TH NO. 5359. view or UPPER AND LOWER CALIFORNIA, One Hundred Years Ago. As everything connected with California must be interesting at the present time, and aa the world le flooded with reports of gold mines, precious stones, Arc., Arc., said to have been discovered long since in that region, we have deemed it expedient to gratify publ'c curiosity on this head with a few extracts from a work that has Just been placed under our observation, and which was published in Spanish a hundred years ago, at Madrid. It is entitled " A Natural and Civil History of California: containing an accurate description of that country, its soil, mountains, Arc , Arc , by Miguel Venegas, a Mexican Jesuit." It was published in Madrid, in 1758, and was translated into English and published in 1759, by Rivington Ac Fletcher, Oxford Theatre, Paternoster Row. The writer divides his treatise into four Darts. in the fiist, he discourses of the name, situation, and extent of Ct-lifornia, that is, taking it in the strict sense, of so much of this peninsula aa the Spaniards had then reduced. He gives us an account of the gulf, its coasts, and islands. He enlarges upon the soil and climate, the natural history, the pearl fishery, and the manna of this country, which was a new discovery. Then follows a very distinct and curiousdetail of the nations and languages, the temper, and manners of the Califoriiians, with their policy in peace and war; and lastly, he treats of their religion ; in respect to which he observes, that those who resided on the continent were, when the Spaniards found them, entirely free from any idolatrous notions, had tew or no ceremonies, and yet had some very singular speculative opinions; but that it was otherwise in the islands, where, through the arts and frauds of a particular race of men, the people were grievously enthralled in superstitious slavery. The secocd part contains the history of Call* forma, from the time of its first discovery, to the sending thither the Jesuits. This discovery was made by order oi the famous Hernan Cortes, who went thither in person in 1536, and landing in the gulf, bestowed upon it his own name, or rather the Spaniards have since called it, in honor of that great captain, Mar de Cortes, as well as the Vermilion sea, or the gull of California. Our author traces very exactly the several attempts that were made, from time to time, for obtaining a more perfect knowledge of the extent and produce of this peninsula; the different projects formed for this purpose, both in Old and New Spain; their repeated disappointments, and the causes of tho?? disappointments: interspersed with many judicious and sensible remarks, which show the extreme difficulty of executing any great desiga, the conduct of which depends upon the approbation, orders, and instructions, that are to come from a country at a great distance. The third part comprehends the reduction of California by the Jesuits, and their transactions to the present time. He informs us that the court of Spain, and its viceroys in the Indies, tired out with a multitude of trunless, expensive, and tedtous expeditions, had abandoned all further thoughts of this matter, so that the prosecution of it was entirely owing to Father Eusebio Francisco Kino, who, being sent as missionary into the adjaeeat province ot Sonora, formed a resolution of trying to penetiate from thence into this deserted country. The first missionary of this order, however, who passed over into this region, was Father Salva Tierra, in 1697; and a few years after Father Kino penetrated, according to his original design, into ^ California, by land, and became thereby assured - that it was not an island but a peninsula. The Jesuits, from that time down to ihe author's day, had the sole direction of affairs in California, civil as well as ecclesiastical, and prosecu'ed their discoveries, converted the Indians, made small settlements, cultivated some spots ot ground near them, and, with great diligence and perseverance, brought some little vineyards to such perfection as to produce wine not inferior to that ol Europe. The fourth and last part contains some additional accounts. Among these, is the famous voyage oi Captain Sebastian Vizcaino, in 1602, in which there is a very curious and particular account of the west coast of California: this is fol lowed by a description ot the east coast, from a ovape made in the year 1746. There is also a description of California by Captain Woods Rogers, an Englishman, with an account of his voyage to the South sea, in the year 1710. NAME. Upon the name, California, the author has tks following observations:? Tba nans by whish this country ti at present known, li that of California, an appellation given to It at Its tret discovery. Some use the name to the plural number calling It the California*, Intending probably to Include that part thought the prlootpal Island and the largest in the world, together with a multitude ef lesser Islands whieh surround It on all sides. Bat It being now known that this country Is no island, but joined to the continent of America, as we shall presently show, propriety require* that the word should be used only in the singular number, In conformity with the military historian above mentioned. I could wish to gratify tb* reader with tho etymology and true origin of tho name, which, from tho oddnese of its sound, the real mi-fortunes which the first discoverers met with In that eountry, and the great rlehes It Is supposed to contain, has greatly exalted .the curiosity of tho In habitants both of Now Spain and Europe. But In none ot the various dtaleot* of the natives could tho missionaries find the least traoos of such a name being given either to the eonntry, or even to any harbor, bay, or small portion of it. Nor oan I subscribe to the etymology of some writers, who suppose this nam* t* have been given it by the Spaniards, on their feeling an unusual heat at their first laudiog h?re, and thene* oa led the country Caltfbr nia, a compound of the two Latin words calida fornam, a hot furnaoe. 1 believe few will think our adventurers eonld boast of to mnoh literature, for though Del Castillo praise* Cortes for bis being not only a g)od humanist, but also an sxoel'ent poet, and had taken the degree of bachelor of laws, we do not find that either he or his saptatns took this method In giving names to their conquests. 1 am, therefore, inclined t* think that this name owed its origin to some aoeident - possibly to son^e words spoken by the Indians, aud misunderstood by the Spaniards ; as happened, according to a very learned American, in tb* naming ef Peru; and, nlso, as we shall shortly show, in giving nam* te the nation of Ouaycura. NATURE OP TltS COUNTRY. With resect to the nature of the country, we read. The Idea, therefore, whioh, from good authority. Is to be formed of California, as dieoovered for near 300 leagues up the country. Is not very advantageous; but, notoitbstaiding this country in gen*-*l I* ragged, srefgy, and barren and the air disagreeable and unhealthy; yet near the coast there are several spots thst may be greatly Improved by agriculture, and would produce all the necessaries of life. The vicinity of the sea, with its vapors, moderate* the heat of the atmosphere; the side* of the mountains send forth eurren'iLof water, without which indeed, sewing would oft-1 fail, on account of the little ratn. and the uncertainty of it Lastly, It is not without plains both for pasture and tlllsge Even In the centre of California there are some valleys and rl?lug grounds of n to etsble soil, having springs for drinking and waterlog <be ground*. In these parti it la that the poor California"* have their dwellings; and here, likewise, is the Cabecera?* of the missions and the villages wltbin their visitations. >..tiis<i. history?nnniSTir isn wn.n animaiai. On this topic we find the following interesting remaiks i? In f al fornta are now fonrd nil kinds of domestic animal* commonly used In Spain and Mexico j for flnoogh the missionaries met with none aneh. they hare lace been tranrported from New Spain; for hones, moles, sees. oxen, sbeep, bogs, and goats, and even dogs snd eats, have been found to thrive well In this inntry In California there are two speeies of wild creatures for hunting, which are nit known In Old or New Spain. The first Is that whiah the Californians In the Monqui tongue call Taye It 1* aVont the bigness of s calf a year and a half old, aod greatly resembles It In figure, exeept In ita head, which le like that of a deer, and the horns very thick, resembling those of a rem-Its hoof large, rennd, and otoean, like tbat of an ox - Its skin Is spotted like the deer, bnt the hair thinner, aod It has a short tail-tba flesh 1s gory galatsble. and to mrst tastee exquisite. The second species differs very little from a sheep, but a great deal larger, and more bulky ? the'* are of two oolors. white and black, both welleorered with excellent wool. ' The flewts ol these le not lest agreeable, and they wander la d.*#ees about the forests and mountains Here is also p'eMT of deer, bares, rabbits, and wild goats, though the Indians kill great 'numbers in their huntings; but the ne'yote* are scarce. This is a Mexican word, and in New Spain the name of a peculiar speeies of wild dog, in roofs- particulars resembling the foxes of Ppaln. especially Ik 'heir art* and stratagems, though their Cgnrs is rsry different. 8 >me leopards also hare ' fieri! seen here, end are the same creators* with those tolled lions In the Iklngdam of Mexloo. A few years "Trtls Is If rem* of th* prioetml tewn, In whloh nsnst'r remishoBiry, who generally hag revere' mail rllbge* ggder Ue oars. E NE MORI atnee on* Indian* klllrdawoir, and all their eiuotry nan affirmed that it wai the flret tbey had er?r*e*a A# IKaf. kinii *hirh nwtvan ?hof A.* a# the Indian* brine continually bunting In the forest*. Orate eat*, and wild hngg axe frequently found among the mountains. Father Tnrquemeda observes. that about Mou'er?y ar? rerj large bear*, an animal something like a buffalo, and a creator* **ry different from tbe tiger a* will appear from the following description be has given of It: - It la about tbe bigness of a steer, bat shaped ilk* a slag?It* hair reeamb'o* that of a pelican, and I* a quarter of a yard in length?It* neck long and on it* bead ar* horn*. Ilk* those of a stag ? tbe tail Is a yard In length and half a yard In breath, and tba feet cloven like those of an ox. The same father relate*, that In (be bay of Han Bernabe. near Cape Kan Lucaa tigers irefennd. and that the Indians. am?ng other things, brought the skin* of them to the Spaniard*. But tb* greatest curiosity in thl* particular, which ban been found In California, lea kind of animal exactly resembling n beaver, if not aotually a specie* of that creatnre. Father Slgismundo Taraval saw several during bis journey, In tbe year 1733. t* tbe island De lot Doleree. in a part oalled San Andres, four dnya and a half journey from the mission of San Ignatio. They found such numbers of them together, that the seamen killed above twenty of them following them only with tleks Some of the skins of tb?re areatures the father sent to Mexico He supposes these animals to bs amphibious. like tbe boaver; but says nothing of that skill and regularity so muoh admired In the atruotnres wbirh tbe Canada beavers build along the rivers for their habitations. REPTILES. "With regard to snakee and terrestrial Insects, beside* tbe common species, here are also those which usually abound In hot countries, as vipers of different kind* efts, soorpions. spiders, ssolopendras.artokets. pismires and lizards; and one of the aeeounts adds, tarantulas but without any mention that its bite is attended with tba remsurkable fiensy succeeding that of the tarantulas of Calabria. Lastly, though the beat in California is generally excessive, yet even tbe moist parts de not abound with those mischievous insects, the bugs, nisuas,* and others, both common and peculiar to America. BIRDS. Of birds there is an infinite variety. Among those which serve for the table, are turtles herons, quail*, pbevants, geese, duoks, and pigeons. The bird* of prey are vultures, banks, falcons, osslpbrages. hornowls, ravens, and crows, which in New 8paln are oalled in the Mexican dialeot, zopllotes; and another kind called suras, of excellent use in keeping the cities clean, leaving no dead carcase in the street*, whither they repair early every morning. With regard to sight birds, there are owls, and many others of a smaller kind, not seen in any other parts, nor mentioned by any naturalists; nor have tb* narratives of tbe Jesuits supplied us with a description, er even the name of tbern. California ba* a great variety of singing birds, espeolally of those kinds found either in Old or New 8pain, as larks, nightingales, and tba lika, moat of wbioh are adornad with beautiful plumages Father Toiquemada says, " that abont tba harbor of Monterey are bustards, peacoeke, geese, thrushes swallows, spar ??"?? ) iwm?wuw! iiuvvo, 4UMIO, |f<kl bilU^CB, UlttDKUirdB, water-wagtails, cranes, vulture*, and other birds, resembling turkey-oook*; tha latter wars the largest we ever saw.the distaaee from one wing to the other being seventeen palms. He adds, that there are eermorants, gulls, and mews. The same author says, that In the Island of Aisumpclon they saw great numbers of a particular speoies of gulls, whloh, as they are found in several parts of California, It may not be Improper to Insert b*re the description of them, by friar Antonio della Aesnmpclow. " The gulls live on pilobards and other small fishes; but they are equal to a very large goose in alie, their bill a foot in length, and their long legs resemble those of the stork ; their beak and feet are like those of a goose. They have a vast eraw, whloh in some bangs down like a leather bottle used in Pern for carrying water ; and in It they put their eaptnrea to carry tbem to their young ones. The friendly di*peaitlon of these birds is something surprising; for they assist ene another, as if they had an unadulterated use of reason. If any one is alek, weak, maimed, er otherwise disabled from going in quest of food, he Is plentifully assisted by others, who lay it before him : of this 1 myself was an eye-witness In the Island of San Roque, where I accidentally found a gull tied with a string, and one of hta wings broke ; around this maimed bird lay heaps of excellent pilchards, brought tbtthsr by its companions : and this I found was a stratagem practised by the Indians, to prooure themselves a dish of fish ; for they lie ooneealed. while the gulls bring thess charitable supplies ; and when they think that little more is to be expected, they seise upon the contributions." Such are the mysterious ways of Providence for the support of hta orsatures !" BOIL AND rEODT'CTIONS. Aa the air and qualitias of the earth are not uniform in all part* of California, so neithar are they in the produotion af trees and plants The point of the peninsula towards Caps San Lneas is mora level, fertile, and temperate than any other, and tbanae more Woody. In the other parts, even to the farthest missions on the east ooast, no timber has hitherto bean discovered large enough for rafter* ; and if any churches or other buildings are found roofed with wood, it has been brought by soa from Cinaloa In th* territory of Guadalnp* alone are found largo quantities of timber, and of this the sloop ootled el Triumpbo della Crut was built, in order to make a further discovery of the gulf, as w* shall mention in the aequal. Father Torquemada, and Father Ascenclon, indeed aay, that In th* boy of Magdalenaen the outward eoast, there is a spot ef ground near th* sea oovered with large trees, which the Indians use for building their fishing barks. The mountains all over this vast tract are totally bars of verdure, aa th* Sierra Plntada: or at moat only oovered with small shrube. briars, and low trees : but many of tbem have excellent fruit, seme cannon to Europe, and others peoultar to Amariaa Thai*, however, are meet frequent along the oeaata, where they enjoy the benefit of water, especially on the banks ot rivers nnd lake*; where there are also rnsbes, osiers, and sedges Some willows and palmtrees are also found on the banks of th# rlveri, especially towards Cap* San Laos*. But among th* plants nnd shrubs whleh moat abound in California, th* principal is the pltahayn, n kind ofbeaoh, the fruit of whleh forma the great harvest of tb* poir lahabttant* here. This tree Is not known in Europe, nnd differ* from all other trees In the world; Ita branches are fluted and riae vertically from the stem, so as ta form a very beautiful top; thay era without laavaa. the fruit growing to th* benghs. The fruit Is like a horse chestnut, nnd full of prickles: but the pulp resembles that of a fig, only mere soft and luscious. In some It la white, In some red, and In others yellow; but always of an exquisite taste: some again are wholly sweet; others of a grateful aeid. And aa the pttahaya ia very juicy. It la abiafly found in n dry aoil; but ita moat valuable quality is, Ita being a spaciflo against the diatemper de Loanda California baa also great plenty of red junas, called In New Spain, junaa japones, and n particular species of fig. Father Ascension says," That th* bay of San Barnebe abound* with various trees, as fig tress, lentisks, pitabayas, an infinite number of plum treas, whioh. Instead of resin or gum, yield a very fine and fragrant Inoens* In grant quantity. What taste these plums have, I eannot say frrm my own experience; but they who have been in California, greatly eommend them." In fact, it Is not only In this bay, but la many other parts near th* western eoast, that these plum tree* abound, the fruit of whleh Is carefully gathered by th* Indiana Th* Incense or resin transudes from these and other trees so copiously, that it I* used mixed with tal.ow, for paying bottoms of ships. The mountains and forests yield th* mescal, and according to Torquemada the maqaey; the roots of which boiled is a principal ingredient in the mrxvalli. a kind of food whleh the natives presented tb* Spaniards at tb* bay of San Franciaoo. Here are also wild vines, together with a variety of amall plants and barbs. CALIFORNIA MANNA. Father Pieeolo obiervea, that in tbe months of April, biay, and June, there fall* with the dew n kind of DBLDt which DBcoinriiDipiwiuaon h?th ot ins trees. He adds, that be tasted it, end though not eo white m sugar, It bad nil the ewentneee o' It. The good father talks according to the eommon opinion, as it the manna dropped from the sky; but botanleta are agreed that It le the juice exudating from the plant* themselves, in the satne manner as guns, iDoense, balsams. resins, fee. It Is no wonder that the tree* of California should exudate manna, slnoe many parte of Spain produce it In an astonishing plenty; and far medical uses equal to that of ( alabrla or Sicily This was an advantage formerly little known in Spain ; but his majesty, on ibe representation of the Royal Col lege ol Physicians at Madrid In 176K gave orders that two of its members should make a further examination of the produce of manna these were Don Joseph Mi nuart, and Don Christopher Vales f The former wa sent among the menntalns of Avlla, and the lattar among the Pedrecbea, or seven towns of Cordova, situated among the mountatas of tndalnsfa-and that Its virtues should experimentally be proved, by exhibiting it te the patients in the hospitals And Ithae been found, that Spain alone produce* manna sufflelent to supply the whole world?f>r not only an incredible quanlity of It is gathered In tha part* abavementlened, where It Is formed about the dog dare, but likewise in the mountaias of Asturia* and tialllrta, < uenca. Aragon. Catalonia, and the other provincee where they call It maagla; but hitherto It was only used by the bees In forming their oombs. ? ? PEART. FISHERIES. The most remarkable among the testaceous kind, le the tortoise; several kinds of wilks and other turbines are thrown up by the sea, In such numbers, that. In some parts, the shore Is quits eovered with them. On the roast of the South sea are some small shell 6*h or ccrehee peculiar to It. and perhaps the most beautiful in tbs e ot Id : the lustre axceeding that of tha finest mother of pearl, and appearing through a transparent varnish of a most vivid blue. Ilka tbe lapis lasull It Is thought that were these Imported to Kurnpe, tha aqua marina would be no lonver valued : these are univalves, sad consequently differsnt from tbe shell flsh In which tbe peerl-v are found, the latter being bivalves, like our oysters. Tbey are called mad-? j,trla?, and totind In Californie, or rather, as father Pio?lo sajs. along the whole coaet. an J especially the adjacent islands, where there are eo many banks of them that Verv small Irreou. which lie hid la the dost letp Ilka Isas, And n rk th?ni?lni Into thi fett, or leg* of tho*o that jjo burofoot; ehtrvihey Meed an vnidarlallt, that they are aearce te te ?nt Nt egeir, and *..it?tm** thee# ia no deatroytag them ai hi nt nent-T.sn.f or cutting < IT the pait 111,1a va'uab n pet son, to tt.e great ti,aa ef heUalcc* ImproveSM-nta ill Spain died at. Medr d. te 17M. file moral vlrtnea. eater*, ve Mo wlsdge a?d cli annate ripericire in all paraof natural hiatiry. ahbh mada hie oMraeoendanca valued hy tht lei II ad of isveral uatMae. saoe.ad according to human jadgmint, t' rrt ti-r him worthy of e lou*ar Itfn. W YO VING EDITION?MONI they nay be counted by thouaaDda And thia abnndunoe of pearl* has rendered California 10 fltmoa* that great no inhere of pereon* during the two last oenturiee, ettnulated by aridity after thla treasure, bare riaitod California, aearobed every part of the galf, and are atill continually reporting hither with no other riew than that ot enriching themaelrea by theee pearl*.? Tbeoyatera in rhieh tbey are fonnd lie in great number* on banka in the gulf, and commonly called bnatiaa " The aea of California," eaya Father Torquemada, afford* very rich pearl flaheriea, whore, in three or four fathom* water, the hot la* or bed* of oyatera. may be aeen a* plain a* if tbey were en the aurfaoe ot the water " He add*, that It waa a practice among the Indiana to throw the oyatera into the Are. by whleh mean* the pm? were anirojio; icr lamj uhu oniy io? awn 01 the flih : bat tbe avidity of otbere hat comma nloeted its flame, even to this 11 in pie people; who ore now eager to get. and cartful to keep, what they have aeen to highly va'ned by forelgnere. TbUflehery la carried on by divert; bat ae tbe water In tbe golf it not very deep, it la attended with much leva labor and danger than tboee on tbe coaat of Malabar and otber porta of tbe East I ad lea. if we may judge from tbe narratlvee given ue of tbem Great numbere reeort to tble flabery frrm tbe continent of New8paln, New Uellloia. Cullaean. Cinaloa, and Sonera : and tbe many violencaa committed by tbe odveatorere, to aetiete if peaaible tbelr oovetona temper, bnve ocooaioned reciprocal ecmplainta : ner will tbey ever cenae while the desire of rlcbea, that bane of aoelety, predominetee in tbe hnmnn breoat. MINERAL*. We have only room to-day lor the following extract reflecting the minerals, and as it is a tit-bit, we reserved it for the last:? We have not bitberto bad any particular noceunt of itsmineiale; but some inte.ltgent persona arc of opinion that tbe Sierra rintada [probably what is now known na the Sierra Nevada? Ed N Y H ] and othar porta abound with metal*, a* they exhibit all tbe markanod appearanoea of gold and ailver mlnea Capt. Woods Rogers soya, tbat some of his man aaw on tha ooo?t of California several heavy,glittering shining stonoe.wbieh tbey Imagined to contain some valuable metal; but it wta then too late to sear h for tbem. or even to oarry tbem on board for a further examination. It Is Indeed natural to suppose, tbat there are many very rioh mines in California, as tbe opposite ooast in tbe province of Sonora and Pimsria are known to abound with them : for In tbe year 1730, a vein was disoovervd on an eminence, net far from tbe garrison of Pioaeria, tba ore of wbich, with a little labor, yielded eo large a quantity of silver as surprised tbe inhabitants of New Spain ; and It remained some time a queetien, whether it waa n mine, or treoaurea hid by the Indians Soma have also been dlsoovered which oontaln veins of otbsr metals ; rook salt la also found hare, of a whiteness equal to crystal, and samples of it have been oorried to Mexico. ? ? THE PROVINCE OF SONORA, MEXICO. Tbe province of Sonora Ilea east of California, the gulf oftbst Dame running betwixt both; and thus. ao we have raid, wishing both ooaota. It is the Jeaat province of the Spanish dominions in America, along the ooaat of the Sonth sea : for though that of New Mexico, which lies Dortheast of Sonora, be in a higher latitude than this, it is a province on all sides environed by land, without any issue to tbe sea. The govern ment of Sonora reached northward from the mouth of the river Illaqui, to the Apaches, who hitherto have been the soourge and the terror of the whole oountry. ? * * ? ITS S1I.VRR MINKS. Sonera maybe said at the same time to be one of the poorest and richest provinees of Amerloa, and of tbe world. Besides its fruitful nets in all sorts of useful vegetables, it is everywhere full of veins of silver ore and mines, and of such richness that what is related of some, exceeds all credibility ; and if the allegations in suits before the Supreme Couneil of tbe ladies may be depended on. Potosi and the other mines, however rich, are no longer to be principally admired, Sonora affording mountains, wanting very little of being en tlrely composed of massy silver. Several Spanish families in different camps or settlements, make considerable advantages of these mines : yet is this province one of the poorest, and in tbe whole world there Is scarce a more manifest proof of that truth, though but little attended to that tbe wealth and power of a State does not consist in gold, silver, gems, and the noble metals, hut In the number and industry of Its inhabitants ; a well cultivated soil, graziery, and variety of manufactures for consumption and exportation, and the exaet administration of justice. * ? s EXTRACT PROM CATT. WOODS ROGERS' DESCRIPTION OP CALIFORNIA, IN 1710. In some of their necklaces I observed two or three large pearls, and eur Spanish prisoners told me that they found a great many in tbe gulf of California, where the missionaries are settled ; they added, that the internal part of the country, as far as the continent of Mexioo, la very fertile and pleasant, abounding in horned cattle and all kinds of provisions : when we were standing off to sea, some of our people to'.d me tbey had seen stones remarkably heavy, and of a glittering appearanoe, as if they contained some kind of metal; but their information was given too late, otherwise I should have taken some of them on board, lor making experiments on them. e e This book is full of instruction and entertainment, and is interspersed with very judicious and sensible remarks, which appear to be dictated with the greatest attention to exactness and veracity. We may probably make some additional extracts on a luture occasion. The Effect off the Gold Mines of California on the Supply off Precious Metals to the World* [Fromths London News, Jan. 8 ] In the descriptions of gold mines and rivers flowing over golden sands, we must be prepared fnr n liffU nviir.pnlnrino unW ovaoffArntinn Minna I VW.WM..J UUW VO^VIBUVH. AlAtUVB have always excited sanguine hopes and dreams of cxhaustless wealth; but they have aa often been followed by disappointment. The tongue waxea eloquent oa so alluring a theme, and the chance of failure is never once contemplated. The disappointed hopes of former adventurers, the dearbought results of experience, have little effect in damping the ardor of those in quest of mineral treasures. Mines are still rich, or still abundant, and dividends in prospect always large; but the reality eventually proves only a shadow of the expectation. The abstract calculations of the political economist, who closes a mine the moment it yields no profit, are contradicted often by experience, and we see mines now in South America producing gold and silver abundantly, which give no profit to the still hopefnl proprietors; the expense of working exceeding the value of the produce. Now, if the descriptions of the golden treasures of California be true, another element cemes into the calculation never anticipated by the economist. Large quantities of the moat precious of all metals are found scattered on the surface of the earth, and the fortunate adventurer may enrich himself "beyond the dreams of avarice, almost without labor, without capital, and with no care but what cupidity generates. Poor, ragged, and useless in the paths of industry, he digs up the rich sand with a rude instrument, washes it in us'.ensils equally imperfect, aud discovers particles of glistening gold, as a sediment, which repay him a hundred-told for his trouble and labor. The principle that the value of the precious metals, like other products of industry, is determined Srimanly by the cost of production, and then y scarcity, ideas of utility, convenience, and such like, seems to be naturalised by this new discovery; and assuming that the precious metal ia found in anything like the quantities represented, it becomes a curious question how far such a discovery may eventually affect the value of gold and silver in Europe, elected as standards of value, or measures of other things, by certain peculiar attributes, such as regularity of value and comparative indestructibility: and it is al?o worthy of inquiry how lar industry and production may be excited by a sudden and unusual increase of gold; for there can be no question that at least a temporary stimulus will be given to manufacturing industry, though it cannot be said that the mere increase of the precious metals, without respect toother things, can add anything to the wealth of a country. If the abundance of gold flowing from America to Europe be such ss to exceed the dem-tnd, the value of gold will fall, the price of all other commodities relatively rise, and the proportiou between gold and silver be disturbed, so as to affect the standards of value in each country, and the par of exchange between one and soother. The steadiness and regularity of price of both metals, which have prevailed in our experience, may not prove the regulaiity of supply trom the mines; but they certainly prove that the progress of civilisation, the increase of wealth,commercial enter-rise, and other cognate causes, have by degrees absorbed any supeifluity of the precious metsls. The increase of wealth in modern nations, almost universal, has greatly increased the consumption of the precious metals in manufacture; and we may reasonably infer that the calculations put forth twentv years
sgo, of the actual withdrawal of gold and silver liom circulation, and tneir absorption in the arts, are tar exceeded in these times. Every one is cognizant of the vast increase of gold watch cases here, and esi>ecially on the Continent; and we may undeitake to say the amount of silver plate ts very much greater than it was fifty years ago. There is no doubt the productiveness of the silver nunes is greater and more regular than those of gold, and tne tendency would be a slight variation in the relative proportion; but the enormous increase ol silver currency on the Continent, in the Units d States, and even in India and our own colonies, has kept the price si silver a liule below ft* an ounce. On the other hand, our stancard of value being g.ld only, with the exceptional ease of RK B >AY, FEBRUARY 5, 18 the United States, the drain of gold is generally towaids England, while that of silver is always to the Continent. There being no market in England lor any considerable quantities ot silver, the puce wou'd inevitably fall here, as it does when foreign demands have been supplied : and, on the contrary, there being no considerable market tor gold abroad, the nrice would fall, if eur standard were silver instead of gold. We do not doubt that the mint price of gold here??3 17s. lOfcd- an ounce?and the price at which the Bank of England are compelled to purchase??3 I7s. 9d. an ounce?are causes which not only regulate, but. within certain limits, determine, the price of gold throughout the whole world. Suppose, for a moment, the circulation of England, exceeding thirty millions, and the bank store of fifteen millions, to be thrown on the markets of Europe by an alteration of the standard, of value?how material would be the fall in priee! It is only rich countries that can afford to buy the precious metals in any quantities; and it is only the richest of all countries that can afford a metallic currency of gold. But then it is equally obvious that England would be first and most materially affected by any large and sudden produc lion 01 neritanaura 01 vanie; lor, annouKii America would be enriched by the discovery of the precious metal* within her own territories, it is only I because she would possess a larger fund to ex- ! change lor more usetul and necessary products of labor. Gold is only valuable in proportion to ita exchangeable capacity, and the United States would, therefore, send to Europe all the gold which their necessities did not require; moreover, it would How out ol America naturally, by the exchanges favoring its expoitation. The amount of specie which has lately passed through this country, chiefly consisting ot silver bullion and coin, nas been unusually large, and yet without causing any material variation in p-ice?;a circumstance rather extraordinary, happening as it does in face of continental revolutions, and other disturbing causes. II rich countries only can afford to buy the precious metals, how is it to be explained that when the same countries are paralysed by revolution, and credit is at low ehb, a greater demand for silver should exist than before 1 Without pretending to any accuracy on the subject, we may presume that several causes hnve concurred to increase the movement of bullion from country to country : such as the low state of credit and want of confidence that withdraw from bills of exchange their ordinary security, and the practice of hoarding which instantly springs :ip when the small black cloud is seen on the horizon. A smallercirculation of metallic currency is required in timeB ot peace and prosperity, than at other times; for credit in the one case becomes a kind ol currency ol itself. When prosperity ebbs, gold and silver leave the provinces and flow back to the h"art Irim whence thev were propelled?the Bank of En land. With regard to gold, we may here observe that within the last forty years a new source of production has come to light, unknown to our forefathers, which, no doubt, has tended to keep up the supply in Europe. The discovery of the art of refining silver by sulphuric acid, or of separatiag gold from silver, with which it is found incorporated, at a I cost tar less than by the old parting process with nitric acid, has brought every grain of gold into profitable use where ihe contents in the silver exceed the expenses ot the operation. Thus, if we si nose twelve grains of gold per pound weight to nave been necessary to pay the cost of the old process, less than three grains in each pound of silver not only puy the expenses ot the eperation now, but leave a profit to the refiner ; and thus it may be said that full twelve grains of gold, or tn I value two shillings, have been recovered, which ] were formerly lost; and this upon the vast amount of silver containing gold must have been during the laBt forty years very considerable. The Sycee silver from China had twelve grains and more, which added nothing to tbe value ot the silver, where it could not be extracted ; but in Europe the gold enhances the value by nearly the whole con- I tents. It is not easv to affirm the amount of trold which I would aflect the value ot the precious metals in Europe; but assuming that the mines at present adequately supply our demands, und equalize from year to year the quantity withdrawn lrom circu- I lation. and lost by abtasionand other causes, we j should say that it is quite possible the treasures of I California may effect such a result. It was a con- 1 ] side table time after the discovery ot America be- | j tore the increase ot the precious metals was telt . sensiblv in Europe. Twenty years and mare had elapsed, even afurtbe discovery of the rich mines 1 of Potosi, before any sensible rise toek place in i prices. Adam Smith says the eflect was scarcely felt before 1570. But then it ought to be observed that the precious metals had been gradually diminishing; that min ng was little understood; and that increasing civilization among mankind tended to a greater use and consumption ot the precious metals. Before the mines ot America opened their prodigious treasures to the eupidity ot man, the proportion of silver to gold was as 12 to 1; now it is 15 to 1. The amount ot silver, therefore, increased in a greater ratio to gold, as might have been expected. The relative amount ot silver to gold has been computed at about twenty-two times more ; but there scarcely can be any doubt that the proportion now is far higher, probably 50 to 1. The best testimonies agree in the opinion that the relative proportion in value is no measure of the relative quantity of the precious metals. All experience confirms that opinion ; so that, in considering the influx of gold into Europe, there are elements which enter into the calculation beyond supply and demand Nevertheless, it appears probable that, considering the limited market for gold, and the extensive market for silver in Europe, any considerable influx of gold, while silver remained as before, would even* tually change those proportions on which our standard is baaed. Tee value of silver would not , fall, assuming the supply and demand to be i equalised; but gold would fall in relation , to silver, and the proportion of 15 to 1 could no longer be maintained. Then prices would rise ot all articles now estimated in our currency ?t. an ounce of gold would exchange for less than at present. And, assuming the price of silver to keep up as heretofore, about 6s. an ounce, our sovereign would be valued less in other countries, and all exchange operations would be sensiblv atlected. The only countervailing influence in tne reduction of gold, to say, only double the price of silver, would he an increased consumption in articles of taste and manufacture, which, however, can only be speculative and uncertain. It is said, by the last accounts from California, that 5()0 miles lie open to the avarice of gold hunters, and that some adventurers have collected from 1,200 to 1,900 dollars a day; the probable average of each man's earnings being from $3 to $10 a day, or, let us say, ?2 sterling. The same authority avers, there is room ana verge enough for the profitable working, to that extent, of 100,000 pereons. And it is likely enough, before long, th.it such a number may be tempted to seek their easily acquired fortune in the golden sands of El Sacramento and elsewhere. Now, two pounds a day tor each man would amount to ?200,000, which, multiplied by 800 working days, will give ?60,(X,0,000 a year! That is, ?600,000,000 in tea jeers! A fearful amount of gold dust, and far more than enough to disturb the equanimity of tea thousand political economists. The gold utensilstound among the simple-minded and philosophic Peruvians, (who wondered at the eager desire of Christians tor what they scarcely valued,) will be esteemed trifles with our golden palaces, and halls paved with gold, when California shall have poured this vast treasure into Europe. When we conceive 100,000 gold finders, we think it possible; and when we near of each man gaining twe pounds value of gold each day, the amount seems too small to excite our surprise; but when we employ old Cocker to realize the result ot a year's working, then we produce soncething infinitely surpassing those fabuloui countries where gold was a common thing, and the works of those enchanters who bad uncontrolled command over exhaustive* treasures. Assuming, in round numbers, esch 2,000 lbs , or troy ton, to beequiva- I lent to ?100.000 sterling, the abnve amount in one t 5 car would represent six hundred tons, and in ten ] years, six thousand tons ot gold ' The imagination < of all-plouding industrious England is incapable of i grasping so great an idea ! ' Can there be any doubt, then, of a revolution in the value of the precious metals ? So far from thin I prodigious amount of gold being necessary to that end, we have reason to think that a tenth part, or six millions a year, would matenallvaflectachange in prices and exchanges. It iB more than probable that the produce of the Russian mines alone, which is vety great, though not on the increase, is adequate to supply the whole manufactories of Europe, sod compenmte for wear and tear of articles in ure, nnd abrasion of coined money; so th it six millions sterling s year thrown upon the market would he a superfluity. In judging of the produce of California, as a new source at supply to m? et the probable exhaustion of 'he Russian mines, and the falling ofl ol tho*e in Riszil. which do not Hpix-ar to defray the outlay ill on ihent, we must bring ex >eri' nee and probability as our gmden M ining has always, we know, been a precarious opeiatioo, ruinous generally to individuals, but always adding something to the [ERA 149. general stock. And if we take as an example the actual produce of Spanuh America, which excited the same sanguine hopes, and compare the probable produce ot California, aa estimated on the preceding data, which exceeds bv far the whole from that source, we may reasonably inler that the mania will eventually either end in delusion, or be productive of more misery than wealth Euroi>e will be no richer by an extravagant supply ot the precious metals. If gold fall in price, it will exchange for less, and that is all; it will disturb existing arrangements, and materially touch rents and fixed incomes,while any good resulting is problematical. And nought to be onsetved, as another reason against such an extravagant hypothesis as that put lorth, that the known returns of the mines of Spanish Americaesteemed greater than the earth had ever before yielded from her capacious breast-comprised both gold and silver. If we aup;>ose there are now 5,000 men in the Sacramento washing gold, each of whom obtains two pounds sterling a day, set forth as the minimum, the whole would collect ?10,000 a day?two hundred pounds weight, or ?3,000,000 a year, equivalent to the whole yieldings of the Russian mines; and all tnis without the labor, skill, capital and machinery necessary in precarious mining operations. And here, be it observed, is the marvel; nature for the first time known to men, pours from her lap riches abundantly, and, in a kindly mood, gives wealth to those who acquire it not according to her ancient decree?industry, or the sweat ofthe brow. So that if for a moment w;e can fancy the barren valleys of California giving up half an ounce ot virgin gold to each restless and wandering adventurer every day, thus jmuiiiiK iuiu inc worm an enormous B'.rearn ui that w'..ich is now considered true wealth, something among the few thtngs of earth esteemed of genuiae intrinsic value, we must undo all experience, and btheve nature lias turned over a new leaf in her great book. The question is not whether she acts thus bountifully now, &9 she has done often before, only to deceive and betray, but whether she will continue so to act; in a word, whether the sources are not merely superficial as well as irregular. Rut allowing for exaggeration in the description of the golden Bunds, the re is this peculiarity, that where gold is found it will at least do more than repay the outlav of time and labor, which has seldom or ever been the case in woikmg mines. It is probable," says Jacob, on the nieciousmetals, "that in all ages those metais nave cost more in their production than their v.i.ue ever repaid." And the same writer observes that even the most promising mines declined in pro- > duce, the celebrated Peruvian mines in the rich J district of Potest yielding alter a tune not a third of their original produce. Bui then the mines of Spanish America were, and now are, worked with labor, and at great ex|iense, and their precious products then-tore damn gradually into Europe; whereas, if our Californian intelligence be correct, the probubiiity is, the supply will be not only great but sudden, and the eflect so much the greater. The Mexican mines which, perhaps on the whole, were the most rich and permanent, yielded, according to Humboldt, ttie large sum of ?361,SM7.739 in 110years, attne average rate of ?3.316,- I 706 per annum. And .lucob (p. 167) gives the lol- | lowing table :? ] Spanish Amsrloa ?700.461,454 Portuguese America 80 000.000 ?786454.4114 ?or an annual product from all the mines of ?7,146.767, namely, of gold and silver. It is manifest, then, that a sudden supply of even six millions a year, instead of sixty, would produce a material effect on the price of geld all over the world, supposing the present supply to be kept up from other quarters. But we think, judging from experience, that nothing like six millions annually will flow front the valleys of Cahlornia. Poet Hors, Canada West, ) January 23, 1849. $ State of Thing* in Canada?7V Dtnrt of the Canadiani to become Annexed to the United Statei?Hie Prcunt Poverty of the Province? The Reciprocity Bill?'lYadr, Navigation, <$-c. My attention has been called by one of our Provincial papers, the 'Jbronto Globe, to an article in your paper of January 13, under the head of " Ca_ lada and the United States," In which you close jy saying that "we have no doubt, that in a few j years, Her Majesty's provinces of Canada will be < urgently soliciting admission into our ITuion," and which idea the Globe attempts to ridicule, as quite foreign to the thoughts of Canadians. Now, the Globe need not attempt to hide the true I feelings ot a large proportion of the moat intelligent of the population of Canada Vest. It the editor of the Globe is bo much opposed to the laws and institutions of the United States, because he could not, or did not, succeed in the city of New York, bs he has done since his arrival in this colony, that is no reason why he should pretend to write for the whole people ot this fine province. There is no one that admires the industry and activity of ihe proprietor of the Globe, or the independence or his paper, more than I do; but when he takes the uncalled tor position that he does, at times, against the American people, their laws and institutions. I feel that he is writing contrary to the true feelings and wishes of a large and influential proportion of the people of Western Canada. That paper says, " That there are more in the United States who would be glad to exchange with the present government of Canada, than there are in Canada who desire to join the States." This assertion of the Globe is, in my humble opinion, anything but correct. I do not believe there is even one American citizen out ot ievery 10,000, in any county ot any State of the Union, that wishes, or could be persuaded to change; and I am perfectly satisfied that no American of education, or that has any employment in his own country, would think for one moment of settling in the provinces of Canada, so long as they remain under British rule. As far as emigration is concerned, that link that bindB us to Great Britain is our gieatest drawback, and until it is severed, and which the writer trusts is not far distant, we need not expect to have the wealthy, intelligent, and enterprising American citizens settling in our provinces?not even the wealthy. < Emigration from Great Britain or Europe comes to these colonies, and why T Simply because they are colonies, without any fixed or settled government that can be depended upon. Let us once become a part of your great and flourishing republic, and instead of being, as we are now, in a state ot utter bankruptcy ana ruin, we would soon become ore of the first States of the Union. Our position places us as the high road between your Eastern and Western States ; our climate ana soil for growing grains of all kinds; our fine rivers and smaller streams ; our copper and lead nines: our fine forests of timber for ship building and I other purposes?all these, combined with un emigration of your enterprisu.g Americans, would soon give us the rank ot the hist ot your great States, i The price of land in Canada (leaving the towns and cities out ot the question) has not advanced in j value with the lands even of your States lying far west of us; that certainly does not show a pros- 1 perous state ot things, and I can only account for j the non-advance in price of cultivated lands, from the want of the right kind of emigration; so long as we only have the paupets of England coming to , our provinces, so long we shall remain at a stand i still. I believe 1 am stating that which cannot be i contradicted, that farms in ihis district, one of the < finest districts in Canada West, would not bring per acre as much now as they would fifteen years back. Can the Globe account for such a depressed state of things 1 Will it not admit tnat if we could once get the right kind of emigration to this province, to settle our w.ld lands, that property would advance in value 1 Yes, instead of forests, we would see cities spring up as it by magic ; we would have cities equalling your Buffalo, Cincinnati, Chicago and otner great cities of the West, that have sprung into existence w thin the last few years. Our province would soou till up, and our fxpoits would then exceed our imports, and inHead of bankruptcy, we would soon become a wealthy and prospeioua people. 1 regret exceedingly tnat Congress did not pass the reciprocity bill, and I do ht>i>e, that it may yet pais, ana that the bar to a closer tie may be at once removed 1 am satisfied that if th? hill passes, that Canada will most surely, in a tew years, belong or be united to your great republic. 1 he Globt would no doubt repudiate such an idea hs foreign to Canadians; but notwithstanding, I do believe that if | a fair vote of the people ol Canada West were taken Upon the question of annexation, that the ( m jot tly would be five to one in I,ivor ol it. I have i seen repeatedly taken a vote upon the question, as < votes are taki ii upon your presidential election, vis i the vols vol pHsseogera on board steamboats, 1 canal-boats, hotels, pui.lio meetings,drc., ftc.. <fcc.; and wherever the question has been tested, h ive seldom or ever been hi the minontv; therefore 1 do ihink that jou ate not fir wrong in your supposilion with regard to our anlici ing admission into ilte l.pien, ai,d I trust that day is last approaching when the solicitation shall be imue,and accept-d, LD. TWO CENTS. for in my humble opinion Canada must remain stationary until then. Let the wisdom ot your Cougrts push through the reciprocity bill without uijr icdiiiuiivuV) ?uu nouc ui vauaua wwi IB lecured to New York, the carrying trade to your ;anals and shipping, notwithstanding all the tniuence or exertions of the Montreal board ot trade :o the contrary, or the repeal ot the navigation laws. That it ta our moat natural route or outlet n the fall of the year, no merchant will pretend to Jeny. The high rates of insurance, the danger of the gulf navigation, the risk of getting vessels to take freight, and particularly the high rates ot freight, will always give the New York route the prelerence to Western Canada holders. Flour can be shipped from New York, I believe, at any season ot the year, and consequently the holder does not lun any tisk ot his property being detained until spring, when ps-hapa his being able to ship ta the winter, gives him a large profit on his sales; but on the contrary it he ships by the Quebec route, his property may arrive there too late lor shipment that tall and be nblmed to go 'nto store until spring, and then j*rhaps sell at a serious loss. The late member of this county, (Durham) was this day going the rounds of our town, trying to get signers to a requisition to ihe sheriff ot the district, (H. 11.,) requesting luni to cull * meeting ot the inhabitants of the districi, to take into consideration the proprie:y o petitioning Her Majesty's government to abandon the system ot tree trade, which is calculated to have a most ruinous etlect upon the colonies lla success was only two or three names; such was the inturmaUon 1 received Irom the gentle man himself; but it he had < tiered a petition for signature, pmyinir that Her Majesty's government would abandon all claim t? these colonies, and allow them to torm any new connection they might wish more cong-mial to their frelinssand interests, the petition would soon have been filled up. Uf course you would no doubt have supposed tnat every man in Canada would have gone for colonial protection, by the abandonment ot free trade; but there are many men in this province that aie looking further ahead, and would prefer things to remain as they are, koowing that it will bring about a certain change, so necessary tor the wellare ot Canada. England, I question, will never again put on a duty merely for colonial protection. She will consider which is ot the greatest importance to herself?free trade with the world, particularly wiih the United States, or colonial?and die decision of the nation will be, free trade with the world, and let the colonies take care of themselves. Our Pailiament met on the 18th, and you have ere this received our Governor's speech. He does not promise much, but, I suppose, will do all he can. No Governor is equal to, or can know the wants of the country, like one seleoted from the people. Everything oiiginatea with the ministry; and, thanks to responsible government, they are p'aced in power by the voice ?f the people, and not by the will of a Governor sent to us as formerly?a man not knowing either the wants or wishes of the people he governs I believe one of the first measures that will be brought forward by our ministry will he the reciprocity bill, which will, it is generally supposed, pass at once, with, no doubt, the proviso'ihat your government meets ours upon equal grounds. We are also to have a new representation bill brought forward, which will give a large increase of members to our provincial Parliament, adding much to the expenses ot the province, the advantage ot which is yet to be seen. Canadian. Theatrical and Musical. Bowery Theatre ? Gymnattkcs are all the rage, nowadays; but sot the old-fashioned tumbling and fomerMtlng which, in former daje, need to be looked upon aa something very wonderful. A different otyla altogether prevail*; and we are now no waye eurpriaed at aeeing a performer bound over a doxen of men, eaeh holding a muahet with fixed bayonet, and thrown doxen or ao of somereeta in the course of the leap, and other aatonlabing feate Mr. Hamblln haa engaged a troupe of real Bedouin Araba. who have lately arrived in tbia country; and they will make their bow to an Ameriean audienoe, for the first time, thla evening, at the Bowery. They are eald to be the most active, daring, and remaikable acrobate in the world; and their fbata thia evening will show what they are capable of accomplishing The very interesting drama of the "Sergeant's Wife" will also be played. Mlsa Wemyts, Miss Taylor, Mr Stevens, Be., will appear in It: and the faree of " Uncle John " and the beaatifnl drama of ' Oil Bias," in whleh Miss Taylor make# luch a handsome appearanee aa the boy of Santillaae, aill conclude the performances. Broadway Theatre. ?" Monte Crlsto" will be repeated this evening, being the eommenoement of its seventh week. The unprecedented " run" whleh It haa had. surpasses any thing of the kind ever before presented upon the publio boards in this city ; and, aa this grand romantic apectacle will close daring the present week, those who have not as yet witnessed the entertainment, should avail themselves of the opportunity now offered them. The carnival scene, augmentedlby the additional grotesque figures, Poll chine II o on horseback, new pee dt troii, the ' Army and Navy," bird prise fighters, ko. ko , add mnen to the piece. The powerful and talented cast that represent this grand drama, have already insured for A aa enthusiastic reception each evening slnoe its first introduction here. Messrs. Lester, Dyott. Vache. Fredericks. Baker, Hadaway, also Mrs. Abbott, Miss Fanny Waliaok, andjothers, wll: appear This being the last week of the representation of this splendid production, the house will be crowded each evening to excess. Mr. Lester's benefit takes place on Wednesday evening. It will be a perfect " bumper." National Theatre.?What with the new local drama and the ether elegant pieees which are nightly played at this house, the very large audiences that oongregats there every evonlng, always receive full amusement enough The company is so strong in all the various branches of acting, from the most serious tragedy down to the last light faroe. that every part Is played well, and those inequalities In the style of acting, which are made so apparent in the star system, are altogether avoided at the National, where we may, with truth say, eaeh one performs his part *o well that they are all stars. This is the true system to manage theatres on, and the full treasury shows conclusively that It is so To-night, the favorite drama of- Wallace" will be among the entertainments; J. R. 8oott will enact the part of the Scottish hero. Mr. Mac far land a most excellent young actor, who has acquired muoh favor at the Natiopal, wtillplay Klrkpetrick. "Peor Pllllcody." and ' Roslna Meadows," will make up the rest of the bill. To-morrow evening. Mr Seymour will take hie first benefit. He is extensively known as the representative of Sykeaey In the "Mose" dramas He is also an excellent Irish actor for so young a man. We trust his friends will turn ?ut strong to morrow night. Burton's Theatre.?" Vanity Fair" will be repeated this CTsnlng. after a very euocessfnl ran already, at this highly popular and fashionable plaee of evening recreation. The burlesque of ' Monte Christy" will also be repeated. Messrs. Johnson, (lea. Mortimer, and others, will appear. Miss Chapman, as Mary Cedes, a catamaran, and metropolitan monufaoturer, carrying on a flourishing business, will also appear, and the barlesque is got out with much of the ability and comic humor that distinguish the modern production* introduoed upen these boards. Down-Last gorgeous nese? disclosures of the buried wetlth of the Isisndof Coney the Carnival?and other incidents, make this production very popular here. The Park Fountain and City Hall, an apple stand with apples apon it, and several incidents hiving a local reference, sill be introduced The entertainment ef the evenng will pass off with muoh success. AmericanCisci s.? Dan Rice, the celebrated Shakspesrean clown, will appear h-re for the flret time thla ivening He will give his Inimitable Sbak'peareen rcaoitigs, bsing the newest school, and admirably Adapted to the ring, and one that w'llputfarln tho distance similar exhibitions in this particular line May Fly and tb? grand equestrian tr,iwp?s attached to this superb circus, will all appear duriog the evening Christy's Minstrels w|ll, to night, as usual, give one of their admirable cenisrte and will no doubt here as large an audience as ever. They area most admirable ret of performers, as all the world knows, and ihtlr latest production, tbe burlefque on the famous 1 Voyage Musicals," takes the lead of ell their numerous and witty oencoctions. They give it to-alght, with all the hontrs. New Orleans Serenadem ? Ethiopian minstrelsy, a* given by these singers, is truly a de ightful entertains ent. They combine all the wit and graphic hnmor trie nt of the educated vocalist. Their concerts or* frequ nted by the raoit?re.?pecUbl? and,Indeed,fashionable of our eitix ni. Dohwavais's Paivosawa op Mexico Is so well established la public favor that the exhibition room U crowded ?ach stoning; and every one is delighted with tbo sl?gent, and what la hotter, the trutnful od correct representations given of the beautiful roe aery of the interior of Mexioo, ae at?o of the stirring events that took place there during the late war. It Is a delightful exhibition. Zoological Hall ?Thle will be the last week of the grand exhibition of beasts and birds here. The lions, tigers, elephants, ko a-e all in floe condition, and we would earnestly reoommrnd our cltiiens to see this beautiful soUsetion before their departure from unengit ua. CHinxsn Mvsti-M.?The outside barbarians, aa the Cblnero term all foreigners, wi i aoou bs as fully acquainted with their manners and customs as they are themselves, If this iVu-eum remains taars It og. as it Is crowded every day. We are not surprised at this, as a more elegant and Instructive way of passing a morning or i veiling cannot be found than visiting tuis ex .incite col'cetten.