Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 20, 1849, Page 6

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 20, 1849 Page 6
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I On bMten CtmipondenMi I ta Londok, Feb 22,1349. I ' Tkt War of Princtp/ts in Europe?Thiers' AUt- I n m*rt?Ru*na and England?Hie Operations of I t I Musstainthe East?State of Europe?Glorious fl Prospect. H The armed heel o( Russia has been set again, \ like the black imprint of the death warrant, upon i a new track of civilized Europe. Transylvania has just experienced the fate ot Moldavia and Wal jachia, from that impudent intruder, to whom is common everything, which to others is sacred. The Hungarians, as well as the Turks, in their H turn, are coining under the protection of the Autocrat?" that protection which vultures give to lambs?covering and devoring them." Step by H .1 1 1 11... I?.,r,.?a Divp, inr opuiicr sppruBt'ure. uaj uj uaj? uuiv|?w advances to her consummation, through the ordeal of every element. In no country can the crisis be looked upon with indifference; but in the United States its solution will be the object of countless hopes and wishes. You are, at least, the specta* tators, if not actors, in the most sublime catastrophe of the drama of humanity. With the opening of the spring, in a shor month or two, our race will have the vast tragedy which records the war of principles; and in the next circuit of the seasons, it will be decided whether the old world, emulating the new, shall be republican, or falling nto chaos, become Coaaack. Oae or the other s inevitable, in the profound judgment of Bona- ! parte; but only the tint of the alternatives is posBi" | ble in the opinion of any American. It is certain, however, that Nicholas courts the controvesy? and it is just as undeniable that England attenda him and that the Thieve*' Alliance will soon span he continent. The neutrality of the German States and France i s indispensable to the grand design, of which Russia's movements are distinct outlines. That desi; n is to ctuih republicanism and drive it out ( of Emope with igni mmous haste and slaughter, i and also to make monarchy certain lor the future, I by acquiring tor Russia a place for ships and for i navhl rendezvous, with England, on the Mediter- i ranean. It necessary, Russia will not only roh the | i luik of hiB mteiyening lauds, but also of the i silendid marine built near Constantinople, by Mr. j Eckioid, ano now lying comparatively useless i about the Rosphi rus It cannot be too often re- i peated that these two great enemies of the human ixif iirp nrtnnllv in nrprtntorv conclave for this i d? testable obi. ct. Thai the tact is not at all known in the United States, nor even to the small portion i of the English people who have any Knowledge of i politics, aniBcntB to little, and falls far short ot a < coriradiction. France is the only country now,in i Eurojie, w here there is a vivid intelligence ol to- j reign sflairs, and America is too distant to chal- i h uge the grossest robbery, while if) el rests chietly | in intention. I The ?/*g froid of the Dritish srovernment, while t the recent Russian spoliations of Turkey were go- [ ing forward, was Boat edifying. Ai home, Htter | < silence was nbseivt d ; but to the uninitiated, the c conduct of Mr. Canning, ber representaiive at the a court ol the Sublime Porte, was even more asto- E n j thing It has its parallel only with the ease of v ordinary confirderates in petit larcenies?thefts t] without force, where one of them diverts the at- F tendon of the owner from the vigilant protection n ot his property, bv false pretences. Every thief A knows that by sucn contrivance the asportation is d c mpaiatively easy tor him to whom is assigned ft that part of the adventure. Hence, " hunting in j n couples" is not more frenuent than stealing in part- s nership It diminishes tne risk, if it does divide p the profits, and, therefore, is an especial resource j wiih the chicken-hearted, who prey only upon the | i weakest of society. What, then, was Mr. Canning 1 doing all the time at Constantinople while Run- I , sia was making this honest acquisition from ! < the turbaned Turk?as it were, despoiling ^ the infidel 1 Was he in Christian, exemplary ; i fashion, keeping the commandments 1 The ! answer is, that afall events, he was apparently en- ; gaged in sacred studies, tor he was profoundly scanning the Koran itself, with the mind of a en- ' tic, and the heart oi a patriot. In the inidst of these abstract pursuits, how conld he hear of the fall ot Jassy, and ot Bucharest, and ot the Banguin- ' ary brutality of the Tartar or the Uorsack. His thoughts, if not wholly removed to another world, at least hovered upon the furthest confines of this 1 wretched existence. He was at home, alone with | Mahomet and his creed, pondering upon the de- j lusions ot that countless host which fills the ranks of the faithful in Oriental climes He truly seemed j a mac apart?a scholar in pursuit ot curious but j almost forbidden lore, slaking his thirst by stealth at new fountains ot knowledge. But neither the love of learning nor the pure spirit of controversy, nor zeal ot prosel>tiem, animated his inquiries.? In the midst ot all his studies, he was still an Eng- j lisbnian ; and he was scrutinizing the Koran, it j appeared, with the eye of one who felt the respon j nihilities of that most conceited of diplomats any , where?the British minister. And like all men ] intent upon an object, he soon discovered what , i i -L* .l:? it , J lit* Bougm, viz : Bumciiiiui; tu uisumi uir o'laimw Sultan, while the confederate (Russia) swept oft' Moldavia from the empire with his left hand, and j Wallaehia with hie neht. If any thins:, the stu* ! dies of her Christian Majesty's representative be- | came at that very moment so intense as to be all- 1 absorbing, llis conscience had been pricked by I a most grievous discovery. He found the enor- j hioub fault in Mahomet's theo-political svstem, | that Christians were not only in danger of future ; damnation, but that not one of them, at present, is, bv the Koran, recognized as equivalent to the } follower of the prophet. As some courts of justice , in the f'nited .States distinguish between the ad- I B mission of testimony given by a negro and that of I the white man, so it NMHUlTurkey the Turks j, do not place unbelievers ni>on the level of comiie- I 0 fence with themselves, Here was an invaluable j p discovery?most serious, opportune, and of an ur- ! v gency to JOnglishmen which required the immedi- I j, ale, and, it necessary, angry exiKistulation of their R {ilenipotentiaiy. True, the enormous evil had j r< ong existed ; but that was a reason for its prompt \ B( r? dress, if not for most extensive reparation. By .,] this time, the learned Br'tish pundit had probably I J? lieard of Russian ravages, and the jeopardy o{ the | | splendid Turkish provinces on the Danube. But \ j, was he, a Christian man, to hesitate, when so ? clearly in the line <it his duty, demanding redress, j, because another power, equally Christian with his j, own. was harrssping the wrongdoing Turk? He did his duty with a zeal becoming the ancient v fame of Smithfi? Id, and the exigency of a com- y mon cause which brooked no delay. Mr Canning earned his seasonable, as well as ' reasonable, complaint up to the immediate atten- J tit n of the Sultan. He was strong in the right, p and supported by the approbation of all Christen- c dom He clamored for justice, not after the Irish fashion ofinstalments, but jus ice, without denial : or delay, and at once. The feeble young man, A bdel Mejid, who, at sixteen, in l&W, ascended pl fhe throne of his ancestors, ten yearn after, at iwenty six, whs startled from his seraglio, where Hiimian terrors had driven hiru for consolation ? The divan whs assembled, and day after day the t| British minister absorbed the tr twilight faculties tj in canvassing the civil disabilities of nis countrymen on the confines ot Europe and Asia. The world is not advis? d of the result ot this magnifi- n cent appeal for the inipiirtial admission of witnesses irom all countries to tastily before the Turkish tribunals. But one is almost tempted to ask if Christians were made coni[>etent witnesses before . such judges as flourish under the appellation of j ' Cadis, and how much better would stand any of j j the interests which happened to be brought in question 1 How can you force the unbelieving Ma- \ ? hometan to put his faith and trust in the credibility of your heretic test mony I To Mr. Canning, however, all questions but the I f moot question were perfectly indifferent; and that. I perhaps, would have been less so, but for the very sufficient reason, that, meanwhile, when the ener- i , gies at the heathen were wasted in defending his ancient forms of justice and religion, the northern portion of the Thieves' Alliance was driving such c a smashing business on the Danube. The new ^ linn was warring against in?* enemies oi *,iiri?- : j, 11tinity, and despoiling them of at least one-fifth, | in a population of ten millions, and as much, or more than that proportion of a territory of nearly ^ ten hundred thousand square miles?something, ^ both tor church and -tate, to demand the felicitations of the saints ot all countries?even if some 1 such losses mb the extinction for ever of universal si suffrage and universal eligibility to oflice, with a h near approach to republican government, were in- hi separable Irom the opeiatiori! And, indeed, it is th not to be doubled that the partners have a mutual hi understanding that such a loss in gain, in the best A judgment of God's anointed 2W The ridiculous by-ulay of Mr. Canning was of di a piece with the whole system of ltriiish government. He conducted her diplomacy, in tnis particular case, as all things connected with the foreign and domestic relations of this most unhappy country are uniformly administered The most T protracted dissimulation enters into every,even the remotest, ramification of office, and characterises the entire series of public acts which make up a nation's history. It is not always that a great i . miniate* abroad comes so near to setting the 1 whole world to laughing by the lud crous nature of w his p'oceedings. And really it requires reflection ? open the villany of the entire transaction, be ore > one can restrain the temptation to let loose one's p risibility. It has been, from first to last, such a ? copy of that rhrf fl'rrwr* which ehipeter?H tba oetnch, that it ooatt l?t posaihly have | ^ iken place further north of the Desert than Con* t antiDople. I shall be told that Lord P ilmcntnii has had a | iiosl turious altercation with Baron Brunow, at ( he Foreign Office; and that the Czar has been 'iven to understand, through hia minister, that 1 England is surprised at the continued presence o( < ttushia in the Turkish provinces ; and, also, that I i ollowiog this interview, my Lord Palmerston has instiucti'd the pious Mr Canning to protest against Russia's conduct?especially Tor violating the house of the Turkish Commandant, and the seizure of a British subject, &c. ico. It will be demanded?as if it were difficult to answer?how can these facts be reconciled with a joint exploitation of " our ancient ally!" The reponse is very easy, with a word of explanation. The seizure of any Britisn subject by llussian3, in Turkey, was only by mistake. As for the rest, it is according to the established policy, even before Metternich came to Englund, ai d by which it is always stipulated that. in every British joggle, joint or several, at home or abroad, appearances must be saved. Same antiquated dowagers, who have access to ihe court, and other octogenarian i>eers, who are inikini; up their accounts with this world, would murmur il plunder was got and shared too grossly; and,therefore, the Secretary who does the foreign afr<tirs, trans|?orted himself extemporaneously into amost considerable rsge, and all for conscience sake. The affair will soon be forgotten, because an every day occurrence, and like the recondite search of the Ivoran, the letter of instructions to its last commentator, will, having served its purpose', rest in kindred oblivion. Hut it Lord P. be serious in his wrath, let me advise him to consider the consequences. A fatality, before which he and the ministry to which he belongs ere hut reeds shaken in the wind, has proclaimed the bans between England and Russia. The ceremony w ill proceed, whether he be coutent or non-content; for better and for worse, the sacred ordinance of marriage will be prostituted to that hi.srst of alliances which joins the hands of civifixation and baibaiism?the destinies of a historic race with those of savages. Not a choice remains. Till lately, Spain was yet ? congenial friend ; but even Spain had broken every tie of amity with ihe government of Great Britain; and thus the last opportunity tor choice departed. It is finished?the course of constitutional monarchy in Europe is ended. Austria proper is now in Btrong convulsions, and the lestol the States of Germany recoil Ironi England, in consequence ot their superior fystcms of education, ard their intimacy and sympathy with the United States and France. Other firM-rate power there is none to be enlisted In a crussde such us is now the sole mission of England and Russia. France, enlightened, chivalrous, and free, is to be their implacable adversary, ind the future arbiter of the destinies of Europe. As in February last, her motto is, "Afrirt aux roUurs" Wlule enemies of mankind are thus plotting its LJettructi< d, let ns take a rapid survey ot tlie oprosing forces. We will any nothing of the immediate eflorts of France ; she can be of no Bervice, at this moment, in active hostilities. I: is indispensable that she consolidate her republican institutions. Peace is, therelore, positively necessary for a while ; and by a special providence, England ' nas Resist* d, unconsciously, in assuring the nubility and development of French republicanism, >ut wnh no nod intent: tor sue has been desirous ?f keeping fiee prmcioles out of Italy, and, also, 1 if poisoning, diplomatically,the minds of the ralera a nd the people at Pans and in the departments 0 gainst self-government. At this most laudable ? oik. it is probable that Lord Normmrhy eclipses t re exhibition of Mr. Canning with the Ottoman o 'orte. In this couiiexton, you will not fail to rati- h late the depoiintent of the new French Minister, 0 idmiral Cecile, on the 15th inst., at the Navy Club ' inner, contrasted with the astounding conduct of c 1. Beaumont, his predecessor. The Admiral did c ot deign the slightest allusion to that political t ystrrn on which M. B. had stultified himteli by i anegyrtcs. t It tequires no deep study to perceive that Europe f s in a condition of defence to withstand the ' rheves' Alliance with success The most glorious 1 incouragement arises on every side. In the heart , >f Austria, in Hungary, the hero, Louis Kossuth, , whom I have so loudly signalized, has shown him- i self worthy ot all confidence. My eulogium did rim less than justice. He is a great man, placed < try, and he fills it as none of the men of the people 1 eho have men from these troubled times approach. ( He is, single-handed, shaking the fabric of the , Austrian empire to pieces, and at the same < time seems to become more wary after i hvery victory, llis strategy has been most i masterly in its very inactivity. He left his capital. ' and retreated to the hills and streams and ! loiests, where the roads were bad, supplies ' ensy tor him, but hard to get at by an enemy. ( and his forces are scattered in every defile and , Hionghold. Hunger, colu, desertion, and poverty, i Fire his allies, and thin the ranks of the foe No language can do justice to such conduct, when * i nation's fate is Ht slake It is the true, the in- ? innctble policy. If bluff Harold had not been a 1 itupid Briton, Norman conquest would have been ] Norman disgrace. He, doubtless, after dinner, ; However, must need rush do -vn'with all his painted lollowers, in all nakedness and absurdity, uuon the j mailed warriors of Duke William, at the plain of i Hastings, where an arrow soon cleft his scull. ' His safety lay in the mountains, and a few months , .,...,1... ! ?... 1... ......... 1.1 I -J-.-. f ? n i mi v iiviii iiiucr laouicooco nuuiu ua?r ucdii Kfy . ?d the invader, and kept away the feudal system, ] ivith ?ts countless ills, from England. Even Julius , L'u snr never conquered the 1'icts and Scots of j he Highlands; nor has ever warrior, less redoubt- l d, ! d an invading army to secure victory a t H-ople who had the w.sdom to avoid pitched bat- > les. I >id not Spain herself pale the lustre, hy this ' rery policy, of the whole constellation of French Marshals f At this moment, then, Louis Kossuth } s doing wonhily the work of the first among the , leroesof modern times. He has had the courage | 0 be discreet. Even the threats of Russia cannot t hake so constant and pure a soul. 1 At the meridian hour of his victories, we see r is cuuse supported on everv hand. The masses ? f Germany are pressing their respective legislative j. odies,at Franklort. Beilin, Vienna, and in all the g anous lessercapitals, towards the complete recogition of popular rights. Poland is heaving with the n liahty spirit of revolution; and even in the frosty s alms ol the Czar, the ear detects that grumbling A ound which has always affrighted mouarchs p *r- & lexcd with the fear of change. It is tune that the 0 rople ol Russia themselves should join in the pro- t( esaion of free nations; and that the spurned but 11 rreaist ble Hrmies of the North should copy the ? i? morable example of those of France, and march p 01 ward under the tlug of " Liberty, equality, and l ruternity." I 15ut, like a mid day meteor covering the h'-a- * 'ens, in comparison of the stars, It ily bus suddenly 1 tuist into eflulgence. The Eternal City heats ' gain the birth < ry of infant freedom, under hap- j uer nuspicts than those of Grncchi and Rtenzi. j lomcisfree! Rome is republican ! and starting \ mm the fJt)h I of nrnvisionHl eorniniltees. nlr<-s<lv n i (invention lias been called together, by universal t uflrsge, to mould the lahric of free government ' nto the proportions of nnother classic and famous ommonwealtta. Every day becomes more sacred J till; the month of February, and the Italian revoluon ol 1849 bid fair to rival the immortal French , niiiv( rsary of 18-18. I At this very instant, we have the news of the 1 rmibling of two other crowned heads besides 1 tie Pope. The Grand Dukes of Tuscany 0 nd Modena have taken to their heels, in * nest emulous flight, and old Kadetsky has s nude Charles Alnert incapable of the tr a- J on to the Italian cause ne meditates. How ^ nnch Ireer and ctee|>er the oppressed of Italy c oust breathe alter such a riddance ! And the entire lumnn race, should it not bend in devout thanks* :ivmg lor these good gilts, so highly prized in inn rics, end now so profusely scattered in the radle of liHtionsfl The subject deseives a volume reserve the consideintion of this grand event It vas necessary to reler to it here, for the support o ueh drooping spirits as are incredulous of tne uturc. Who is there in the United Strifes, I will lot say to despair, but to doubt the issue of the onnng contest between kings and the people ? ^ncland and liussia, if perfectly secure at home, nd ten times more united and formidable than hey can ever become, must succumb to the force I ideas wlucli is to decide the battle of principle ow at hand. It is in vain for national r< swtunce n Ire made, or for fleetH and armies to seek D crush the rising cause ol liberty. It has the irrertseihle I rre of mighty walcis. And it cun now no revulsion, It twell* like tbagulwaj; but ebb* (aot) llkoits ti Is " lie spoiler approaches, but the hosts of freedom ilvaiice to meet him, under a bsnnt r prouder than is ow n. It is said of the arch en*niy, that when e makes u pilgi image upon earth, a chill inns iroughout all animate and inanimate natu e. yet is present visible lncarnution in the Th-ves' limine, tias lost that mark ot it internal origin, len do not <|uail before it; nor does th- horizon jiken or the landscajie fade. Marcus. Our Dublin Correipon'lene*. Dt'iin*, Feb. 33. 1849 Vial of Puffy ?The Coon of tie Vontin lcd I'alriolo ? Railirayl, ft., |c. The nubile journals whleh will b? forwarded bv this all, will conrey U you tka reault of Mr. Chirlei <i J ully a trUI, which I may fay bat occupied the n ten- L on of the court and people during the latt fortnight r *olufi?riy much intrr*at being etteohaii to the ! ?na * !r. D'iffy l.k? again, for tie preterit, e-oupfd trao*- r ertation. and the packet which baa beon rra'tlog to A 'aft him to dlatant ahoree mutt aeneaeailly tall with- J' ?-? * e*M?M fcllat kll* j?i| JtTiowU Ik ,w>. | h iwlac proportloa: eight inn In ea?Tt*n? an aU he counts, three for en acquittal on the first, third 1 .nd fourth counts, whieh charged the prisoner with ntent to depose the Qneen, hut a eonviotion on the reond, whieh charged him with a design of levying ear ; the remaining juror, Mr Burke, was for an ae~ lulttal on all the counts Mr. Butt, on its being known that the Crown would again try the prisoner, applied to have the trial then commenced, or the prisoner to be bailed, neither of whiob applications was granted Mr Daffy must, therefore, await with patienoe till the next Commission, wbish oommenses on the 7th April it will be seen that the prisoner's intentions as to the formation of a republic in Ireland, were oontradieted by the evidence oi several leading public and tnfluen tial characters. The following is a list of the jury empanelled after a number of challenges William Byrne, roremen; wm. i>eragBj, jobii noimmun i neophilia Taylor, Kmhard W Bennington ((Quaker.) John Stokte. James Boawell, Martin Burke. Ju. k'orrsst, Hubert Graves, Charles Nicholson, >ud Wm. North. All tha necessary form* haar b?an gone lata aa regard Merit*, Smith O'Brien and the otter oonvictel Btate prisoners' writ of error, and an early day haa been fixed for aigoment before the Houae ei Lords ? The Kngilsh Attorney and Solicitor General, with Messrs. Monaban and Hetchell, hare been retained for tbe Crown, aod Sir Krederioa Theaiger, Mr. Napier, and Mr Kitxgera>d for the defenoe. it la confidently expected that tbe aentenoe will be rereraed, and the prlroners be liberated accordingly. Collection* were made in tbe diooeee of Meatb, on tbe 11th lnat. In aid of tbe Pope, to tbe amount of up warde of ?\ COO 1 aiu glad to tntorm yon that the great military foroe whlob baa been for aoine lime past in Ireland, la to be As you may anticipate, Lord John Russell's propotition for the uinendment of tho poor lair, In certain cares, to have a general levy at' (id. In the pound, has given, in some parts of ti a oountry, general dissatisfaction. Mr Uei.rgn MoCartney, an extensive landed proprietor, has addressed a letter to tbe rate payers and landed proprietors of Ulster, urging them to meet forthwith lb their respective unions, and to resist, by every iegiilirate mentis, the imposition (as he styles it) of so iniquitous a system of taxation. In parts of Ulster demonstrations are being got up which have evinced strong indignation at the proposed system. A deputation ot railway dirrotors waited on Lord Claxeudon last Saturday, for the purpose of laying before him a memorial solioiting a grant to enable them to complete their respective undertakings. Tbe terms are >jd ot their eoiuputea capital, with interest at SiJ< per cent, to commence at the expiration of tlve years from tbe last advance of loan, and to be axteoded over a period of fifteen years. Tbe Lord Lieutenant, however, did not hold out any hopes of the deputation's wishes being complied with, but stated that it was his earnest desire to render every asslstanee to Irish railways. If this boon was conferred, the overwhelming DObulation which ie at present idle, would, in a orreat tueasuie, find employment. aud thus relieve the country of the ruinoue system ot poor lawn which at prenent exists A company la about being formed for the purpose of amaluauiating the northern railways, no aa to have them all under one directorship, and thereby leenen the etook which at prenent in employed The Belfast Junction and Dundalk and Knuinkillen railway n were opeued for pnbllo traffic on the I5'.h. to i;aet!e Blauey, a distance of upwards of 70 miles from Dublin. I regret to Infcim you that Ireland has not partaken of the revival of trade whlolt In no apparent in England; a vinlble decrease iu the circulation of the Irish banks for the year ending 27th ult, compared with last year, by XtillO.ObO; in npeoie an increase of ?49,000. I'he Case of the Vail Inheritance and the American Coiiaut In 1'arla. Pabis, Keb 20, 1840. Sir? It is only a few days ago that the number of the 'leiulJ if the 28d ult., containing an artiole on the imerican consular system, oame into my hands. My .ttention was drawn to it by the following paragraph r a note from a very respectable lellow-citizen, Mr. Ill Bey, prvfessor of English literature in the Uni verity College of Bourges, who happened to oast his eye ver it in that city "Permit me to ask you if you ave read the New York litrald for Euro/it of the 23d f January, which has an artiola that affeote you peronally ? The hostility of the writer is tbialy disguised inder pi nfcesions of devotion to the Interests of Amerians abroHd. There is not one of these?and 1 teliiltate you on the faot?thst will not endeavor to icunteraot the efforts of your enemiee, by every meant n his power." The artiole may not, on olose perusal, ?arrant so revere an interpretation; but 1 find ambiguous circumstances, which you will allow me to ludi:ate, end, undeniably, both the suppression of truth ind the allegation of falsehood, whatever may have lx?n the motive of your informant. A man who, lite mvftsslf fie*# iff 0 w tint fha Imaat ill.will r\r ill mnwd f.nm iny human creature, aud who fuels personal hostility to none, Is yet, occasionally, obnoxinua to maltoe from carious causes of irritation. Since there is quite tnoughcfbad character on earth, entirely due and richly earned, you will agree with me, that we should all endeavor to save from any unjust aspersion what is usseatially good. Injustice is done to a (unotionary, however safe he may be in public opinion at home, where erroneous and exaggerated statement* of his oonduot are thus sent ibroad. t he rectification oannot appear but at a distant term, nor certainly reach the quarters in whioh in unfavorable impression has been produced, in a lcgrce. the national character suffers with that of the individual. Moreover, a spirit of liberality or fairness ?<.uld diotate, If not atimely previous communication >f the charge, express or implied, at least the Immediate transmission of it, In order that It might not fall to >e known where it ceuld poseibly he refuted. The casein question? that ef the Vail inheritance? recurred early in June, 1847; the affirmative deoislon >f the Secretary of State aud the Attorney General, te ; whom the whole equity, ae well as the strict legality, ! sas submitted, bears date the 16th of September of that pear, and the final settlement in Ootober. Why did your informant, so sealous lor the interests of the rtmerloans abrcad, allow a whole long session of Con lies* to pit** without a public suggestion, end watt qb- ! til b peiiou of th* second, wuen the consular bill could ' icareely be expected to come underoensld?rat.on ? We may presume-alnce h* has particularly mentioned the deolaion of the Seoretary and the confirmation of th* law oflloer?that he bad read the document. But be obaervea of Mr Buohanan'a "luminous and able jpoit of the oonaular system.1' that it pointed out all t* deleft*, and suggested appropriate correction*. Now. the Secretary, ao far from from signalising a* a lefect the provision of the law* which your informant rpiokales and requite* to be amended, vindicate* it imphatically and '-point* out"' it* various advantages. Again, on theauppoaitlon that the complainant waa icquaintcd with the text of the decision, how does It appen that be has exhibited, a* the sum received by he consul. 6 000 francs?nearly twelve hundred dal \ art? when the decision award* a sunt leas than that ly 776 fiance; which sum ia the one that waB reoeived. [he uiRerenoe?the oemmisaion on certificate* of Am*- 1 lean atocka?waa included in the ct naular bill of barges, without any intention of inaiatlng on it, but n order that all questionable points might be finally letermined in the reference Of this, the Secretary of Kate was informed. Such certificates had been entered >ng befcre on the consular books, a* part of the effects pon which the laws meant to allow commissions The ecretary decided in the negative, with my full assent. ls soon as the bankers, the Messrs. Hottinguer, refused ? plaoe the slocks of any description within the offlial custody of the Consul. 1 saw that a submission of 1 ; be whole care waa inevitable; 1 wished that thejudglent should be oomprehenaive. All the circumstances and correspondence were oomnunionted, and an opportunity was afforded to the re- j n-psnUt.v* ot the Vail estate, then at New York, to > nvestigaiethem all and oontest any olalm and point, lis slstsr. at 1'sris, lnfotmed me that it was his lnten- i ion -.o repair to Washington for the pnrpose?and I bust believe that he did so Conlormabls to the nriat d lustiuctioas of the Department of Slate. I had subuttted my proceedings and demand*, and my oo.raslondence, to the minister plenipotentiary In Paris, Mr. ! tush, who innetloned them, both verbally and in wrl- I tng. It ma; be noitd that the appr&tcument of the 'urnltnre?and in particular of jewelry -was allowed o r< main far below their real value, and the oommleion* to be thug reduced. 'I he Intervention of the Conenl in the inheritance. ?na rarnegtly solicited by the relativee at Parle, and ne representative at New Yerk. It wat. beeldea, obll;atoiy by law. All knew the consular demanda which rould ensue. The Consul'* agency waa unlimltedly emiloyed. In one of her note*, the sister of Mr Aaron fail whoeerved a* hi* attorney. *ay*. (August let, 847.) ''Although I have full confidence in your opinion cncsrning the property of Mrs Vail. I am glad to now that Mr. Rush ha* the earn* view of the case." 1 ite * not alone, ehe we* assisted by a gentleman of nature age. a near relative; by the Intelligent nephew, . in tl the deceased. In year* of age; and Invariably >y the advice of the banker*. All latitude wa* oon (led to her in the Innpection ar.d u*e of the con- i iut* if the apartments on which tho seals were iererearily placed; the keys were left at her dla>real; the eecretary of my office wai constantly | it tar command lor several months, my personal ser- , dee* and counsel* were very frequently need. Dating he tot season, I paid many extia visits to Paris from ny country residence, twalve miles distant, with rafeeace to her enterprise and wishes, and at no lncon- ' ldeiabie cost of health and money. Mr. Aaron Vail, 1 u a letter to me from New York, dated 2t'th August, i MT, hold* th * language : My sister expresses her- | If in grateful tvime tor the assistance ska haa re- j . ?e,i nom you In her trying position, and for whloh I , >eg that you will accept my own acknowledgments." Your Itiiormnnt err* in bin assertion that the oonanl ' efurrd to take cfT hi* seals until he bad received the nil M ount which be claimed He coutradlots himaelf, 1 cueed. in almost ihe same bream by this atemsnt : L nd'T the advice ot th* Messrs Hnttlbguers he (the lonsul) *?? paid t he turn of >411# thousand trance, prodded he would rrmiiva the seals " Tbl* ?a don# ?n b? ooDdlilon that th? ruui should be at one# paid, to i? applied to mere Miles expense*, and official seal#, of rbiob Indeed eorsidertEg the extra labors of the secetury of the < Wee. It fell far aliort, and it was to b# emprleex in the whole amount of the eammiaaions, td s' subject to the Secretary of State's da ieion I orinli.aMjf proposed that tbe whole amount hould be plaoed In deposit, or set apart, aub ot to his decision; which being dene, the seals ould be imn<edia(?ly removed- the lady relieved r- in (ilhlMM lespoariblhty? all tb? effects trane ned t? her?and the certificate necessary to enable er to pet notstsson of the stocks, at ones proided. 'I e iLla aimngement the slater and the banner* id not aceede uot'i the middle of August, i should ict hate in-posed these "tip illations it the resistanea t both to ihe operation* ef the laws of the United lates l ad not compelled me to etrugg'a to the last for ntlre vii tcry. Oiltciil duty ft-rbaieme to desist, or 0 yi> la finally, in any d'gree, to what Mr Bucheaso, n be opinion, properly calls an IFIexal barrier interon d by tl.< banners." lu their an>wer to my first pplleation Messrs. Hottinguer at Co wrote. Wo do ot know the American laws which may glee you tha ipbt of wbieh yru speak, and we ara m : at al) governd In Ptrls by those ie?* bnt by the French law* " It 1 sufficiently evident, however, that all wno bolder r represent Auierlnan Interest*, particularly wnen mericnn ifllcill upeicj it, employed are subject to i< se provisions rf the AuiMlcan law ? bion relet,, end r.nlv f o the inr*r?t rbe t rench tt???'trv letore I nwuew uaastvl ewe tea esveaw, eawevew Umss Use I bankers ft special consular certificate, effecting tki ? light under the Amerioan eode. to aek poeeeaeloo. c

To proceed to the peerage of jour arttele whiftk t. Bight he eoneuued to import that the Conenl committed ft sort of official extortion : " It ie too had that c. the serv eee rendered In thle oaae by the Coneui, whioh " really and truly amounted to but llttie, the oharge* " should be eo greet " Thie allegation of the relallre i lnsignifloanca or the eerrioee, ie the very reverse of the ti feet. In tbe first pleoe, the inoonvenieuoe, ooet, o trouble, and delays of tbe intervention of the French p authorities, which (he eonsuler agency precluded, are , to be taken, and largely, loto account. In theaeeoad, v let me refer to the subjoined oertifloate of tbe reepeetable person who filie the post of secretary in my 11 bureau The per oentage prescribed by tha law ah- * sorbs all tbe usual fees and othsr charges. It waa really little, compared with the real amount of tha 8 personal estate?two hundred and tllty thousand francs d rrmor* I nhould be willing to aver, under any nana- r tlen whatsoever, of honor or oath, that if I hail tore seen v the tiouble tbe irregular service the vexation* with . which i he alt sir was atteuded. and has been followed, . I would not voluntarily have undertaken it for doable the ruiu received I would raiher have sacrificed the 11 whole, tbau have iuourred the necessity of visiting * the Srcreta'y of State with the tusk which the expla- C nations and voucher) imposed on his kindly nature li aud ifllciai conscience I do uot believe that any ^ American lawyer or notary at bout-i, of auy oonside- j ration woulu have been satpned wita tne same com ( proration for transactions corresponding in meaenre, aurs'ion. and annoyance /tfii-r all, tbe up bat would be. tbat the Consul toak the commission* prescribed by tba taw fur 'he periorinmnoe of onerous duties Imposed by the law An exact proportion between tees aid Servians is not studied nor pre.-erved in any if the pubilo or private (unctions paid by salaries lees or per oentage Witness the learned probations, executors and administrators, members of legislatives, diplomatic agents, bankers- who rarely scruple to accept what accrues by law or customary demand ROB KitI' WALSH V. S. Consul. Euitoh New Yoke Mohninu Herald. OPINION OK Mil BUCHANAN* Washington. Nept Id, 1847. Tbe ptrtivs bare submitted to ma the question as to tbe i,mount ot oosiiuisi loos to which .Mr. Welsh is entitled, as Consul n( the United States at Paris, out Of the estate of Mrs. Juila Vail, deceased au American citizen, who recently died near that city. After a careful examination of the law, and the tacts of the case, I am very clearly ot opinion that he is entitled to the amount eharired by bim. ,6.6'JO 50 franca; deducting therefrom tbe suiu ot 77b francs, tbe commissions. at the rale of 2,1* per oent, on the Ohio and New Ycrk loau. The main objeotion seems to be tbe charge of oonsulur commissions upon the public loans and stocks owned by Mrs. Vail at the time of her decease; but It appears to me that the consular instructions, framed for the purpose of carrying into execution tbe act of April 14th, 1782 have ioug since settled this question in lavor of the Consul. Surely these loans and stocks, so far as they are Frcnob, are, in tbe language of the law, " personal estate left by any citizvn of the United States," within the consulate of Mr Walsh, at Parle and might have been sold by tbe Consul, had tbis been ueoessary, and applied to | "there contracted " Both the not of Congre?s and the instruction*, require the Consul to administer "the effects" of deoeaeed American oituens, "who (ball die within their consulate " The word "effect*" is uiost comprehensive in Its signification, and embracee, aa the instructions declare, "property of every description, including debts due." The aot of April, 1702, has proved highly beneficial in praotioe. It has ralleved the personal estates of Am-rioan oitiasns who ars abroad, from the heavy expenses and vexatious delays incident to their administration, by the authorities of foreign countries; and after paying the debt* of the deoeaeed, there oontraoled, has secured the balanoe to those entitled to itceive it in the Untied States. These benefits result altogether from the faot that the who e estate abroad is suljeoted to oousuiar jurisdiction, in exclusion of the local authorities. It it true that, in the pteBent oase, the certificates of the loans and stocks ot Mrs. Vail were never In the aotual possession of Mr. Welsh, heoauee the Messrs. Hotiinguer, in whoie hands they had b?eu deposited by the deceased, rt lured to plaoe these evidences of debt in hla custody. But surely this illegal barr er. interposed by them, to tbe execution of the aot of April, 17ti'i, could not impair the rights of tbe Consul, or relieve him from the periormauue ei his du ies. if it oould, the whole efficacy of the act mlgtt be destroyed by the rtfueal of rhiru persons to uelivrr over to the Consul ptoptrly of the ueoeased, or evidences of debt, in their possesion. * It. may he satisfactory to parties to know that Mr. Cliffotd. the eminent jurist who is now tbe Attorney General of the U cited States, oouours with me in this opinion throughout. (Signed) JAMES BUCHANAN. Washington, Sept. 10,1847. CERTIFICATE OF TUB SKCItXTAKY OF HIE CONSULATE Ai J'AAie. My attendance at the dwelling of the deoeaied Madame Vail *aa several hour* per day for about twenty day*, tor the purpose of affixing the oonsular teal* on bar effects, on the doors, trunks, boxes, Ike., and of taking an inventory and appraisement of the whole 01 the content* of her residence. '1 ne copies and registry consisted of at least one hundred and fifty pages of folio manuscript Triplicates ol the voltin inoue correspondence with the parties, aDd bankers, and the Department of Scats, wera neoeseary; they coneuued mueh time, sad oost a very heavy postage. During three months soaroely a day past that 1 was not occupied in transoribmg letters and documents appertaining to the Vail inheritance. 1 affixed from thirty to forty consular seals, indispensable for the security and legalisation of documents and records, and tbe final adjustment of tne inheritance. 1 have held my present post more than four years ; no business has oocurred that gave so niuoh wcrk, and was attended with so many troublesome details. For a long series of years. I have had ocoasion to be conversant with the bureaux and itransaotions of the notaries o< this cepital; I am quits sure that there Is no one of them whose bill of obarges for services of the same kind and extent, would not heve exceeded the whole oonsular olaim on the Vati inheritance JOHN BAR TLV, Secretary of the I oris, 20th February, 1840. Amerioan Consulate. The Kffket In Kiuope of the California Gold News. [From the London Times. Feb. 22.] The question whether a change in the relations ol property ie to take j>lace Irom the discoveries in Calitornia still remains unsettled. For the past n month or two anticipations ot a social revolution t have fluted before us, until they have come more c or less to be enteitauied by the majority. There | are still, however, a large number whose personal t interests arc involved, or who are indisposed te c credit extraordinary events at any time, who re- a sut the w hole aflair as sn exaggeration. On the v telaiive correctness ot either party the accounts i ot yesterduy will not throw much light, and we a must theretore, peihaps, wait another fortnight lor h more detinue means ot judgment. One tact, how- 6 ever, to be strongly rernaiked is, that alt the ac- 1 counts, come through what channel they may, tall j] the same tale. lTpto the present tune not a smgle h instance has been made known of any individual b upon the ti*>t, or in its neighbourhood, whether at 1 ban Francisco or Monterey, having nut torth a c word of dissent or disappointment. This unitor- g mity would be a striking testimony ot truth, even \ it every man in California were known to be un- y woity ot personal credit, or to have some strong i motive for deception. As regards motive, more- t over, it must lie recollected that if the findings ? were not apparently inexhaustible, it would he on i Mom persons, therefore, will admit that if great i < llects have not absolutely been shown to be inevi- j table, they are at all events to be regarded as ex- i trrint ly probable; and that it is consequently not f premature, pending the arrival ot more decisive t news, to attempt to calculate the way in which t they will be develo|>ed. t The one grand result is plain to everybody. Debtors will be benefitted, and creditors will be f the suflerers. All persons holding annuities, whe- i ther in the government funds, ule interests, gua- ) runlet d railway chutes, fixed ground rents, <Vc., or | having any specified amount to receive at some t future dale, must be prepared to find that the pay- i ments thus to accrue to them will purchase fewer ] comrrn dtties in proportion to the change which o may take place between the relative supply of com- p modifies and ot gold. The grantors ot these an- a nutties, on the other hand, including the ubltc, as r lar as concerns the national debt, and all persona p nude r encumbrances, us well as those who may ( hold Jong leases, will proj>ortionably be gainers, v The problems to be solved arise out of the extent i to which individual cases will be modified by their v dw i) | ctuhar circumstances, and also by the van- p dus crn j ensations and adjustment which will be [nought to bear on tfiem by the simultaneous dia- ^ luiham es which are taking place in others. The iduplicated na'ure ot these will employ and perplex sll minds; and, us in every instance where novr I conditions have suddenly arisen, the wisest r and most rational calculations ot what would re- p 1 ult, have been tounri in points not only to be pi rti? in ous, but ub-olutel) directlv opposite to what 1 [ids filially hupps ned, we nisy lely mat nothing will g lip I,lit (lit Wit rri lit tliw nrnuniit m/.moM* ....II , ? -?V I'M aiiciiarin nmtil Win H uoi years hence hav? to be lurif ly coi r? cted, when s< i'Ui tpt culntions shall be tented by experience w It ilir pohable extent ol the cause by which the li hsr get which may b< impending are to be wrought m h sub ime in its vagueness, and the q Mention whe- g lier gold ik henceforth to be freighted to us in tf mnces, pounds, or tons, is a matter ujion which p< rre guess would fie us reasonable aa another, al- pi nsst hs wholly are we in the duik us to the stock if j|*>n which the supply is to 0|*erate. x:f20,0(K).000 ?i ius Inen upturned to be the Hniount at preseut held It tiliuro|e and America, but nothing can be more u oote than Hie esiimute, mid Mt the saine time, the fr iuantit> enisling in plate and other lorm-t, can si lever he arrived ut. si I ageing then the vain question as to the force o triib whitfi spproach'tig events may come upon t?is, we inuet cntiiely linut our vu w to their direc- rr ion. ir As regards the public funds and the prices of H .'BiioiiH d? sciiptioiiH of | roperty, it Feems obvious h. IihI no alterntion in tutor should result in the c?sc m if annuities ?f any descript on, because these an- m luilie s being pnynnb in gold ihe price of the prin- hi npal in gold must still Lour the same relation to tl h?ni As tar, therefore, ?a any direct action is di oncen eri, consi Is should not heaf|c''t>d. It the tc ?JWC VI -i ?lt L ' *.H ; ! I.'ifpr ' 4-..- " i rould find bin ?3 in?rrest purchase only what he an now obtain tor ?1 10* , and it be were to sell is ?100 stock would also find the parhaving power of the product to be only ?47. For lie tame teutons the rate ot discount would regain unaffected A man in business requiring 2100 now, tor which he pays three per cent, would ben require ?200 to exchange for the same amount >t commodities, but although he would thus emloy ?200, and pay ?6 fur its us, the alteration rould be merely nominal, as the figures 200 and 6 vould then be but different symbols for a uurcaanng power, which is at present expressed by 100 nd 3. On the other hand, investments in real property, uch as laud, railways, houses, ships, canals, locks, bridges, mines, Arc.; would all assume a lominsl value ot twice their present amount. This vould not be a real increase, but while the annuiant would absolutely lose halt his income, the hareholdrr in these concerns would experience 10 such fate, but would remain precisely in hispreent position. Where the landlord, or the railway ir canal company, Arc., now charge ?1 tor lands rt or goodB conveyed, they would then charge ?2, nd would thus double the dividends to their sharemlders, who in turn would find these nominally louble dividends esctly equal to their preseutones. llut although these things would result Irom a liiect doubling ot the supply of gold in the world, heie are many modifying circumstances which mu.-t arise from the change being a gradual one. lu the first place, gold being the standard in this jouniry, an undue amount would be likely to be shipped here by parlies who might permit it for some little time to lie in de|>o>it, and as it would hue increase the circulation; without at the moment stimulating trade, its first effect would be ail ihe funds. The amounts shipped also for re:urns in goods will create a sense of prosperity, which may act contagiously, and cause the funds o rise solely Iroin sympathy. In this way they might, without true reason, go above pur, and thus 'liable the government to make another reduction ?from which, however, the holders of Three-andi-Quarter ter Cents would be exempt, the coniiiion in their case being tha'they are not to be leduced to three percent till 1851. and that they ire then to leinain untouched till 1871. On the opposite side, it must be taken into ac* .uuui, ii'hi many persons aidrmea a*. me uuimaie prospected the lundholder, may seek rapidly to : h?ngt' thetr investments, to shares in conip niea basednn real estate. Consols might thus be unwarrantably depressed, and shares as unwarrantably raised. Again, it is impossible to calculate bow tar h vague excitement may operate in inducing people to melt down articles of gold and to apply the proceeds to such investments, by which they would still further be sentbevonda rational rice, in this way, shares ol land might come to be bought so much loo high as compared with the lunds, that the quiet holder ot ihe latter might i'trr all be in the best position. One thins is certain, namely, that whichever way the public rush, trie movement is sure to so loo fitr, and that hance, e-actions will occur such as to show tnose who do rot stir at all, that they have not suffered much by their supineness. in estimating the various circumstances calcuated to counteract the California supply of gold, nuch stress has been laid on the additional quanlty likely to be used in the urts, and also upon he less profitable mines being thrown out of rperation. Neither ot these considerations seem o deserve the weight that has been given to them, indeed, it may be questioned if inferences should lot be drawn of a character directly opposite. It would require a considerable tall in the value of gold to bring it into greatly increased use for domestic purposes, while on the other hand, the east commencement ol a decline might create a silly panic, which would not only briug hoards of plate upon the market, but would also cause persons to torbear from purchasing; while as regards the less productive mines, the immediate effect of the Cahforniun competition will be to stimulate the use of improved arrangements, especially in the Ural and Siberia, by which much larger quantities may be obtained with the existing amount at labor. The Hvidity with which other tralitionury gold mines iu Central America, Borneo, tnd elsewhere, will now be sought out, must also >e considered. jj. There is, however, one element of the question which, as it will tend to cause the effect ot the i: I ... _ j ... _:i uetuTci/ iv rAiriiu 111 <t gimi uckicc iu stiver us veil as to gold, will have an equalizing influence. )n the continent, where gold and silver are equaly a legal tender, silver has become the recognised nedium of payment, brcause, having decreased in ralue as compared with gold Bince the standard vas instituted, it is the most profitable mode for hose who have debts to discharge. Let the supply >t gold, however, prove sufficient to do away with he premium it now bears to silver, and from that nonient gold will, in these countries, become the lominon standard and the tall in value will, henceforth, from ihe use of one and the disuse of he other, be distributed to a considerable extent >etween the two metals. There are also two other points of modification, f gold were reduced to half its value, then the taper ci culation would descend as low us if, at he present moment, there were notes for ?i 10a. this would tend to render specie less necessary, md still further to decrease its value. On tne ither hand, the sovereign and the half sovereign >eing only worth respectively 10s and 5s , the use if gold tor small coins would be increased. Looking at the complicated interests which are table to be aflected, it need hardly excite surprise bat propositions have already been put forth in Lngund for an alteration in the standard, in order to irevent the threatened changes, it being urged that, vithout loss of time, silver should now be adopted, t may be ieared that, apart trom what must take ilace on the continent from the eflect of a great uiplyot gold, neither silver nor any of the prenous metals will h? nceforth be regarded as very :liangeless measures of value. Be this, however, is it may, there can be no shadow of a plea for atenipimg to alter ail existing bargains, merely beause ilie terms have turned out more favorable or the debier than was expected. At the tcrminaion of the war the reverse was the case; but all outracts were then fulfilled to their strict letter, nd ihe same tustice must be meied now. Gold ras selected as a t-tundaid, not us au uncliangeaile, but us the least cbangt able ot all commodities, lid there can be lew who have not at tunes specuuted as to the possibility ol a suddenly increased apply, such 88 luid once already happened rom the discovery ol America, and which rem unexpected causes was just as liable to lUppeii again. The contingency has been always eiore us, and those who have overlooked t must not ask society to relieve them of its onsequences. There is no reutrnn to suppose, if old had become less abundant, winch was quite vithin the range ot t rohubility, that creditors vould then have called tor a law to enable their intoitunate debtors to pay in silver or in any other liferent na tal. In 1823, when such a result was mticiptted from the rtvo utioaa in South Amerieo, lOthteg ot the kind was heard ot. Moreover, it is pule certain that it the d uuors, at the time when hey made their contract, had bound themselves to ia>,not merely in god, hut in whatever metal night move more valuable, in ease gold snould luodeiil) became theuper, iliey would have been ntitled to better terms than they ever obtained; ind thai, us ilic absence ol such terms, it la plain he bargain was intruded to be a bit rul one. That, wliile the iiiajouty I. el elated, a verv large tody ot persons hear ol each confirmatory account rom Culitemia wnh u confused feeling of ap,>relet.siou and dismay, is a t.ict to be admitted with win, 'although, perhaps, it directly questioned, he) won d confess rnst this is scarcely the spirit n winch the ojemng up ol u new store of one of ature's most useful gifts should he met. b or our iwn put, aoppoomg it to be ooafirmed, wo shall e disposed io regard it as the commeicement ol n era which will be marked by a rapidity of comnercial nr.d maritime progress beyond anything I1C >VUIIU HUB J'Cl att II, lllia l(> D< III-Vf tllilt HO CdS-8 t disturbance of nid'.vidiitl interests will ause ihich may not be more ih in comis-iisated, even o Ihese parties th' mr-elves, by tin* advantages ibich, from dirmiiishe<1 taxation and extended rude, will be universally dillused iffnlis of Italy?The Intentions of Austria? The Congress at Uru?nel?. it-mill (be l.HDdGD t IttieS. ??b. 93. J Count Colloredo, the Austrian Envoy, has arivrd, as whs expected, in this couutiy. not lor the urpote ol entering at once upon th- duties of his oet as the Imix-nal Atnhaasador at the court ot ingland, but merely to Ultimate to the British uvemment the views ot the Austrian cab in-1 with teience to the approaching conference ol Brus?ls. The language ol the Austrian mi.nster is, -e believe, veiy d>i t>net, Hnd very fatal to the deisiens which Una lialiau WleWH has fostered, monnst those at lesst who chose to be so egrelously deceived The court of Vienna announces lat it does not intend to surrender or concede any i*rtton whatsoever ot its tetritnrial rights in the [evinces ol Lomhardy and ol Venetia, and that it prepared to defend those- rights, it thev be again Hacked, with the whole siiength of the empire, is the intention of the Emiteror Fran..-is Joseph > establish in bis Italian Hominioiia institutions tinted in a spirit ol liberal concession, arid deijiim! to promote the national well-being ol his ibjecft South ol the Alps. For the satisfaction I tin sr powers which have displayed a lively in. rest in the Italian cans", the Austrian govern* lent is prepared to state, at Brussels, what these itendea concessions are; but, as th'.s is entirely question ot internal government between the end ol the < tnpire and n portion of his own doutiii i s, no foreign interference will be asKed or 'cepted on the subject, and the mediation which nri l et n talked cd will have as little to do with ic o< net i i in ion ol Lmnl arriy as with itr indepenMice. The only remaining topic with reference > this purr of the caee is the negotiation lor peace j A"..-'!!?. .r.'j, L '.1... ... 5.' .! fee led bjr the address ot the diplomatist* at lira*, fee la, they will render aoine service to Birvtie, but the aole difficulty which they will hive to encounter Ilea not with Aattriu, but with Sardinia, or rather with the revolutionary party which threatena that uuhappy couutry with the combined evil* ol foreign war and a dumeauc revolution. It baa pleased the English and French govern* menta to keep alive till the laat moment a fiction, perfectly harmleaa m the reBt of Europe, if yoa will, but contemptible everywhere, and supremely mischievous in Italy. The mediating powers had encouraged the ItslibO* to believe that bo me portion at leaat of their national claims would be a** cuied to them by this French and Enaliah interference. It ia true that tne Italians have ruined their own cbum; by their cowardice and their violence, but their failure deea not absolve those who were foolish enough to espouse that cause front the charge of having deceived and forsaken a people. Hence the extreme bitterness ot what i* culled the national party in Italy against the statesmen who interfered in their behalf, and against the king who alone (ought their battles. The laaSiage now held by the Austrian Euvoy is precisely at which we have adhered to throughout thin discussion. It is the lauguage which tne Frencix government has tor some tune tacitly adopted, especially since the mission ol General Pelet has established the complete weakness ot the Pied nioiiirsc lurcrs, tua since me ueciaatton 01 MOI? shal Buge.iud has directed the whole military strength ot the French republic to its internal difficulties. 11, theretore, it ever entered into the mind ot any English statesman to reward the tieachery ol Charles Albert, and aggrandize the house of Savoy at the expanse ot our most constant ally, that notable project nas met with its deserts, and ended in an humiliating lailure. But although the question ot Lombardy is virtually closed, that ot central Italy lias acquired, within the last lew weeks, great additional interest, and this interest may be still iurther increased by the probability Genoa and Turin will, ere long, repeat tbe experiment ot Leghorn and Florence. The Abbe Gioberii will find extreme diHiculty in maintaining his position since it has become necessaiy to turn the diplomacy, and, probably, the arms of Charles Albert against the revolut.onary nolicy ot Mazziiu and the republics of Borne ana Florence; and whenever the present Piedmontese government shall till, the monarchy will iina lttelr, like the governments of the Pope and ot Leopold II., with no alternatives but armed resistance or the abyss of anarchy. It is, however, toriunate that, in presence ot these tresh and increasing dangers, the dtvistsu of opinion winch unhappily existed between Austria and the Western Powers with reference to Lombardy does not apply 10 tne more advauced stages at which the Italian revolution is now arrived. The debate wh'ck has just occurred iu the National Assembly ol France on thievery question demonstrates beyond all doubt what are now the intentions ot the French government and the wishes ot the French people. On the 24th of May last, M. Drouyn de Lhys himeelt, the present Minister of Foreign Atto i i-u rl au mar itn aiir) sua /i i.?Ut..L a 1. ? A ? tour, Uivn up auu irau m I roviUUUU, nuiUM WUV AB< sembly unanimously adopted, exhorting " the Exicuitve powt r to take as ihr rule of its conduct the three great principles? FiuUrnul compact with Germany?Rscoiistitution ot Poland?Emancipation ot Italy" On the ot February, before tvtnthe first anniversary of the revolution has come round, M. Ledru liullin and M Uac are the solitary cnsnipious of ihe Italian cause?the Assembly reluses even to listen to its own former resolution?M. Drouynde Rhys disdains to recognise such popular revolutions or such base-bora republics as those of Rome and Florence?aad & Protestant clergyman, M Coijuerel, gets up to tecomnieiid that the Pope be rertored to his throne and his capital by the combined torce of foreign armies. The republican experience ol the French at home, has evidently given them a more just csiimste of the value oi republican institutions els? where. It is instructive 10 remark, that not t rily is the revolutionary propaganda of 1793 totally extinct amongst the luluig party and the gieat majority ot the French nation, but that in all piohability the lories ot the republic, if used at all, will te used aeain&t the demagogues of Italy, and that whatever measures the state ot that country may rmderindispeusuble will be taken with j>erlect accrrdance between the Catholic and other continental powers. Alter a year of revolutions, which has just completed its appalling circle, this result at least rt mams to the world?mat the cans* ol older triumphs by the excess ot disorder, that France herseli is once more capable ot lending whaiever strength she still retains to the conBerva tive party in Europe, and that whenever the influence of our own country has leaued to the side ot insurrection and revolution, it has been signally deleated. We observe that some of our liberal contemporaries who had distinguishtd themselves some months ago in chasing ' the barbarians beyond the Alps," and had consigned the King ot Naples to peidition. are now toremort in admitting the necessity ot intervention. We confess that their precipitation in one sense is as Utile to our nuud as tneir prscipitauon in another. It wouid have beea well to have obvi ited these calamities ; but as they have now actually taken place, we see no immediate reason to relieve the people ot Italy trom tlie consequences ot their own perversity and guilt. It they preter the government ot assassins and conspirators to tbat ot Pius IX. aud Leopold (1., let ihem try it: aud if ever Italy is to make any progiess in rational liberty, it will, probably, not be until she has taken a lesson trom the excess of unaithy. One cause alone would seem to justify a decided military interference, and that is the actual provocation ot a fiesh war with Austria, which is everywhere nude one ot the leading features in the scheme ot trie revolution. Mazzint, though nut very fond ot leading hi persou, una more addicted to diatiibes than to battles, has pledged himself to lead the hosts ol Italy on their march to Vienna. Count Mamiaui's humble question, "Where are our armies!" was met oy a shout of ignorant and ungrateful scorn in the llomun forum. And if the national party in Italy continue hxed tu their stern resolve to subjugate the German empire, it is not impossible that tneir first overt act ot aggression may bring the Austnaus to Rome and a French squadron to the coast. The Designs of Kutaio In Tnrkey. [From the London Standard of Freedom, Feb 33.] As we fully exacted and anticipated, and as we have more than once warned our readers, Russia has essayed her first move against the Ottoman empire; and, if the accounts ot the transaction are tube hf lifVFfl- hua f*Ml it-H Waa havs uliMddL i?vnluina/l that his insidious power hue been, tor some time, in actual possession ol the fine province ot Wallachia. 'lhe unprincipled means by which that possession was accomplished we also described. It now teems that 11a ulterior step hus been hazarded. llttving Wallachiu in iheir grasp, and the neighboring province of Moldavia in a position nearly similar, the Machmveliun cabinet oi the Uz ir has proposed to the S;uitaa and Iiih ministers a treaty, under tne provisions ot which, an J under the pretence ol crushing revolutionary ideas, these two fine pr? vniceB were to be placed lor seven years under Muscovite tutelage, alter the expiration oi which period their ultimate destiny was to be del?........ .1 Tl,.. ? i hid uciiijr, ui course, amounted to a. cession of these territories to the rapacious Russian. After seven years of Russian occupation it is surely eleur that there countries must have passed under the donitmon ot Russia No enginery capable cf producing such a result would hive been omitted to t>e set in motion by the cunning occupants, and the resit,t could only n?vebreu one. It the stories of foreign journals are to be trusted, however, this deep scheme has been, for the present, baffled. Seeing that this w.u only one step more towaids the ultimate oceu.ra'ion ot Constantinople itself, the French and Austrian ambassadors, it seems, plucked uphrart]to us>tst the unfortunate bultati|tn fits strait. If left isolnft d, the DiVau would not have dared to re I use the treacherous proposal ?f tue uopiincipled Muscovite ; backed, however, by France and Austria, the Porte got spirit to demur to a scheme to palpably nefarious getting Fiudco and Austria resolved, Lord Palmerstoa gathered contuse to join in the protest o| France, A ittna, and Turkey, and, we Hre told, r?ullv talKed to IJruntiw, the Russian ambassador her-', as tl he were a Cromwell or a Chatham It his gasconade hail been all, Rruuow must have been (Knowing what he knows.) immeasurably diverted but France and Austria are not yet exiclly to b-defied upon this topic, and the story now g.vs thai the Czar has " withdrawn his pretentious," and bucked out. That Nicholas msy have withdrawn Ins overtures in iotm we can readily believe ; b it this h9 has done only to put them again forward at another oppoitnuity, and in a modified shape. In the meant nie trr sh intrigues will go on. Pussiniv the two provinces will be urged and goaded into some retoli. The revolt will be attributed to Turkish emissaries ; and thus fresh ground lur u hostile rii rnnnMtatii n against the sultan, and an ultimate eei/ure of his provinces, will he obu. u-d. If France tmd Austria tire too trienuly, something will be fomented lu Italy to distil, b if possible that good undi rstahdinit ; and in a lew tnontna we shall ngHin see another grasp at the two provinces made hy the Czar. No man who knows the nature of Kustian policy wdt doubt this ; those who do not Will hardly derin it credible. foreign mi?e?llany. The newa ol an mourn ctton tu Modem is not confirmed. ' A portal convention between France and Bel- * giuni is on the eve ul being ratified. Eliza Cook, the poetess, n about to commence a weekly periodical. Th?re were 824 butts of wine exported from Port SSt. Mary and Xerei, in 1848. to the United 8t,atcs.