Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 28, 1848, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 28, 1848 Page 2
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NEW YORK HERALD. Rorthwtil corntr of Kalton and Kuwa iU> JAMES GORDON BECKETT, PROPRIETOR. THE DAILY HERALD ? Thrreetiiliotii nvr?dij. tiiween'l per nm?J7 tl< per annum. Tht Ml IKSIVl? KDITIDS w milJuM at -1 o'rlurk A V , aWi?fnhutnl before Ore<lk.f l'ti the tint APTEKM >0\ EDITIOX ran h* hid of thr nnnhoyt at i o'riock, H. .If, uni fA* .rrW AFTHRSOOX EDITIOX at J)icrlork lllk U EKKLY HER A1 D-Erery Saturday, far rirrvla | fton on fV Amr i< iin Voiil inrntcrnlt jxr copy, $ ( 1?H per amnin. Eeery ttenm packet dny ft European rirculnlutn, j jtffvr unnum, to include the fotl oe. The European edition trill beprmted in the t'r neh and EnglUhlmifu ifrt. AMUSEMENTS THIS EYBNINQ. OWKRT THEATRE, Bowvry?OawBrirra?D?. Dir. wobtm?cicocA AHo nui'i UAnaute?the gjli> sBBKKBS. BROADWAY TUEATBE, Rieadway ?Mbhtb Cbibto. NATIONAL THEATRE. ChAthAm 8quar?? Vib?i*iv?-Na bo* ra? An Uoci-Httirgi is. BURTON'S TBEATRE. ChAmben itrect?Pbi?tb* ? AprBBBTioi?Califobma Hiku-Vhiiii BarnvmI BROADWAY CIRCUS, Near Spctn? ftreet?EhubbtriahMECHANICS' HALL, BroAdway, Neu Bto????CHBirrr'i 1 MlJMTBU. ? ITHIOPIA.I SinMK*. MEIODEON -Yiroima Siieiadiiii SOCIETY LIBBART?Caktkii i 'i MmfTBKiA. XOOLOOICAL IN8TITUTE. Bowory?Yaw Ambvash'* j OBAM> ItMCIBIB TUYVESANT INW1TUTE. Bro?dir*y, neAr Blecoket ItMt -Nnr Oeliaki Scbkb adiri' Ethiopian Oobobbta. 8TOPPAN1 BALL, corner of Broadway and Walker ttmt? Wkits*! tiBEiAOiM-Ethiopian Sinoma. LYCim. Chatham Stuart?Kb*r'a Fantomimba, ks. 1 Rftvr York, Thur?Uy, Uccember 48, 1848* , , Actual Circulation of the H?nUdi Dm. 37, Wednesday SO,448 oopie#. The pnblieattoa of ths Btrald osmmeoeed yesttcday M ? mln?tM before 1 o'clock, and tniahod ? 19 minutes put 7 olock. i Circulation or the other reading Morning JOUMlla Courier and Enquirer, (daily) . 4,800 Journal of Commerce 4,800 Express 8,600 Tribune. , 11,600 j Aggregate .34,000 Error* in the above estimate will be corrected on adequate authority. Another California Herald* We shall publish another California Herald In ft few days. It will contain all the additional intelligence that may arrive from the Gold Region, and be illustrat?d with two or three new and valuable maps. Movements of the I'ltraa.?Petticoat Politicians?Proposed Dissolution of the Union. | For the first time in the history of the republic, j eiiicc uic auu|uiuu ui uic jircucm ci>nsiiiuii(>n, ana , the organization of the existing form of govern- I ment, the ultra factiona of both the North and the South have come openly before the world with a j distinct proposition far a dissolution of the Union, unless their antagonistic and irreconcileable theories with regard to the slave population of the ; Sovtb, shall be carried into eflect by the legislation of Congress. The crisis, therefore, is not remote when all the moderate people, of every section of the republic, mutt, deliberately and calmly, j assume such a determined position and basis of | action as will preserve the union of the States under the existing national constitution, and transmit that invaluable legacy unimpaired to their children and posterity. A meeting has recently been held in Washing, ton. compost d of members from the Southern States exclusively, in which preliminary action has been taken, deliberately looking to the alternative of a dissolution of the Union, or the admission of slavery into the territories of New Mexico and California. A convention of an opposite cha- j racter has just been held in Philadelphia, at which j the Bame deliberate announcement was also made, ! that unless some mode to abolish slavery in the I Qnntkarn Qfof^e ti'ara of rvnno tVw? AtImr ' ' alternative of a peaceable dissolution of the Union should be carried into effect. Brief reports of the doings and announcements of both these opposing factions?the one in Washington, composed of members of both houses of Congress, and from different Southern States, and the other in Philadelphia, composed of popular delegates from various parts of the I nion?will be found, to-day, in another portion of this sheet. Th*se, however, are but the beginnings ol the opjosite and itreconci'.eable movements which have resulted from the recent agitation of the slavery question, both in the North and the South. Though both these movements spring from widely different sections ot the country, and from the most antagonistic and hostile aims and views of policy with regard to the Blave population, yet strange to say, they both present the singular conjunction of the most cordial concurrence in the same alternatives?either the adoption of their diametrically opposite modes ot disposing of'his vexed question, or the complete dissolution of tins happy and glorious confederacy. The Southern movement appears to be headed by some of the leading members of Congress?Mr. ' Calhoun, Mr. Foote, Mr. Metcalte, and other?, in- ' discriminated taken from both the old nartv di- < visions into which public opinion in this country I has been heietofore separated. Mr. Calhoun and Mr. I'oote, with all those associated with them? ab!e, eminent, and patriotic men??pi>ear to be endeavoring to organize a sectional party to represent the interests of the Southern States exclusively, and for the purpose of effecting the extension of t-lavery into the territories of New Mexico and California, and its continuance in the District of Columbia. If they cannot effect this, iihey have made up their minds to bring about the other alternative, of the dissolution of the Union, and a complete separation in due time from the Northern free States. Lucretia Mott and her associates, with the prominent free soilers and abolitionists, are the leaders of the other faction. This lady may have running in her veins some of the j blood of her Roman namesake, though, from j ihe unseemly, unfeminine and indelicate ex- | hibition she has been lately making of herself b*jore the world, on the subject of slavery, the rights of w omen, aBd other old maidenish crotchets and qk tyncr&HirB jrcu'iar 10 uiai liuerriiuag ci&sh 01 ihe human race, we have great doubts of the con- t bant'uintty. This stump advocate of the rights of t women, however, with her socialist violators ?f , c the Christian dignity and position of womankind c and the divinely established order of society, throw ? down the gauntlet with proper Amazonian spirit to b their male counterparts of the South, and make the t same declaration and adopt the same basis of p action for the dissolution of the Union, if steps ii be cot immediately taken, not only to prevent the a extension of slavery to New Mexico and C*lifor- v nia, and to remove it from the District of Colum- c b:s, but for its total unqualified and instantaneous f abolition lrom the Southern States. What a pity p, it is that Lucietia and her body gutrd had not il anuher l'rutus to avenge the wronijs they are now v i uttering lrom the horrible indignities and restric- g Lions of male monsters, proud Tarquins, and South* ern slaveholders' Mi?s Lucretia is u great wo- d man, and has raised a great dust wherever she Ins a puisued her i>ereKnnationi?, throughout the tl country As one of our classical |?opular poets b beautifully expi esses it? ti ' (she uebbrr go to tribbel n Put mVxm * nl.Mt >n.?W Hw fcotnt.-p tn tb? gr???i. u Vou might (m it In iLe d*rk." a Ur.foitunaU-ly, liow<vpr, for M:a? Lucy, hrr b diMiir, no f?r, h?v? hud no frtson to b<- i>roud i't h?-r nd*??.acy. V* ,th liio ? xc?*|ition of n J?-w f<*- t]*' mirantliroiufcta hn?i compulsory nuns, the g larii<> ot thia com.try h:tv rrj<i(JiateH h!I cmuic- ii tuui with thit mdtin mIcm ; mul at lor thr r malr trutm, true to tlim ftuturr, they rrgtrd h-r ti .idlu-r c< mpHnii ns ol?j' < . > <<t u.i < ntrollable t, laughter i.nd dmi ive taunf* In ti iss-Hte ?.l things u j '??..*? > U i - ?' *o f- lift''i.n*!1!.' , j, I age, or to come forward with a complete change of performance. It waa to be expected, therefore, (hat a woman of Lucy'a spirit would not die without a sign ; and accordingly the unsuccessful piece was withdrawn, and the highly attractive and popular, though not novel, anti-alavcry opera was brought out in Philadelphia, with an entire change < f performers, and new acenery and decorations. The Roman Lucretia, by the wrongs ah' endured, and the tragical and suicidal death ahe suffered, kindled the tlames of rebellion, changed "he form of government in her day, and founded a repuuuc. vur 1 annee L.ucreua is, no doubt, ambitious to follow the example of her great prototype ; and impelled by the overbearing inaolence of the Southern Tarquins, can no longer restrain heraelffrom ringing the tocain of revolution, dissolving the bungling constitution of our forefathers, and abolishing the present national confederacy. Lucretia the first raised a republic. Lucretia the second is bent on ruining one. In these days of political volcanic eruptions, we would serious'y recommend the friends of the constitution to keep their eye on Lucy, and see that she has no Euicidal dagger concealed under her clothss; for if she should take it into her head to complete the parallel, there is no knowing but she might get & Brutus, or a brute of some sort or other, to avenge her wrongs and involve us in all the horrors ot anarchy and insurrection. These movements, however, whatever ridicule and apprehension they may excite, from the seriocomic combination of characters engaged in them, involve the abandonment of former party lines, the entire disorganization of all the existing political connections, and the adoption of such a course and auch a policy that must, if some means of preven tion and moderation be not taken by the rest of the country, eventually lead to the destruction of the lairest fabric of a republic which the sun, from the first day of its shining, ever yet enlightened. According to the appearance of things in the nrpa#>nt P.nnorooo o,*\A ?1.1: - r.?aim me uc?civ>|TiuriH ui J'UUIIU opinion in the free States, there seems to be no rational probability that there will be, daring the present session, any government established in New Mexico or California; neither is it at all probable that there will be much expedition in legis'ation, with regard to the slave population in the District ot Columbia. Beyond these points, the compromises of the constitution restrict the action of Congress. The ultras of the North, however, want to amend the constitution in order to reach the slaves of the South, while the ultras of the South contend 'or such a construction of it as the representatives of the free States will, probably, never sanction under the present developement of public opinion among their constituents. The recent organization of a free soil party, under the auspices of a disappointed politician, is merely a step *in the progress of that fanaticism and ultraism which are beginning to develope themselves more fully since [he recent Presidential election. But the friends of the constitution, as it exists? of the government, as it has been conducted?of the ne*r administration, when it shall develope its tuture policy, will be called upon in the event of : [his movement assuming a more formidable aspect, , to meet such startling issues and menacing agita- 1 tion with firmness, resolution, and moderation. To suppose, in this enlightened age, that such agionous and magnificent fabric of human government is the confederacy of the United States, will, in consequence of the political contentions of two | ?reat parties, be dissolved like a dream : that every dement of civilization in the country will be at jr.ce uprooted, and the thirty great component parts ot this vast republic be torn asunder, and ?iven over to the horrors of intestine war, on account ot the social position of the three millions of colored population in the Southern States, is to sujpose that the woild has reached the mowt advanced point of human progress, and that on this :ontinent we are ready, under the influence and aromptings of disappointed men and lll-coniitioned women, to go back to the habits )f barbaric life, and the contests of the ?arly and savage ages of the world. These men ind women?((or the women in the North, to the ihame and scandal ot the sex, are always mixed in such agitations,)?may be very respectable, in * social point of view, in the various neighborhoods n here they reside; but the intelligent and really respectable portion of the community at large, hum be made aware of their dangerous machinaions, in order to estimate them and their projects n the proper light, and form a correct judgment >f those movements which, if not nipped in the }ud, may lead to much national injury and degraJation. Slavery in the Southern States may be an anomalous condition uf that race of human beings imong whom it exists; but have the humanitymongere, and the broad phylactered hypocrites of the Van Buren school, and the notoriety-seeking itinerants, with Lucretia Mott as their prima donna, no commisseration nor Dowels of compassion for the white slaves of the North?the sickly, bard-wrought and ill-paid needle-women of all -nir rrrpnf Nnrthpm ritipa si ml thp thinlv.plnH f e"-'" ~ ? ?- v"*-? sadly-fed, and miserably-housed floating population that is to be found at all our large factories ind manuiaciuring establishments in the North; ind in the employment, perhaps, of Bome of those yery people who are making such an outcry about he condition of the slaves T Such a sympathetic movement would not probably serve the purl [>ose of these agitators so well. It would require eomething more than a mere expression of cheap benevolence; and would not touch the tender heaits of pious old women with half j 'he sensibility that a well-told narrative ol the | "fleets ol slavery, nicely garnished with whips ! ind wheals, usually excites. Besides, it would | je impossible to rally a party on such a pla'J iorm. There would be no bone of contention?no oitct dt rtthtancc on which to fasten the tooth of faction. It would never give any claim to the potlouse politicians and the corrupt place-hunters for :he favor and patronage of the federal government! A.nd as for poor Miss Lucy, she would probably find hat, like the " rights-of-woman" movement, it would not " draw." The condition, however, of the British West Inlies, from the abolition of slavery, ought to induce hese philanthropists to pause in their fanatic :areer. All these beautiful islands have been re- | luced by such a measure to a state of barbarism, [raduaily approximating to the same state of avH(?t-ry amidst which the colored race lived in he interior of Africa. We are persuaded that radically the condition of the slaves at the South 9 i<ecefsary to the existing state of society there ; nd that when the while race has increased, as it nil do to a certain point, slavery, as a distinct so iai institution, and a* a separate and particular ature of Southern society, will gradually disap(ar, an it has done in the Northern States, and as ie Indian# themselves make way before the ada net's at the Anglo-Saxon race, in whatever reion they have come in contact. liut the natural and grauual progression of the iffeiei.t branches of the human racc, does no1 nd never did, satisfy the f mattes, bigots, and en- j lusiasts of the world. These movements are , sped either u;<f>n corrupt or mistaken motives; | nd the objects aimed at cannot be effected by the leans proposed. They ttre, in short, akiu to ill - j ?tial " isms " ol the day, and thoje theories which , Ritaie the philosophers, not only of this continent, | ut e.lso of ihe old. , What, then, is to be done to preserve the integn- , ir ol the Union (rom such assaults, to advanee the ( towtli of this miulitv let) blm. that standi atili, - ? ' ? I imi of thf civilized nations ol thf? woild - wash- ( d by two ??,< at reran*, stationed at equal du , bftwr? n two Continents?and com- , mint the eJemei.ta ol both ? What ia to be our ( Inmate dcttitiy ? It it not given to man to pro. .1 -i u*cu Vu,t 31/ . human judgment must be favorable, if it be formed from a conbidt ration of what baa been done in the past history ol the republic, and the late indica. lions which have been given of its future progress. We have just elevated a great, and good, and determined man to the highest office at our disposal ; and he ha* been borne aloft to that distinguished position on the shoulders of the people, in opposition to all the old factions who were arrayed against him. There are also good sense and resolution in those who elected htm, to stand by him in all his difficulties, and cuttain him in all lus efforts for the good of the country ; and the masses of the people, who constitute this irresistible phalanx, will present a barrier of adamant to the movements and machinations of the ultras of all parties, and will keep, preserve, and defend the integrity of this great republican confederacy, with its existing government and institutions* against all invaders, all fanatics, all ultras, and all disappointed politicians, male or female, under whatever guise they may assume, or to whatever chicanery they may resort to effect their unholy designs. Let Congress, then, pursue its course with calmness, good sense, and moderation. There is as yet nothing to fear. Detiderium peceatorum ptribit. Reporting In Congress?The Organ of the New Administration. A very petulant, apologetic, lugubrious, but, on the whole, rather amusing article, appeared on Monday last, in the National Intelligencer, a newspaper issued at the seat of government, to about fourteen hundred subscribers. This article is chiefly devoted to the subject of reporting in Congress, and affects to present a reply to certain remarks and strictures published in the Evening Pott, of this city. It is evident enough, however, that the real design of the article is to avert some of the consequences, if possibls, of that revolution in the whole business of reporting in Congress uic inat-prnaem newspaper press 01 me country has, within the last year or two, so auspiciously commenced. A decisive blow has been struck, at least at one gigantic abuse which had grown up under the federal government; we meaa that extraordinary system of fraud and corruption which has been heretofore so snugly ensconced under the covert of the " public printing." Hence this last " speech and confession " of the Intelligence, which occupies, with its half dozen postscrips, very nearly seven columns of that delectable sheet, constituting, we might say, the " seven penitential psalms" of an expiring corruption. The lnulhgtncer complains that a certain portion of the pressof this country has made false and c alumnious charges against its fair reputation; and announces its object to be the exposure of the "glaring falsehood" and "flagrant malignity" of all those rascally editors who have ventured to doubt the wisdom and justice of hiring the Washington journals fo report the proceedings of Congress, at the rate of "fifteen dollars a column." Very lugubrious is this ancient recipient of pauper relief, on account of these slanders. Indeed, the editor waxes quite wrathful, and flounces about in a thundering passion, very much in the style | ot the indignant virago, of equivocal fame, in one of the old English comedies, who calls heaven and earth to teatify to her irreproacable chastity. The innocent reader, untaught in the ways of corruption at Washington, might very well be imposed upon by all this show of virtuous indignation on the part of the Washington editor. But those who have merely glanced at the real facts of the case, are not to be so easily bamboozled. The magnitude of the sums paid to the proprietors ot the /? telhgencer, out of the public treasury, during the last twenty years, is almost incredible. Millions and millions of the public money have been squandered upon the paity organs at Washington, under the name of payment lor performing the printing of Congress. One hundred thousand dollars of clear profit has been repeatedly realized from the printing of a single document. Blair A: Hives, of the Globe, reaped a fortune of half a million during the aJministrations of Jackson and Van Buren. In two years Ritchie and Heiss, ef the Union, realized seventy five thousand dollars a piece. At the lowest estimate, Gales Sc Seaton, of the Intelligencer, have received one million of dollars in the shape of profits tn the printing of Congress. We speak by the book. We have the data before us. .tar iucib which cbiauu&a una astounding system of newspaper corruption are incontrovertible and damning. So grossly iniquitous, indeed, had this system of sustaining the mercenary organs at Washington at last become, that even political parti7acs themselves were ashamed ot it; and at the commencement ot the present Congrffss, the public printing was given out by contract, to the lowest bidder. Probably one hundred and fifty thousud dollars have thus been saved to the national treatuiy This explains the rabid ferocity with which the party organs at Washington now assail the new reform project of reporting the proceedings of Congress. The Congressional reports which w?re made by the Washington journals, were of the most inaccurate and unsatisfactory character. Year after year, the complaints, on account of the meagre and paltry reports, were unceasing in both branches of Congress. Repeated efforts were made to establish an independent and adequate system; but they were defeated by the influence of the organs, and their unscrupulous friends. The independent system ot reporting the Senate debates, introduced by a gentleman concectcd with the Herald establishment, was the first practical movement in this work of needed reform. It has afforded some exptrience of the salutary working of an independent plan of reporting; and will, in all proba bility, be followed up by the adoption of a somewhat similar plan for both houses. It is quite evident that Congress is tired of the system ot pensioning newspapers in the city ol Washington, who boast, as does the IntclJtgencer, of expending " from four or five to ten thousand dollars a year," for their reports of the proceedings of Congress, while they were in receipt of from one hundred and fifty to three hundred thousand dollars a year, voted to them under the guise of reimbursing them for their reporting expenditures! There is only one proper method of securing faithful reports of the American Congress, and obtaining for these reports the desired degree of publicity. Let Congress appoint a sufficient number of competent reporters, at a fixed yearly salary, and on an efficient organization. The reports should be printed daily, in document form, at the city of Washington ; and provisions should also he made for their publication in such papers bf m>(iht be fixed on in Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. In this way an authentic record would be provided, both for permanent preservation, and universal publicity. In fact, this is the plan which now meets with favor amongst the intelligent and independent members of Congress. The American Congress has now assumed greatly augmented importance abroad. It lit highly desirable that its debates and proceedings should be disseminated on the other side of the Atlantic. When the publication is confined to the WashingIon journals, that degree o diffusion not course out of the question. Fray, how many pereons, at home or abroad, ever heard of the Intclh%encrr or Union, except through the medium of the leading ournals of our great cities? Congresa, if it dei-irea to reach the great masses of our own >eo| le, and the public and the press abroad, must leek a vehicle ol communication in the great, wiflt-iy (imuHPO, inaepenoerii journals ot our cniet :itiee. Congressmen know tliia very well j and h?y will, MM.ucr or l?ter, adopt the action winch hiB knowledge points out to them, as at once jecfMiary (or the i>erunty and extenaion of their <v n (tame, and the fame of our American Conireu itscU'. Ah lor the Washington editor?, hp men and .l:..'u ii.iu tt? kindest .'eel inga. Mr. Galea ia a vrry worthy old gentleman. He ia extremely benevolent; and givea, or used to give, excellent suppers. lie presides at a dinner with much grace and dignity. Hi? partner, Mr. Seaton, ia also a very worthy man. He, too, givea, or used to give, excellent suppers. He, too, presides at a dinner with much grace and dignity.? Both have a compassionate regard for the bodily comfort of Congressmen. They have wined, and dined, and fited both houses oi Congress, from time immemorial. They ought to receive their reward. They are both in the vale of years. We v.. .1 _i u ?? u. ?I?.-J ? occ iiu icaouu w iijr lucjr uuuuiu uui uc ocirt icu as keepers of a new Congressional eating-house,or refectory?not & common affair, bu' an elegant and genteel establishment, not far from the Capitol? a thing which is much needed in that delightful and classic locality. Mr. Gales ia just the man to conduct with success the financial aflairs of such an establishment, and Mr. Seat m would do the honors of the table with all the ease and grace of a Chesterfield; while both would, day after day, enjoy the boundless delight of making scores of Congressmen happy.

After all, in this business there is, as usual with Washington schemers, something behind the curtain. A. desperate struggle is going on with respect to the organship under the new administration. The Eastern whigs "are moving heaven and earth to keep their antediluvian friends of the In' tetligcncer out of the water, in order that they may be forced on General Taylor as his organ. On the other hand, Mr. Bullitt has taken the field, and his friends are not idle. Great is the alarm and great the jealousy of these opposite interests. Hence Mr. Ashmun, and others of that ilk, will doubtless tight hard to get something through Congress to give "aid and comfort" to the Intelligencer. Tins is the secret of all the fuss, alaim and anxiety about the Congressional reporting. What o i i.; .1.?< uniritti layiui way uiiiiscti uu, id uuibu ucuaiu, though the philosophers on both sides seem to think that that is but a small matter. We shall see ; but in the meantime, in this quarrel for the organehip, we go for "Bullitt and Bragger." California?Its Destiny and Consequences. It is beyond all question that gold and silver, in almost inexhaustible stores, exist in California; and that crowds of people, from the four quarters of the world, will rush there, with the view of securing the advantages which have thus so suddenly been brought to light. To establish order there, and to protect life and property, a government is essential, and Congress ought at once to establish Buch a system as will have that desired effect. The time is pressing, and the occasion demands prompt action. The Wilmot proviso need not occupy their time, for the question whether slavery shall or shall not exist there, will be deciAd in the negative by the emigrants from the tree states, who are flocking thither in such great numbers, before they can discuss it and arrive at a conclusion. The (act, is that circumstances, totally unlooked for and wholly unexpected, will decide this q ^estion, and take it out of the hands of the members of Congress, long before they shall have relieved themselves of the tremendously long and pulty speeches and arguments which they compiled and manufactured during the reces9, not tor the purpose of deciding the question on fair, equitable, and moderate grounds, but with the view of manufacturing political capital for themselves, and, as has been remarked, of making their constituents bejieve that they are in earnest. Let Congress, therefore, go to work and establish a government that will meet the emergencies of the case, and, our word for it, the Wilmot proviso question will be decided and set at rest for ever, without their assistance. Next in importance to establishing a govertvernment for California, is the formation of a connection between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Jf we take into consideration the geopraphical position of the United States, and the natural conformation of the continent, it is really a disgrace to the United States, and a practical denial of the the enterprise, liberality, and progress, which our people possess, that this connection or communication has not been formed long since. The matter has come up before them, in the application from Mr. Aspinwall and his associates, for a contract jo carry the mails, Arc., Arc , of the government across the lBthmus of Panama, they being possess, ed of the right to construct a railroad across the continent at that point. Let this be done at once? 'et the members throw to the winds all minor considerations?let them discard petty rivalries and frivolities, and give their attention to the main thing. But we would not have it supposed, by urging, as we do, Congrt ss to make this contract, that we have discarded our views, and the feasibility, practicability, and absolute necessity which exist for our having a great national railioad that will connect our navigable rivers on the Atlantic coast with the waters of the Pacific. That road must be built, and the sooner it ^shall be commenced the better. We must have a railroad across our own territory, to connect the two extremes of our nnaorficmna Wlion fViaf aha 11 havn Kaon nnm ' pleted, a revolution in the commerce of the whole world will have been achieved, and |the manifold advantages which that revolution will develope, will accrue to the United States, although indirectly it will confer favors on the whole of the rest of the world. The idea in this country and in this age, of sailing a distance of seventeen thousand miles, so as to round Cape Horn and reach our western territory, is when we Know that the distance in a direct line is only five thousand?one-half of which is of navigable waters?is certainly absurd. Yet so it is?and until it be not so, we may as well boast a little less than we do of our enterprise.? When that direct communication aeross our own soil is completed, the position in the commercial world which is now occupied by London, and the influence which that capital exercises, will be transferred to New York, which city will become the great centre of commerce?the great lever which will move the whole world beside. In connection with this subject, it may be as well to make a passing remark on the various (statements and misgivings put forth by per. sons, on the ultimate efleets which those great auriferous discoveries will have on the destiny of the United States. Some of them are exceeding gloomy and bluish. Because Spain, as a nation, was ruined by her discoveries of wealth in her American possessions, it is supposed that the same fate is in reserve for us. It must be recol. lected, however, that Spain speculated in those things as a nation, and that the government had a monopoly of them; but it will not be so with the United Stalts. Our government will not work ,hose newly discovered mines; but it will (and we hope Boon) throw them open to the |>eople. Our government, therefor*, will be uninflenced by them. Again, those discoveries and the general progress of civilization will give an impetus to commerce throughout the world. More money?more gold and silver will be required for this increased commerce, and for the increased consumption which it will call into life. The whole of Asia lies open to us, and nature invites us to trade with tha( region. The Empire of Japan has yet be tapped' if we may use the expression, by American enter prise; and China, with her three hundred millions of people, has to become one of our greatest markets. Hut the subject is as inexhaustible an the mines themselves. It is clear that, to fulfil our destiny, we must have a government titended over California, at an early day, without reference to the Wilmot proviso; we muat have a railroad across the centmrnt; and we think there is no reason for supposing that, in this age o( the world, a people like those of the United States, animated as they are by a spirit of enterprise and adventure, which ;s always active and never quiescent, are to be to the condition which Spurn occupies. TELEGRAPHIC INTELLIGENCE* ! THIRT1ITI1 OOHORBU. 8SCOND 8KS810N. Senate. i WiiHmuTOR, Dec. 27, 184$. 1 THI OrKNINO. The Senate mat at the unual hoar, when Mr Atohl on, rresldwnt, pro. (em., took the ohalr, and culled the member! to order. Prayer tu then offered up by the Rev. Mr. Slioer, and the buineu at the day oommenoed. UEUOBIiLI AND PUT 1T10PH. Numerona memoriaU aad petition* ware presented and referred. RBW LAND OrrlCE IN MIISOUKI. Agreeably tonreviom notion. Mr. Bknton Mk?d and obtained leave to bring in a bill, whloh ?u read twice, by unanimous consent, and referred to the Committee on Tublio Land*. The bill related to the establishment of a new land offloe In Missouri. ! WASHINGTON AND ALEXANDRIA ITCAtl PACKET COMPANY _ Mr. Benton also introduced a bill lnfaveroftha continuing In farce the aot incorporating the Walkington and Alexandria Steam racket Company. A debate sprung up, in whloh various members par. ! ticlpated. The bill was then, on motion, postponed. coast survey Mr. Datis, of Mississippi, submitted a resolution calling on the President for Information as to the amount of expenses inourred In the ooast surrey, whloh was adopted. purchase of lands. Mr. Johnson, of Louisiana, moved to take up the bill 'elating to the purchase of the land on whloh the Light House stands at the mouth at the Mississippi* whloh motion waa agreed to. . Messrs. Johnson and Bbll spoke in favor of the bill nd Messrs. Dix, Wescott, and others, in opposition. House of Representatives. Washington, Deo. 27, 1848. The members convened at IS, when the Speaker resumed his seat. ^bolitlon Or slavery in the district of columbia. After prayer and the reading of the journal, the Speaker announced the Drat thing in order on his table to be Mr. Stewart's motion to reooniider the Tote ; passing Mr. Qott's resolution respeoting the traffic in I glares in the District of Columbia. Mr. Stcwaht, of Mlohigan, being entitled to the floor, addressed the Hense in opposition to the agitators at the North and South. In his opinion, he said, the question of abolition In the District should not rest entirely with the people of the said District, He abhorred the institution, but doubted the power of Congress to destroy the property of the people in the said Dlstilot. He said that Gott's resolution ooinoided exactly with his own views. Mr. Viktor, of Ohio, moved to postpone the question two weeks. Mr. Wertwoeth, of Illinois, said the motion to reconsider had been debated enough, and moved to lay it on the table. The yeas and nays wore demanded, and resulted In the negative by the following vote:?yeas 68, nays 109. ! Mr. Smith, of Indiana, proposed an amendment to Gott's resolution, Instructing the committee on the District of Columbia to inquire into the expediency of framing a law to prevent slaves from being brought from other States into the District and sold. Mr. Vinton renewed his motion to postpone the j question till this day two weeks, which was carried. sioriko of bills. The Speaker then signed sundry bills. the mileage statement. Mr. Sawteb, of Ohio, brought up the Tribune'* re- j cent statement of mileage. He said that gross injustice 1 bad been done him, In charging that he had obtained an excess of $200, while Mr. Schenok, his colleague, was charged with taking only $2 excess. Much cenfnslon and lanshter nrevalled. and manv einlanationa and repartees ensued. Mr T[hkci, of Illinois, complained for himself, and of the slander charging the Speaker, (Mr. Wlntrop) with petit lareency in taking an exoesa of f 14. AHtolra In Waihlngton. Wasiiijiotoji, Dec. 27, 1848. There are now three inches of enow upon the ground and it ia still falling. No action has been taken as yet on Lewie Casi, Jr.'a nomination. William F. Purcell bas been appointed Judge of the Orphans' Court in this oitj. The Cholera In New Orleana< New Ori.bam, Dee. 33,1843. i Since my last despatch, whioh was dated the 20th Inst., three days ago, there have been admitted to the Charity Hospital seventy-nine cases of Asiatic cholera. Out of the number, there have been many deatbs, the precise naraber, however, I have not ascertained. The fatal malady has also commsnoed Its ravagee in the higher walks of life, and, within the same . period mentioned above, has terminated fatally with ; three of onr merchants. The whole community is greatly alarmed and excited. The Board of Health has bad a meeting, and pronounced it tnequ vcealjr an epidemic known as the real Asiatic cholera. Th?y | recommend forcibly and justly,'the strict ate of pro- j cautionary measures. not only publicly by th? authorities, but caution all persons to be careful in their da portmeat and eantious in their habits of living. The weather, which was unusually warm acd unseasonable, has beoome cooler, whioh, it is hop> dt will be mora conducive to health. 1 lie Cholera at Mobile, Richmond, Dee. 26,1849. Information haa been re reived h *re, that thrra had been one case of cholera and one death at Mobile. The Cholera at Memphis. Cincinnati, Deo. M, 1848. A telegraphic despatch haa been received here thil evening, dated Memphis, Deo. 21st, whioh says, that i two boats touched there on Snnday night, from New Orleans, having cholera eases on board. There had 1 been two deaths among the passengers on board of one of the boat*. The Weather In Baltimore; Baltimokr, Dec. 27?P.M. It has bean snowing all day, and it Is now six inches deep on a level. AShlra In Pittsburgh riTTsavao, Dec. 27,1848. Senator Hannegan is at present in our oity, detained on account of ilinese. A delegation of Chippewa Indians i> here, bound for Washington to implore Congress to allow them to remain on the public lands, they aUlll>a?lA? raafala K.a 1 lAJiOIMR WlfHIMUVH, VM|??IU 11CIVU ??n Uc" UUUII* nated by the whlgs of thia city for the office of Major. The Ohio Hirer. Circikriti, Dec. 28,1848. I Them?rehants along the lev?e are beginning to feel alarmed at the rapid rise in the river. Since Sunday, , the river haa rlaea fire feet three inchei, and ia a till < riling as I close thla despatch. Gnat Freahet on tins Wabub River. I Vmcmnii, (Indiana), Dec. 26.1848. Them baa been a great freahet in the Wabaeh river. jj The damage done throagboot the valley la Immense. ( Ken res, barm, hay-stacks and outhouses have been 1 wept awaj| The banks of the Wabaeh Canal have also been deatreyed in a number ol places. The loss ? is estimated at $70 000. T I The Ohio liegltlniurr, CoLtiMHus, Dec, 25,1848. Nothing fnrther of importance haa been done In the Jj Ohie Legislature. Both houses have adjourned over d until Thnraday. " Sailing; of the Royal Mnll Strnmshlp Niagara* w Boitor, Deo. 37, 1848. f! The steamship Niagara (ailed from her wharf at 13 I> o oioca ic-aay. see cirnti out thirtj-one patfengerj f0 for Liverpool, tad two for Halifax. Among the former, I* 8. Wetmore. Jr., lady, and aerrant ; MoCormack Kinlajwo, Char Ion Collagan, II. H. Slipper, O. P. Wet- ? mora, and (leorge Rotb, of New York. 8be hai no ?p?- ai ela on board. HarkcUi 1 _ New Oai.kani, Deo. 23? P M. to The demand for cotton continue* fair, and quota- oi tlona rteady. The tale* of the day reach 2,000 balea ? tt The matkat for flour iidrooplng, and theaelai are oHy for the enpply of the regular trade. Cora la in fair requoit, with aalea of 20,000 butheln, at 40eant?. In pro Tltlone, there la but little movement. Molatae*, without change to notioe, and In moderate demand viiK.innAii, |?no, JO, AO?19. Flour.?The muktt la iti|nut, moderate ulm at n, prevloua quotation*. Hoga-The market la aotlre : m ralM of 8 000 bead at $3 81 a *8 8TX per 100 Iba. net. CI UrrceitM- The market ia unchanged, either aa regarda v prlea or Wblakey?Market doll : aalea In DblJ at 16 oU. par (alioa. PiTTiacaa, Dae 96,1848 Ui Flour - The receipt* are light Sale* of Weatern at <* (8 7# to >8 87X per bbl drain--The market re mala I i fT without cliang* Provlaloni-Tha demand la laoraaa- I og. Orocerlea ?Tbora la * good "apply In the m\rket> rh? anpply of fi?h U nodtrtt* The weather la nrr sol4 to-day. There U IS feet of water la the channel, tod It la (tillriling. Baltimokc. Deo 27,1848. 1 Howard atrcat floor la held at $4 87X wheat rxmxlaa unchanged, white ?prn la aelllng pretty freely at 40?t and yellow at 61c. Bohtoi, Dee 37, 1848. The demand for flour, to-day. has bean but moierate, the ealea not exceeding 1,000 barrel*, at $5 6ft<? a ti 76 for the whole aiaertment of oommoa brand*; anil $0 a $6 60 for faaoy Uenarae. The market oloiad firm, with an upward teadenoy. Corn continues ateady, and In moderate demand. Tha supply li not large, aod holder* do not preaa the market. Rye and oata are as b?fore, with RDkll k?1?i. Provision*. quiet. The Law's Delay.?The value of criminal justice is in its promptitude in liberating the in* nocent, and its inflexibility in punishing the guilty. A singular habtat corpus case recently came before Judge Edmonds, the legal points involved in which could be determined in half an hour.? Two women of the name ot Martin were arrested on the charge of stealing a quantity of gold from gentleman's bureau. The usual course of justice was arrested by a writ ot habrat corpxu, returnable before Judge Edmonds. It was argued by men of talent and intelligence, but has ever since remained on the private docket of that venerable functionary. What ia the meaning of this 1 What is the cause of the delay 1 Wake up, Judge, and liberate the parties, or allow the moat important regulations of society to take their due course Delay in granting justice frequently amounts to a denial ot it. Singular Speech of a Murderer under the Gallows.?A strange speech was made by Eppep,' who murdered a neighbor of his in Virginia, jua before he was launched into the other world.? From the latest information received from him, probably through the intercession of the clergy, he was Satisfied that the unfortunate man whnm ho had murdered was in heaven; and he was equally convinced that the golden doors of that happy coun try were open for his admittance, as soon as his soul took its (light from his body, when the latter was executed at the gallcws. If such impious opinions were to prevail to a great extent, murder and its punishment would be the readiest pass to eternal ftlicity in another world. The French Consul in Trouble.? A French corvette left Port au Prince, about the 1st inst.. with the Consul of that port on board, for Aux Cayes. The representative of the republic oI ' France at Aux Cayes, it appears, had suffered some indignities,and the flag of his country was grossly insulted, whether by the government or the people we did not learn. The corvette was sent down at the request of the Consul, that he might be pre tected from further insult. Monument to the late DeWitt Clinton.?The generous patriots of the day have been talking for twenty years about such a work, but the first stone has not yet been laid. The best monument which DeWitt Clinton can ever have, will be the memory of his life and character reposing in the hearts ot his countrymen. Dinner to Col. Duncan.?We have received (, the following: * The dinner to Col. Dunean will be given at the Astor House, this afternoon, at 6 o'olock. " K. VINCENT, " J. W. EDMONDS, " H. c. SHUM WAV, and others, " uec. m." " uomnuHt or Arrangement#." City Intelligence. The Cholera.?The following ia th? report of th? Health Officer at Quarantine:? " Quarantine. Dee. 27, 1848. " Hi* Honor the Mavor: - Two deaths from eholera, but no new cases, have occurred at the Marine Hospital slnee the report of yesterday. Respeotfully, " ALEX. B. WHITING, Health Offloer." No caaei lathe city. That Hole h* Trinitt Place?The attantlon of the Street Inspector was, several days siooe, called to a dangerous hole, which has, for some time,existed in Trinity place, near Liberty?treat; and. as yet, It haa not been attended to. Certainly, the faot of suob a mantrap cannot be known to the Alderman of the First ward, or he would not Buffer it to remain. If tha old pump ii of no use to the people living in Its vicinity, why not take it up, and fill In the well? Tha Uvea of those who pasa It at night are constantly in danger; and should |any one be injured by falling into it, the Corporation would be liable for heavy damagea, which would certainly be aued fcr and reoovtred. Those having oharg* of auch work, know full well that the Common Counoil are, constantly oalled oniand obliged to pay damages for the neglige noe of those they place in office to superintend such matters, and it ia atrange tbey will keep men who pay no regard whatever to their duties. It Is to be hoped tha matter of filling In this dangerous place will no longer be delayed, last some rerious and, perhaps, fatal aeoldent ooour. Kurera?. or Lieut. H*rrr.rtt.?Another of thosa al'ant spirits who fought so nobly for the honor of the flag of tbeir country. in the late war with Mexico, had pt'ecd to " that bourne whenee no traveller returns." Lieut John Haff-rty. of the 1st regiment of New York Volunteer*, *m interred yesterday at St. Patric&'a Cathedral, with military honors. Ths Baxter Blue* and Korbea .Anoo a'ion, tha men bars of wbich ccmpaniea ha had long been intimately omnected with, attended the funeral in full uniform, an4 paid tbe last tribute oi reject t ithair departed friend. He had erceped all the dangera of the war, aid rettrued to tbe bosi m of hia family in health, and hia brow entwined with the lanrela of f.m<; bat a aerer* attack of diarrhoea took hold upon hia frame, and terminated hia existence on Tuesday morning. He ??1 a>oung nan of fine promise, and had won for himaalf the eatetm of a large circle of friend*. The Hi'Dton Rites Blockaded with Ice.? Th* ravengera who left thla oity on and ainoe Monday night, for Albany, were, in consequence of the ioe, obliged to land at Hudson, and take the railroad to their point of destination. Tbe audden change in th* weather last night, will, probably, tend to open a paaaage for the beats to a jo<nt further up the rirer. Movement* of Individuals. .Arrivals yesterday at tbe Irving Home ((toward'a) Salvador de Yturbide and two ladiea, Mexico; Hon. H. W. Hllllard. Alabama; Mujor Swords, U. S. A .hinr? H. Katon, Baltimore; 8. p. Moses. Washington; J.j. Williams, Dlstriot Columbia; Major Klpley, U. S. A.: H. Parkadale, St Johns; l). P. Orores, California. Court Calendar for Tlila Day. St TEFioa Coi.rr- a, 106, 25, 2, 39, 19. 74, 140,64.44, 122.67,92 9, 126,78, 118, 161. 162, 163.156,157,168. 159,161, 162, 104, lt5, 166, 107, 168, 169, 170,171,172. Distress in the Coal Kkoion.?The Pottsville (I'a.) Miner's Jownnl ol Saturday says:?We understand that there is an unusual degree of suffering in this legion. So disastrous lias been the business, thut many of the working men are deprived of the wages due them, and their families are absolutely suffering from want. Appointment hy thk Puksiortt.?William F.' Purcell. of Washington, to be Jmice of the Orphans' Court, for the county of Washington, in th? I)istrict of Columbia, in the place of Nathaniel P, Causin,resigned. ' ' California tiowia Mlilng ofT below coat.? The prn|ri< tor ol the well known i?tab:'ahinent, 1(XI Broadway, ipposite Trinity Chnrci, will retire '"r -m bu?irca? in Fehraarr lixt, un<i lis eat -naive atoek ia nowleln* ntailid below ooi* a cl< se the eoncern. Tlie stook embraeca evarr description at omla snirab'e for California emyranta, rath aa Tenta, Bed.*, Bag% Javerracks, Water Bf.tties Ke. Fire Anna! Fire Anne 1 {-.California Rifles, ii* Barrel Kevolvcra, and everjr other deaerljtion of Pistol^ fui-krta, Bhinderbtuaea, B< wie Knirea, and a full ajiortmenl ef ana, donbla and single bar re If, for sale low, by n. JOSEPH, 71 Maiden lane. I mm still selling ofr my Overcoats at mo?C npr*c< dented low pticee. It mint ! ? nnderatood that these 'oata are freah mads, and mltable for the tint oIm o( ninit lit priien vary fnm $10 to tit; the umul price* from Sit tn *>& Iv good* muat all be told before the let Jan. O. B. CLARK. 118 William *troe?. California (told lllnri,?PcrMni lnt?ndln( 3 embr.rk far that region, will do well to call at Jonee'. If Ana nd rapply ttiemeelvea with French bnnta. at from SJ .Ml to tf Sflt oublo aole water proof boot* from St M to %t, at Job**', It las ;rest. Who goes *? California wlthont a Tent, 111 fl?*p In the open air.?Thia Winn true, miner* and ether* ?ould provide thomaelve* with ladia Rubber feats. Air Boda illow*. Rubber Camp Blanket*, long Mining lloot*, Gold Baga ithrnun Bag* (for park male*) Port a Me Boat*, and a variety of Lher indl> pen table article*, made eiprruly for the mirpoae, and real* at the OOODTFAR RUBBER EMPORIUM, 1M> Broadway, Rathbun'a Hotel California.?Boots for the Mining IUflMl r eal* at (JoTernor Tonng'a, Iron $3 to $6. Flo* Frenoh Hoots I All, nraally (A and |7 In other cheap etore*. Fin* boot* $3 id every thing in the line at equally low rate*, cornet Faltoa id Naana itreet*. THE DOCTOR. Perpetual (lloaa Ovenho S?_Ooodf(?rt arehoam. 1UU Broadway, oppoiite Trinity ohnrchyard, oentfaes* < keep u heretofore, the molt perfect and exV naive aaeortmeatof ' tehoea. siamitactnre* expressly for IU retail oaitomera, sad tf * latest Frenoh atylaa, yet eold at the loweet prioee. Overshoes? A11 the various approved styles, ade expretely for city wear, may b* had at moderat* priooe, by holeaale or the angle pair, at the OOJDTEAR RUBBER EMPORIUM, 1W Broadway, Raihban* HlSL We have received another Lot of them Plva oiler fnlte. with a quantity of_brown and blaek Backs, slissh to h win ?vidi?i. aim, Tirana irnm i 10 911 HMD; Bo? a laUiiDK for IIm prio? of tha?maklng oaljr, meh bar* tioa M w*n itw mm. ooriMr Niimh ltd BNkmin atrraU, $i Salt Sloa lhoir who with Co Gaanl *<pUnat Caldj 111 4o wall to oall ihi* morn it*, on U>?ir way4owa t>wa. aft ' ? (ton af BlHtu Tom til aa ft Co, No. 30 J oh a atnak, aa4 aar ?p^r.nir P>?'? or W??l7 Ml?h* Orarahoaa. Priaat