Tune ?'OA .' Susannah ] come trom Saium city, With my wash-bowl on my knee ; I'm going to California, The gold dint for to see. It ra ned all night the day 1 left, The weather It wan dry, The sun so hot 1 froze to death? Oh ! brothers ! don't you cry! Oh ! California! That's the land for me ! I'm going to Hacramento, With my wash-bowl on my knee ! I jumped aboard the 'Liza ship, And travelled on the sea, And every time I thought of home, I wished it waa n't m? ' The vessel reared like My horse That had of oats a wealth ; It found it couldn't throw me, bo 1 thought I'd throw myself! I thought of all the pleasant times We've had together here , I thought I ort 10 ory a bit, But couldn't find a tear. The pilot bread was in my mouth, The gold dupt In my eye, And though I'm going tar away, Dear brother* don t you ory ! I toon shall be in Francisco, * And then I'll look ail "round, And when 1 see the gold lumps there, I'll pick them oil the ground. I'll torupe the mountain!* ulean. my boys, I'll drain the rivers dry. A ' pocket fall of rocks" bring home ? So brothers, don't you ory ! Oil! California ! '1 hat's trie land for me ! I'm going to Sacramento, With my wash-bowl on my knee ! The master of the steamer " Eudorus." of 145 ton* register, at Bangor, offers twenty berths, with a cbanoe to sling thirty hammocks; and vessels are advertised at other Maine ports for the land of promise. The Hope On?Hope Kver Company, in BridgenriPt Cnnnur?tlriif. will aturt in Un.mri/ nnrfl ,rr\ nvur r-?' 1 ? ? " /> b? v.?. Una by way of St. Louis and Santa Ke The schoonvr ' Mirautia" In to sail Irom Fair Haven for ( California bout the 10th of January; and we nee that companies are forming in Ilartford, New Haven, and *everal other places of "steady habits." The nutmeg men mutt look sharp, though, a* some New Vorker* are i buying a quantity of old copper, so intermixed with a certain composition, as to pass readily for pur* gold, among the ucsusp?ctiBg. Tbis vilianout mat rial it i* intended to ship off as soon as pusible, and when it , reaches San Francisco it in to be stored away, and offered for sale to the " green horns''from the Slate*, who it is presumed, will eagerly buy up t le spurloui article, if offered cheap, instead of perilling life and limb at the ' washing." Newbury port is to have a Anger in the placer, judging frrm the vessels advertised in the llrrald The brig " Forest" will take passengers for $125; and Mr. Charles H. I'orter, who sends the brig " Charlotte." will go by the steamer ot March 1, via I'anamv The schooner " Queen of the West" will take passenger* to ( hagre* for |40, and the owner thinks tnat this low price, with good fare, and a pro pect of accumulating h fortune in a short time, should he an Inducement for any young man to take passage without delay " liown F.ast the fever i* subsiding. Mr l'ike; of Calai*. ha* offered to carry passengers to San Kruncisca for each. [Front the Nsw London Star.] F.xtract from a private letter iiVTtr.*t*t Fort. Nkw Hklvktia, ) Up. C*l , July 26,1M48. $ I avail myself of the opportunity of writing by some of the Mormons who are about emigrating to tbe Salt I.ake. Yon no doubt will or have heard by thi* time of the WAirunvr nuu iiuu I noer <>I g<>iu kunv un wnu uibcovered in thin country, anil think perhapn that eyery out* here should beoomerich; were I a stout man, perhaps I eould dig my share, but I can assure you th? work i? not no ea?y. V'ou have to ?und in the water up to ytour middle, with a burning run shining upon jour head and the result in you average an ounce of pure gold dust a day. 1 hare b?<nme very thin since 1 Wft San Kranclsco, but hope noon to become accustomfd to the climate anil pick up. When I tell you that I have not ulept in a house or on a bed for the last two week*, you would scarcely believe me. Vou would laugh to nee us all every night about 10 o'elook dairying our blanket* on our shoulder*, *ome rushing to the wbrat Held, some one plaee and some another, to reelgn onrveive* t? gentle repose; and after all we have many drawback*, board $ If) per week, washing $1 per piaoe, and everything in proportion. What llie result will be I di> not know. I would thaf I wan at heme working for a moderate salary, I aui eiok and tlud of thl* wild and roving life. Yuurd ? [ERA 1848. ThU letter Is not of io la'e a date *? others bat it I how* that there are two fide* to " gold hunting." [From the New Oileans Picayune, Deo 10.) The noble steamship Kalcon, Capt. Thompson, left her berth at Lafayette, a little after & o'clock laHt evening, and paised down the river In splendid style, bearing away with her on her trip to Chagre* (.Jen. P. I F. Smith and several other offloers, in all over tw > hundred passengers, bound for the wild* of California, and revelling in golden visions, which they expect to realise in that distant region The H'aloon being the pioneer steamer in the route to Chugres, her departure created considerable interest, and a orowd of from three to five hundred people thronged her wharf until the last plank was hauled In. and she swung into the stream. A large portion of the orowd came to bid good-bye to friends who were to leave, and thereat were drawn thither partly by onrioslty and partly to give an encouraging cheer to the adventurers. The scene on board, just before the line steamer left the wharf, was one of much Interest, and a striking commentary on the enterprise and impetuosity of American character California was talked of a* though it was but a day's sail from the Balize; and from the manner in which friends parted, one would have suppos?d that tbey expected to meet again in a week at furthest. We could not but remark that the passengers almost to a man seemed to be of the better clauses in society, and in circumstances which would by no mmns drive them to start on a desperate adventure. All seemed full of hope and ansious to be on their way. and on looking at them we felt assured that with suoh inhabitants California must go ahead. We noticed that the most extensive preparations had been mtde on board to accommodate the passengers in the most oomfortable manner; and from the numerous suspicious looking blaek bottles and little boxes we saw g >iog on board we judged that a liberal supply of the good thing* of life had been privately laid in. The Kaleon had on board about three hundred and flt'ty ton* of tr?wht, and six hundred tons of ooal, being calculated to lart her on the return trip With favorable circumstances, it 1b expected that the trip to California will not occupy more than twenty days, and we tiuit that ?e shall roon hear that our adventurous frleuds are all making their fortunes A Missouri printer absquatulated recently to the gold digging, leaving office, types, debts, creditors, and all tn Innb (int. fc\r thutnat lvu? The Muntrtal Courier of the '21st commences a paragraph with these wurds. " We hear that many of our citUens are on the point of ruahlng to Caiitornia aad then proceeds to give some directions about the best method of getting there. The Sag Haibor California Mining Association hare purchased the Sabina, a ship of 450 tons. The Sabina was formerly a whaler, is a crack nailer, and we understand has never been beaten by any oraft belonging to the whaling fleet. The company to whioh she belongs compriseh rome of the wealthiest and most respectable inhabitants of Sag Harbor, lnoluding four or five retired whaling captains, who go out as officers of 1 the ship The number in the oompany is limited, and a large number of desirable applicants, with money in hand, bare been rejected on this acoount The expedition will sail about the middle of January, with every accessory to make it profitable. Sfecimcm of li.-We have seen some fine specimens of California gold, brought to this oity by Lieutenant L.oerer, of*the United States Navy, who reeently oame from California. Lieut. L. is now at the City Hotel. One piece, of irregular shape, amountirg in weight to $28, is now a breast-pin. the pin having been attached sinoe it left California, as it is not probable that gold breast-pins, ear rings, &c., are found ready made, of flauionable patterns, upon the banks of the Keatner River. Lieut. L has also a vial of the duat or 'acalea." This is pure gold,in little pieces of the site of ahead | of a pin, flattened down to very small particles. This , is the kind found Jn the sand, and washed out. He j etates that there is plenty of gold In California, and j large amounts of it are falling into the hands of foreigners ?Hartford Timet, Dtc. 26. [From the Baltimore Sun. Pec. 27. | A meeting of the " California Mining Company," I composed of young men of Howard Diatriet, was held on Saturday, at F.llicott'a Mills, to elect officers, and make other necessary arrangements. Some gentlemen lrom Baltimore were present. At Havre de Grace also, several young man, it If stated. will ahortly leave for California, and at F.lkton some purpose going out in the vessels which are to sail irom Baltimore, an* othera purpose joining the Philadelphia company, under Gen. Cadwalader. Messrs. Maiden and Wooiley have aireadv gone from North Eaat. [From the Philadelphia Bulletin, Dec. 27.] Lakd Exwruitioiw to C*i,ik?k"<ia .?An expedition I to California by the Arkansas route, description* of which have already been published by ua, Is to start from Fort Smith by tli? 1st of April. Thnaa wlahinf to join itmajnUala mmjtmtmmmmmttrnymrnydesire by application to the emigrating committee, Mr. J. K. Kennedy. Capt. John J. Dltlard. or John F. Wheeler, of Fort Smith Itev. laaac Owen and C. P Hosier, of Bloomington, Indiana, also propose to raise a company to start tor Oregon and California next spring Mr. Owen was recently the agent of the Indiana Aahnry University, and baa been appointed miaaionary of the Indiana Conference to California. California?Opinions of the Preas. [From the Courier and Knquirer J The duty of the United States towards California? and the neceaalty of the prompt and vigorous discharge of that duty?do not seem to command, aa in our judgment they should, the preaent attention ?f Congress. By our acta California ia without government or laws of any sort. Thia is not said in a spirit of reproach. but as announcing a fact, and in order to deduce from the fact enr paramount obMgatlon to provide forthwith a aubatitute for that we have overthrown. The fatal dowry of gold which that new territory baa brought to the Union, la already producing its wonted effects. In the country iteelf all the uauai occupations of industry, all the ordinary pursuits of life, are abandoned, in the insane andlnaattate thirst for treasure. Farma, with their luxuriant oropa juat ripening for the ilcklf, are deserted , the mechanic arta light their firea no more ; the aea gives up ite sailors , the bar its juriata ; even religion?if we may nlaee reliance on the accounta received?its ministers : whole village! are depopulated?and all rush to the tame tearful pursuit of gold-hunting. Uold, gold, in whatever mode-gold- Is the one cry, the one feeling of California. And well might it be?or at least a mitigated evil?if that cry and that feeling were confined to California But already we nee and suffer by it here, tome 3 000 miles away The brain of youth is turned by virions Of wealth rapidly accumulated ; and dull and thankless seems fh? ordinary routine of steady industry, with its slow and modest, but sure, re vard. Many a parent's heart is saddened?many a mother's Christmas joy ha* bei-n elouded, by the parting benediction to, and fesrfal apprehension* tor, the fate of some beloved son, carried away by the madaesi of the hour. * * ? What forbids that, for the time being, a military government be authorized there, and th*t the rule of martial law be declared and enforced ' The Oovernor chosen to rule over that terltory, la the very m<in to whom might be safely cniitided the great and irresponsible power ot administering and enforcing martial law. Gen. I'ersiftr K.Smith-of whom his great commander, <<en Scott, raid on a public occasion, that ' the army had no better soldier, the country no better citizen''?is now at his post ; but he will be powerless there, for he has no troops, no lavs, and no func> tlonaries of government, to second his teal. Whit, under such circumstances, man can do, be will, we are quite sure, acoompli'h ; but moral force, and admirable p?rsonal example, can cfT?ct little upon such a population as that now in California. That population is made up for the most part, we may presume, of gold-diggers and gold-robbers, in natural enmity with esch other ; and, therefore, in suoh a state of actual hostility as to justify, in the abfenoe of other authority, the applim'tan of martial law Moreover, the region iiiwdt d by this population Is the publio domain, belonging to all the people of the United States, and, therefore, to be rescued by th? aiiiit^ry power of the L' ni:ed t?tate?. from tb? u nlawful ,?r?-p of alventurer* from nil part* of the world I nilt-r emli otrcumstances, I'oisrMt, which is eupreme, uisy rlgh:tully. an it seem* to uk, and wisely in the present h p of affairs, declue max tial law acd auihorue tho employment of a force adequate to curtain it. Here, hswever. arista another :inU most Important consideration. How is the service of ouch a foregone* transported Into the region of temptation - to be secured No pay hitherto allowed to tne olllcers and soldier* of the I nlted States army, wnuld at all sufllse for such a service; nuce we see that all prises of labor and subsistence bad run up to a tig ire tar beyond the reavh of their pay. As all the cir^utns'.ance* of this state of things are anomalous and exceptional ? so must b? the legislation applicable thereto; and nucesraiily cf a character that will not p 'rrait it to become a matter of precedent the great danger of all extruordit at J legislatinn. Starting then upon thi? ground of the extriordina ry condition of thiogs in (California, It seem* toil* that i ongress may safely adapt their measures to such a stafe oft lUIrs Mrst. that martial law being authorised, asufll 'lent force must be despatched to tkat oountry, wiib pro* vision as to compensation. bounties and emoluments, such as will recure the fidelity of the troops and com pansat* that of the ofllser* All grades of officers and gent* must be paid at rates far beyond those Known to uur Atlantic region; and bere we apprehend will be the real pinch in obtaining from Congress the requi site legislation. It will be >ery diffli'ult to bring op the small political moumrs, who*e popularity depend* upon their rajing no to all money appropriations, to the nectssltles of the actual state of affairs In Ca'lfornia. V et only In meeting this case with a liberal and provident band can safety or efficiency consist And any such legislation should b? retrospective for the faithful! In other words, thoae who have adhered to their Hag, un<l? r the extraordinary temptation* whi'h surround Uem. should be rewarded for fiuoh fidelity; and thoee who are hereafter to be expiaed to the** temptation*. fhonld be Mtnred. in adranoe, that their oountry nili duly acknowledge and compensate their devotion to duty. Ae to tb? precise shape in which thisextra compenfallen ihooid be put. Congreia will bare the be<t mrana ol obtaining gcod ceuoiel and forming sound opinion*. One thing seem* olnar that the chief induct-meiit should be prospective. and. with ?onw moderate uddllion to ifce uiouibly pay. there should be h*ld out. as r?celvabW a' the olore of the term of lerr'.ce a rounit?utit in money, or In I m l, nj iM to tbe i*ui r ;?n ry. In tliie ?hy the temptation ti> d**e(tion ui*/ be n.oit?UecruaUy ob.-eked '.or the aoUier in 1 L D. .. TWO CENTS. wnnlfl maka ft)A r\t a valnaKU <>arfaiiit? ft\9 rn. contingency that might or might notreaiiza bis hopes. # ?? ? At any rata, let something be done and dons promptly. by the Congress of the United State*, for tk? government of the now American territory of Cftl'fornia. [From the Journal of Commerce, Deo. 37.] CALIFORNIA GOLD?ITB IFPBCT ON PHICM. Much speculation baa been Indulged In. as to wha*. effect the production of gold In California will have on the money and industry of thl* continent The money Is always a mere Atom, compared with the whole iau< of property, as only the annual national production from tbe gross national productive* capital, and the annual exchanges of property, require the uses of circulating specie The annual production and sales are not one tenth of the capital or mass of property. A dollar of currency, It Is supposed, conveniently maneges the transfer of about thirty Are dollars worth of what Is annually produced and sold The money of a country, therefore, bears a very slight proportion to the whole mass of property, (of which it is much less than a hundredth part.)?a fact but little understood by those who Tear that the quantity of the precious metals is inadequate to be relied on as the standard by whioh to compare the value and effect the ezohange of other commodities. This proportion between the measure (if it may be so called) and what it measures, Is always very nearly preserved; and consequently, when an addition is made to the amount of money, it alTaots, in nearly the same proportion, the exchangeable va'ue of the great njn?* of product* Thu*. if the whol- productive capital of the nation were equal to one hundred millions of dollars, and the annual produce of that capital, and th? annual exchange* amounted to 7 per cent , or f.7,000 000, (assumed, not sh being ao ;urat?, but to state the position ) to manage the transfer of this conveniently would require, in the shape of circulating specie distributed over tbe nation, say $2.0 000, nnd so in proportisn for a lirger amount. Should this turn however, ($'iU0 000) be doubled. It would, on the . I.v 1?\A kl. t the whole property, (tlOO000,000.) provided the annual rrcp and sales remained at si-ven percent, on the whole. It I* not at all likely. however, that all the gold obtained in California will be ml di d to the currency of the world; but much of it will go into une la the art*, and thus not much affect the value of ether commodities. It mailt also be borne in mind, that the cane with which it la produoed there, will induce other*, less favorably uituated. to withdraw from itn producii <n elsewhere ; and much of wh?t will be produced in California will be required to make up this loss. It was clearly ahown that the efforts of the mof't important coainierclal countries, to substitute a paper ouirency for that of gold and silver so diminished tiie production of the latter, that in 1830, the ' poorest of the agricultural establishment*, and the very worst of the manufacturing, In Peru and Mexico, were more profitable than the very best of the mining.'' The discovery of gold in California, will have an effect similar in kind, but less in degree, on the other mining establishments in the world, and drive some of those engaged in th?m, Into other pursuits, that will afford a b'ttei recompense for their labors. These are prinolplcs necessary to be borne in mind, in considering the question to be discussed. Muoh light is thrown on the question by what ooourred of a like oharaoter alter the discovery of America. The stock of money current in Korope at the time of the discovery of America was $170,000,00? There was produced in 112 years after, allowing for wear and for what went into the arts and te Asia 4*30,000,000 Leaving in the year 1600 $650,000,000 In litt years the quantity of ooln in Europe had, 11 # I- *1 I...J .kl.k liit'n irre, avanjr i|u?uru|;ioui mo ouuuv ui nuiuu, ?cording to Jacob, was to advance prices in Korope about lour hundred and seventy per oont. The coined money of Europe In 1700, amounted to about (1.466,000,000. The advance in prices during this period did not exoeed forty per cent, and did not keep even pace with thn augmentation of the precious metals, because the industry of the world bad beoome so muoh stimulated by the previous addition to tbe quantity of mo nay, that tbe mass of commodities, and consequently of annual sales, became greatly increased, so as to require more meney to circulate them. In the ytar 1810, tbe stook of oolned money in Europe, after deducting what had b?en used in the arta and been sent to Asle, amounted to $2 000,000 000. But although prices advanced within the 110 yean thirty per oent, it is difficult to say how much of it waa due to the inorease in the quantity of ooin, how much to the Increased power given to Its circulation by improvements In commerce, and how much to the quantity of paper money and bills, whieh within that period of time formed part of the ourrenoy. from 1810 tu Uia Lt Haie. the quantity of coin in Eirope U supposed to have diminished. Another important element Is now to be tak<?n Into view. Tbe activity with which commerce has been pursued, and its txtensien to the remote corners of the earth, extend greatly the area which is to be Influenced by addition* to tbe coin At tbe tiuie of the disaovery o' Ao eilca. tbe ellirtx were in a great degree local, and prices were sffected but slightly beyond tbe limits tf Kuiope. On a email p< pjlation, and over only a limit* < d area, the relation' be'.ween dubtor and creditor were sllected intemeiy. and so was all property Those ? no baa oven suppnrte.u on aouniant auauii:e?, cecum* very poor, although the annuitlai were nominally uncbauK* d. Those who held land on leases for Ion? teias, at rents fixed before Amerina wan discovered, grew rich, and the Itaror had to part with hia lauds; and it ia a curious fact that an late as 1048 after the discovtry of the rich ininea of Totoai, it was uaknewa in Kurope to the great mass what It waa that produeed auch great changes In their affalra bishop Latimer in a f rriuon preached before King Kdward VI la 1648, attributed It to withdrawing land from cultivation, to be used for the pasturage ot sheep to foreataliera, to.; and after statu,g the Increased price of various commodifies. he adda, " These things with others are so unreasonably enhanced, and I think verily, that If it thus continue, we shall at length be constrained to pay for a p'gge, a pound." In thirty yeara that prioe was reached, and by a distinguished writer of 1681, waa attributed to the same cause which Biahop Latimer had mentioned It waa not until the events were calmly surveyed by thoae who looked back with abundant means at command, that the true cauae became known. The coin whloh waa produced by the discovery of America, anted on one hundred ana thirty mllllone of dcllara. which waa the quantity then In circulation. The present stock of coin of the whole world is estimated at twelve theusand millions of dollars; and If the whole quantity produced aftar the discovery of America up to 1810 were added, (a period of upwards cf 3C0 years.) the increase would be but abou! *> alxth on the present stock?an increase which would be counterbalanced by the additions likely to be made to tlie great mass of productions in the world, from the 1 extension going on in Its industry and population, by which a larger amount of ooin than now used will be ; required. it is a law about money, that it goes whire it is of mcst value, that is to say, where prices are cooipira1 tively low? a U* which, in tue present stale of con1 mrrce. tends to equalize prloej everywhere. Tnat law ; is cow operating in California, whither commerce pro| ceeds, to buy gold duit at $10 per ounce. Thi? iltusI tra'es the impossibility of having the gold from that 1 region act on the prices t,t only a singlx section else where; and >1 come proof of the poeitlon, that the qmitlon now hi ing considered I* to be exatninvd as to the influence the go IJ now discovered will hare on tbe whole stroll o! piecuu.? metal*, and not on that part of it merely wh.i;b we hare in tbis country. Although gold coin I* not a legal tender for d.-bts n teveral countries, yet (be relaiire value of gold and *11>er in tb* principal trading placet of tbe world ia nearly tbe tame; that I* to Fay. about 16 to 1?a proportion not likely to be ullected much by event* occurring in our mwiy acquired terrlterle*. The imtuenoe 'quantity of tbe prcclon* metal* in tb* world, tbe extenMve Furface over whicb th y are rpread, their fueat durability, the variou* tit** to which they are applied, and, witb|iucreaiing luxury, are becom, n^ applied, prevent the Increase at California from opt rating to the extent which b?i been by many xup pon d, (r to any great extent. ThiK matter need* to be examined c irefiliy, however, with rtf-rence to the calnage. Tbe quantity of gold obtained trom th? Irai *lountat?*, (whioa divide Rui>*ia In Europe fjom Ku<?ia la AiU.) ha? lately been luiinen'e. and it i? *nppc?-d that the annual ircdiio.ion tr< ui ttie whoie Ku*<Un Kmpire amount* to m aily 41,000 llu/?i*n pounds p?r aanutn A oinitle lump found on the 7th Nov . 181?, w.'ljhed 87 ItuMiai* pound*. Tbe Auriferous /one. ai it ! 1* cnlled, fitted*, with occasional interrupt!>ni? betwei n the 60th nod liOth decree* North latitude, over a line whlli it ( at* half longer than the <r.'atent br>Hlib of Africa." Whether the prodtic iaa of poll) Ik ko Riuch pteater thin thit of ell'er, as to diMutb the relative proportion* betiv en tbem d'pends on taet? i.ot ufilclently within my knowledge. In 1T 1ft in pursuance of the advice of Sir l<ue Newton, the value or the guio?? was reduced a fraction ; but it ban b*en suppmed that gold hai b?en overvalued intbtir luict regulation*. The sagacious nun connected with our miut, will uod >ubtedly keep tki* Baiter in new and recommend such regulations if the coinage a-< will k?.p la clroulation a ,proper proportion h<"th "t silver and gold 1 o recur, however, to the question, what edict the dl?coveiy (fgold in California will have on prioe*. it I* to be reuiembered. In addition to ths views above |r*ftnt?d, that we have In operation in the United State* atystrmcf public finance, which it constantly operation to prevent a sudden inflation or the papsr currency, *nch a* the new discovery of g"U would have rugRtsted under the < Id ty?t?m; and that t? it* restraining iufluence we may probably be Indebted fer keeplDg price* free from any great and nneise change, of a mere local o^aracter?and this prevented, the gr> at dilTutlon c f the metal likely to take plaoe, end tbe tmtll proportion wh'ch It will bear to the entirertcck o( c<dn. will produce no greater effect on price* tLan date one of our river* upon the tide* ol the cccan. Another Kkvom tionar* IIkro Gone.?On Friday night, lire. 15, Wm Weatern, of Vestal, . :/j uu **.. \\r i ? curv, n|;ru on vrnif- mi. tt . niin nnumcr m lO(>9f he tut* of the Revolution, who will soon all nave pasted away, and be known only in the recollection of their descendant', the luxory of if.cir country, iind by the rich legacy they have left u*. While we honor Hie dead of tn t' nohle bin! If? | im uVr eti tlif living, wl;o wr'li a <: 30 ,e? IS ><H:ihiitj. I vh ISipitm 4 l j J