Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 19, 1849, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 19, 1849 Page 1
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' TH NO. 5400. Tbe Italian Revolutions[From the I.abdOD Times, Feb. M l II the anticipated Conterence of Brussels on the aSurs of Italy be actually about to commence its proceedin gs, we congratulate the mediating powers en the efleet which the present crisis in that country cannot but have produced en their |udginent and intentions. The time is, we hope, entirely pastiwben the patronage and sympathy of France and England could by any possibility be extended to the Italian revolutionary party ; aud, whatever may have been the delusions at one time pretailmg on this question, we cannot suspect any minister of such perversitity and presumption as to support the popular tyranny of a Mazzini or a Prince of Caniro. It fortunately happens that the questions of Lombardy and Sicily, which were the two principal subjects originally intended to have been diacwsed by the Conference, are virtually settled #:thouttne interposition of that body. The last note of Prince Satriano is one to whieh Mr. Temple will be in no hurry to reply. The diplomastists of Brussels will not inquire what has become of that kingdom of Aha Italia, which the policy of some British statesmen was ready to matte over to the bouse of Savoy; nor will it be necessary to ascertain the late of that crown of independent Sicily, which a British steamer was allowed to convey last July to a younger branch of the Bame favored race. It is enough thut such schemes are now disavowed as profligate and impracticable by tho9ewho could aloue have lent them any countenance or given them any consistency; but it is a remarkable circumstance that the only two governments of Italy which can at this time be recognized as lawful and responsible powers, are precisely those of Austria ana the two Sicilies, which this very conference was originally intended to dismiss witn very harsh conditions from the Belgian Areopagus. Lombardy and the Neapolitan dominions are the only portions of Italy which can be said to have any efficient government at all. The King of Sardinia, instead of stretching the dominions of his house to the Adrmtic, is held up to execration in the rest of Italy by what is called the national party. But the fate of Charles Albert is still far better than thatofhi8 fellow sovereigns;?the misfortunes of he Pope and of the Grand Uuke of Tuscany are infinitely more signal and more grievous. The formal deposition of these princes,which was effected on the Sib and 9th of February, is the consummation of the Italian revolution, and a memorable example of the perfidy and ingratitude of those who have been the instigators, and aspire to be the sole chiefs of the popular cause. When the marquis d'Azeelio published in 1847 his celebrated "Programme of the National Party in Italy," the proposition on which he mainly insisted was, that ll the Italian princes wished to prevent their subjects from becoming revolutionists, they must themselves become moderate liberals. The advice seemed wise, and on the pa~t of men like Azegiio and B&lboJu was sincere. Tnat counsel was 10!lowed by the Pope, who earnestly applied himself to correct the abuses of the pontifical government, and to abolish the monopoly of spiritual power, which hud fastened, like ivy on an oak, upon the Roman government. He took an eminent layman and experienced statesman to be his minister,who fell un der the dagger of a Roman assassin, leaving his sovereign no resource but disguise and flight. That counsel was lollowed by the Grand Duke ot Tuscany, who, though a prince of the house of Austria, possessed of an unlimited power, had, nevertheless, employed his entire reigu, now extending to no less thau thirty-two years, in the adoption of liberal and enlightened measues, which still reflect the greatest honor on the memory ot his minister, Fossombroni. Nevertheless, st the call of the peope, and under the menacing aspect o! the tunes, this power, which had never been used but for the best and noblest purposes, was surrendered to a popular club in Florence, to the facchmi of Leghorn, and to the nameless offspring of universal anarchy. The unlortunate and amiable sovereign, who had successively yielded everything to the popular tyrants who surrounded his palace, consented at last, against the earnest remonstrances of the British minister, and even of the Sardinian envoy, to allow deputies to be sent from Tuscany to the Constituent Assembly at Home, or, in other words, to place his crown and his duchy under the paramount authority of Joseph Mazzim and his desperate faction. That sacrifice was, however, the last. On the following day the Grand Duke left Florence, and has since retired from his dominions. He was immediately declared to be deposed by the circolo pnpolare. The mob rushed into the legislative chamber, and the late ministers of the sovereign, Montanelli and Guerazzi, were the very men chosen to form a provisional government in the place ot the prince they had professed to serve ! At Rome, where the Constituent Assembly has just met, similur scenes have occurred. The Minister of the Interior dein urVimli kn 1 nanlto/l n iwl ten s-I it??/! 11 vcii u a D|/ccvu) in **ii'vu u?- iiiuMiwu uuu uauui<?u the fugitive Pout iff. Charles Bonaparte, the opprobrium of the family whose name he bears, raised the cry of the republic, and General Garibaldi formally proj?oaed that form of government, which was proclaimed on the next day by a large majority in this Roman Convention. Iu the prosecution of the deep laid schemes of Mazzini, the subversion of the independent governments of Italy was an essential preliminary to the establishment of that central revolutionary power of which Rome ia to be the seat and himsell the head. In these local revolutions he has not taken an ostensible pa't, but they have been directed by ens general plan, aud they have thus far been successful in those States which had no military force able to oppose a popular demonstration. Sardinia is now placed between two dangers, of which the hostile forces of Radetzki are much the less formidable, the cabinet of Turin having oneuly declared against the unitarian and republics i party in Rome and Florence. Naples is actively assailed by the revolutionary party, and the existence of the government depends on the energy of the king and the efficiency of his army. All the rest of Italy beyond the Austriau frontier is one scene of anarchy and hopeless contusion. Throughout ?- - lnM?U,.lir nntit. la a! tK.it r) i ef ra/ito rf /toiin. MIC IIIC IttUUUVIp auuaici ui tuav ui^kiaiAr.u v^wuiitry, in every Hge, and in every part of the peninsula, domestic oppression and foreign occupation have alternately cursed the land. From the same cause the same fate again awaits it. Under no form of government nas a tyranny ever exjsitd more fatal to the interests of Italy, or more odious to the great bulk of the community, ihm that of the taction which roles at this moment in Florence and in Rome. It is the triumph of a daring minority?!ad vocates and adventureis, who have embraced the extravagant doctriues which the better at use and experience of the French nation have proscribed; and nothing is more characteristic ot the moral prostration of the Italians than their puerile submission to a party whose real weakness and extravagance are equally notorious. Tins absence of a native power tor vigorous lesntapce to the enemies of order and tne destroyers of society pself, Is the real cause ol the fefrign invasions of Italy. No country can continue to exist wiibout a government; but in Italy no government has ever possessed adequate means of selt-detence without the direct or indirect support of foreign troops, either mercenaries or allies. Sooner or later, some such interference will again release the Italian people from the domination and the crimes oi their own revolutionary leaders, who. altera hie of exile, spent in secret societies and foreigu conspiracies, have returned to inoculate the ir native land with the pestilent doctriuca against which in Kngland and in France the whole lorce ot public opinion and of law is strenuously _ - J i.? ... ,i ,, rarrira. it ?o tt Iiiiuri in Pinnn ?u Europe how lonp tins calamitous experiment is to last; t>ut to Itiily herself, every day adds fresh chubc of misery arid ruin. Happily, tba moderate charecierof the present FreHcn government has eflectaally removed tire suspicion of any sympathy with the excesses of the Italian revolution, and there isn? dissension between the French republic and the Austrian empire, ?n Italian affairs That lact ha? changed the character and object of the whole mediation! and we have no doubt that the principal desire of the powers represented at Brussels, will be to agree u,>on some combination to restore tranquillity to Italy, and to establish the unity of th^ Italian nation, not upon the rums of a democratic revolution, but by the introd ictiou of federal .relations between the Italian sovereigns, adapted* to tne geueral interests and to m itual defence. N?rrow Escape and Loss or Ltr*.?A letter received from Captain Grozny, of bark Autel >|>e, of Bostou, Hates that ne had a very rough passage from Liverpool to Mortolk, and a narrow esc ipe from drowiiiog. In a severe gale, he and hia lirst officer. Charles French, of firewater,. Me., wore washed overboard by a ?ea which briKe over the versel. and winch providentially aLo washed overboard a rope which was made last on hoard ? Captsio (3 felt the rope as it tl mi erf ntat mm, seized hold of it. took two or th ee turns around liii) le't arm, and in this way 'as drtgyed over a mile beinre he was rescued from his perilous toiuV.on. f'l.e mate was lost, ail ?If >ria to save bun being unavat'ing. ? JdhthhJ, Mnek 17 There sre kftj newspaper* In \ian? ha, of wblnh lit ,r* itrmoaisMc, wsekij, tW wtklif. we-kljr; X dsmoiratie. trl we?*lj . 1 wb'R (rl-wnnklfi I a-u'r?i ir-* e?. jj, 3 dr uMcrstiO, ilviiy; 'I s-h'g 5?fly; 1 u.u'.rat da.iy E NE M( Aspect mt Canadian Affairs In SnclaiMtRepablleanlsm, die. die. . [From the London Times.] The distinction between emigration and colonization is so obvious that we take no credit to ourselves, when we say we have ever been ioremost to insist upon it. To the various schemes that far several years have been propounded for encouraging and assisting Irish emigration, we have replied that the mere process of riddance was (one which a government could not for decency undertake. The State can do nothing whicn is not a link in the chain of constant superintendence. It IIIUCI UVi OVMU liaUlilHIlCU Alll> J MAC WUI1U IV# BUUl for themaelves. When, therefore, two successive emigration committees were appointed some years since, we urged, that notwithstanding the probable advantage of even an indiscriminate and inultitudinouB emigration, to the emigrant as well as to those left behind, and especially to the landlord, the committees should look to the colony as well sb the mother country, and consider what sort ot a community they were founding out of British outcasts. Emigration is a fact?colonization is a duty. We are bound to superintend and protect the departure ot myriads Hying from calamity; but we ought to originate, urge, and undertake new colonies. A new colony is comparatively a slow, a delicate, and an expensive work, the chief fruit of which will be alter our time, and which caunot now receive our teeming myriads in lis infant bosom. Could we transport 50,000 men, taken haphazard, and land them up some picturesque creek or on some unfinished quay, man Australian colony, ten years sirce unknown to tame and absolutely untrodden hy man, where, we ask, are the magistrates, the employers, the habitations, the weahh, the institutions, the traditions, tne force of public opinion, the religion, the manners, necessary to organize that chaos ot men! Our infant colonies cannot be an immediate relief on a very large scale. They are for the present even a charge on oar resources. When such numbers as a quarter of a millrou a-year are in question, we must look to communities mote able to support so vast and so il!-oidered an irruption. British North America and the United States are, in tact, and will long be, the resort for the masses, the relief ot our pauper-plagued parishes and subdivided soil. But the time is now past for any thing else thaa some humane attention to the safety and comfort ot the emigrant. The States art no longer British, plantations; and as for Canada, we ftar u>t liavt hardly mort power of raising up another Old England on the shorts of the St. Lawrence, than we have of enforcing a congenial constitution on the banks of the Seine. In the general retrospect of her oppoitunities and duties, England cannot be acquitti d ?f the most lamentabletnort-conung in the matterof emigration. A t the death ot Eltzaheth, more than a century alter the discovery ot America, there was not one" Englishman ae:t ed on that continent or on its island*. In the course of the ensuing century and a half there grew up a colony of tensions exiles, of outcasts, of penal convicts, of slavei, and of "planters." Its misgovernment was as bad as its materials, and the natural result of both was a war, which cost this government a Hundred millions of money ; certainly more than twenty times as much as England had ever spent for the good of the colony, and which was happily unsuccessful on our part. Those hundred millions, that estrangement of feelings, that disgrace to our arms, w ere not the worst result ot our colonial impolicy It teas from the banks of the Hudson aiut the Potomac that the spirit of democracy recoiled upon Europe ; and a whole age of universal revolution and war might be traced to a custom house squabble at Boston. What we now hold in North America is mainly a French colony, wrested by brute force from the mother country, and, by a strange accident, faithful to England through its national and religious Antipathy to our own rebellious colony. As for onr other attempts at colonization previous to the present century, or rather till within these very few years, they are convicted by the result. At this moment, when the natural increase and the calamities of the country are expelling a quarter of a million every year, tnree-quarters, or four-filths of me wnote, lane renige in wnat ib now a foreign and a rival soil. 77ie greater vart of the remainder proceed to u>kat it tttU catted Bntiih America, but lohuh con/uses to that name only on the condition of virtual independence. Our other colonies are most ol them penal settlements, too true to their origin to be agreeable homes for honest und industrious men. They are too scanty to accommodate the masses driven from these shores. Such is the present result, which certainly might have been otherwise : and to this must be added the general {belief that our colonies have bo little social assimilation to the mother country, that as soon aw they attain sorm-thing like maturity they will throw off both our allegiance and our form of government, and become independent democracies. Gold in California.?The civilized world is now halt mad about California. Like children with a new plaything, they cannot take their att-ntion oil' it f ir an instant; they would put it under their pillows, if they could, to look at in early morning; as it is, they go to bed and dream of it. Few, however, of those who so feverishly nurse the magic words, " Gold In California," would imagine that it was noticed and commented on oy a British navigator upwards of a century and a quarter since. I he voyager who made the discovery was the British circumnavigator, Captain Shelvooke?the time of his voyage, 1720. Let him now speak tor himself,?" Having made some stay in California, some account of that country and its inhabitants may be expected, though I believe a complete discovery ot its extent and bounounrs would produce no real advantages, except satisfying the curious. That part ot California which I saw, being the southern extremity of its western coast, appears mountainous, barren, and sandy, much like some parts ot Peru ; yet the soil about Porto Leguro, and most likely in other valleys, is a rich black mould, and, when turned up f.rsh to the sun, appears as if intermingled who gold dust. We endeavored to wash snd purify some ol this, and the more this was done, th? more it appeared like gold. In order to be further satisfied, I broaght away Borne ot this earth, but it whs afterwards lost in our confusion in China. However this may be, California probably abounds in metals of all sorts, though the natives had no ornaments or utensils of any mstal; which is not to be wondered at, as they are perfectly tgsorant of all aits.Here was a lost opportunity ! Had the precious packet, however, not nave been lout, who muli pay wnat results wouia not nuve accrued s Bone, at least, may he Imrly predicated. Tne tide of emigration, wtrch made the United States a nation, would have changed ordivided its coarse, and California would hive become the nucleus of the Mew World ; San Francisco wwuld have taken the place of New York ; and the shores of the Pacific, and not of the Atlantic, would have washed the qu .ys and wan houses of the migratory Saxons. Pmania would long since have ceased to(>iereut its feeble barrier to the innovators of inventive genius; our ships would long ere this have passed through its narrow neck, and Caj? Horn would consequently, like Charybdn of old, have been an almost unknown danger. This having Is en done, our passage to the East would have been so greatly facilitated as to h.ive forwarded the advances of civilization in that .;uarter by neatly hall acentury. The moral and political changes wh ch all these things would have brought about, is a problem which is incapable ol solution.- 7T? Inritx The Floods in the HotrrH?Another Crevasse. ?The coast still continues in a precarious situation. from the menacing appearance of the extraordinary high water. We have this week to note another break in the levee of West Baton Rouge, which occurred on the night of Saturday Wr, near Brusle Landing, just below Foret'e ball room...The break was a tearful one, takin in many notes "mid overflowing a larire extent of coiiatrv mound The inhabitants ol the vicinity, and of the hack concessions, nave been reduced to much diHtrers, ?ud are seeking relnge upon all the elevated land to be found. Tiie nmoiint otdamt^e y bleb must ensue o West Baton Rouge from mis crevasse, together with the one which has taken place near the mmi'li ol FaiHe River, a id the other (routing John Lohdell's, wiil ne imtnenae. We learn from one friend, 9. P Graves, Esq , of th it i'erieh, that the places belonging to the following gentleman are inundatedi ? vi-s^rs. I) P. Gun, Jesse Hart, R. Barrow, Woods, J. H. Here. lord, Johii Iji bd< II. Jo'-n Buhlcr, and Nolan Stuart, and the back waters are tnv diug other places between and below those above until- d All the cane is destroyed, and the ptos,tents ot the planters blasted tor at least two ye irs to come. 1 lie river at rhts place ts at a stand, appearing to rise during the night, and (all a trifl* during the day - Hiittm Unngr /hirrxtitr, Mnrrh 7 Fatal Fight bmwkin t wo Roys ?fvrn mntts old ? Two i?oy , one by the name ot Rams ottoin ^Rnclirh) and Ike other, Knight, (Yankee) n*<( a liaht . t PaWtucket, yeateiday. Ramshoetom tnrew Ki iiiht on the ground, the hack part of his head etiock a -tone. Htid he was ca r.ed horne dead ? Knight had b'rn eii k for some ttrne past, and w m ipiitt teehle. He w?s aP only ch Id ? /''W'/mt {l< 1) Ir.W ; XL*;*:. 1<\ W YC JRNINGh EDITION?M< Thk Massachusetts Indians.?a document has been laid on our tab e entitled "Report ot the Commissioners Relating to the Condition of the Indiana in Massachusetts." This report has been made in pursuance of a resolve of the Legislature, of May last, by which three commissioners were appointed to visit the several tribes in he commonwealth, and make inquiries into their condition. The commissioners were Messrs. F. W. Bird, Whi ting Griswold and Cyrus Weekes. These gentlemen appear to have performed their duty with commendable zeal and diligence, and th<-ir repor affords a very circumstantial account of the pre sent condition and wants of the scanty remnant o the aboriginal population which now lingers amon{ us. There are about 900 Indians now living in Mas eachueetts. The statistics of all the tribes art given, with the exception of the Naticks, who arc scattered over the commonwealth. Those num omAi.nl tn cor n... J ...."II ... L, uciru aiuvuiiv ivoai. vui icaucio win i?rin?|?n u< surprised to learn that only six or eight of thes< are of pure blood; all the rest are what in Soutf America are called Mestizos and Zamboee, a mix ture of white and Indian, or of black and Indians All live in tribes or separate communities, excep the Naticks. The Chappequiddic tribe dwell on a small island otthatname near Eugartown, Martha's Vineyard They are eighty-five in number, all heslihy, am living mostly by agriculture. They are induatrioui and thriving, some of them making improvement! ou their land from year to year. A few go to sea and some turn a good penny by selling blaokber lies at Nantucket. The commissioners stiy, "tliey are far in advance of any other tribe in tne Statt in improvements in agriculture, and, indeed, it the arts und even elegancies of social and domee tic life." "Nearly all live in good framed houses, most ot them comfortably furnished, and many oi them with their 'spare room'handsomely carpetes and adorned with pictures and curiosities collected in the eastern and southe n seas." They have a Fchool, attend cliurcb, and seldom or never go tc law. There is, however, to tell the whole truth? a speck of law on the horizon; a great "cranberry case" at this moment threatens to puzzle the Indian big-wigs, but it is confidently hoped that this portentous ihunder-cloud of litigation will be dissipated by un amicable adjustment before it hat time to discharge a bolt of discord into the bosom of the peaceful community of Chappequiddic. The Christinniown tribe dwell on the northwestern thore ot Martha's Vineyard. They are 40 in number, not so healthy as the Chappequiddics, noi quite equal to them in thrift, intelligence, aud social comfort. These, too, live by agriculture and the sea ; they are peaceable and contented in then ignorance. The Gay Head tribe live on the promontory ol that name, which forms the western extremity ol Martha's Vineyard. They amount to 174, and d< not differ much in condition from their neighbors of Chnstiantown They hold their lands by pre sciiption, and not by any title connected with statute law. They drive a gieat trade in the crau berry line, sometimes sellingBOO bushels in a year Tliey go to the picking in regiments, each one get ting all he can. Thnr territory Iurnishes a pecu liar covf t\? iilair valiiaKl* fnt* mnlrinnr ?I n m un. other purposes; the digging of this is another sourci of profit to them. Their houses are generally o wood, but some are of stone. They have a school but no regular preaching. They are quiet and con tented. The Marshpee tribe occupy a spot on the south ern shore of Cape Cod, adjoining Sandwich ant Barnstable. They are 805 in number. Most o them are farmers; some go to sea. They are be' hind all the preceding tribes in social condition some living in wretched huts, and some going about begging. They are said, however, tohave rather improved within the last twenty years. They have two schools, maintained by the State. The religious conoerns of this tribe, are stated by the Commissioners to be in a bad way, owing to the creeping in of philosophy and vain conceit, or what they call "sectarianism," and "denominationalism." This we are sorry for; a Marshpee Indian ought to be above the quibbling scruples ot " denomiuationaliem j" he should regard the vain langlirgof sectaries and schismatics as the crackling of thorns under a pot, and leave the polemical gundingof such " fizenle68 bran" to the foolish palefaces But tho Commissioners assure ua thai a considerable number of the Marshpee precisian* refuse to listen to the spiritual outpourings of the Rev. Mr. Fish, aot esteeming him to be ui> to the mark of " denominational" orthodoxy. We hop* better things ot Marshpee in future. The Herring fond tribe live on the borders ol Plymouth ana Sandwich. Their numbers are 55 All live in comfortable houses, and their whole condition is superior to that of the Marshpee In diane. They practice agriculture and go a- fishing aie quiet, industrious, temperate, and withal pro foundly ignorant. The Fall River tribe reside within the limits 01 the town af that name. This la a small tnhe numbering but 37 souls. They are very mdolen and improvident, living from hand to mouth. The Dudley tribe live in the town of Webster they number 48. These are the most degraded 01 all the Indians in the State. Not more than haii live by work: the rest beg. and the women dc wores. They nave no schools, and no preaching j but receive money yearly from the State. The Haseanamieco or Grafton tribe are found in Grafton, and amount to only 26. They are fa>-l melting away, and will aeon become extinct. The Ptitikapog tribe, in Canton and Stoughton, are only 10 in Dumber; they have no land nor pro(>erty ol any kind, yet are industrious and temperate, and ! support themselves The Yarmouth Indians, 5t in number, live in the town of that name, Hnd have I beiomeso blended with the whites by lntermarriage as to have lost in a gieat degree their Indian | character, and they may be now considered practically as a part of the general population. They ! aie, of course, in good condition. The Naticfct ' are extinct as a tribe, &nd can only be found here | and ihere. The State pays for the support of the Indiam about twelve hundred dollars a year. As the Indians ate not taxed, they are not allowed to rote at State elections; but none of them, we believe, make any complaint of this. They dislike al connect on with the town governments in theii neighboihood, and the towns people equally dislike political connection with the Indians. The commissiotiers propose a scheme for absorbtns them into the community, which, we think, wil find a formidable obstacle in the mutual jealous; existing between the Indians and those withwhotr t.iey are expected to associate. Something, how ever, may be done to improve the con dition of these people, end we hope the state merits and views of the commissioners will receivc ptoper notice from the Legislature.?Djito% Courier, Afmrch 15. Singular Discovery? Providential.?The di? coverv of (he letters implicating the owners of the ship Frm k in in the design ot destroying that ship, is certainly very remarkable?yea, providential? and most forcibly illustrates the doctrine of a sitecial overruling pi evidence in the affairs of tnis w. rid. Why should the captain have preserved those letters, to he swift witneasis against him and his employers 1 Why should that valise, confining them, have been washed bo safely ashore 1 Why should i man have been on the heacli just at the value reached the shore, and without seeing ti e artic e, have drawn it out on casting his hook into the wnte 1 What kept those letu ra, placed in s valise, so exposed to the wafr, from filing entirely destroyed! And what induced the findei of tiit in to take so much paoiS to save, dry, and read ih?m! The only rational answer to the v h? le is?that a wise and superintending Providence I'te-'drd ever a'i, and brought these purposes of (ra id and villany to light, as a warning to others, and an il'ustratinn of that truth so often prtclaimed to the secret sinner?" Me sure jroui sin will find you out."?R<.it u VrnvtUtr, Murchll Loai. for the Pacific and Transit Trade ? TI e pO't of Camosack, tn Vancouver's Island, with it- t xct ll> tit haibor, premises t?? become of greai tie western const of America. The jannt n] -i lenufie interi s', lioweve , is the coal-field of the hi ill astern district, winch is worked so near the l. riser th.it the Cormorant steam-sloop was supilndbt tne natives with fi2 tons of coal within thru-days. J*pecttn? ris of this coal have been exec iiikI for 'lie h if Hi 11 alty, and alt'<ongh it yields < i nsici r ble per eentaye ol esh, it is not much inIf for to the coal of fa nth Wales (n addition to ihs. ihe coalfield of Chillis found to produce a u? I in mailt respects not infei tor to the coal ol Ni wrestle Three, and the more rescent dtsoo\ei> t.f CI al st Port F.tmiue, ens'ire the SUCC'SH o| o . 111 navigation on the Pacific Ocean; and the m:lieihI weslih nt if e whole of ihe American coast, h i g>r.g ffm Chili to California, with its vast treaur-s ol co, per (much ol wnieh is already smelted if Chi 0. lend, silver, and gold, will he rendered v a 11 a t (e lor the wniitant an increasing pnptiUn n, i nd give rise, i v. rituaily. to flourishing cumman ties nI ng the shores Of the Western Ocean. A<hi+<rim tfr Risisii Cm inrit ?o.l Oourri al Htl'toii, tre ^ i i?--f s? ?. IRK E ONDAY, MARCH 19, 16 PcUee Intelligence. Committed for Tnut.? Iiuo A. Bl?g?, ene of tho nan arrested last week on charge of sending threatening letter* to Mr Willtem B Astor, in order to extort $60 000, was examined on Saturday by hie honor the Major, and In de'ault of $6,900 hail, wan committed to the Ton.be for trial. Charge vf fa he Pretence*.?A man by the name of Jama* Stevenson we* arrested, yesterday, on a warrant iaeaed by Jaatiee MeOrath. wherein he stand* oharged with obtaining $70 from Patrick Hurley, by false and fraudulent representations. Theaoouaed waa detained for a further examination. Charge of Sen ding Threatening Letter*.?A young man, calling himself William Ellsworth, alia* Living*' ton. wa* arrested, yesterday, by Captain Boudinor., ou ; a charge of sending a threatening letter to Mr. Ball, of the htm of Ball, Tompklnah Black, Jeweller*, in Broadway demanding from Mr Ball $26 or he wonld expose Mm in some milUr of which Mr Ball *M ignorant It appear* that itwral charge* of fraud arc against thia young man Juetiac Lotbrop committed the ao cuf ed for a further bearing. btfort Juitxa Litkrtip. - The effects of 8t. Patrick'! day were veiy visible at the poltoe court yesterday morning, as a crowd of prisoners graced the beaches in the court room, eenslsttog of a et if human beings such a* are rarely nuddled t together at one time. The heads of those prisoners

were ornamented with black eyes, out lips, bruised I (aces, very considerably variegated with blood dried en iu patches and streaks; and the winking of the eyes through the red spots of dried blood gave them a very i cemical although horrid appearaooe The first prison 9 er called up for judgement from the motley group, was ) a thin faced Irish woman, with weak eyes, holding la t her arms an Infant of about six months old. She gave \ the name of Julia Morirtar. The charge was made for r drunkenness, and her husband appeared against her > on the charge Magistrate-Julia, you ought to be aehamed of ' yourself to be brought here on snoh a charge; a mother, too, of a ohild. , Julia?indeed. your honor, I'm the mother office F children, and this is the youngeet. I wasn't drunk, | Judge, at all; I was only just keeping up St Patrick's day a little. Magistrate- But your husband says you are frequently so, and interlere with him at his work, and negiaet your family. Julia- 1 doesn't do it, Judge; he eeys what Isn't true, and he knows it; he goes oil' and doesn't provide for me?that's what he does i Magistrate?And well be may, If you get drunk. Ifl had a drunken wife 1 should abandon her alto, grlher; but If you will promise me not to taste liquor , nor get drunk any more, 1 will let you go ibis time if you will go borne una take good ear* of your family; but if you ars brought before me again, I (hall then commit, jou to prison. ' Julia thou premised not to drink any mora, and upon three conditions she was allowed to depart. Catbarino Kano was next called. This prisoner | looked lather hiue, as the effeotsof the liquor wort still in operation She was likewise charged by her bus band with being drunk ths night previous The same l plea was put in?St. Patrick's Day?and the Judge let r ner go. ?The next was rather a funny looking Irish woman. 1 called Mary Ann (Jrahain. She oam? up to the bar with a smile, and said : Judge, I know I took a little drap last night, and It got right into my head; 1 went to see a friend with my oousln, being, as you see, on St. Patrick's Day " " Well, but," said the magistrate, ' 1 see jou all put in as an exouse, that it was St. Patrick's Day Now, 1 am told that St. Fatrtok was a vary sober moral Saint, and 1 am sura be would never enoourage Intoxication; therefore 1 don't believe I ' ought; and If 1 go on at this rate, 1 shall be compelled 9 to dteoharge all nnder tbe same exouse. Mary, upon f the promtie that you will keep sober until next St Pa , Patrick's Day. I will let yon go." " Indeed, and I will." raid Mary, and off she started out of oourt, amid the laughter of all the other prisoner* A blaek fellow was nsxt called, by the nams of Pete : William* who was charged with belag druux and dls} orderly the night before. Pete, on being asked by the ' maglatrata why be got drunk, thought he would adopt tbe story that appeared to suoceed with the former , prisoners, and said: " Oh yonr honor, I was just keepr Ins ud St Patrick's Dav a little." > Magistrate?You, you black rascal?yon talk about keeping up St Patrick's Day ? What do you know about that glorious Saint? (Laughter ) Neoro? wall, don't yon think 1 knowa as mush about dat saint as do Irishwoman? I guess I does (Laughter in court, by all hands.) The aegro then held down his hsad, and want Yah ! yah ! yah ! data a faot MniiixiATt-Yes. I guess all the salute you know are of rather a blaok mixture I cannot think of letting you pass under that pretext, although you hare made to be sure, a preity good attempt. I sball o-mmlt you to prison for fire days, in order that you may remember St. Patrick's Day. (Laughter) Pake him 1 down* fflcer, and eway went the poor negro, grinning ' at those In court ae he passed I The Magistrate then called the name of Nathan ) Lampmam, and up roee a monstrous big man, standing near eight feet. who. on coming toward) the bench, | put ail tbe other prisoners completely in the shade. This was one of Rarnuai's giants, out on a spree, also , keeping np St. Patriok's eve. It was whispered around 1 that be was ailll keeping up the honeymoon, that, having been merrled by a magistrate, gave him a taste tor the police court. This prisoner <iuite astonished the magistrate, as he was, beyoad a doubt tbe biggest ; prisoner tbe court hau witnessed for some time. The oharge against tbe giant was made by (julte a diminutive looking little man, by the name of John Tygbu, r w ho, when along side of thie human monster, soaroely reached bis pookst hois. Ths complainant's faoe > showed severe usege. being much cut and bruised, and 1 covered with dried blood. He raid he was in a porter bense, with the giant, tbe night previous, and some ; uiapute arose between them, respecting tbe blessed I illlt whose memory tbey were keeping, when the ( giant strnek bim several blows and knocked him down, , Inflicting the injuries now reen. Magistrate?Why, Lampman, a ream of your sis# ' and strength ought net to strike a little man like thai 'What have yon got to say asout it ? 1 Uiant- Judge. I never struck a man in my life, and I if I had struek this little chap, he never would have I been found again, (laughter); ail I have to say is that r this little man was very saucy, and tne landlord wanted [ me to put him out. eo I just took him gently by tbe j rear part of his pantaloons and gavs biu a little lift 1 ills tut im?. *iu imi. r m am. iLiuguiti.j , NiailTliTl^TMilit JOU poraibly wes not utm of your owd strength, a* it esanie he <u thrown up *o high that whm b? leaded down be tell on bii feoe,eud thus received those injuries (Laughter.) After the care being further investigated, the magistrate (Uncharged the giant, under the promise that he would keep tober until the next St. Patrick'* day, and not ore nulls so muoh strength the uext ttme Us undertook to remove a ? id ail man from a porter hours The plant gr tiled and the loafer's laughed. as the monster man strldsd outof the court room The other prisoners, who were ef no aecount whatsoever, were disposed of, tome to the penitentiary, and others te the olty prison. | Law liiteUlgmce The Gbeat La no Case at New Oh i.?.a*S. - U S District Court Judge M Caleb.-the great land ! care ef John MoOonngh i< the United States, eeme up I to day Tbs suit is for I'jC.tiOO argents, which be 1 elalme by s purchase of one Donaldson; tne last haviig been originally granted by Don Juan Veutura M< rairr, tbeo the in endaot General of the provinces of LinU er a and West Florida on application of Don Ueron'mo La Lhlapells In Ootober. 18nS which was ratified b> tba king of Spain the said lauds lying and being in the province of West Florida, between the Amite end Paseagoula rivers ? M. O. ficnyunt, March 10 r*NsioN Laws ?Among the documents ordered to be print'd by the last Congress, was one em- ' 1 I racing the pension laws now in lore, together i with certain regulations touching th?* subject. As it is i neul pretty general interest, we have taken 1 ihe trouble to prepare a briel abstract ol the more > important I'alures ol these laws, w hich is in sub- ' 1 stance as follows:? ' lobetantiailng a claim ail enaenoe ooan be taten i ; n oath or afilrmat'on i >rtin jnd-e of the dl-tilct, 1 or one of tbe judgei oi the State or territory la which 1 I l.f rla'D ?u' re.lnee or before lORm prison -peelally ' I aui boriced by oommt-Nlon from-aid judge Pen-toner* in State! end territorie- where there are ' I no pecat'io agent*, are to be paid at the eeat of go- . , riment ; Velunttrr* dleabltd In the aerrloe are to be pen; ?tr Bed ' PrBKloBi are granted to all offloer* who -erred to the end of the revolutionary war In the ooutinentat armr I be widow rrnhlldien are ei.titled to reoeire '.he balance due in the eaee ot a ileoeaeed peoao n-r r Pnnnon ta made lor all perron! who eerred -I* J month! in the army, militia, or nary during the r?vo. Inrti nery war Widow* aed orphan! of offlo-r? and -oi lier- of the mill.la rerg'-rr. era feiolblee. and volunteer-who here dlrd eltce itm *.re rn'ltle! to fire year ' half oar The widowa r f revolution*! r < ITlcei! are a lowed pen I rone for the fine tbattbey r-maio unmarried I The brother- and eletera of ueo ared -nidier- of the i Vealcan ear are entitled 'o the land abicd would oare | b??r a ain.id by the roldiei it liriug Si Idler! of the war of 18 I J. ni?* relent, new land if j he fire- warrant! weie located on land uullt for oullirat'on. Inraili'a of the nary are allowed pen-tone ' (-I** jt-tn' anoiiotln* to htif tha taoothly (t) M who ti th* dr-erarnd ??" imtitlail a'. 'Q* Mint of L I m (! ?' h tra allow.nl to widow* and nOildr-u o' nt?y flic. r? alaln in araiea rita ?m* ? trua wl tiiv<tid i Ui a I r?rM n ?i?m <n th* %?*! ?rrie? including man. o m tn arfln??r*. flr.ru a ainl C"*l f Inihf oonuririii thorc ar?- a grant many (achat* ?l ragrilnti< iih, f?-r ?h ill ?f cannot tinil room, r Mir ??< nmy vcniiiro to hi?i{i at, tlint nil ,*-1*0104 l w ti c Ift" ui' iiit.Ti.t lit th. i-MiMon limn ma* oti'miii . coiiy ol itir documr-nt in ?iMr.?MiiK a mam* full (ii'M>,M iiy ?|>|>l) inif to thf ."^c'r-t trira < U mi m rl N v). or ' t the t.oine l>inrlTi?*ut.-? M < nki+Hfc (/ "!)* if'/11h 1? Mimivniiiaf iii? Ki l'r??M?nt nad lalu, l.l l r" out fill' am a na., I. ft v u. Oa., on 14'' I.ol. li.r l liit. 'i?. 'Jr tVaikar am o ufi i rt r.ii f io |i , t, | till k'r Immii of 'II ? .aii- . ,itUm j BM fBkug. Mr i?)t? six IVX U ' itMiMi I [ERA $49. Marina Affairs. The Caic or Shis 1 rankli!*.?The exairlnation of John W Crafts. charged with oonsplraoy wttu James 1 W. Wilson to destroy the ?hlp Franklin, to the injury tor of the underwriters, was continued in the afternoon. It, After the testimony of Duffy was completed, rep Oen Johi? 8. Tvi.es was called ?The three premium to policy notes being sbewn to him, he testified :-l know tin t> ere three notes; I recognise them apparently as 1 for nolts signed in my presence (or three polioles I eff?oted oh, as a broker; 1 bare seen Mr. Crafts write bis name pr v?ry frequently to premium notes; these are hl> rig. I natures; I wrote the letter to Capt. Stanwood and Mr. m ( rafts signed it in my presenoe. (Is shown the letters to printtd yesterday.) By comparison, 1 think the initials J W. C on the second letter, were written by Mr. m Crafts. t? Croit-examined? I don't think I ovar saw him maks el bis Initials merely. n Mr. Davis cross-sxamlnsd?The above were not all ti the papers contained in the valise; the whole were * handed to .Mr Rantonl; some of the papers were signed ii ' J. W. Crslts." and others "J W. Wilson " a Capt Geobue MLase, a eolonial shipmaster, oneot tl thp parse.gers, testified that be had passed an examlratios as a mssier mariner at Lloyd's; at noon on the I ti 28th of F? bruary, the day before the wreok, the captain | t] night it was fair weather; I oould see tbe stars In the p heavens; immediately after the first anchor ra let go, t! the mate railed me on deck; there was no wind, w but a heavy ground swell, which broke over the fore pi part of the ship, in reply to the mate, I said I was senI sible she was draggirg, ire heard the surf plain en the 01 beach; be asked if I did not think it advisable to let t? go (he archer; I raid yes but advised him to ask tbe at cap aln first; be did so, but tbe anohor was not let H go; my own opinion was, that there was not more than di lti rr kO tbtbome of obain out; this was about half pa't pi 4: It was about half past 8 when she struck; It wan wl difficult to tell her striking from the shook of the swell stiikmg her. the era took her so heavy over the conn- til ter; the captain was on deck pretty much all the time; of I founo four fa'boms water with tbe lead myself, under Y< tbe s era, 1 asked the oaptaln how he accounted for hi the pi eiiion the ship was In; he evaded th* question; it or at least I d'd not understand what he did say; 1 then asked him If hie latitude at noon was not good. He te: said, " Yes it was as good an observation as I ever had * in my life;" asked him If he attributed it to variations, as on account of tbe stove pipe. &o ; he eald. you know it there is no variation here; he said he did not know ta the coast; ordrrs were, given to hoist topsails, to man as the wind ass, get the boats out and cat away the masts; qo captain expressed tr e opinion that he saw tbe high- uj lands of t ape Cod; after the masts were out away, I ta felt the first sensible bump It lifted the rudder, a ad tb the house over it, and tore the rudder case right out of wa her; the esptcln. who bad been below a few miontes, vo ran ?p on dack; he still thought it wm not high water, re audit tbe ship would only hold on till noon, there cb would be a chance for ns; I told him soon after that th she bsgan to work, and . crew, and tbat bo must he la errarabcat the tide; I told a passenger the day before, tw front my own general calculation, tbat we oould not ta be more than sixty or seventy miles from Boaton light; Co 1 had a nhrom meter of my own. vo [Captain MoLane'o description of the breaking up of lo tbe ship, swamping of boats, drowning of the captain, *d and all who wete with him, was the same substantially let as Duffy'sj. Co In teply to questions put to him as a nautioal man, coi the captain gave the following opinion as to the ina- J?j uHgrnjvni 01 id* "Dip in m? uruautui emergency: -1 think the saptaln erred In not letting go both anchor* Tt when he found but seven fethoma water; end in not ct giving ber forty to fifty latbomi chain; allowing her to 11 drag Irons seven to four fathoms with one anchor was in an error very gross; at four fathoms, when there was ne hope, 1 should have slipped the chains and let her in go bow on to save life; the short aoope he gave her ?d did excite surprise in my mind; saw no ohanoe of vs saving her bnt by more soope; at last more scope was bj given to the second anchor, but It was on the wrong g< aide, and was an Injury In her position; it Is my opinion now. from what I raw, and it is also the opinion " of others tbut If she hed more scope when in seven P' fat hems she would have held on; from the first, I saw no opportunity ot saving her but by letting go the so- ! oond anchor, and giving more chain; it was the only course; the ( ape light was only miles west. On the oroes examination, Capt Mo Lane stated that there was a coldness between btm and the captain, be- . canse the latter had said something about him and one ef the fsmale passengers They had net oonversed ,L together for three weeks before the morning of the Ui wreck ? At knlfpaet eleven this forsnoon, the examination ? wis continued. Eek.ner.sa Davis, recalled.?A ohart was shown witness. and he pointed out the locality of the wreck, (e nairc w spot, near Wall fleet;; could get soundings off the Cape for fourteen miles; if the ship was twenty M miles out of its curse, it would make from quarter to J" half a point difference in the oeptain'e calculations; fc on a fair, cltar day with a good chanoe for observation, m tbe lap ?id ol a hip ongbt not to make an error or ar, more than ona mile, If he had well adjusted ooro- tw nometere, b? ought to get his longitude within five or . ten mi'es; (there were five chronometers on board;) as to the ves'el being esrrisd to tbe piaoe of wieck, a" there la a prevailing eeuiherly current, hut every eaiitain OUeht to know It: If Hlehlaml I.leht vti ihhi I at'midnight, the vessel should steer further north, and 1 thue would bo no difflcuitj In standing oil w'tb a m' threo or six knot brsns; am not muoh acquainted d* with the sounding' off tho Capo; It la a dandy bottom, *1' with good holding ground, In a throe knot breex* 1 * farty or fifty fathoms of chain would hold the ihlp, If a swsii was runalDg in, slgbtsen or twenty fatboini " would not hold bsr, If tbs anip was dragging with twenty fathom* chain, aboold give bsr more; every aaptaiu should know it; when eoming on thia snore at night, and the ory ef breakers is heard, it would be prudent to throw the lead; If tbe eaptain wa* throwing the had, he must hare kaown that the ehip waa drag- kl gltg. or If he doubted the evidence of the lead, he ol could tell by objeota on the ahore Vt m W. Horn- A note waa ahown to witness; reoog- * nlxe it a' tie handwriting of Jauiea W Wilson; a P* letter written by Wilson waa then shown for tbe parpose of Identification, b<* testimony waa objected to tt by Mr. tickler, and he waa withdrawn. * Captain St*swooe-Have seen James W. Wilson; * em acquainted with bis handwriting; have reevlved ,c letter* from him; (a note waa shown to witness.) re- 'i( rgniaed the signature of tbla note ea hie; (e letter waa shown,) the body of tbe lei ter la in Wilson's ln handwriting; aoi not certain as to tbe signature, it fH] restmblis bis writing Tbe letter was then pat la by *D the District Attorney, and is aa follows, vtriatim tt ,n Ittu alitn jj "Bostsw, March 32. 1849. Tt "Cept Smith of ship Franklin Honr Or s?tr: ? 1 rite yoa a letter to inferm yon that I bam in trubll I could not ^ get ti e Bill sou d on haver on the a Count trnbia in wc Cranks oup to tbla day. and Mr John W Crafts saje- if w 1 cant gat the matey to pay the note* as tbe Com ? dougb ibat hte Will Bee tronest (forced) to sela tie ship on bar Keturn bom* sow you sigh (see) W.ia-. I 8 have to eepend one I have got it $16000 on tbe snip and sitt tOWHi fright money $2400 one your oatfete wlCh makes 23100 Dear Sir if you Data meet a Self) ^ on Y< nr Keturn I Will give yon What I premuat; ?l-oa tn yi n vv ill have a new vessel of good Class ic w.li Kaaol me to pay <>l ad and have a good suprese (surplus, P piobhbly) to Bee gin with if you daunt make a 4el* I <J u? uni now w rial i man uoue me not (note) l)>uh T on the ]'i Is not payed pout and ton next la three T DK'D I a titer th?t tbt til Com dough and noe iiiIum W (pn beb i >[)?? j to pap them ) Mr A Dene *111 not Li ?et- one BO CI it for the pap ben pres-ds Mr Craft* oup J' to ibe frttt letter of thn law If bee den not pay tot* T, no'e tbe ?lll (ell the (hip one pear Re'urne at What Ever rhte u.e Bring Vou bad Beter get ponr eelt a H B< ut in barer (Havre) for floe (fear) shugh Ennp thing M kapen o? pour Keturne Mr Cralt* Will Kite a Inter J and eend pou a leter of Credit to pouch (purchase) a K. load ni halt tor youa Keturne 'argucue Der S.r I h ip w that all Will Bee a? you and I ehude llek I no* that Oi j< 11 ar di> y fiend ro trie leter no mer (no more) H it H Ksn.f Ddr your ftlr Dd J W Wii.iun R I' S Der Sir John W Craft* eend* out a Drsfl for P. i::ot'U hiankaaicb It about fjsiio WICh will leva pon J" a hint n or tburoan ddlar-to pay pour JeebJ o-ni.e H (dirtiui eu ent?) I hop you W li pap the Draft With H. oat flel I and Muoh froui J W Wiui-son R 1 b- follaalti* lr the direetloa of tbe letter : t*i tort aptan Sn lib of uhlpfreakllng haver M to Her K-turtird home if be Is not there Kranee V I r HtMOi t proposed to rent the cm?e here Vi klr. Soicive objected, and *t('ied to go further Into k' the ejesn cm lion (J M. Ran Ten i. eontended that be had offered *u(H- v en i t er idence In tbe letter which he had put in, signed Fl J W C M \ r. Seine a responded. Ha urged that the posteor'pt Ti tethi* leiier In ?hien tbe hope I- eipres-rd that apt F' HrarbV journey from Wilmington to Londu shoul 1 J not eirerd forty eight ''oaera," was in a different T handwriting ens furiber, that ' owars,''might m*an ' cayr ar ?eil as hours p?< Vr Ran roc l rep led, that If "owers" did uot stand > tr r houii, It certainly did nut tor daps. He thought a '< pb< n< yiaphio expert would decide id favor of his lain uretatioti 1 Nonas Di irv recalled-Steered the ship; eterr'd W ly by ihe rHptalo's ordets; tbe captain told me p to tt-er n^ere nnitlerlp just before she * ruck; I did ' Lot see i be I'gbl; It was sera bi other* J a star i n rosea called?I steered till twr> o'elnsk, IV W by N . Ma war gong lour Soots; the light wiortui N in perfectly, and appeared to be shout sou h, heir.I M! biostrir ghoul i err unlock. but Drat thought it *a? * ( nosBihr at h* cap'ecn rounded, and I heard nl'it PfcV tf * M ti 1M ti t w ut uaiar Kb Ht.l iwt tflAstr tA I Ii'iik *? ?fm n> ?i btp>tpr< About thr?? o'c "oh I hf.tj brrnk-r And mportrd tt to thu nop'tin. h? j, rrdrrt d tb* hrlin to ho put ap I ho hrmk^c >>n fc# Ifclhi ?td iMt; tb? Wild ?0? off I bo Unci w? >i? I tbin ?rb" hid i?ok?i>n b nrd ?t in- ti> > fhn**i-n r" ? ? n' ckI id ud'I. 'hi *ochr dr-pp-d hn bti '' i Biy thrown b* imd thr?o Uibo* h?n ho nrd?rwd n* f rotor do* n , pri h*hl? flr* tr'nui*- between ??->h I' In ; ?bont ?-<nh ero fathom* obklu w?* lei out v j< ( U-Diii ecrer Woou?ci>t remarked thnt tber* w?> ff i tide ir> If either gri >? neplinenne or of ? <1* er oln-d r* (' li pt lofl't Ibf lllp I**;, oertnlnlf ptfww/?:i? ibi cm |)h I hicn itud* not II tblr rerpeot, to tne *0 loud be B.d r?r fu ly o. mptr-d the p-? i-o ip 'boh * >ped hy ifce def-nne to b- lu dilT-rnit htn I will'I (C nil frrm th- *imtooiti of epe|iin? no f, ir tiitb' I fr?ni (b? enue b*iid He wwe of itpiul m ' tl*l e> ffrlept bnd b.> i. bn?n for h<ni ?o ??t.n to* cm to iki U'BdJ Jury. *htah h? *hould noourdltg * br o. if* itrr. t rdm d tb? boou*-d to ni*n h?u <q fipm i r ' r ( t ?t|o?r??i to ?o?wemt the n-it icrt of the he ' *<? I ? _ ' ;.v _ . , ? , <4 ? ipyMI f>t - JJnetoei irettlUt, IfwrtfclT, ,j( LD. TWO CENTS. Th? Tariff of 18451, and Mr. Clajr. Ashland 8th Oet., 1848. 4* D*a? Sib?I NMlrtd your kind end obliging let , with the two number* of the Timet, referred to In on the subjeot of the opinion* I had exprseeed in ;*rd to the ad t alut tm prinaiple, in it* application the tariff. I am very thankful for the friendly senlent* whiob Induced 70a to rindieate them, and the lueoeee with whloh you hare accomplished that jrct At the lame time, I muat own that feeling a und ooni>clou*n*M of reetitude In all my pnbilo acts, id, perhape, too indifferent to the perrertiona and l?rrpr*Rentatlont of them, to whloh they oontinuo be exposed. I proposed and sustained the Compromiae Act in the oet perfect gcod taith. During the entire time I r?allied in Cengreee. after lte paeeage, I oppoeed ail iclattiu* of it The resolutions ( offered in the Seate, in 1842. oontemplntad and were (bunded neon le pilnclplea of that aot. But one :of Its provision* aa that, after the yeer 1842, there ehonld be a home irt*ad of a foreign valuation of goode, waree, and lerohandiae. Without that prevleTon, I know that ae Compromise Aot never oould have paeeed. Mr Calboun, however, and other partieane of free rade, oppoeed the home valuation, on the greund, as ;ey assumed. that it waa unconstitutional and Imraotieable. I believed neither, and thought that the r< Jeot of Mr Simmons, of Rhode Island, offered to e Senate In. 1842,and In regard to whloh he aad 1 ?ie in frequent and friendly oonanltatlon, waa both raoticabie and constitutional * When I saw that the prinolple of home valuationBe of the great pillars of the Compromise Aot?was 1 be opposed and oould not be enforced, I felt myself isolved from all obligation to abide by that aot. rnee I was glad thatkthe tariff ef 1842 passed ; end iriog the Presidential canvass of 1844. I expressed U.IOIJ WIW UUIUIUU (U>1 Ik uugllk *0 LM [UUUUJB'tl thout Iteration. The d'fferenoe between a home and a foreign velua?d may be illnetrated by the requirement* or the lews the State of Virginia, ae I underatand them to be. ?u carefully access the value ot property by reapectas, sworn and eompetent assessors When aeaeeaeed, is liable to a certain tax, or rate of per cent age, prerlbcd by the Leglalatare. The assessors hare no larest adverse to a fair assessment; for thay are themIves liable to the tax. Bat, suppose. Instead of an cessment by citisens of Virginia, you were to require to be made by foreigners, paying no part of youe ice. and directly Interested in making them ae low possible, what ohanoe would there be for an adelate State revenue T Congress fixes the rate of doty, inn the ad ralvrem principle to be paid on the lmportion of foreiun goods, wares and merchandise. But at rate is to be collected on the value of the goods, ir?s and merchandise And who fixes that? The inlee. Now, the foreign merchant, or Imparter of feign goods, Is dlreotly and deeply Interested In Ingoing at tbe lowest posslblo rste at whieh he oan get em entered at the Custom House. Tbe power of taxation, on foreign goods, embraoea 0 objscs?1st, the duty to be paid ; and Bndly, the lne ef theartlole on whtoh that duty Is to be levied, ogress bas exercised the first; tbe maker of the inice. in effect, exercises tbe second. Hence, I onoe said Congress, that the pewer of fixing the value, exertin tbe foreign Invoice, might be more than equlvait to the power ol fixing the rata of duty, exerted by ogress; and that the fixatlen of values In foreign uatrle* was legislating upon the peopia of this eounr. And It is a more Irresponsible and degrading legisien than existed during oar ooloalal dependences, let wae by a foreign government possessed of somw araoter, and acting, possibly, in tkefaee of the world, lit may be by any fraudulent foreign merchant, act1 mlvatelv. and without inv efficient rasnoneihllltw. i'.ntertalntng these view*, you were perfectly right areumtrg that the only valuation that 1 aver favorI war, net only not the foreign lnvoloe, bat a homo iluation. made under the authority of our own law*, i competent persons, amenable dlreotl) to our own ivermment. All this l? written, my dear ulr, haetlly and without vlia), for your own satisfaction, and far from any trposeof presenting my name to the publlo \ 1 pi ay you to acoept assuransaa of the cordial re>eot and esteem of Your friend and obedient (errant, Wm. C. Carrinuto.v, Esq, if. CLAY. Note.?Some of onr readers may not remember that the Mil Mr. Simmons, ailed d to by Mr. (day, was based on the prtnoie of fiing the value eftaoh imported article in the Iw Itself, d asfcsa.nw a moderate *4 valorevi duty on that value. Hy is plsn, the protection afforded by the tariff would have poethe cardinal qnsllty of stability, whilst toe valuaNona old, in ail eaiti, have been aa nearly ai pomble aocnrate, and dntiea net dtaigiiedlj probihitory. novenienU fowardi California, Advices from the members of the Island City ioing Association, that sailed in the hark Mara, nuaiy .SO, 1849, instituted by M'-snrs Millwurd Dayton, were received at this office yesterday an lug, by exprets, Feberuary 25, 1849. Titty r ell tyell, and in good spirits, after a passage of enty-four days, and they were to start on tnnr me on the 27ih, via City of Mexico, Mazatlan, d San Francisco. Annexed is a letter from one the party:? Vr.na Cmx, February 15,1840. CokOHkL Dil i,?Webavearrlrad bore at last, aft?r a DBtttdioua and unpleasant paaaage of twaaty-fouc ) In th? flrat plaae, w? had eootrary wind* moat I the time, and in the second, were halt starred t? nth Vera Trot Is unlike anything I know, or I here ever en <>i heard of The houses are all, without an exptlon two stories high, cover about an acre of ground, id hare each a oupalo on top; the walla are about ur f ot thick, and erery one of them Is more ar lees imaged by General Scott's visit. The Tombs, with loutlorty boles through each side and the oornera nocked off. will give, I know, a good idea of the looks the place. There are hundreds of oannon balls log about the attests, and the hoys are using them its gatne wi>b soma outUodiab Dame to It. that I cannot enounce It. The streets hare are as clean as th? or and are kept so by thousands of turkey bussards, lat travel about the streets like so many ohlokens is corn yard, as thrre is a fine of tea dollars for killioc ieotib*m It Is carnival time h-re just now, and in bare no Idea of how jolly ad the people are. Thw levelks are crowded with masks of both -exes, dress-d every conceivable style you can thl uk of. andjabberr t nne lei gbinf, as if they were all orasy. There ars Ddaiigo houses in every street, free tor everybody, d we err enjoying onrselvts first rate after seeing cb hard times at sea We expect to start the day er to-morrow about forty strong I have got la ih Vessrs Millward & Dayton's company, think ng the beet, and they were ell glad to get me Them v* about rwoithousand gone through this way. wlthla >o or tbiss weeks past, which has raised the price- of >rie and mule* from $15 and $20 to ebeut $50 to $50. e ere all well and In good SDirlte I will write again, soon aa I nan sanil a latter late: until than, a K>d bjn. VIRGINIA. Members of the Pan lie Mining and Trading omoHDV, bound for ?an Francirco, California, oa Diird <d the ship Mariana, at Richmond :? Jo'fph T June*. PrealJent; charl-a H Weat. A. S. 0)d WiliUm Grnrait, John B Rlokardaon, John G. later, Dlrrntora and Supercargo**; JaooV R Slater, teaao'er: Dr. George C. Tyler. Surgeon, Dr Thomas i ehenea* 2<1 aaaia'ant; Rer A. P. Hook* Chaplain; 'iilJaro J Willie, Secretary pro teen ; George S. nwne* rrn manrfer; Captain Jam** Hyatt, let offloer; in e- S'mpann. 2d do.; Martin 'loan ran. 3d do; b< Dial A Fourqnalne. R C. Judkin*. C C wiUWnan E \ Bart'za. P J Bartiza.jon P. 1. Belfleld, L. Diake Th< mpeoa T. Bryant. W H Cola, C J. III. r c J VII'hie J J Newman John Matter. Dr. B Blr.yd, A. M. Roae, W K. Lugh. George W. Smith, B Te.ge i a.ter Dtnkineon. S O Wright. Jaoot> Ba'?-r. v|i?. Baraer. Gaorge W Tavltr H Bring*, eorg. W Hardy. Upton E. Hardy. W L. Wllllaina, H Bmwe'i w Enroughty. w |{ Manlova Job* B*yrt. P F. Gefford. I'billp Ralney. jr ,C J Field, B Mrrciy. Thomaa O. Doawell. John Oaborne, bo V, Rowan W S. Bacon A. E Hen dree, G H. Adair J. I.. Kliham. John R. H*?d. tamea S. M?ep, , V i lark*, Kraemna Rhodea. vhney Rbo lea. Char at Air** Wm H Gr?ao. W K. Phil Ipe, Win. A Carr Thi id a. Hall J. B Sydner, ltanaoa P-tare J c. .fhall, c.G Clark W. D Ball. John Walker. W. . Hull. Morgan Slaren, John G Slaren lamee D. iiiiihan. Calren Llpeeomh Bernard Markham Wm. arkham. John Lambert. John M. Kanl*. G-orgw oramore. Thomaa H Ktllam, William H. John*' n, m M Duval Peter Cottrell. J. F Cottre'l F.raemun u man Jatnee lleonetty Wm Worthlngton. Jatnes . Uarnett, M Gianninl. charlea Bette Frei-rl-k B, ?>lor. A B Heiaklll, Powhatan T. Jonea Bare'tT*. >*, Jamea H Tanner R. M. S*ay, R H Lawrence, T Mi (T*it v r. Vernou, T J. M Smith J. t Clarke, . J. I bar Hire Dr. J. M. Jonea charlea f.oomte. W. Kinibirugh, John Blarkwell, ft Lend, John H. trey R ) iludaoD John Coleman, Chef lea ,o lean n em bet a W, F Srhermehero, Ro. Blabop, )?a?.h Kern. rAaaengere.? Total, IH. LOUISIANA A pa'ty of Miseissippinss, from Natchez anil oighi othood, left yesterday, on 'he et^amihip elmrttn, for Lavaca, Texan, on their wty to the Id r.gi n Mr Hall'day, favorably known in haeiM.ipi'i. through l is long connecti n with the etcher F tt Trailer, ie of the party. It comimse# xiut tortt v ntlemen of the right stamp.?iV. O. rtnral, March 10. OtiATKMAUA ?Arrivals from (tuatemda brmgj plor hie ?o?"uii'H of the et it* of th ?? r?t ?Vic. ? aa n?? enough that it should be d"S<d -ted hy a oe. ih? Indiana have taken a'lvintxjje of ?lio ri unietaiire to commence a rnthl???- and ei'ernu t up ?ar again*! their oporeaaora Mantr wee h?ve hern narked and burned. 'he women iilxffd, ai d yotinit and o(d d??ti oy? d wi'h brutal 'ori'y. The war ia milch like that which ha* vapert YncHtan, but the nrnixirtuni or Indiam to Sim.ixh population ia larger, and their laatrara ate more inacccca ble Watta Parictair at Mavboh. Mah* ?Th* irg' t. (Vi ) H/h'fand Cower of the Itith mat., ? a:? w f learn that th" water in 'he xtre ami anil onka in tbia rip inn ia very low The pti>er miMa, id mat'V oth? r? upon 'he email uremia, have in I'llnp tie li r?eyeral *e k ? The t iraj ?? an cere up in* nver are oreiped i? o-'il water i#r cir M'.tie. a:.U lor atic cu-po?-* i