Newspaper of The New York Herald, March 20, 1849, Page 7

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated March 20, 1849 Page 7
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Tkt rugtt< of (Be Orud D?k? of Tuuj U ob Basilife PMat of View. f1 10m tb? London CSroniols, fab M] Th? flight of the Grand Dute of Tuamjr is the ^>li?a of the many sad and atiamef ill soeaea which have disgraced that country, once the must peaceful, prosperous sad happy in the whole ai retch of the Italian peninsula. Leopold II.. the best and most beloved of Italian sovereigns, whose reign has made Tuscany the garden ot Italy, and enriched every town in his dominions with monuments of an active and mdicious beneficence and an unostentatious liberality, finds bimsrlt compelled alter giving his subjects all they asked, almost before they asked it, to escape into exile on board a foreign steamer, from the capital where he lately enjoyed an unbounded and well merited popularity. His career has been an unfoitunate one. From us, at . i i n i.:. ..... -i -i --J icasi, uo Uioii receive 1119 uue snare 01 rcBjrcui ana consideration. An Austrian prince, and bred in the traditions of his family and his adopted country, he has nevertheless stn-ggled hard and long, not indeed to buflet the surges of revolution, but to ride through the storm, without endeavoring, directly or indirectly, to lean upon the ever-ready arm of Austria, or to protect himself from nisown subjects, by borrowing the vast military resources of the head of his house. Unsupported at home, shrinking with a pardonable exce?s of humanity from measures of military coercion, and justly reluctant, perhaps, to unsheath a sword likely to shiver in his grasp, he has endeavored, by concession after concession, to keep his hold <>n a people to whom he had done nothing but good, and from whom he had a right to ex*>ect nothing but good in return. Inch by inch he has retreated to the farthest extremity of the plank, uutil a last backward step sent him toppling overboard. A p-ovisional government, the puppet of the demagogue Guer razzi, reigns in his stead. In signing the ordinance which announced the adheBton of Tuscany to the ItuJian Const ttuente, Leopold well knew (hat he was virtually abdicating las throne. But this, it seems, was not all. The censures of the church, denounced by the Council ot Trent against those who should invade the temporal authonty ot the Pooe, and which censures Pius IX , had recently decid ed applicable to all abettors ot that hopetul scheme ot Italian unity, were to him a more terrible |iea.?ltv than the loss ot his crown. He consulted the For. till, and the answer confirmed h's fears U.table to recall the concession?which it is probable that he would never have been able to withhold?yet determined to tree himselt trom the guilt of an involuntary participation in the sin, he lost no time in quitting Sienna, and by the assistance of the English minister, iound means to embark on beard of an English steamer, the Porcupine, intending, it was supposed, to saek a retuge in the territories ot the King of Naples. The spec* acle ot a monarch going into voluntary exile in order to avoid an excommunication, adds another novel incident to the episodes which have given its peculiar color to the progress o/ the revolution in Italy, and of which the escape of the Pope was the most < haracteristic and picturesque. Revolutionized Florence, a prey to anarehy in its most repulsive form, will, we presume, cast in her lot with republican Rome. All these deplorable events, the last of which Vve have just recorded, tend but too visibly towards a consummation most pamiul to every one who desires the treedom and prosperity ot Italy?foreign intervention. Tnere is no spectacle which more deeply revolts and disgusts the ieelings ot an Englishman, than the sight ot a people who cannot settle their domestic quarrels, orgauize their own form of government, or maintain the indispensable safeguards of law and order in tneir own streets, without the help of foreign politicians and foreign soldiers. Time was, indeed, when it was not sc with us. In the days of the earlier Plantagenets, when the realm ot England had a continental frontier, the idea of French intervention was popular enough, as the monkish historians show, with the cowled and mailed liberals ot this island, who compared the overbearing prerogative of tbeir own monarchs, with the greater license enjoyed by their neighbors across the channel, under the feeble rule of the French kings. But centuries of insulation have given a healthier tone to our moral constitution, and implanted deep in every English heart that honest jealousy et foreign interference which makes us despise, from the bottom of out hearts, those who solicitor submit to it, even from ourselves. With ttie Italians, it is far otherwise. In Tuscany and the north of Italy generally, (we do not include Piedmont, throughout the greater part of which we hope and believe that a healthier feeling prevails,) intervention, from one quarter or another, is on every body's tongue, and the longing for it in every body's heart. Whilst two-iliirds of the people are sighing for the Austrians, the other third are bawling tor the French. And as the plague of anarchy spreads wider and wider, as the feeble barriers raised by a succession of governments, each more imbecile than the preceding, vanish one by one, as the curse of eternal discord frustrates every effort at reconstruction, and reduces every semblance of a controlling authority to a more helpless and hopeless impotence?we cannot wonder it the cry .......... ........ ....o ....... T,.? Tiuno uiuic auu iu*>ic luipaiicui. xur unit is ast approaching ai which trie distress consequent on the ovci throw of an established government begets its inevitable consequence when tha industrious classes, patient, tmud, and mart as they are during the swing ot revolutionary excitement, are at last goaded into activity, and clutch at any weapon, however destructive to their own highly prized political liberty, to protect them from the more palpable and terrible danger ot impoverishment, i lsetv and famine. The ata~vin" pruletuire rushes mbdly into a Jacquerie?the half-ruined citizen implores the aid ot a disciplined soldiery, on any terms, ami at any price. Towards that lamentable crisis, revolutionized Italy is fist progressing. In Piedmont, indeed, where the bulk of the gentry and nearly the whole ot the rural population are still well alleeted and loyal, and th? government has on toot a native arqiy sixty or seventy thousand strong, Charles Albert might at once, by assuming a vigorous and decided attitude, crush the propaganda of anarchy within his own territories witnout the help ot a single French or Austrian bay onet. But the rest ot the Peninsula, lrom Sptziu down to Terracina, presents a chaos ot conlusioti mcauable, we greatly fear, of being reduced to order by the agency ot any indi? . ?. T I.. *%.. .. I.. >9 gniuu? pimri vvuiuii liuijr tnu DU|i[>i)r. ausiuat says Marshal Bugeaud, to the good tolka ot Lyons and Bourges, "has been saved by her army." He might have adavd, that France and Prussia, il they weather the storm, will owe their sulvatiou to trie same source. This lesson, amongst others, the events that have gassed betoteour eyeB have taught us?that there is a point at not a very advanced stage in the progress of a democratic revolution, at which a disciplined army, in the hands of any party or faction Btronjj enough to wield it, becomes palpably the only available engine for preserving the fabric ot society from utter ruin, and mat it is an engine which no man, be he monarchist, constitutionalist, or pure republican, will hesitate to employ. But in the smaller Italian States this resource is wanting The Dettv militia, wh eh forms tneir regular inili tary force, has melted at the time of trial into the mass ot disorder by which it whs surrounded. Amidst the cohue of mad priests, infidel journalists, and needy adventurers of every class, the staple material of a democratic revolution, with then iooli.-h, flimsy Con$t.itnenle, and their card>castle of Italian unity and inriepi ndence, what prospect la there of the restoration of thst tranquility in which the Peninsula has so long thriven and prospered? what hope of ohta'ning tor her those increments of civil and political Itbe ty for which she rav< s, and which we hope one day to see her enjoy 1 In spite of those complications in the web o European politics which anpear to preclude any one of the grent powers from siruely interfering in the ntiaii8of Italy?in spite of the tnanv reasons which render it desirable for them all that she should be lelt to put out the blaze in her own house with hei own buckets?we ate unable to flatter ourselvei that events will not, sooner or later, take their ole course, or that the revolution of 1SI8 will be recorded in history as the first Italian imbroglio no unravelled by the rude hands of the statesmen and soldiets of the north. Capture of a Vogue In Paris. Oa'Iigoain'B Mens *>ger, of the 22-i tilt, says: ? " Three days ago, a man, very meanly clad, presented tor payment at M ears, ftn hsohilds, a bill of exchange tor 520Ir , drawn at New York. Th< cashier. entertain inn eonie douhls. uueationed the man as to how lie cmie by the bi I, hiiiJ he at once said that he; was commissioned to present it b) another person. The cashier still refused to paj it without the real holder coming to endorse it On Saturday, the commissioner returned with hit employer, who peremptorily insisted upon haviuii the money, and signed the receipt on the back o the bill with the name of Guillaume only. Thii confirmed the suspicions of the cashier, who stil refused to pay it until the identitv of the holdei was established before a commissary or police On hearing this awful name, the holder of the btl ran oirat his utmost speed, and the cashier, wit! one of the servants of the house, followed as ra pidly as they could, hut could not overtake him til they saw him jump into a cabriolet, and duve of as fast the horse could go. The cashier put thi servant into another cabriolet, and directed hirt to pursue the fugitive Some time afterwards, M Both? child sent M. Martinet, one of his chie clerks, to lay an information before the crnnmis ary of |>olice, who, to his utmost surprise, toll him that he had the rogue already in custody. Tto servant had tracked the fugitive to a house in thi Kue du Chantre, and managed to have him ar rested. He turned out to be a man named Renou; Jean, employed at the Poet Office, who had ae creted the letter remitting the bill, and made thi attempt to obtain its puvmeul. He was condnclei to the Prefecture of Police, and is there incarce rated until he can be brought to trial. iiauumiiiB mutuiwiMiw iMii B?B? Tk? gwifH Baftn. [Froib ths LoB'ioa riBN, Fsb. 17 1 I The direct manliest tiious oi opinion with ref? , : fence to the regeneration of the Germanic ear pire, which have recently mingled from the courti of vicuna, Berlin and Muuich, have ruiterially altered the aspect of that imoortaiit question It it now apparent that the powers assumed by the l'rankfort Assembly, aud th* principles which tl affected to apply to the sovereign -States of Germany, had no real existence at ail but in the tacit submission or the pas-ove acquiescence of tne parties principally concerned The votes of such a body, unsupported by iny established right, or by military power, had no more positive weight than the resolutions ol a drb-iiin^ club- The real settlement ol the political qu-Btious arising out of the German revolution, depmds, as of old, upon the determination ol the principal governments of Germany; their relations must be adjusted oy ne| gotiation, not by popular debates or democratic | authority; and in the conduct ol these discussion-1, i unless the year Ib4d has cliattL'ed ihe elements of policy and human nature, the rights of each will be at least as stou'ly defended as ihe common interest ol the whole. In forming our own opinion of the probable issue f the great uudertakiug in which the Germin people embarked under all the excitement of last spring, we had fort seen precisely the results which we are now witnessing The Germans have sometimes shown, a little irritation at the scepticism of their friends in England, wh'ch refused to accept as accomplished f-icts the mere intentions of a popular body. But they have done us injustice if they have iinsgined that any organ of public opinion in thia country has expressed hostility to the scheme ol German unity. The interests of Germany and of Great Butain are so evidently tu harnn ny with each other, lhat it is not easy to , point out a single motive ol lealousy on the part of this country towards the German States. The welfare, the strength, and the union of the German peo|>!e are objects ol the first continental interest to England; aud if meAus can lie found of increasIDE the Dower, the influence, and the rummers-mi freedom ofGermany, no foreign State would be a greater gainer than ourselves from auoh indications ot national progress. But it 14 precisely because we have always recognised the importance of these objects, that we deprecate attempts more calculated to detent tbati to promote them. We pointed out the dangers which threatened to divide Germany under p-etrnce of uniting it. We showed that the acceptance by the King ot Prussia ol the Imperial dignity?which the Frauklort Assembly seemed disposed to confer upon him?woald instantly be retusied and resented by Austria uud by Bavaria. We argued that to cut of] the Austrian empire Irom the moat intimate connection with th? rest ot Germany, by the very act which professed to unite the whole of Germany, was a contradiction in terms; and that the cabinet ot Vienna would as little submit to a virtual expulsion from the Germanic body, as to the supremacy of one ol those Mouses which but halt a century ago were still bound to recogniBe her own supremacy. And we added, {hat in the Catholic pints ot Grrmauv, especially in Bavaria, the people would sonnet combine with Austria than sui render at discretion to the authority of a northein empire. The diplomatic incidents ot the last month have corroborated in eve ly particular the justice of these views. The King ot Prussia hunoell has declared in the face ot Europe, that the Im;ierial dignity is not essential to the regeneration ot Germany, and has indirectly admitted that the zeal of the PrusI sian partisans at Frauklort had outstripped the more cautious purposes of the Court ot Berlin He, UUMV>? B UH4VU Tint AUIlliit, (i nil ilic still subsisting Feder.il Union ot 1815. But the more important part ot these transactions is Iht course pursued by Austiia hersell. It has been stated by one of the leading journali ot Berlin, and we believe with accuracy, that ot the 17th ot January the Cabinet of Olmuiz m idt an overture ot a remarkable naturetothat ot Berlin It is proposed that the Empc ror of Austria and tn< five Kings ot Prussia, Hanover, Bavaria, Saxony and Wurtemberg, should concert measures for the settlement ot the affairs ot Germany, in which set llemeBt it included the absorption of the rntnoi principalities, und the concentration ot a federa arruy ot 40,000 men in the neighborhood of Frank, tort, tor the purpose of observing, and in case ol need, controlling, the deliberations ot the German Parliament. This note ot Austria has not been published or avowed by that power. We have no certain knowledge of its authenticity; but it is a significant circumstance that such a suggestion should have been divulged, and imputed to Austria at Berlin, and the Austrian note, ot a subsequent date, which has been published, expressly ad verts to some such proposition, which is alleged to have been truitlessly made. The King ot Prussia lent no ear to thia scheme. He rrtused to consent to the mediation ot the minor Princes whose interests it has been his policy to protect, and whose territories, it divided, would serve mainly to increase the relative importance of his larger neighbors. He also foresaw that in such a congress el K intra I'rnuaia ur aii horuoU ?o o #><> r? _; ? n mi nonty, beingopposed by Hanover, Bavaria, Saxony, and Austria. The presentation and rejection o| tins note was sueedily followed by the duo li eat ion of the Prussian declaration of the 23d of January, which we have already referred to; and this note was accompanied with a plan for reviving mutatit mutanais the old circles of the Empire in the new Germanic constitution, on the basis of the present military divisions of Germany, by which means the minor States would retain a share of political influence in the Diet of the Confederation. No sooner had the Prussian note of the 23d of January reachtd Olmutz, than Prince Schwarzenberg ana his colleagues determined upon a more open announcement of their opinions; and on the 4th ol February another note was transmitted to Frankfort in the name of the Imperial government, which removes all doubt as to the disposition of Austria towards the leaders of that Convention. The Emperor repudiates, in the most direct Ianf uage, the fundamental principle of their scheme, t must be borne in mind that whatever may be the result of the labors of the Frankfort Assembly, the constitution produced by that body will require the assent of all the members of the existing Confederation. At that stage the independent views of the several States will, of course, recover their full weight, and Austria declares that " whatever may be the stages and colorings of the grand work ot union, one tning is certain?namely, His Majesty the Emperor and his government cannot but consider the creation of an unitarian i central State as the source of the most fatal dissen* 1 ! sions, which would tend to a division rather than : | to an union of Germany. But against a subordt dinatinn of His Majesty the Emperor under the I central power, if it be conferred on any othei German Prince, His Majesty the Emperor and his government at onae enter the most solemn ol ' protests. This they owe to themselves; they owe > it to Austria; they owe it to Germany." ' Nor is Bavaria alow to respond to these sentl 1 ments On the Dili of February, M. Kolb, u member of the liberal party in the Bavarian Chambers, declared that without Austria,German) 1 would be a mutilated empire, and on the same evening a public procession of the conservative ; party in Munich proceeded by torch-light to th< King's palace, to protest against the iiitroductior of what are termed " the fundamental rights" pro claimed at Frankfort, and lu favor of the main 1 i tenance and independence of the constitutions 1 ; monarchy of Bavaria Amongst the Sovereigns o " ; Germany, none ei joys a more deserved popularitj [ ! than the young King of Bavaria, and the votes o ! ] the House of Representatives, recently ennvokec " at Munich, express complete confidence in jhe [ Crown. , We are curious to learn the elTect of these dis { I tinct latimatfoaa Of the o^nion of Austria anc , Bavaria (to which may be added Hanover, anc 'r even Saxony, if that court were not enthra lied by , a revolutionary Assembly) U|?on the politicians o I Frankfort. Even in the church of St. Paul, where thin anomalous Parliament is sitting, the presence J of the Austrian and Bavarian deputies is a prsctica pre test against that a-paration which has oddly enough neen niHde me condition ot unity, it thai body ot dissentients we re Hctunlly expelled, the re suit would only be, that the principle of independence which they represent would raise it! standard elsewhere, and oppose a still mop . hostile front to the will of the majority I Ilut the time is fast passing away when , the Frankfort Parliament could intimidate and command the governments of Germany It is now their turn to assert their rights, and , we shall not be surprised to learn that ere long f more decisive measures have been taken to enforce them. The distinctive character of the I ite j German Diet was that its decisions being taken , by the accredited representatives of the governJ ments, were funding on those governments. The , votes of the popular Assembly, which lias super I ses'ed the Diet, leave the governments unpledged r ana unioucneo, 10 aeai as incv may imna in wur such propositions; and an the actual forces 01 j troops and money remain in the hands of the j separate governments, until they may have agraso . to surrender them, it is not difficult to perceive or I which side the practical strength of the countrj j lies At the same time, we do not disguise trorr ourpelves the factthntthe enthusiastic desire oftht German nation for political unity still burns will extreme vehemence, and to secure the permanen wdtaieandpei.ee ot the country, the sovereigni of the respective States must devise means t< frame the structire ot an imposing whole 11 Kutope, and to remove the vexatious dislinctioi ot m? te local accidents throughout Germany Otherwise, if unhappily the Princes should comi to be regarded ss oostacles and not as means ti promote the combination of national forces, thi d< m< crstic party weuld enlist in iih favor the par j tie-ne of unity ; and ihr demolition of monarch; might precede another attempt to trsnie a one ani indivisible commonwealth or a federal republic. camaR'trarawrr Try;T-^yji'xi?ia i* m i i? | A Airs of HOI?fi I The States Geueiil ot Holland wen opened oa the lath uit. by the King, in person, acc < a i ' by thy prince* The royal cortege was received ' ; with loud ecolumations as it passed through the ' sireeu to the Chamber. His Majesty pronoun,fj | the I oil i wing speech:? 1 UtntUmr? of the Firit and Second Chami* '< of tin Mi. In Gennml. ' ! ''In eoufoimity with what the fundamental lew sorib*-, the ahtioa of the two Chemb-r* of the States : tlenerei, whioh hare Misted up to this day, is now aoi eompllshed Thee* two Chambers, siuoe the a ioptloo | of the fundamental law, whan nioditted, have aided me I with oonscieLticus uare, and they merit my gratitude for the oo-rparetics whioh they bsve afforded me up to the sew period on which we are entering to-day It is | with pleasure, gentlemen, that 1 see you assembled I around me Repieseotatlvea of a nation whish in thu late election* has shown that it attaebes a great prioe to its political tight* and that it desires, at the same , | time, tc eseroise them with oalm und a real love for Older- gentlemen, you will aot in the same spirit; aoi! ITlutsd with a n nnlun I tnliciriirln IVsarl fmnm nil nvni si | J oe. you will labit wlili m* tor the well being of our I country 1 am happy to inform you that a good iatelliKiocr 11an bem maintained with the other Status, notwithstanding ih? revolutions and the war whloh have upturned a great part 01 Europe. The relations ot tteduoby ol Limburg with the liar manic oonfederatiou here ltd to tome dilttoulties which I hope, with the support ot eatsting treaties, to be able to remove However, tranquility and pubuo order have been maintained in that ouchy The army has oo operated in a ! praiseworthy manner in obtaining that result; and I I cannot but admit the servioea wnioh it has rendered tbeie end elsewhere When, last year, grave event* i had tendered an augmentation neoesiary; that am{ mentation, as well as ihn subs- qoent diminution, have ! proved that the Netherlands can, without dililoulty { and with pooiupiitudu deveiopa and restrict their foieee In consequence ot the meaaurea which have been taken, it ba> beeu found uonioeesary to tonoh a ccnsidsrab e rum or t he augmented credit allowed for tba war budget ot 1U4S This year the diiaunition whieh this budget wi>l undergo will be important. A limited system of drfrnce will produce and consolidate new economies. Our naval forou* continue, i liy the services which they render, to irive every j eutjrci for eaiisfaction. A|con*iderabie reinfsroament I of vessels i>l ??i insi.iu eeni to our posanssions la ' the tart and Wesv Indies ; Had id order to insure a , i more extended pietectiou to trade, the western coast . I of Africa? towards which quarter commercial euter| prirts are being multiplied has been visi ed by a sloop of war, and orders bare a.eo been given far ano tber similar virsel to pr >oeed to the north west of America. A eatitfactoi-y tranquillity reigns in our 1 possessions in *ho hast Indies Measures have been 1 taken to repair the check whlsh our arum, notwithstanding the bravery of our troops, have experienced i at belt Tranqu liny also prevails in our West Indian r possessions. It last year it was troubled on sime (points, it was alec prompMy re established. In regard, ing the internal situation of ths kingdom, we And there are many motives for satisfaction ; onr beloved 1 countrymen oontiuue to be dudtoguirbed by their at' tacbment to tbo pilnciples of order, and f r respect for the law and tbe constituted authorities. The commotions which have agitated Kurope, have, it is i tine, exercised amongst us an influence unfavorable I to conimt-roe and industry; but ssarcely did Iran( quiility appear to be re ?ttab!isc?d, when tbe ooui, mtroial and industrial movement was also revived. | l'he present moment promises happier prntpents for the future. Sinoe the revision ot tbe fundamental law I have fixed my atteutiun on the expenses of tbe State; on the moans of diuiinUhiog them without any violent shook ; and on the laws required for the oomplete execution of the fundamental law. The report presented to me by tbe Provisional Ministry, on tbe diminution of tbe expanses of the State, has alr< adv fflVeB Ofleapion to rtfeliza anma nf tK?? i.loae fKon v w ?w wvao vuru xpocvd Tbclaws nrceMary to tbe execution of the i fundamental lew ere prepared in tbe liberal rpirit of tbat oonetitution ; the; shall be euooeeelTely presented to you. Tbe perturbation which tbe eventa of these i latter timee have cauH.id in international relatione, have bad an nnfavorab ? client on tbe reoeipte of tbe Treasury ; tbat influence will oauee iteelf to be felt also thle year, but In a smaller degree The interest and tbe oredit of tbe State demand that the charges ' of tbe moment should not be a^aia curried to tbe future. In order tbat in better timee, in pretenoe of j lavorable resulta, ail ahall not be paralysed and ran* I dered barren by tbe burden of the national obargea. , Let us continue, gentlemen, with that union watch glrea strength, nnd with a oonatant seal te labor for tbe well-being of our country, and the Almighty will - bleaa our efforts. I deolare tbe present session o( the , States Oeneral to be opened " Tbe flchiciwlg*tlolit?ln War, r Editor Nrw York Hkrald : [ It is not lor the finst time that 1 have addressed you, bearing upon the relative position of the f European nations to each other. i In your article headed " The Danish Nation and l the fcehleswig-Holrtein War," you give a short outline ot the supposed causes that led to tne very i, serious difference between the mother countrv ana i her provinces; but these causes are different Ircm the real and genuine ones, and I feel tnyself called upon to correct you. Now, Mr. Editor, allow me to tell you, that 8chleswig*Holbtein have been, lor more than 400 years, provinces ol Denmark,and governed by the i King ol Denmark, bearing the title of Dnke of Sehleswitj Holstein, being represented by a Siadthalter, who, until the outbreak olthe present war. resided in the city ot Svhleswig, in the so named . duchy Under King Frederick the first, the union " took place, niter many battles being fought, in which, moat times, the Stlileswigers werejsuccesslul; they at latt came to think that they would not i do better than live peaceably together, and made i a treaty to the effect that, as long as the then reigning house cxtsted in the male line, it should bear the title of Duke of Schleswig and Holstein, and govern these countries, which were also to enjoy the same privileges as Denmark itselt, or any ol its other provinces. This treaty was conI firmed under ihe iamous King Frederick III, and i has been cons dered valid and binding, as also i agreeable to both parties, up to the last years of the I rf ion fif tH* lots* k'iner Plieiafion \fTf! * l- - - .p,M v. ?.?v <u?v iking vyiiuoiiail V 111) WIIUj III 11LB 56th year, left as only issue a son, the now reigning King Frtdenck VII. This man, the last of hut line, the last descendant of a line of famous ancestors, was naturally anxious to extend his race, and married early; but not getting any issue With Ins wife, an Auguste^burg princess, he sued for a divorce, obtained it, and married, shortly alter, a Meklenburg princess, who also bore htm no children This all took place during the reign of the late king, and attracted the notice of a number ot demagogues in Schleswig. Rendsburg, and Kiel; and ihiee years belore the death of Christian VIII, numerous pamphlets appeared in the duchies, arguing the question, who wrs to govern in the duchiesnf King Christian Vlll, and his son Frederick (the present king) were to die without male issue. This gave ofTcnce, and was warmly taken up by the panes, and in 1845 King Christian brought lorth his famous "open letter," stating the concern he felt on such a question being thus publicly commented upon before Ins death, and that of his son, then being in the prime of manhood. He told the duchies that their rights should not be infringed, and gave his opinion that 8chleswig could never [ be severed from Danmark, and that the possession f ot Holstein had been guaranteed to his family by , Ru: sia and England, in 1788 or '89. This latter assertion, though an undisputed fact, was certainly very foolish to be made public, there being plenty of time for its publication in case it was needed at ail, namely?after his death, ?nd after J hissongiving upall hope ofgetting male issue. As it , , was, he now gave those demagogues a chance of ' being noisy, and they did not neglect thiB oppor' 1 tunny, but protested against the " open letter," ' and applied at once to trie Diet of Frankfort for i protection of their rights. The subject was in! troduced into the Ifaden Chamber ot Assembly, J wheie Mr. Fred. Hecker and other distinguished i i men delivered verv elaborate omniona on it ?? 1 trrung the rights of the duchies, and stirring up < the flames to uo outbreak, lu the meanwhile it . must be rt memliered that the king had granted the duchies all privileges they asked lor. Tbev had each their own Parliament, and the royal Commissioner who attended it was in rank no ' higher than any of the members. Acts passed in I those parliaments with the sanction of the comI missions, were carried into eflect. The Holsteiners were allowed to build a railroad from Al' MM to Kit], and tie king found a great part of ! the money; all old statutss were revised, the cri' mtnal law reformed; in shoit, no person could find I a complaint which was not attended to. But all ' this was not sufficient tor those few ambitious t men, who, in want of any other occupation, tound ' it either profitable, or a pleasure, or gratifying to their vanity, lo renew the old feutf On apoly' mg for a free orers, and obtaining it, they employ' ed it in publishing threats against government, and creating the most bitter feeling among the 1 two countries The Danish press, instead of ' \ treating th?ir hostilities with contempt, retorted, ( urn! alieu matters stood thus, the old much eaI ! teemed king, Christian VIII.? suddenly died. i I wnaiever may dc me private character o( Ins I son aiid successor, Frederick VII. (and much la ! i said against it on, 1 dare say, good authority) he 1 I commenced his royal career, evincing a dispoai* j tion ol liberality towards the DlohlNaltogether ' ! unprecedented in the annals ot historv. His grants ' ' were manifold, and well calculated to engender I better feeling amongst his German proviacials. I I But it was to no purpose. Immediately alter the ' outbreak of the French revolution, Feb. 21th, '-IS, ! biid only one month alter that, on the 21th of I March following, the loimer Htadthalder, his own i cousin, Prince Frederick^ of 8ciileswig-8onder' burg Augutienburg, rook, at the tread of a regii pent of JagerH, the strong fnrtrrsa of llearlaburg, ' j by fxionfiJe maw, established a provisional gn' venin.eiit, nnd here commenced tb.it dreadful war 1 w ho h has been wngen eversmcc.

1 The writer of this is a Dane by birth, and wis in > Peimark on the outbreak ot the wnr; was ev<*n, i for a blioit time, engaged in it himself, mii*J, thrre1 fore, can spank facts relative to the disposition of ifie panics now opposed to each other in deadly 8 s'liti Ti e Danes near their German opponents no spite, but show merely a determination to re' tain 11 < dominion over those provinces til!, at lean, l y the drath of the present king, without V leafing h male In it, the roiitrni.t entered into is 1 Irgn'lv dissolved. Ann tenttis of ftp population | of 8ciileswig-lloIsteiii felt most comtoruJle under the old government, end curse the originators < the war, but cannot now retraot, partly from vet ! ienrot their Prussian and Hanoven&u auxiliaries and partly from having, in the tirot excitemei I ol the Prince's success against the Danes, turnisf i ed him with money and ammunition, and thereb committed themselves. Their feeling was be< shown, when, en the Danes entering Flensburg, I town where nothing but the German language i Si.oken, they united with them, and drove the ver Germans away, the Flensburg women pourm bailing oil on the heads of the unfortunate Gei mans. Here a friend of mine (a German) fel murdered by hia own countrymen. 1 must still add that the northern part ?t S.ihles 1 wig is quite Danish, where the people do not uc d> island a woid of German Theae would noi under any consideration, be under German govern tuent. and are the holiest in the strife. It is to be pitied that the two parties were nc 1 Kit tlti riA .. ? -- | .umivu lu llglll IV UUV fllWIir, WlUIOUl HFIf IfHPl vention; but let it be understood that the Hoi steiners had the aid of the Prussians as early a i April 6, last year; whereas the DUMOOOghta j assistance till July, when all Germany crowde upon it. j England and Russia are favorable to the view ! Denmark takea ot the case, and I will not her discuss the merits of their guarantee, which < though binding, appears to in* oy no meana lega In case the present King, Frederick VII, die without male issue, the dominion of the duchte devolves upon the Emperor Nicholas, of Russit in his quality as an Oldenburg magnate, lie however, has resigned in favor of Prince Frederc I of Heseen, who married his daughter, since dead This prince is the head of the female line of th present house ot Denmark, aud will probably sue need Frederick VII. on the Danish throne. B the resignation ol Emperor Nicholas he wi | therefore also legally retain the dominion over th j duchies. At the treaty of Vienna, Norway was exchange for the Diniedom of Lauenburg, . not Schleswii Holstein, ss you erroneously stated. These coun ries were qv.ite lelt rb heretofore. Though 1 am deeply interested in tha success r the Danes, 1 yet hope that the right cause wi triumph, and I conscientiously believe this to b , on the Danish side. One or Yotra Constant Danish Riadkks. Vlte Postal Arrangement with Bremen. The report ot the Postmaster General, comurn nicated to Congiess ou the 6th instant, sets fort (he basis ot the postal arrangement concluded som | time sinee with the government of Bremen. Froi bis i( up,'?itrs that privileges and advantages hav been obtained bv our government, which will ten greatly lo facilitate the mail intercourse betwee our people and those ot the German 8tutes. 11 the new arrangement, an exchange of mails las been (fietted on terms of reciprocal accommodi I tion, almost as free and unrestricted as those b ' which our domestic system is carried through th i States ot the Union. The American mails, coi vcved in our steamers, are received at the rnnut I 1? i- - I ? .?- "li-vi, o.mt I?IIJ mum uriow ine oily I Bremen, whence thev are conveyed by the Breine government, free of charge, their postage heir remitted on our mails, and all mails sent to an from this country, under the new arrangement. On the German lines beyond Bremen the mai to ami from the (Jotted States are conveyed i oniform rates, even lower than the range of the own inland postage rates, and lull fifty per cei lower than the rates fixed by some of the Gerina States in their arrangements with other aatinni By the new arrangement, the Bremen Post Offic becomes an agent of our Post Office departmen not only for the distribution and forwarding of ou mails, but for the collection and payment ot a ; American postages that may be prepaid or co I lected in Germany, at the aanie commission tha ti is allowed to our ?wn local postmasters. In lik I manner the Bremen department will collect and pa over to the sevetal Kurojiean governments partic pating m the arrangement, their postage mone which may have been prepaid or collected in th United States. The privilege of sending correspondence froi either country to the other, with the postage unpai or prepaid, at the option ot the sender, either i whole or in part, has been arranged with all par of Germany, except the Austrian dominions, B varia and Baden. As soon as the government Bremen can secure this privilege for itseif fro these governments, or any others in Europe, d United States are to be allowed to participate the arrangement. In short, the new treaty has ? fected all between Germany and the United Stat that has been accomplished by the recent postal a rangement between the United States and Gre Britain. Below will be found a list ol all the f leign postage rates as adjusted by the Bremen a rangement, which may be prepaid in this counti or not, at the option or the sender. The list copied from the official report:? un>in&n IjIUK. 1.?Foreign Postage- to be charged In addition I American Postage. 1. AL'ona 6 cents. Nassau 12 cent Bremen Nothing. Oldenbnrgh .. .. 6 do Brunswick.... 8 oeate. Prussia, (kingdom Cassrl 12 do and provinces). 12 do Coburgh 12 do Reus* 12 do Darmstadt.. .12 do Saxe Altenburgh 12 do Frankfort on- Saxe Melningen.12 do the-Main. ...12 do Saxe Weimar. . .12 do ; Gotha .12 do Saxony (kingHainburgb ... 0 do dom) 12 do Hanover 8 do Sohaumburg Hessellamburg 12 do Lippe 12 do Kiel 11 do ScbwtrtsburgReiLippe Detmeld 12 do dolstadt IS do I.nbec 0 do Sohwartxb'g SunI Meckilnbnrg derhausen . . ..12 do Sohwerin. .. 12 do Wurtemburg(k'gMtckllnburg dom). 12 do Strelits 12 do Single letters to ihc ahoTe named places limitt to halt an ounce in weight, and postage may I piepaid or left unpaid, or the United States pastaf alcne may be prepaid, at the option of the sender 2. Denmaik?Copenhagen andfurthest parts.22 cent Norway?Bergen, Christiana and farthest carta. . St Petersburg or CronsUdt 24 " Sweden? Stockholm and farthest pert*.. .89 " To the above named places in table 2, half oun< to the single letter; United States postage on | should be prepaid. ; 8. Alexandria ,...87 cent Austria, (empire and provinces.) 18 " Bedden 18 " Basle and other parts of Switserland 21 " I Bavsria 22 " Cairo 87 " Constantinople 87 " Oreece ,..,..87 " Italy, eastern towns of .18 " In table 3, quaiter ounce to the single lette { United States postage only should be pre-paid. 4. Newspapers and printed matter one-fourth < the letter rates, and to be placed in nurro' bands, without any writing whatever on then 11. united states postage. 1. Letter packet postage is 24 cents single lette not exceeding half an ounce, in addition t inland, which is 5 or 10 cents, according I distance- can be pre paid or left unpaid, ai cording to the places to which addresBei 1 (See the foregoing lists, and the remarks ai | companying them.) 2. Newspaper and pamphlet packet postage 3 cen each, in addition to inland, which is cen I for each pamphlet not exceeding 1 ounce, an > 1 cent tor each additional ounce or fractioi and 3 cents a newspaper?must be pre-paid i ail cases. S. R. Homux, First Assistant P. M. General. From Havana ?We yesterday received files t Havana papers to the 3d inst. The o/ily news ( interest is from Yucatan. rrom a leticr, |>umimirfi in in?- umcrn at ra rtu bama, of the 28th ult., dated Merida, Feb. 12, w learn that, on the previous day, at five in the moi mng, the Indiana charged upon the town of Sabi in large numbers, keeping up a lively and well aui iiiined fire. The commandant ol the place. Do Juan de la Oust Hulazar, placed himself at th head of a force and started out to give them batth After a fight of three hours, in which hoth partir contended depot rately for victory, the Indian abandoned the field, and disi>ersed in all direction through the woods. BtmOt Saia/aris highly con mended for his gallantry, and received a sever and dangerous wound while fur in advance of hi troops. One sergeant end two soldo rs were kille and six soldiers wounded. The loss of the Ir dians was aaid to be considerable.?N. O. I)tU<, March 10. Yucatan.?By the last arrival from Yucatar we have intelligence that, in consequence of th scarcity of hreaastufl'a, and particularly corn, Gi vernor Batbachnno had issued a decree, orderin that description of grain to be admitted free < duty and of all other government imports, for on y?ar from the date of decree.?O. Dtftt Match 11. Itnvnl Intelligence. The United States frigate Han tan. Captain Pag owing to tbe bad weather, did not euoaeed In gettlc to era till Tuesday, the 13th Instant The followli Is a list, of ber officers at tbe time of eailing Benj?ml k'.ei cordalh Uuniarnin I Totfan 1s? l,an? executive iflioer; WliHam T Mil**, Vil do.; Wn j r?rker. 3d do.; Tboaia* R. linger lib do ; Itiom Hidgcly, 6th do ; D. S. Kdward*. eurgeon of the flee John A Ba?e*. pureer; Francl* Alexander, nuttl niaeter; Joelah Watenr. l?t lieut. commanding mar \ guard, Jw. H Jcn*?, Vd Heut. marine*, John Blav <h?p'.ain; Alexander J Hire. a?-l?t *or^on; A?hU Mile* do. Pii Bed Rildnhlprnan Pranci* Gregory, F F. l)avld*on, J. C P. DeKiafft, Grennleal Cillc Jonathan Young. Midebtpmen C \V Homm. Jc I D. Rniito John W Ittddell. Wm B MnCann. Jam II. Ulllte, Trevett Abbott, Carlo* Bratt. John Homey raptatn'* eleik; John P. Uregaon, pnreei do ; Joeeph Lewie, boa?*watn; Andrew A. Itami* gunner; Wm. I.ee. carpenter; Jacob Stephen*, *al makerA'er/o/A; Br aeon, Mich IT. r (MM for Htf, HU? Prior " (he 4th or Klarclw X Mains.?2 * David Tilleon, 4th Cougressioa&l District. kt Joseph Stevens, 6'h do. do. i" Nkw Hami'miiks ?I. v John P. Sherburn, 1st Congressional District. il MAssAciii/sifTs.?2. a Wm. Dwight, Jr., ?th Congressional District. 8 Thomas w. Clapp, 7ih do. do. y CoNNKcriruT.?2. 5 Koht. O. Tyler, 1st Congressional District, j" Thos. .1. English, 4th do. do. '? It hook Im.and.?(No vacancy.) vesmont ?1. '* Daniel A. Chtpman, 3d Congressional District. [" Now York ?9. l' Thomas P. Hewitt, 12th Congressional Dtstric La Khett Livingston, 14th do. do. James Wright, 15th do. do. 11 John Davenport, IHth do. do. ' Joseph Spiatt, 19th do. do. '* John K. Browu,20th do. do. 9 Oliver D. Greene, 23th do. do. ? Beoj. F Chamberlain, 28th do. do. J Alex. Chambers, 31st do. do. Nkw Jkksky.?3. 9 George B. Dandv, 1st Congressional District. e Benj. F. .Smith, 3d do. do. |? Mark F. Leavenworth, 5th do. do. ' Pennsylvania.?6. 9 Lewis H. Pelouze, 3d Congressional District. 9 Alioriiatiia l-I Pi It rr* ? *?? J ?* ? uiiiiiiri, kU UU. UB. l? David P. Hancock, 11th do. do. '? Nelson B. Switzer, !8th do. do. f Milo It. Adams, 20th do. do. I Delaware.? (No vacancy.) e Maryland ?(No vacancy.) V i kg i.n i a ?9. v Henry H. Walker, 1st Congressional District. >1 John R. Chnrnbliss. Jr.. 2d do. do. 8 Ferdinand C. Hutter, 4th do. do. Thomas M Jones, 7th do. do. ? George A Handley, 8th do. do. '< William Craighill, 10th do. do. l" William It. Terrill, 12 h do. do. , Connolly F. Litchfield,13th do. do. [j Wm. Dent, 15th do. do. II North Carolina.?1. e Joeejih P. Jones, 3d Congressional District. Sooth Carolina ?1. Allston, 4th Concessional District. Groroia.?4. Henry T. Latham, 4th Congressional District, i- Owen F. Solomon, 5th do. do. h James H. Boweu, 7th do. do. e William B. Bogus, 8th do. do. n Kentucky.?2. e William K. Peyton, 2d Congressional District, d John Hood, 9th do. do. n Tennessee.--3. y wiiiia, 1st Congressional District. is .Tames D. McFarlaad, 2d do. do. i- Reuben K. Ross, 9th do. do. >y Ohio.?7. ie William J. Sawyer, 5th Congressional Distrit i- .las. B. MoPherson, 6th do. do. :h .loshua W. Sill, 8th do. do. of Robert F. Hunter, 9th do. do. in Wm. Melutne Dye, 11th do. do. i<? Thus. W. Vincent, 15th do. do. id Elmer Otis, 21st do. do. Louisiana.?(No vacancy.) Is Indiana.?3. at Edmund C. Jones. 5th Congressional District, ir Thomas Might, 6th do. do. it William Craig, 7th do. do. n Illinois ?3. 3. .lames D. Burns, 1st Congressional District, e Joseph A. Cram, 3d do. do. t, John tichofield, (ith do. do. ir Mississirn ?3. II John Mullins. 1st Congressional District. I- yampson H. Harris, 2d do. do. * Nathl. G. Robards, 3d do. do. e Alabama.?3. y Chester C. Du Rose, 2(1 Congressional District, i- John F. de Gratlenreid, Ith do. do. y Silas P. Higgins, 6th do. do. ie Missouri?2. George R. Bissell, 1st Congressional District, m Jesse Cravens, 5th do. do. id Michigan.?1. in Thomas W. Wells, 2d Congressional District, ts Akkansas?(No vacancy.) a- Florida?1. of James L. White, m Texas?2. ie Horace Randall, 1st Congressional District, in James B. Mclntyre, 2d do. do. if- Iowa?1. es Wm. W. Lowe, 2d Congressional District. ir? w i crnmfii n ? 1 at Alex. S. Hooe, 2d Congressional District, o- Distkictok Colombia? (Mo vacancy ) ,r- At Larqk?10. ry 1. William Kearny, Bon of Gen. Kearny, is 2. Francis John ShunK, of Pennsylvania. 3. Robert 15. Campbell, ol Tennessee. 4. Tims. M. Stuart, of South Carolina, to 5. Walworth Jenkins, of Mew Vork. 6. Thus Wilson of District of Columbia. " 7. Daniel J. Boyle, of Maryland. 8. Jamei^B. Folk, of Georgrn. 0. Robert W. Key worth, of Dist. of Columb: 10. I'eyton H. Colquitt, ol Georgia. Chicaoo, March 1, 1819. mineral rveauu?t own of itttawa?Iron and C'< Mines, fyc., fyc. A few weeks ago I noticed an article in the C cago Journal relative to the mineral wealth Illinois, and particularly of the vast coal field the Illinois river. Although coal has been known to exiBt there, importance has been overlooked, in a great m 'd sure by our citizens, as only partial means hi ,e been used to develope this mine of wealth. 'e Business recently led me to Ottawa, an ent pi ising town of some three thousand inhabitai on the Illinois canal, at the coniluence of the F with the Illinois river, and on the northern vei of this great coal field. Having a little leisure :e the moment, I availed myself of the opportunity 'y make a somewhat critical examination of the c< strata, in which|every facility was rendered by ft Delano, ths gentlemanly proprietor of the Ci Hotel, who, by the way, is something of a geoi gist himself. Whoever has passed from Chica to the Mississispi by the canal and Illinois rive must have been struck with the peculiar geologic character of the country. Every indication shows that a mighty riv once poured its flood through this channel, at r? there is no reasonable deubt that this was oni . the outlet, at least of Lake Michigan, and p rha of the whole chain of our inland seas. w In the dry bed of this river coal is found at Ott wa, Bumeiimea wiiuin iwo or inree leei 01 ri surface of the ground, as well as on the blu: ? above. This strata is only eighteen to twen ' inches thick, and although it burns freely in stov ' and grates, is mixed witn sulphuret of iron, whit I not only burns out the grates, and leaves a gre ; residtum in the shai>e of cinders, but slakes ai crumbles, on exposure to the air. This coal obtained by stripping, or throwing of] the eari which covers it, and splitting ofl blocks Wil *5 wedges. It was supposed that a better quail existed in this region, and examinations wei made on the south side of the Illinois rive n in the high hlu/is, opposite Buffalo rock.The country there is undulating, with mi ral precipices and deep ravines, and the n suit ol the research was the discovery of a ce >f mine, equal in quality to any bituminous coal i >( Europe or America. Thiamine isowned by Messr Delano A- Ellsworth, is situated about twenty roc i- from the mouth ot a rivine, is nearly three fe e thick, and has a superincumbent structure of aid r- nearly an hundred feet over it. After running n drift in aH easterly direction about a hundred fee >. thev came to a solid mass of coal without seams i n dislocations, and so hard that it could be obtain* te only by blasting. Prospects have been made in v >. rious (daces, and coal found at every trial; at s tlieie is no doubt but that this mine extent is hrough every loot of one hundred acres of Ian is easy of access, and only about a mile from the c i- nal. It burns as freely as wood, aud when the btt e mea is exhausted, resembles masses of wood cc is mote nearly than Hny I ever siw. Indeed, I w d told that it could be used lor boiling meat as free i- as charcoal What ike value of this immense c i, posit mutt be, can only be approximated by c culation. They get at least two tons of coal for eve I eijuare yard K educe an acie to yards, say 13,0 e multiplied by 2, gives the enormous product S7j2h0 tons ot coal to the single acre. ? The expense of getting out coal while runni the drift, as all miners know, is nearly double . what it is when ready to chamber ott, and co ^ I > I II ' i . . '? ,lc,r ?""?i uoiiar per u?n; ana ine wnois cm ef deliveiy on the canal bank is now about a d lar and a halt; though wlicn their drift is fully r it probably can be put on to the canal bank for o s, dollar per ton. The expose of traDeportation >K (Imago, including tolls, is one dollar per toi '* which, at present prices in our city ($6 60) yieliJ J as you see, a Inrge profit. . In estimating the value of such property, the s is no sum which ran be put d* wn, and were I X- say rmi hundred thousand dollars, it would I ig Wtlhin the truth, for ihe coal is there. r>? Another interesting geological f? ature of Ottaw *, is its (ulphurand salt springs. The former ai ? common iri many places, and have been ii* d su < t rsfulh in various disorders. Tbe Istrer are aboi hlty rods be I' w Delano A* Kllsworth's coal ruin " Mo Mronglv imi regnaied is ihe earth with aalir *" partu h s, th> t for hull a mile in extent, little < >'i no vegetation grows. Sslt, equal to anv nude II, My>m use, lias been marl* here fur oxpi-rinieii', it II- a genrlerhsn of Ottawa lis* bored to tlie depth i r.e hut dr* d and forty feet fur s.Jt water; but li annvaMwwiMBurMMnnmvwMMvmi lo suspended operations for the pretest for waste' mease. There ere many facta coneeted with die subject, interesting not only to the geologist, but the capitalist; but the length of this comm inicauou will not |iemut trie to dwell upon them at tbia time. It ia enough to show, however, that we have the elemtntaof wealth within out bordera. C. W. R. I'ktm/.a Pai.ka, Mosquito Territory, t Central America, Jan. 16,1849. S 7Tie Nativn?7)i< Product* of ihi Soil ? /V Knubnh, \r 4-r After a short passage from Jamaica, we hava |t arrived at that part of the Spanish Main termed the Mosquito Shore. The vessel cannot approach the coast, owing to the bur, which extends some distance to the south ot this place. At my preseat writing I am about two miles in the interior, at a clearing oa the JPrinzx Palka river, which extends soma 200 miles through the country. The Indiana ar? m a state of semi-barbarism, and seem a tractable and quiet race. They aubsiat by fishing and hunting, and on the tropical fruita and plants: the plantain is the principal source of sustenance, and grows here in great abundance ; also the cassada, which takes the place of the potato, and is considered very nutriiious. In short, most of the West India pluuts and Iruits abound here?the cocoa, oisnge, pine apple. Arc. The country, as VOU Know in under rhe l?na>liul> laws at piebent, and has oem Hince the collision with the SpauidrJs, some eight months since, when St Johns was taken by the English. They are under the nominal sway of a king, but the English H ig floats beneath that of the Mosquito, at the seat ot government, which is at Blewfirlds, which place 1 shall visit in a few days, and write you a description ol the court. The face ot the country here is level and very beautiful. As you aie piddled up the river in one ot the Indian canoes or doritt, as the natives call them, the t ees grow thick on the banks of the river; and cxteud their branches far into the stream; the mangrove, especially, attracts the eye, trom the singular quality ot shooting its branches into the river from the extreme end of its boughs, which again take root and mike a grove along the shore. Birds of bright plumage aiHrt from every grove, and the banana-bird, trom its wild scream, attracts your attention first; it is so called from its bright yellowplumuge, rescin ding the ripe ban in i, f'he trees ot which abound here, and grow wild.) Macaws and parrots chatter at you, and the whole scene ia vocal with mingled sounds. Everything is in bloom the year round, and at this season the heat at times is oppressive. It it did not occupy too much space in your columns, I might be tempted to describe the h.tbilationot Mr. H .where I am domiciled ; hehia resided here five years, aud has given me much valuable information regarding the couatry ; he Is an.Englishmau. There are tew or no Americans on the coast; I will simply say, that the house in which 1 swing ray hammock at present, is built of papta, resembling bamboo, and thatched with swallow-tail or cocoa branches, the carpet such as nature weaves ; but notwithstanding the loss of many luxuries, the profusion ot good living makes it comfortable?turtle and fish are standing dishea here?the latter ot excellent (lavor. After a look at Blewfield's, 1 will be better enabled to give you a correct account of the country. K. I). P. ? San Migl'ei,, Ckntkai. Amkeica, ) Dec. 2,1?48. J Hit Encroachmenti of the En%><ih. ? Their Claimt ?The Blockade?The Trouh/ti in Honduras. I believe there is not a corner of the world left? not even this distant side of the Pacific?where you have not correspondence, and it is gratifying to vour readers to know oitln>iiii>n?hm? your columns, that the great banks oi Newfound, land are being fished by orders of her Majesty, as well as the shores ot the Pacific on this Central American coast. Her Majesty's frigate ot the lino Champion, entered the port of Union on the 19th instant, and yesterday orders were received from her commander that the port was in a state of blockade; so you may easily imagine how we are iixed, just in the terminus of the fair, which is always held in this town in November, and just at the time when there are six or seven vessels in port, from Lima, Valparaiso, Guayaquil, &c , and whose cargoes are now in this city, consisting of indigo, hides, cochineal. Arc This government owes some $WUKH) to Loglish subjects, and 'he English claim $(?!>,000, which has caused the difference. ThiB government wants to pay in two years?the English want them top?y now Thi -lgo vernincni says mm mi' ivir. l< ignt's claim (mi I'.nglishman, who lost in the lust war, when General ia< Guadiola entered here four years ago) is not just. They bhv his claim ought to be $400. So much for English claims The whole ot Honduras is in a state of war. >a General Santos Guadiola has taken Comyagua. Ferrera has retired. Geo. Guidio'a issued his , proclamation on the 22d instant, in these terms, or to this effect:? of " Cltliona and friends-On?? mors ttao tyrant his _r earned me to take tbe sword in band: tyranny and oppression ia In tbe land. (iHlsena! help me te pat down tbe tyrant, and let liberty and tbe rights of ;?a the perple govern the land ' To.UAOAi.rA, Nov 22. 8. G." 6a_ I fear this State will be the victim of the wars, Lve as't is the most enlightened of all, andhtB the most commerce. Guadiola has been in dan Mifuel once before, and he may wish to visit it again, 'he blockade may last six months?no one knows, its, We have some 500 ceroons of indigo to ship, but 'ox I am afraid cannot do so soon Excuse the haste with which I have given you r^e this intelligence, ns lam Bomewhat busy now, at and send you this by means ot muhteeis, who I am to despatching at this moment for Umot, with indigo. for, your city of cities?the great and the beautiful metropolis of the new world, whose sky-like hay fa- cannot be surpassed, even by the celebrated Na|ly pies, lo?o Vancot'veb's Islano ?The grant of Vancouver's Island to the Hudson Hay Company, and the plans ul for its immediate colonization, hare been publisoed. The stipulation made by the government ?r is, that settlements shall be forthwith formed, and id that all profits from sales of land or the working ce of minerals beywnd 10 per cent, shall be applied _ ps towaids the colonization and improvement of the island. The terms presented to emigrants by the a* company are antilogous to what have been proie posed in other instances, with the exception that (fa the great advantage is offered of grants of Und as tjf small bb 20 acres. The company retain the right es to all minerals that may be found; but coal, where ih it is discovered on the land ol a settler, may be at worked by him at a royalty of 2s 6d per ton. id There is to be a governor and a council of seven '9 m? mbers appointed by the Crown, together with th a House oi Assembly, elected bv the inhabitants th (20 acres of land being the electoral qualification), ty and the legislature thus constituted will have lull r? power to impose taxes aad regulate the affiirs of r, the island. The ports and harbor* are to be free ? to all nation*. ii. e. gr atom ala.?The resignation of the President, al D. Jose Hernanlo Escobar, haa not been acsepted. m News to the 29th December declares the capital, 0. the city of Guatemala, in a state of siege. It was ja surrounded by 4,000 of the insurgents of the moon* et tains, with whom the government proi<osed to treat te on the most humiliating terms, but the conditions a were rejected General Paredea had be?n forced t, to abandon the city of Quesaltenango, and the inir turgents had offered his troops the priviteg- of >d sacking the capitul. It wus supposed that the c.ty a- would soon surrender. id ? ? la Aft Old Neoro?J Mines Cooper, a negro mtn, dt of Jeflerson county, Virginia, died on Tuesday a. last, atihe \ enerable age of 91 years He was quite u. intelligent, being able to read fluently When the >al Fitt frtn ami Furmtrt' Rfpotrtnry were consultas dated, in 1827, his name was found on the subi|y scription book, bisdatr commencing in 1809, and je- continuing until 1843, when his eye-aight tailed al? him. He paid hn subscription in orooms ; and, though blind, made brooms to the time of his >jy death.?Charltitnun ( Va.) Fret Preu, March 10. ofr Prospects or Navigation ? We look for the full onemnir of nsvigation by Ine middle of April? ng which is sufficiently early for the interests 01 the to shipping. The lower part of our harbor is becomes idk clear, and we look daily for the entire removal jst of ihe ice from the creek. The absence of snow, ol- however, and the small quantity of rain which has un fallen this season, have prevented a freshet, which ne usually sweej^s the ice Irom the creek in the spring to The works on the canal between this city and 1 ; ; Black Hock are rapidly approaching completion. Is, and we are assured that they will be "ready tor serI vice as soon ns navigation is resumed upon the re Inkes, or ss will be sale to let the water imo the to canal.?fiufful i Commercial Advertuer, March 15. >e i ? Thk Tw.roRApii in (tkkmany ?Two great telega graphic lines which were begun last year, are now re about to he completed. One of these lines noes c- ; (torn Berlin, by Magd^-hourg, H-inoverand Mlnden, ut to Culogne, and from theie to the frontier ol Bele. 1 gum. The other extends from Berlin, by Coethen, le Halee, Eisenach and Oassel, to Frankfort on trie i?r Main. The estHblishmciit ol three other telein i c aphu: lines will be b'-nuo shortly, viz :?I. Front id Berlin to thntin 2 From Berlin to Hainbn x; of ai d 3. From Berlin, through Brealau, to the A is? is trian frthlicr. J

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