Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 8, 1849, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 8, 1849 Page 1
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<*- - ! IT ||-| 11| || | M ,,| n, TH NO. 5331. < Th? foetal Convention or Trenty. Cwrf?(<fi ki(?rf? Hrr hiujee'y unl (A? Unitel State! of Jtmrica far the Improvement of the Communicai0<* t>y Pnit f'Ctueen their respective Territorial. t? l.anitnn, D^remher Iftf A 1848. ATtriCATIOH KICHtKOID lit LOHDOIt. Hot Majesty. tbe Queen of th? Waited Kingdom of Groat Britain and Ireland, and the United State* of Avierica, bet Dg desirous to promote the friendly relatione existing between tbelr respeetlr* subjects and wltiaens. by placing the communication* by poet be tween tbe territories of Her Britannlo Majesty and those of tbe United State* on a mora liberal and adTauUgecas footing, bare reeolred to eoaolnd* a conTen tIon for this purpose, and hare named a* tbelr plel aipo'entlarirs, tkat is to say ? Her Majesty the Queen of tbe United Kingdom of Great lirl'ain and Ireland, the Right Hon Henry John Viscount Pnlirerrton. Baron Temple, a Peer of Ireland, a member of Her biitnuie Majesty'* uioit honorable ptlvy council,a member of Parliament, Knight Grand Cross of tt e most honorable Order of the Bath, and Her hrnsnnte Majesty'* principal Secretary of State for Foreign affair*; And the President of tbe United States, by and with in? HCtTICC UUU consmi ui iud onu.vo -uo.n..., .J,,, Bancroft ae<tiseti of the United States, tbelr Kn?oy l?xtranrdln'ry and .Minister I'lenlpotentiary to Her firilanmu Mejesty; Who. after baring communicated to eaeh other "their respective full powers. found in good and doe form, hare agreed upon and concluded the following suttee* Asticlk 1 There shall be charged upon letter* not exoeidms half en ounce in weight, oonreyed either by British or United State* packets, between a port in the Unltea Kingdom or a port In the United States, an "uniform sea rate of eight penoe, or sixteen cents; and urh poM?*e *ball belong to the country by which the packet conveying the letters is furnished. Ait, 'i. 1 here shall be charged by the post office of tbc United Kingdom upon all letter* not exoeediug half a" ounce ia wvight, posted in the United Kingdom aud > forwarded to the United States, or brought froin the United States and dalivered in tha United Kingdom, whether suoh let-err shall be conveyed by British or by United States packets, an Inland postage rate uf one penny ball penny. There shall be obarged by the post offloe In the United states upon all tetter* not exoeeaing half an ounce in weight, posted in the United State* and forwarded to tbe Unfed Kingdom, or brought from the United Klngd) m avd Delivered in the United State*, whether euab letters shall be ccnveyed by United States or by Briiieh packets, an inland postage rata of Ave cants. m Ait. 8 Upon all letters posted in one country und delivered in the othir, these rate* of postage both sea and inland, (ball be combined Into one rate, of which payment In advauce shall be optional In either ecuntry It rball. however, not be permitted to pay lea* than the whole combined rata. Ah i . 4. With respect to letters above the weight of half an ounce, each country shall be at liberty to emplov, a* reg?."ds tbe oolleotion of tbe whole combined rate, th- sea e of progression in operation in Its own tertltorv for charging inland rate postage. Art. 6. Tbe United States engage to grant to the United kingdom .he transit in closed mails, through the territory of the Unitvd States, of the correspondence and newspapers from the United Kingdom to the British North American provinoee, and from those provinces to the United K ngdom, at the rate of Inland postage to be charged under this convention for letters and newspapers between the United Kingdom and the United States. A British officer shall he permitted to aocompany the aloicd mail* during their transit. Art. 6. On the other band, her Britannic Majesty engages to grant the United States the transit in clored malls, through tbe British American provinoes, Of the eerretpondenoe and newspapers from one part of the territory of the United States to any other pert Of the territory of the United States, at rates not ex oeeding the rates of inland postage new charged or to be hetsetter charged in the North American provinoes aooording to the distance such mail* may be oonveyed within tbe North Amertaan provinoes An offlaer of th* United States shall be permitted to accompany the closed mails during their transit. Aat 7 The United States further engage to grant to the United Kingdom, tbe transit In closed mails, through tbe United Sletee. or through any countries where the post communications may be under th* control or management of the United State*, of letters "it navinaiwtiK forwarded from the United Kincdom. iti colonies or possessions, to any other British colony or possession, or to any foreign country, and from any foreign country or British colony or possession to the United Kingdom its colonies or possessions. Act. 8. Her Britannio Majesty engtg-s on her part, to grant to the United States the transit in closod 1 mans through the United Kingdom, or through any country wh-re the post eommnnicattons may be under the control or management of the United Kingdom, of letters and newspapers forwarded from the United State*, thdt colonies, or possessions, to any other aoicny or possession of the United State* or to any foreign country, and from any foreign country or from any colony or possession of the United States, to the United S'stss. their colonies, or possessions. Aar. 9. When latters shall be forwarded in closed mails under the stipulation* of Articles 5. 0, 7, or 8 of the present convention, the payment to be made to the poet office of the United Kingdom, or of the United Sta'es a< the ease may be, shall be made by the ounce, ert'idivg to the n-t weight of ths letters at two rate to tbe ounce, with the aiditlon of 25 per ocnt on th amount of postage, to compensate the loss that would otherwise be sustained by this mode of computation. Art. 10. The country wbich sends or receives closed mtils through tbe other. Is to render an account of tb* letters and newspapers sent or received in such closed mails, and to account to snob country for the pottage due thereon. Abt. 11 Letters posted in the United States, addressed to foreign countriss, and intended to pass in transit, through tbe United Kingdom, ehall be delivered to the British post office free of all United Statea postage, whether packet or inland, and letters from foreign countries, addrtssed to the United States, passing in transit through the United Kingdom, shall be delivered to the United States post offloa free ef all British postage, whether packet or inland. In the oase of those countries to whioh letters cannot be forwarded, unless the British postage be paid In advance, such British pottage ehall be collected in the Un<t?d States (in addition to the United States rates of postage) and accounted for to the British past oflioe. In the care of those oonntries to whioh letters cannot be forwarded unless tbe United States postage be paid in advanoe. auoh United States pottage shell be olUoted in the United Kingdom (in addition to tbe British postage) and aeoounted for to the United States post offlee. Art- 12. The rate of poetage to ba taken by the British post office upon letters arriving in tbe United Kingdom from the United 8t*tea, either by British or United States packets, and to be forwarded through the United Kingdom to colonies or pos<essions of tbe United Kingdom or of tbe United States, or to foreign ecu miles, and l ice vena shall be the same as the rate which ia now, or may hereafter be, taken by the British post office upon letters to or from such colonies, v- j cr fo.etcu countries respectively, when pirted at the port of arrival, or aenrere-i as m- pvr? wt d-parture of the packets conveying the mails between tho United Kingdom and tbe United States. The above pestsge is irrespective of, and beyond tbe Inland rate to be taken in the United States upon such Irtters. if posted or delivered therein, according to the stipulations of Art 1 of this Convention ; and also irrespective of and beyond the sea rate upon each letters, payable acoordl eg to tbe stipulations of Art 1. Tbe rate of postage to be taken by the United States post office uprn letters arriving in tbe United Statee either by British or United 8tetes packets from tbe United Kingdom and to be forwarded through the United Statea to the colonies or possessions of the United States, or of tbe United Kingdom, or to those territories wbich, according to the laws of the United States, are beyond tbe limits of tbelr established post rentes, or to foreign countries?and viet vena- shall be the same as tbe rate whioh Is now, or whioh may hereafter be, taken by the United States post office upon letters eonveyed, whether by sea or land to or from euch co oni-s. possessions, territories, or foreign countries respectively, when posted at the port of errival or delivered at tbe port of departure of the packet* conveying tbe mails between the UnltedStatec and the United Kingdom. The above postage is Irrespective of and beyond the Inland rate to be taken in the United Kingdom npon such letters if posted or delivered therein, according to the stipulations of article 2 of this convention, and also irrespective of and beyond the sea rate upon such letters, payable aaoordlng to tbe stipulations of Article 1 There shall be excepted from the above stipulations letters and newspapers passing through the United Kingdom to pnd from France, a* to wbloh certain rote* re tlied by the postal convention existing between ibet oountry end the United Kingdom. But the two contracting parties agree to invite France to enter into 01 nunuoleetton with thein, without loss of time, in order to effect euch arrangements for the oonvey nee 01 letter* and newspaper*. and closed mail*, tbrongh the terrltorirs of the United Kingdom, of the United 8tate?, and of France, respectively, a* may be most conducive to the intereeta of the three oountrie*. Art 13. Letter* ported in the United State* addressed to the British North American Provinces, and w?rt rervn, when not conveyed by eea, ?h* 1 be charged according to the rate* of po*tag? whlob are now, or wlileh shall boreatter be. to operation In the United i Sta'i * and in tbe British North American Provlnoea for inland letters. Art 14. Upon all letter* posted in the United State* and addressed to tbe British North American Province*, and rice vma. the rate* of postage fixed by the preceding article shall be combined Into one rate, of which pajluent In advance shall bo optional, both In tba United Srate* and tbe Brltiab North American Province* It shall however, not be permitted to be le*e than the whole rate. Art. 15. The rates to be taken on new*p%per* published In the Unitvd Kingdom, when convoyed between the United Kingdom nnd the United State*, i either by British or United State* paehet*. ehall be on* penny for eaoh newspaper In tbe United Kingdom t and two cents In the United States Conversely no higher charges than those above stated shall be maje by the British or by the United States post ofiloe, on newspapers published In the United States, eithsr when despatched from the oountry or when deliveted la the United Kingdom Tbere shall bo no aoconnt* between the two i.Aloes for the transmission of newsCpors F.ach office shall retain the postage It shall va ebarged, according to the preceding stipulation* Aar. 10, Tha rate of postage to be charged la the E N E1 MOM I'uit-d Kingdom upon nrwiiap-m to end from the it United States p*?-idk in transit through th? Un'te>? go K'DL'dom. shall be one pennv for each newspaoer <-x- is cept whsre a lower rata in provided b? any treaty be- tb twcen tba United Kingdom and a foreign countTy; and w< tbf rata of postage to be oharged in the United States 00 on newspaper* to and from tba Unit- d Kingdom, passing in transit through 'he Ualtad State* be two ce cents for each newspaper. ?? Art 17 Periodical works, not of daily publications, posted in ibel'uUed Kingdom or in the United States, r' niav ha forwarded from one country to the other ni wither by British or by United State* packets by means ' of the two offices, under the following conditions. ?< via' 1st. There shall be no aooounts between the two t>'< cflices lor the treusmi-slon of such works : each offlee (< shall retain the portage it shall hare charged 1* 3d They must be sent tu bands or oovers, open at *< tbe sides or end. so that they may be easily examined tl 3d. They shall be In every reopeot subject to the * conditions prescribed by the laws and regulations of '< both oountriee The rate- to be levied in Urent n Britain, as well on the above mentioned works ad- " dressed to tLe United States, as on those from tbe 1* United States addressed to Client Britain, ehall be as foUows:? ' lit, Kor evjry work not exceeding twe onnoes in we'ght. one penny. ? 2d Kor every work above two onnoes in weight, and not exceeding three ounces, six peuoe. 1 43d For every work ab.ive three ounces in weight, * Mid not exceeding four ounce*, eight pence 4th. And for every ounce above lour, up to sixteen runuei, (the llialta imposed on the transmission of suoh articles by the British office,) two pence additional; every fraction of an ounce being reckoned a full ounce. Tbe rates to be levied by the post office of the United State* on similar works, addressed to or ooming from the United States, shall not exceed the rates charged in the United Kingdom Aht 18. Primed pamphlets, not exceeding the wright of 8 ounce*, posted la the UniU-d Kingdom, or In the United States, may be forwarded from one country to the other either by British or United States packets, by means of the two offices, at tbe eame rates and under tbe same conditions as those fixed for periodical works by artiole 17 Aht. 19 In consideration of two oeats United State* currency not being precisely equivalent to one penny sterling, the British post office shall account to the United Slates post office at tbe rate of four hundred and eighty-tour cent* to the pouud sterling; and the United States post office shall aooouut to the British post office at the rate of four hundred and eighty cents to tbe pound sterling. Aht 20. in case of war between the two nations, the mail paokets of the two offices shall continus thsir navigation without impediment or molestation, until six weeks after a notification shall have been made on the part of either of the two governments, and delivered to the other that the servioe is to be discontinued. in whioh ease they shall be permitted to return freely, and under epeoial protection, to their respective port*. Aht. 21. The forms in which the aecounts between the respective post offices, for the transmission and conveyance of letters, are to he made out, the time and mode in which payment snail be made by either post tflice to tbe ether, together with all ather measures of detail arising out of tbe stipulations of the present convention. t-h*U be settled between the British post office and the post office of the United States, as soon as possible after the exchange of the ratification of the present convention.. It is agreed that the measures of detail mentioned in the present article, may be modified by the two post offices, whenever, by matual consent, those offloes shall he decided that such modification would be beneficial to the post effl :e service of the two countries Art 22. The present convention is concluded for nn indefinite period. It oannot be annulled by either of the two governments, exoept after thewnpiration of a year's notice given to the other government. Aht. 23. The present convention shall be ratified by Her Britannic Majesty, and by tbe President of the United States, by nnd with the ndviee and eonsent of the Senate thereof, and tbe ratification shall be exchanged at London within three months of the date hereof It shall com* into operation as seon as possible after the exchange of tbe ratifications. In witness whereof the respective plenipotentiaries have signed tbs same, and have affixed thereto the seals of their arms. Done at London the fifteenth day of December, In the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight. [L. S.] PXLV1ERSTON. [L.8.] GEORGE BANCROFT. CORRESPONDENCE. Received 3d January, '49. ( No. 108. J American Legation, London, 16th Dee., 1848. Hon. Jamius Buchanan, Secretary ot State : ? Sir,?I send this day, by the Europa,for ratification, a Postal Convention between the United State* and the United Kingdom, which has just been signed by myself, and, in tbe abeeaoe of the Postmaster General, by Lord Palmerston alone. in negotiating this treaty, I have aimed at a just and fair reciprocity ; the reduction of the sea rates? the abrogation of all discriminating charges, whatever ; respeot for the existing laws regulating inland postage, and a due regard for facilitating the daily eourse of manual businese in tbe post offices of both countries. This convention, in its progress, has encountered much opposition in some quarters here. I trust It may meet general approbation at home. The British Postmaster Genetal reluctantly eon- , sented to accept tbe varying inland rates now levied by the laws ot the United states, within their territory, f and to concede the English rates fixed by law. The j principle was thus settled. Its application was difficult; tor it gave, for example, on a letter from Boston, andnonTersely one rate, if sent directly from port to ^ port; anothei rate if sent by New York to Liverpool, and still another if sent by New York and Southampton. To keep just aceouute uuder so varying rates, would have been difficult I agreed, therefore, to make an aversge of the inland rates in each country, (excepting alaays our mails for California, end to our remote territories, by land or sea, which are specially provided tor in Art Xii) and to adopt uniformly there average rates In England, the inland rate on a letter, if paid in advance; ia one penny; if not paid in advance, as most foreign letters are not, it is twopenoe. Three half-pence, then, is a just and fair uniform British inland rate.' For America, an Inland letter, it received at a post office, for delivery, and not fer transmission, pays two oents. if transmitted, it pays a varying rate of five and ten cents. The average. therefore, is five and two-thirds of a cent?less * than six cents. Our Postmaster General, moreover, as veil as committees In both houses of Congress, re commend a uniform rate, not exceeding five cents.? That rate, than fore. was taken m the uniform American inland rate. But I consented to this only on condition that the sea rate should be reduoed. This was agreed to, so that now, by Artioles 1., II., and 111 ., there is one uniform rate ef twenty-foar cents PS "tr; letter of half an ounce or leas, from any part of the United States, mtcin wi routes, whether from New York or New Orleans, or the remotest village pott office In the far west to any part of the United Kingdom. This is a less rata than the present oae between London and Pari*. It is what the British packet rate alone formerly was. This treaty efleots such a reduction in the oomblned rates, that our Ameilcan inland rata of five cents each way, la obtainad out of the former British packet rate. After this Important eonoesaion of a reduced ssa rate which operates exolusively to our benefit, until we get at least an eijual number ot mail packets with England, I did not think 1 should be justified in refusing to taka the C anada mails aoross our territory at the unltorm inland rate established by artlole 11. It seemed, too wire to treat our Canadian neighbors liberally; a special aot of congress on the subject of ( mails in transit to Canada favors tueh a policy. The conce. slon ot sea rate of eight pence was coupled with my assent to this fifth article; and. moreover, I believe, that Congress, before this convention goes fully Into operation, will have reduced cur own rates for our own letters to Canada to five cents. Besides, the oid sgr< ement gave to the English elosed mails a special express conveyance; there is now no stipulation r tor a special train, or for extraordinary speed, it Is > all 1*11 to the ro'tmaster General'a (monition 1 would bare insisted In article VI.for a corresponding concession lor closed mail* through < anada at reauced rate* Hut Great Britain is on tbe point of conferring tbe mar.agen.ent ot the Canadian poat oflica to tbe Canada*, and the Canadaa themaelvea arc ta reduce their inland poetage. Newspapers are, by article XV, to cross tbe eeaa in the mail packets of either country without chary* for aea conveyance, only eaoh country te to take on ita own account two cent* or one penny on every newspaper (ton g out of it or coining into it. So, for tbe iranelt, eaoti aeaipaper la to be charged two eenta in Amorioa, and in Great Britain one penny, or, in aome caaea, lean. In like manner, by articiea XVII and XVUI, there ia to be no charge for aea conveyance of other period! cala and pamphiata Koch party la to eollect fur itself y tunable inland rataa. If more convenient, we may j retain our prerent ratea ana adale of Increeae for print- y ed matter, or adopt any other not higher on tbe ave- 3 rage 1 tan tbe raws in ibe articiea The ratea and a acale ot increase named in tbe treaty air tho e adopt- a ed by Great Britain in all ita postaloonvetitlona. The 1 rate for the hrit twoonncraia very moderate ; tbe a acale of increase ia high I would have contented to a adopt aluwtr one ; but it was alleged that, in practice, 1 it would have crowded tbe walls beyond metaure, with f, what, perhaps mure properly ahould go through the a curt cm houeee of the two eouutriea a I offered to permit tbe printed circulars of merchant* < and manulacturera to be tent at tbe aame rale aa 1, otter printed matter Tbe Brittah poat ofltce object- a ed | but our American advertiaementa, if printed a* p extra newepapefa. will pay only newapaper poatage , krredemot transit for letter* and newspapers waa of j, tbe u I most importance i bald that we abonid have , the right to bring over transit letterain our own paok t] eta 10 a Britlah port, and depneit thein, free of Brltl'h . charge, in ibe lirHith poet office, there to be treated aa lettera originating in England. Tbe Tost Olboa ji Department inalated on charging three halt pence be- j, aldea But tbe Chancellor or the Exchequer viewed v ibe matter prectrely aa I did , and we very eaatly ,, came to an agreement on the point, ae expreaied in ar tide XII lly that article, A letter cent tnrough Kng- t| land pay* la Alueiioa 21 oenta In advance, iuatead of r) 24 Of theae. 6 eenta la tbe Amerloen Inland rate, t, and 10 eenta the packet rate. Ameiteaa or British, ae ? W YO * J ? JING EDITION?MON maybe. For tbat payment In adtanoe. all of which J 1 fB iuwv uar irrwutj, u ms ? ?? ? ?-? delivered Into the British post office. to bo ssnt ?t rate* paid the Bi Itlsh the ru-elves to any part of the r>rid to which the British postal system extends- aad X inversely. A small difficulty did Indeed arise ; but as the Chan- 11 lit r and 1 bad bnt one mind on what was right, we a i sily surmounted it. By Article VIII you will perceive that we have a gbt to tend ietws and newspapers in the usnalehan- r Is. or in olosed malls, through the United Kingdom, ? i well to France as to other foreign eountries. A difsulty occurred In the settling of the rates to btpaiiLfor tters to France, pissing through England By "he f Id article of the British and French Postal Convention ft wh eb I have sent borne a copy.) the French pay on I tters to the Biineh Government one uniform rate of | ) pence per ounce. British net weight, for transit Hough the United Kingdom, and sea conveyance to < ud from countries beyond sea. There is one and the | m e rate for latter* whether from Brsxtl or Van l)ie ian'1 Land, from Boston or Calcutta. But by our pre- < L-nt tteaty with Englaud thi< rate becomes too high on ( tters betwesn France and the United States, passing brougb the United Kingdom. The Chancellor of the ' '.xrktqurr is therefore willing on his part, to reduoe i he rates to bo paid on such letters, and apply the prin- | ipleof the IVth article of this Treaty to France. For this the oonourrenee of Franoe Is necessary.? , iut of course, France will not refuse to accept what emee to her mainly as a single reduction of her rate of icstage At the same time, we ourselves have a motive o introduce France into this part of the negotiation, or as far as Great Britain is o?ncerned, she has acorn con interest wi h us Farther, we may have mall tearcersto ilavie brirglrg letters for Great Britain, md these must be provided for. It seems, therefore, bat we have nothing to lot e by consenting to perfect hie psrt of our arrangement by a tripartite arrangenent between the three eountries. The question comes up as to bow wa shall be plated u the interim We csn send letters under cover to ..iveipool, to be there mailed and forwarded to France it a rate of only three half peuce the halt ounce, belond what wouid be payable if Franoe were not ex epted from the llth article. Letters so sent would n many oases go at less oust than under the British rraty with Franoe On a parcel of half an ounoe the Mew York rate would be Ave cents, or two pence half- , >enny; the sea rate 8 pence, or the British inland rate >ne penny bait-penny, to which live peuce must be tddtd for transit Item Liverpool to France, while by he Kngltsh treaty with Franoe. a letter of a half >unoe, which tqualiy pays in New York Ave cents or ;wo pence halt-penny, p*ys on delivery in Franoe for , lea conveyance and tran.-lt, the sum of 26 penes: so bat. by the one way, the cost of a letter of a naif luncetrom the United States, through England to "ranee, will be 17 pence: and on the other, will be !2 and a half pence. Of cisurso England has as strong in interest as we; to. remove this inoonvanient inequalty. 1 Thus I think it no disadvantage to us to leave the ranrit rate to France, to he settled conjointly with i 'ranee: the Chancellor having most explicitly and I epeatedly stated that hit wish is to arrange with I fiance, to eharge on our letters in transit to Franoe I rhat a Liverpool merchant pays on a letter to France, 1 irlglnating in Liverpool, and conversely, without the urtker exaction of the three half pence British in- j and rate, as established by article II. of this conven- 1 ion ! The preceding paragraphs of my despatch relating I e the transit of our letters and newspapers througb i he United Kingdom, to and from Franoe, have been ent by me to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who loncurs In the exact aoouraoy of my statement. i 1 hope for the approbation of the President on the emit of this very laborious negotiation, which could ict have been proceeded with but for the aid of Concrete. and even now would hardly have been termina- 1 ed. bnt for the enlightened good will of the First Lord if the Treasury, and the hearty oo operation of the chancellor of the Exchtnutr. and Viscount Palmer. iton. Youri sincerely, GEORGE BANCROFT. T. S ? By Article IV. you will peroeive that 1 have eserved lor our country the liberty on letter* over a >alr ounce In weight to employ the scale of progreaalon n operation in Its own territory. But. at tne same ln>e, 1 cannot but recommend the adoptlou of the English scale of progression. It would raise the rate >n scarcely one letter In a hundred, at the same time t would sure to the post offloe a great deal of labor on ivery letter transmitted. The suooess of the oheap toetage system depends on simplifying the manual irocesses and diminishing labor Where the rates are ligh, it is proper to weigh each letter, and so to have i scale of progression by the half ounce; where rates ire uniform and low, the scale of progression should be }> the ounce, so that the Post Office Clerks may. with- ' tut often using the scales, at onoe decide what rate ittaohss to eaoh letter. U. B. 1 SUMMARY. I. DISKC't rosTSGE, rhe postage across the sea Is fixed at 10 cents. Cnglish inland postage S " Jnited States inland postage 6 " The sea postage to be paid to the Testel performing be eervioe. II. TRANIIT URVIcr. franelt postage through this country to the lanadas 6 cents. !nd26per cent thereon for paying by the ounce instead of paying by the letter. >aneit rate through England, the inland postage of Soents. Lnd per cent thereon forj paying by the ounce, ae above, ho III. TRANSIT THROUGH CANADA. The Canada rates. r. NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS BETWEEN THE UNITED j STATES AND ENGLAND. :*ch newspaper (1 penny) or Scents. tritdlcals, fcc , weighing 2 Ob . .(1 penny) or 2 " " orer 2 enu under 3ot.(0 pence) or 12 " " over It and under 4 ox (8 pence) or 10 " ind 2 pence additional for every ounce or fraotion of an ounce. { Law Intelligence. The New Court op Appeals.?During the present ear the Court of Appeals hag been composed of Judge* ewett, Bronaon. Gardener, and Rugglea, elected at srge: and of Judge* Jonea of the let distriot, Wright t the 3d. Gray of the 6th, and Jobnaon of the 7th. 1 ["be four latter, under the law, glee plaoe to Judge* itrong of the lid, Cady of the 4th, 8uankland of the Ith, nod Hoyt of the 8th. Thus constituted, the ;ourt will commence a term In this olty on Tuesday. Justices Wright, Jones, Gray, and Johnson, will aaume the duties of Justices of the 8upreme Court, ludge Wright holds a term at Delhi, on the 1st instant; 1 luoge Jones in New York, on the 2d Tuesday; Jiulge iraysltsin geneial term at Utica, on the 1st; and udge Johnson at Rochester on the 1st The Court of Appeals, during the past year, has Inured with great assiduity. The distinguished talents nd Warning ot those who constituted the Court, have ,coe very far towaid cenfiimiiig the hopes of its nends. The January term, 1840, of the Court of Appeals, 1 till commence in thin city, nt the Capitol, on Tuesday lext T here are 104 cases on the calendar, of which re glee a number of the first: ? . l'Jededinh Miller it at, Plaintiffs in error, vs. lieny P. fc'cberdtr, defendant i& Aror; 2 Stephen Van tenn-lasr, p:a>nilll ie error, ts. Jew. J Jewett, deendant in errtr; 3 Jew. J. Jewett. appellant, vs. Bte- 1 >hen V?p. llensielaer, et at , ex'rs, Ito , appellees; Richard Roe, appellant, vs. John Dee, appellee; I. The msyor, to , of the city ot Aloany, plaintiffs in rror, vs. Simon Cunliff, defendant In error; 0 The lohoes Company, rerpondents, against John M. Trecsln, appellant: 7. John Hay. respondent, against the .oboes cimpany, appellants; 8 Stephen Van Ilenstlaer, appellee, against Seneca Jones, appellant; '. Stephen Van Renseelaer. appellee agt. Josiah Jones. ' ppellant; 10 Derick 0 Lansing and others, appelant!. agt. David Kussell and Allda hie wife, respon- . lents; 11 Derick C Lansing and others, respondents, gt. David Russell and Alloa hla wife, appellants; 12. lis Barber, sppellant. vs Randall A Brown, responlent, et at ; 18. Chester Brown, plalntitf In error, vs. iamue) A. Curtis, defendant lni error; 14. William P. , an lltnstelaer, respondent, sgt. Thomas W. Janes, ' . ppellant ; 15 Lawrence Cllckman 2d. respondent, >gi. Frederick Clickman. appellant; 10 Josiah J. Sher- i tian. et at , agt Stephen A Daggett et at . 17. Francis Umeitocg, et at, plaintiffs in error, vs Livingston cmpton, defendant in error ; 18 Helen (iuacken- 1 uih.if at, appellants, v* Willlsm Bradley, et at., re- 1 pondmts; 111 Daniel Waliatb. plaintiff in error vs. i isriin Thompson, defendant in error; 20, William j iimbsll. et nt sppellant*. vs James G. Fnrgeson. ad- , oiDiitrator, fcc . respondent; 21 Julius Candee, pre- . apparent. re. Kuaeell Lord, et al., reaponleite; 22 A unburn Blrdsall, #f al . appellant. rs. Jona> ban O Widger. u al., respondents; 23 Isaac Piatt, el il., plalntiflsin trior re i be Trustees of the first Con;r?KBttonal Reltgli tia Society In the town of f ranklin, irltndantr In atror; 24 Klisn A Vrooman. appellant, a James Jones ep|?lUe. 26 Minor C. Btory. plainiff in error ra Darid Howell Skidmor*. defendant in iror; 26 Lemuel fawyer. ef af appellants. Eleanor lark, el al.. rrepondeuta; 27 The Chenango County Mutual Insurance Company, appellants, ra Nelson K lurdcck et al , appellees; 26; Zutiock Pratt, president, ic . appellant, rs Win Walswort.h appellee; 29 James ' act n appellant ra liaeo Jones et al, respondents; 0. John C Malher, appellant, ra. James H Kldradge, ppellee; 31 Alrnn Kterart et al . Idminlstratore. be , ppellanta. ra. Benjamin Andrews, respondent, 32. lenjamfn Andrews, appellant, ra. Alran Stewart et al , il minis fatora. bo respondents 83 Harry Jennings, ppellant, ie the Chenango County Mutual Insurance ompany. appellees; 34 John Oe Iluyter rs. the Trustee of St retei'a Church in the city of New York et /., Anna L. Gallagher el al., anrrlringaxecutrir, be., ppellanta, and John Tow. r el al. respondents; 36. ieoige W button, plaintiff In error, ra Henry A DID lye et al. defendants in error; 36 Henry M. Western, ppellant, rs. George H. Keleey, bo , respondents ; 87. iieholaa O Kortrikbfl. appellant, rs. Robert Alnslle i t at, re?p< ndents; 88 Nicholas G Kortrlght, appelint. re IUtcrt Alnalie. rsapondent; 39 John Cochran i al . plaintiffs In error, rs Anthony H Van Slyck, berift be , deleudant in error; <0 Wm. Wooden, apeilant. rs. Geo Waffle appellee Srrsrwc Covet oe- th?. Usitrb Statu, January 6, <s49 - No 24 James Krwln. plaintiff In error, rs. A. J. oary. Tho argument of this cause was continued by Ir Brent for the plaintiff in error, and by Mr. Bradley i/rtbe defendant In error. The U S District Caurt at Baltimore Is engaged In ie trial i t the U 8 rs Richard II Key, charged with tbblng the mall in the poet office of that olty, In which e was clerk, of some f 4 000 belonging to Meears. Ollior? b Co. of Clneinnati. c RK H DAY, JANUARY 8, 18 "he Reception of the Mexican Trophies at the Military Academy on Mew Year's Day? j The first of January was a happy New Year's )ay at West Peint, and a proud one for the Miliary Academy. The trophies won by the prowess nd valor ot our arms in Mexico, on every field' rrived here on Saturday night, and hasty prepa- | ations were made lor their reception on New I fear's morning. > t After muster, which took place at ten o'clock, a | oluinn, composed of the battalion of Cadets, Cupt. i >ullum's company of Sappers and Miners, and ' Major Shover's Dragoon detachment, was marched j lown, as an escort, to the wharf, where the ' ropbies were in keeping, und the banners being I jistributed through the ranks of Cadets, they pro- j needed in quick time to the spot selected for the , ceremony. As the escort arrived at the crest of i he hill, n national salute of thirty guns was fired 1 by Captain Clarke, 2d Artillery, and the hand struck up a thrilling march, as the whole prunes- 1 mcii rose upon the plain. The place selected for the solemnity was in front ol the Academic Hall, upon the portico ot i which the superintendent, Captain Brewerton, and hist tad', were collected. When the head ot the column was filing to the right, to fo >ni in line facing the hall, the scene became intensely interesting; an hundred flags, hearing the niatks of war's rough usage, lorn by shot, discolored hy sun and stomf, Hnd recalling most vivid associations of blood and battle, were thickly sown among the tiles ot cadets; the fine band relieving tlis tield music stiuck up the Mexican air," La l'onch.ide,'' mid the assembled spectators all expressing ttie liveliest enthusiasm?all seemed to belong more to the romance of chivalry than to the ordinary Ecent s ot our work-day world. Formed in line lucing the hall, the standard beurers were ordered to tne tront and brought to ike about face. Arms were then presented, the music saluting with the highest honors. Archibald Campbell, Esq , a graduate of the Academy, nnd late an officer in the army, now chiet clerk ot the War Department, then presented to Captain Biewerton the letter ot the Secretary of War. thk SECRETARY op WAIt to CAPT. iirkwkrton. Wik Department, Washington. Ilea. 28 1848. 8m?The President of the United States, under the law of 1814 which provides for the preservation and display of trophies of war. has direoted that the nags, -tuodards and colors taken by the army of the United States In the war with Mexico, be deposited in the M 11tery Academy I have, therefore, plaoed them in the bauds of Archibald Campbell Ksq , Chief Clerk of this Department by whom they will be delivered to you. Among the considerations which render the Military Academy at West Toint an appropriate depository of .he tmpbies of the successive victories of our arms in Mexico is the admitted fact that the graduates of that institution have contributed, in an eminent degreo, to DUr unexampled career of suoaeee. Very respeotfully, your ob't servant, (Signrd) W. L. MAR-JY, Secretary of War. Capt Hpnby Brewerton. Superintendent Military Academy, West Point, New York. After this was published by the adjutant, the order of Captain Biewerton was read. order of capt. rrkwerton. Adit's Oruct, West Feint, N Y., Jan. 1.1849. Order No 110.?The Superintendent,in aooepting in belalfor the Military Academy the saared trust of preserving these trophies of the valor and skill of our aims in Mexico, deems It not Improper to allude to the distinguished part tidken by the graduates nt this institution in the several conflicts, commencing with the battle of Falo Alto, and ending In the otpture of tbs eity of Mexico. Although deprecating the horrors of war. andlamenting that its laurels must be sprinkled with blood, we yet feel grateful that our conflict with Mexico has removed the prejudices heretcfore existing against the West Toint Academy, and that reproach can no longer he brought against us of being Holiday Soldiers, fostered by an aristocratic and useless Institution. Oar gratitude le also due to the illustrious Generals, who In leading the dlvirlons of our gallant and ever-victorious little army into the heart of the enemy's country, have elicited the admiration of the nations of the old world, skilled as tbey ere in all the arts and appliances of war. These brave commanders have borne ample testimony to the value of the Military Aoademy, and the nation has not been backward in awarding honors to bote of our distinguished comrades whose good fortune It was to paiticlpate in the glorious achievements of the Mexican war. It is a source of no little gratification to us that the President bos been pleased to bestow this mark of his appreciation of the services of the graduates of the Military Academy, in selecting it as the depository of these trophies, and it requires no assurance that it will be squally our pride and pleasure to preserve these preoious memorials of our country's glory. By order of Capt Brewerton. (Signed) HKNRY COPPEE. Bt. Capt. U. 8 A., Aet'g Adj't Military Academy. In addition to the Secretary's letter, and the Superintendent's order, a list ot the trophies is appended ; ? Iilst of Trophlen. 1840-1847. trophies ? inventory op pla (is alfd colors taken prom the mp.xicaiv army by oenkralb scott and taylor. Ten small flags, guide or company colors, token by General Taylor at Talo Alto and Kesaca de la Talma. Two lancss. brcught at the same time by Col. Payne, D 8. Army. flags taker at vera crl's. fy general scott, and brought to washington hy col. hank head No. 1. National Color, from Fort Santiago, (Vera* Cruz.) No 2. National Crlor, from Castle of San Joan d'Ulna. No. 8. Artillery Celor, red, with grenade in centre. No. 4. Regimental, tri-oolored silk. No. 6. Ordnance, yellow, grenade In centre. No 6 Silk Eagle, embroidered, inscribed " PermoBect Battalion." No. 7. Company Color, embellished standard.(small ) No. 8. Silk National Color, trl-oolor, eagle In oentre. Ne. 9. De do. do. do. do. do. taken at cerho gordo, mexico. No. 1. Small Color, with fringe * No. 2. Do. do., green wool fringe. No. 8. Trl- colored eagle and yellow tarsels. No. 4 Small green, yellow fringe and red letters (No of Company and Regiment) No. 0 Laige national tri color. No 6 Do. do. do., badly torn. No 7. Do. do. do. do. Na 8 Trl.AnlnrkH nindtiit. v?rv loner. No. 9 Red and wbite crop* color. No 10 Tri color, medium size, green, white, and red. with eagle. No 11. Oeriiion Color. No 12 Green and white flag. No l.'i Do. da. do. No. 14. Medium nee white, red and green flag. No 16 Oanlron tri color, bine, white and red. No. 16 i'vDdant tri color -long. No. 17. Do. do. do. Nop. IS. 19, 20, 21, 22 and 28, all email tri-eolora. ITABDAKDl OF A IIAVTALtON TAKCK AT C'OSTKKRAP, BT Tint ijccord iPFAPmr, No 1 Small etandard green, with red fringe, (pent rem Pnebla ) No. 2 Do. do, red, with green fringe, do. Dee King I eke?, at. San Antonio, lower California. One Klsg taken at La far, lower California. The pent-up enihusiasm of the corps, when three iheef* were celled lor, lound vent in an heariy kuglo-Saxon shouts as ever preceded a charge in VI t xico, and struck terror into the eneniv'soldiery, rhe company of sappers anil miners, whose name a closely connected with grape and canister, and he hand to hand struggle in the van ot battle, bore n triumph the banners which they cautured in M? xico, and many a veteran might have been ob eived with glistening eye, as the scene called him leek to Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo, to Contrerns ird Chutubusco, to Molino and the Halls of the Vlontezumas. The cheering was continued aa the President ol he I nited States and the Secretary of War be:ame in turn the argument for honor;and the parti- , :ipunts in the war, ol whom u number were prenit, teceived a due share of this tribute to their ler vices ' i WovnEitFtri, Sagacity of a Doo.?An officer ' >f the army, accompanied by his dog, left West < '(iut on a vie It to the city of Burlington, N. J., and i bile tlx re becoming pick, wrote to his wife and family it West Point, in relation tehlaindlapoeltton. Shortly , liter the reception of hie letter, the family ware ii?upp rt by a whining, barking ana scratching at the Iocr of the houre. an J when opened to aaoertaln the or*. In rnehed the faithful dog After being careaaed, ! td every attempt made to quiet bim, the dog in deeialr at not being understood. aeir.ed a ebawt In hla eetb,and placing hie paw* on the ladv'a ihouldere, Irpoelted ibere the ebawl. He then placed himself : lore bar, and fixing bla gaze Intently upon her to ittract her attention, eelied her dreee and began to lieg ber to the door. The lady then became alarmed .ndeent for a relatire, who endeavored to allay her ear*, but ehe prevailed upon him to accompany ber at nee to ber Lueband, and on arriving fonnd bim dan- i erouely 111 In Burlington He la yet lndlvpoeed. The i ilatanee travelled by the faithful animal, and the difil- I ultlen encountered, render thla acoount almoet In- ] redlble, eepeelal y aa the boata cannot atop at Welt , 'elnt on aocount of the lee Any one can easily ictlay further cutloelty in relation to tblaremarkable oaae if animal reaaonlng by virltlng norlington, where the iw ner of the animal la at prevent ? MA Evt. Built tin. ] The floor of a new congregational cbnreb, at Wea- I etly, H I , fell a few dev* alnee, nnder the weight of I ibe ut HO people, nearly the whole of whom were mere i ir lees Injured. [ERA 49. Boston, December 30,1848. Veto England Politics? Who is to have a Seat in the Cabinet??The California fiver?The fn/tuensa, $c. Some of the New England whigs, in view of the act that there is considerable rivalry among their treat men, with respect to a cabinet appointment, tuve nit upon the not very uncommon plan of hrc-wing the said great men overboaid, and pro- j >ot>e that ihe place shall be conferred upon a small , nan. Governor Kent, of Maine, is the favored noital who is to be the " breaker ot bread" to New England whiggsry for the next four years. He is not without what are called claims on the Taylor party, as it is very certain that he took ground in favor of the General's nomination, and iguiust the suicidical policy of nominating Mr. Clay, at a very early jieriod. But, then, he is not a man of remarkable iiiu llectual |>owers, and cannot curry any strength; and it is to be hoped that the reign of mediocrity will cease on the 1th of March. The country has had quite enough ot rmall men in great places, without General 'Taylor continuing the policy of his predecessors. Mr. Evans may prove a formidable competitor to ihe (lenileman whose sole merit i? that he is the only iving whig ex-Governor ot Maine; but the men who wish to have Mr. Kent in the cabinet, because they believe they can mould him to their wishes, are ready to buy off the ex-chairinan of the fenate's Committee of Finance, with the collectors-hip of Boston. You are, no doubt, aware that Mr. Martin got the collectorshtp while looking (or a cabinet office, his ambition pointing to the place that Mr. Bancroft procured. Peril a (is Mr. Evans niny meet with the same sort of fortune, though General Taylor is known to have spoken ot him as one of the foiemost men of New England, winch he unquestionably is. The person most commonly talked of as the successor of our present postmaster, is John L. Dtnimock. Esq., a very popular whig of the "ultra" school, but a thorough supporter of General Taylor. There is lets competition for tins office than I expected to witness, and some think that Mr. Gieene will be allowed to serve out his term, which will not expire for upwards of three ysars. Our Legislature will meet on Wednesday next, January 3d. The whtgs will have matters all their own way, though their caucuses are likely to be dtstuibcd bv the attempts ot rival office-seekers to get recommendations. We have no Senator to elect, so that we can't quite come up to the Seward alfair of your State. The democratic strength in the Legislature will have to be weighed, if it is expected to tell on paper. The free soilera are reported to have come to the determination of taking radical ground on the subject of corporations. The California fever still rages here, but there is more method in the madness than at first prevailed. One vessel has already sailed, with twelve passengers ^ Another is to go to-morrow. The ship Edward Everett, one of the most splendid ot our merchantmen, has been purckaard by the company recently formed here, und will sill coon after the lat of January. This company numbers 160 perBons, and contains people of almost every calling, ana all, as far as I am acquaint -d with them, highly respectable. New England will be fully represented in California. Mr. Campbell, one ot the company, and formerly reporter of th? Timet newspuper, has gone on a mission to WAshingtsn, to obtain documents, and to ascertain what is to be the policy of ihe government with regard to California and its mineral regions. A Sunday paper, called the Spmt of the Aft, is to appear in thiB city, with the new year, some- . .k;*,. ?i.? o i... .u?. i i tiling c/ii nit jMfin vi inr- ouiiunr |ia|^i>i umi uuvc proved so successful in New York. There is some ditiicuhy among the New Hampshire whigs, in Gen. Wilson's district. Some of them are dissatisfied with the General, and are opposed to holding it convention for nominating a candidate, l-'rom all that I hear, I should not be surprised if the democrats were to carry every district in New Hampshire, nt the spring election. The recently enacted plurality law favors them, I understand. The wings and free soilers there hate each other with a moat edifying bitterness; and even the former are by no means united in the support of Gen. Taylor. New Hampshire is the only New England State which has not nut forward claims to be represented in the Taylor cubinet, and lor reasons good. The year closes with winter in its roughest mood. The sn?w covers the. whole country, having fallen for shout half the time during the last eight days. The influenza rages here, but has not yet caused any deaths. Some think it is a sort of jackall to the lion cholera. I'hiladki.phia, Dec. 27, 1819. Stork Panics?IVhat may be done. It does not matter much what a bold chap undertakes to do; it well read in human influences in the line of his attempt, and posted up as to the particular thing to be efiected, he can generally succeed, however unworthy, and however regardless of the retribution that is pretty sure to overtake an incorrigible panic maker. Now, amongthe likeliest of places to get up a rage or a panic, is a certain undefiuableloculity called the stock market. A regular ojierator is as facile as a chameleon? changing the color ol his prospects as summarily as the said animal is reputed to metamorphose his skin. The twelve months preceding the present writing, having been " tight," as they say on cnr.nge, it iiaa made rniiuaetpnin tne scene ot the most desperate as well as the most fantastic tricks in the stock line; a panorama tlicreaf, "with all the attending tortuosities, would show even better than the blow-ups on the Mississippi; or the giierrilleros et Mexico. Just a single glance at a case or two, and I drop the curtain to await part the second. Casting about for chances, an operator, early in the year '43, fixed his eye say upon Schuylkill Navigation, a great public work just then struggling with difficulties. it is pronounced " rotten." llorids (then selling at $70) are declared "worthless." Ilis runners dash througli the street, decrying the Navigation(i's, and " sellingshort," down?down, through all stages, till they touch $1!). Not the bonds, in fact, tor they have none in possession ; but boldly selling "short"? down?down, to be delivered tour and six months after sale, hoping, by the incessant cry of worthless, rotten, iVc., coupled with bold statements, and backed by offers to sell short, aided by a tight money market and dull coal trade, to frighten real holders,who at last give way and throw their bonds on the market. This nice operator now takes in his shorts at low prices, delivers, and realizes a large sum. Thus emboldened, he attempts Fa. ft's; but failing to alarm holders, he takes in at some loss and turns upon something else, and either breaks it down, or, failing, pockets the small loss and coolly casts ubout niin for spoil in other quarters. Now, all this wlule, let it he remembered, he appears to he nursing the "Reading Railroad," by tongue and paragraph, and, not the least, through his accommodating runners. This can demonstrate, will?must eventuully "pay." The income, In gross, will be, annually, about $2,000 000 Interest 0 per cent on $4,000,000 niortgtga bonds $240,000 Interest 7 per pent on $5 600 000 prtferrtd atrek, (when all shall be converted). 380,000 ? Interest 0 per ant on $4,000,000 old stock 240,000 808,000 $1,136,000 Annual running cost keeping earn and road In order not exceeding 1,000,000 Surplus applicable to linking fnnd $135 000 Dm in given a? the "ollicial" statement of ihe company, reiterated as "true to ilie letter," when, si! ul u sudden, a "mare's nest" is discovered !? The Schuylkill and the Heading have "combined"?for what? To secure better prices for freight, bo as to pay the proprietors. Nothing else. Just what all sensible men have insisted upon as the duly of both This cuts ofl, perchance, my worthy operator's" opportunity oi further "shortening" on Schuylkill: he loses something, perhaps, en his short sales of $10, and vows vengeance on his favorite Heading?all the more available from his former show of friendship. " Who should know, if he does not 1" The old stock is most valuable from being last to receive dividends. It 18 true, hints ure circulated that Heading will default in the January interest." But otFers are ( at once made to buy the coupons in advance, at a , moderate discount. This is yielded?but, getting parties to join, who were dazzled with his great f success in breaking down Schuylkill, they pounce , upon the "old stock" of the Heading. They own ] none, but ofler "to sell any way"?borrowing evety available share to meet their immediate de- I liveries; but prefer to sell on time $IH|, |, |, $, lf>. down, down, If J, down, down ; "good tornoibing, rotten concern, going to $10" Sales, $13, I4J, 14 Now, nsk who are the sellers in Hula:leij liia ? None but these parties?hII "short"? r?o real operations?no deliveries but borrowed i Uock. They seem a little uneasy?would rather tell SO shares than 100, instantly running to put it 1 LD. ? TWO CENTS. in the Exchange record?"50 more at 13$, juet at the close, in great hHste "50 more at 13!"? "Didn't 1 tell von the bottom was falling out V" To underatand this, one mnar know that real holders in Boston and New York will finally. it is ex pectcd, be thus alarmed ; come U|>on the market with their stock, and enable the aitents of these beautiful Philadelphia operator* "to take in their shorts," and deliver at a fine profit! A strong team, organized as panic-makers, geflprally succeed* in making many thousand* of dollars, and then peihaps begin to bolster up the very mine securities, and possibly "realize handsomely" on the other tank ! O, the t'tcks of trade! Affairs In Russia. St rBTKsisuso, Dss. 5,1848, Ths cholera, which mad* Its appearanoe hers in Jess last, has been very fatal It is estimated that upward* tf 20 COO have dhd. and at lsast 80 000 left l ha city, principally of the laboring class of peopla, of whom gr?*t number" bate perished on tbs different road*. At one time the street" bere were almost deserted, and j< u saw nothing but cofHua and funeral procession* frt'in uiorning tiU night. It has abated very much, hut etlll la not quite over a few new oases occur every day, of which some prove fatal. Of the fiftynine American shipmasters who have been here this season, t*o have died of oholera. and nine American tailor". We have had a very uutquM aumuier. and m very wet autnmu Tbe river was cloied on the lOtla ult., but sledging is not very good yet. Your new minister, ilon. VIr Uagby, arrived bur* about a nion'h since Me was somewhat indisposed for at me; now he drives and walks out. but receives no visit* from any one Our friend -? has called upon bini several times, but has nor. been admitted, nor has he received any of hit countrymen. Young Mr. Ingtrsoll, the son of the lata minister, is hiB Seorctary? a fine young man. Tbe eld gentleman left here, at the commencement of the cholera, for England, whence he ember ed for bis own country. We have had in all thie year. 5!) American vessels. 1 he sugar business has been very profitable this year, and promises to ba equally so the next. In consequence of tbe disiurhrd state of Europe, the prospects for business wore very gloomy in the spring, hut brightened later in the season, and that very state has caused our import business of thle year to have nourished more tnan u-ual Males were cfleeted easily and quickly, and paid handsomely. It Is said that the new tariff is made. but It is the general opinion that it wall not go into operation next year, (1849 ) on account of the unhinged oondltion of thing* in Europe. We live here thanks to heaven, In peace and quietness, and thanks to tbe Emperor that he doed not meddie in the poiitios abroad Beside* his Kxoelienoy Mr Bagby, and his Seorctary, Mr Ingersoll. we have the following Americans here, vis:-yovng Mr Ropes, of Boston, established here under the firm of Wm Hopes U Co.; Major Whistler, Engineer and Superintennent or the Moscow Railroad: and Messrs Harrison. Wynans and Eastwiok, locomotive builders and contractors for oon-traotiog tbe iroix bridge across the Neva. These are the prineipal Americans In this place. Last summer we had Mr. Saltonstall, with whom you are acquainted and Mr. Silas E. Burrows, of New York, in his pleasure yaabt, of whom you ao doubt bsve heard. Tbe new bridge is advaooing very fast, and It is expected will be completed In 1860 The Moscow Railroad, I am told, progresses slowly, In eonoeqnenoe of many impediments, such as bogs, rivers, ho.; andth* lino's Church will, 1 believe, be finished on Doomsday. 1 enclose for yoar perusal a general export list by Americau vessels, for this year, from whtoh you will observe that the export business to the United States has fallen off very much ? Cor Phil N. American. Itallrond Intelligence. Doichesteb end Milton Sricisi. Thain?IncieaIb or Business.?The passengers carried by this train to and from the Old Colony Depot, in Boston, have been as follows. for the mouth of December, 1847and 1848:? December, 1847?Number of passengers 4,801 " 1838? ? 0,883 Increase .. * ooa < The ratio of increase bas been about the same at all tbe stations from Crescent Avonue to Uoreheitec Upper Mills. NawauRvroRT tan Oiokiktows Railroad.?A contract has been made for OiO tons of iron for this road, sufficient to lay tbe traok to Georgetown, at a prtoo lower tban any iron bas ever before Bold. At tha prtrent rate of fieigbt end exobengii. tbe iron will not cost, delivered here, more than $38 or $30 per ton. By tbe bent estimates which can be made, the road will coet leis tban %l<it) Ot O. completely finished and squlpped. Built at the present favorablo moment of low prices and carried through either to North Andover and Lawrence, or to West Bradford, there is no doubt that it will be a good pay lag road.?Newburyporr. IJtruld. Great Western Ram road ?ft is asserted In tha Caneda papers that the provisional ministry hava agreed to recommend to Parliament the indorsement of bonds, totheamcuat of $i,<i<w.000, for th# Great Western Railroad, and a like sum tor the Montnal and Portland line Tmb St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad la now In operation from Montreal aa far aa St Hyacinths. It was opentd, according to announcement, on Tuesday last, when the President, tbe Hon A. N Moriu, tha secretary. Thomas Steers, Esq.. and about 200 persons, availed themselves of the opportunity of Inspecting the line A grenter number would probably havn gone -tut for tbe coldness of tbe weather, and the difficulty ot crossing the river. We were unable to be of tbe party, but we learn that the journey out to St. Hyaclntbe was accomplished in one hour and tea minutes, and the return in the came time. At St. Hyacinths a large crowd bad assembled, with banners, music. and otber signs of rejoicing. For the present, tha cars leave Longuell every morning, at 11 o'clock, returning se as to reaoh Longuell by 3 P. M.?Montr ml Pilot, J)te. 28. The corporation of Alexandria have passed a resolution praying the General Assembly of Virginia to grant to Alexandria tbe authority to subacriba $100.(00 to tbe railroad from that place to Gordonvlile. The work on the direct railroad from Niagara Fall* to Rochester has been commenced, and Is progressing with all necessary vigor Tbe grading i* In progress at several points, and a large number of men are employed. Mobile and Ohio Railroad. ? We understand that Mr Sullivan, as assistant engineer with a party of some four or five scleuntlc gentlemen and the necessary assistants, have commenced the survey for thw Mobile and Ohio Railroad starling from the foot of tiavernuient street, in thia ?it? The -----1 ?I- ? the nurvcy. and the conimeucement at all pointa, will, we learn, be fixed upon the arrival here of Mr. hllde, chief engineer and Mr Trooet. aino to be eagagei. The; will probably be here la eight or ten days.? hfuUlt Jiifi erh'tt. The eottimleiiionerr appointed to take the vote of the cHltene of Alexandria, on the question of anbaoribing f1l0,00<i by the corporation of thia city to the proposed railrcad ft<m Ali-xenaria to (lordnneville, completed their labor* ye* rday. when the following waa found to be the ttatu 01 the poll*:? For the aubaoription ,410 Against it 3 Thlaahowa a very dtolded and earnest expression of publio sentiment. The weather ban been eery Inclement for the laat two day*, wblch prevented many from attending tbe poll*, or probably th* vote in far or of the meaeuru would have been (till Larger.?AltxanHria (fa.) Gaztlte Oomeallc Miscellany. The Coohltuate ha* been frozen In Mm* of the Boston pipe*, to the deep chagrin of many hooaewtves. Four divorce* bave been granted at Syracuse during tbe present sitting of the Circuit Court. Tratty weU for tbe " Central City.** 1 here waa a tall of enow 'n the vicinity of Ottowa, Illinois, during the Orat week in thia month, tha avei age depth of which wa* two feet. A recent freshet in tbe Chicago river kaa removed the bar from the month of the harbor. There are now eleven feet of water, clear, at the entranoo of the harbor, sufficient to accommodate th* largeat clans of vessel* and ateamer* ha.vlly loaded A number of ship carpenter* recently arrived la Florida, from New York, and have already commenced building a brig in the ntlghborhood of th* Tanama mill*. Captain John Cuehlng. father of tb* Hon. Caleb Cneblng. died at hie residence in Mewbnryport, on rnu&y morning iui. A Mr Charles T Bean died In Bneton. on Saturday morning, of bjdrophobia. He tu bitten aeveral weeks ngo by bis own dog. whleb provad to bo rabid The telegraph baa boon extended from MUwankie to Janesriile, 66 miles. General Taylor has eonsented to receive the eltlzena of Baton Rouge, on a day between the 7th and 12th instant. There were slaty-one deaths la Boston, for the week ending Saturday. The Cheshire Railroad to Bellows Falls and the Sullivan Railroad from thence to Charleston, N. H., will be opened for public ure to day. The Governor of New Hampshl e baa appointed Thursday, April 6, as a day of fasting and prayer. Two convicts escaped from Sing Sing on Tuesday of last week. They got out of their orlls by means of false keys. One of thent was re-arrested. There are 900 Indians remaining In Florida. The smallpox prevails at Newark. N. J. Mr. George Markle was run over by a locomotive on >bc West Braneh road, near MlnersviUe, Pa., which inured bit death In a few hour*. Jndge James Love has been appointed Clark of the L'nited States District Court of Texas, to SU the racancy occasioned by the death of Major Tbomaa Bate* iligbty German emigrants, who left Hamburg In the flmt part of October, arrived at Galveston an the 20ih ult A building used for a church, Masonlo Lodge, and court house, lu Alte Mlra. Grimes county, l oxas was recently burned down. Some publio papers were burnt. An Amerlcsn ship arrived at Braxoa Santiago, a short time since, from Liverpool, leaded with dry good* lor the Matainoras market. Trade in that quarter In rory brisk. i

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