Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 1, 1849, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 1, 1849 Page 1
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-gth: NO. 5413. The Efforts In England to Crush Republicanism In Europe. [Krota the London Times, Marsh 3 ] The hope which had for a moment been entertained that the Sardinian cabinet, under Gioberti, and the Piedmontese army,might be able to support the cause of constitutional monarchy m Italy, against the follies and excesses of the republ'can faction, has been dissipated almost as soon as it Was formed. For two days it seemed uncertain tvhich party would predominate in the government and in the streets of Turin. The accounts were contradictory, and the result doubtful. But in times like these, it seldom happens that moderation and qualified measures prevail over the violence of extremes. GiobeTO was one of the most eminent members < f that well-meaning but reeklew party of Italian liberals, who gave the impetus to a movement which tbey have since found it impossible to control. It is thc common destiny of the authors of revolutions, to be devoured *>y the ofipounug of their sanguine and fervent ltnagtnations. After a single year of liberty, Balbo, Azeglio, and Gioberti have lived to see the cause, which to their eyeB was the moBt glorious and hopeful in the world, degraded by political turpitude, disgraced by military defeat, polluted by assassination, and at last trampled under the feet of the basest demagogues in Europe. Witnin that single year they have seen, not the fall of those whom they called tyrants, but the persecution and dethronement of sovereigns to whom these very liberals had made the idols of the people, because they, too, werej.weak enough to confide in these false promises,and to leave the states ttiey governed at the mercy of the most ungrateful populace and the most artful and ambitious democrats in Europe. These lesBons are to most men as old as the world, and we should scarcely be pardoned now for insisting upon tne schisms they illustrate. But from time to time it would seem that men require the plainest experience to be refreshed ; and these popular leaders, who professed to need but a few months in power to make Italy a free, united, and prosperous nofinii hov* Kocn fnlton at fhoir tvnrrf Thpu kavo had the power they asked, and more than they asked. They have been encouraged by two ot the most powerf ul states in Europe, and unmolestd by the others. The result is that Italy is in a state of confusion and misery she has not witnessed since the middle ages, and that the wretched authors of these delusions lie scorched by the furnace they themselves had kindled. The proposal of Gioberti to march the King's army into Tuscany, toflthe support of Leopold, was good and politic. Had the Sardinian minister held the real power in hi s hands, it is probable that i? concluding an immediate peace with Austria, and employiug the military strength of Northern Italy against the insurrection ia the Central States,' he might have executed a great design, and laid the basis of a federal league between the Italian sovereigns. But the ground on which Gioberti stood was hollow. Turin was overrun with fugitive Lombards of the wo: st character, and fuH oi republican emissaries, both French and Italian. Genoa was en the eve of a convulsion, and still meditates a declaration of republican independence. The cabinet waB headed againBt the {>rime minister, and excited by the most ridicuous language. The Court was terrified and feeble; even the army was not entirely to be trusted. In short, the scheme of Gioberti was negatived, and he fell. The last political barrier on which the house of Savoy rested, iell with him. If any further resistance is to be ofTered to the assaults af the republican party, it can only be by the army. Charles Albert and nis sons are placed between the alternatives of unconditional surrender or of armed defence; and the ministry which has succeeded to power under General Chiodo, is evidently unprepared for the latter course. In the mean time, Florence and Rome are abandoned to all the excesses of a triumphant faction. The republic of Florence was proclaimed in February, under the galleiies ot the Uffmi, the turbulent mob, too impatient even to await the operations of the Constituent Assembly. The red flag ot liberty?that emblem of the worst times of revolutionary France?is hoisted in every street, and crowns tha most sacred edifices in Rome. The provisianal governments of these cities, destitute of any other resource, have proceeded to compute the value of the landed and moveab'e property they have plundered to an immense amount, and in Rome the treasures of the church arc to be summarily disposed of. Amongst other devices, the Florentine government has announced that the British Consul at Leghorn had rendered an essential service t? the new republic, and that England would continue her amicable relations with the Tuscan insurgents. W# certainly are unable, after what we nave witnessed of the Italian policy of the government, to affirm at what point it is intended to stop, or wnetner tnese mad Jacooins have or have not the countenance and support of Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell. But tor the honor oi this country, and for the character of its government, we implore those ministers to repudiate as promptly and forcibly as they can all connexion with these abandoned adventurers. We blush that in any part of Europe it should have been thought and believed that these crimes are the work of men protected by England. But it is so believed : and although to ourselves in this country such a charge appears incredible, yet there is no part of Italy in which the policy of tnis country is not held to be an accomplice in this catastrophe. We have no doubt that the British government does earnestly deplore that catastrophe, alike discreditable to all who may be fat any way concerned with it; but what, it mayLbe asked, has been done to avert it I What has not been aone to render it inevitable 1 The ultimate consequence of this revolution it is now not difficult to loresee. Alter a certain time has elapsed, during which the fairest cities of Italy will be consigned to total anarchy?to be ruled by Joseph Mazzini or plundered by the mob?the intervention of a loreign power will come to b? regarded at not only desirable, but indispensable, by ine Italians themselves, and by the rest or Europe. Provided the Austrians hold back their forces long enough, the time will come when they will be not dreaded and detested, but desired. It must, however, be observed, that these recent convulsions have rendered the renewal of the war extremely probable. The governments over which the conference of Brussels might hare exercised some influence, have ceased to exist. Sir Henry Ellis is there, but alone in his glory. Throughout Italy the dominant party, from Turin to Rome, stands pledged to carry on the war. Their presumption in langusge is only exceeded by their cowardice in the field, and their avowed preparations for this conflict afford to Austria a complete justification for any measures she may think fit to take. The advance of an Imperial corps of 8,000 men upon Ffrrara has already taken place, and the garrison of the citadel has completely occupied the town. Mazzini recommends the Italians to commence their operations ol war by the capture of that place. They may rely upon it that if they do attack it, that will be the first and last oflensive oj>e ration sn their side during the campaign. The Sardinian army is conscious of its late defeat, and unwilling to renew a struggle against a now overwhelming power; and the military power of the revolutionary party in the other States is a mere rabble, whicn will net encounter the enemy on a single field of battle. We still deprecate any precipitate intervention, although we are satisfied that Europe has little to dread trom the opposition of French and Austrian policy in Italy. The lrantic demagogues ot Florence will not meet with more support at Pans than at Vienna, and the governments ot all Europe must concur in acknowledging the common interest of all States to cause the tranquillity ot Italy to be restored, and to rescue the people from a tvranny far more hatefnl than the worst forms ef foreign oppression. Italy had never sunk to the lowest depthjof ignominy (until she seemed content to accept a creed and a dominion from the fanaticism and the craft of Joseph Mazzini, and the modern parodist of Rienzi threatens her with evila^beyona even those of superstition and despotism. Affairs on the Kuropean Continent, (From th? London Globe, March 0, r. M.) The Paris journals of yesterday contain accounts from Italy, according to which the Piedmontese division marching into Tuscany, with the concurrence of the government of that country, was expected hourly to have a collision with ths Austrian*, and thus recommence the war. In the Italian journals which have thisjday reached us, we see nothing positively to confirm the belief that the next accounts will bring news of a conflict; but in the excitement of iht Piedmontese it is by no means improbable that th?y will commence the attack. According to a letter from Turin, ?the march of the Piedmontese was pot solely for the purpose of defending the territory of Tuscany against the Austrian*, but also with a view to give a point d'appui to the friends of the Grand Duke. Tnere is, it is Baid, even in the Tuscan government, & party favorable to the restoration of Leopold, and which would declare itself more openly if ' not under the influence of terror. The government ot Rome has demanded the immediate fusion of Tuecany with the Roman republic. Thia is objected to, nn the ground that the repubhe in Tuscany has not yet been formally and legally proclaimed by Ik* OoMfctneiit Assembly. llw presents tf Pied E NE montese troops may, perhaps, prevent tb'^s proclamation, and it ia evidently the interest of Charles Albert to prevent it if he can?for etsen, says the writer of this letter, in the improbable event of hiB driving the Auatrians out of I'.nly with the aid of the republicans of Rome and. Tuscany, he would constantly have a republican feeling to contend with in nis new possessions. He will be no more advanced with the Auatrians out of Italy, if the republican principle be suffered to gain ground there, than he is now. One of the Paris journals states that the French government had received positive information of new and important successes having been obtained by tbe Auatrians in Hungary. Our Paria correspondent states that several letters have been received there from Vienna to the same effect. The Monttmr publishes a circular of the Minister of the Interior to the Prefects of the departments, desiring them to put down vigorously and immediately the bonnttrouer, and all other red republican and socialist emblems: and we learn by a Srivate letter that the President of the Republic as insisted ution the dismissal of any public functionary who shall be wnntinc in the zeal and alar rity demanded by tbe Minister ot the Interior. The Monileur also publishes an official note, declaring that the statement of the President of the Republic having interfered in the selection of the members of the electoral committee of the Rue de Poiters is untrue. He has never, says the note, taken any part in matters connected with the approaching elections, and intends to maintain the same neutrality. We have no doubt of the sincerity ot this declaration; but it is well known that the Bonapartist members of the committee in question have been selected as being the personal triends ot the President ot the Reputlic, and at the same time moderate and well-meaning men. All the Bonapartists ot the journal called la Libtrtt, which has attached the ministers ot Louis Napoleon, and thus given otience to him, have b?en rejected. A new journal, called Lt Pouvoir, which is to represent more correctly the sentiments ot the President, is to appear in a tew days. The socialist journals publish another letter about the pretended socialist banquet of nan-commissioned officers, from M. Jcly and M. Oilivter, two members ot the Mountain. They again affirm that the banquet was held, but they do abstain from giving the number ef persons present. The chiet object of the letter is to repeat the attempts to excite the army, by telling it that it is made to allow the friends of liberty to be sacrificed abroad, and to play an inglorious part at home. The language used by M. Joly and M. Ollivier is intended exclusively to seduce the army from its real duties, and to get up a feeling lor war, which the government will find it difficult to control. The "War In Runry, [From ths London Nejri, Fod. 27-1 So long a period has elapsed since direct er trustworthy intelligence could be received of or from the Hungarian canse or camp, that we have refrained from all eomment, and merely repeated those manifestly false, and, indeed, unintelligible bulletins which' General Welden draws up for the edification ot his staff. The proclamation of Windiscbgratz. that he would hang whosoever urniilH fnrurtirH a fmm nnKrn/X'/in onnolra tva t? ? v> ? ?v??v a kviii utv v?">u) 0|rvanD for itself. In the midst, however, of the repeated Te Drums and accounts of victory?including that of Lord Brougham on the opening of Parliament ?it was evident that there was something wrong, and that the Austnans must have encountered some severe checks and difficulties. Wicdischgralz entered the capital of Hungary at the head of his army, on the 5th of January, and encountered no resistance, Kossuth, the diet, and the army, having retired behind the Theiss. It is but three or four days' march from Pesth to this river, and yet up to the 18th of February, the 1mpenal troops had not dared to cross it, or had not even molested Kossuth and his diet, stationed as both were in the open town of Debreckzin, situated not far beyond the Theiss, in the nudst of the great plain of Hungary. The army, upon which the Austrian bulletin makers and the caterers to our tory journals relied for dislodging Kossuth, was that of Gen. Schlick, whieh had marched across the mountains of North Hungary, and, we were repeatedly told, had carried all before it. It is, however, very extraordinary that this same Gen. Schlick and his corps should, even by the admission of the Austrian bulletins, be, in the m'.ddle of February, in pretty much the same positions which they had occupied in the middle of December. The last Austrian bulletin states several corps, those of Gotz and Jablonowsky, to be in pursuit of the rebel army, whilst the redoubted Schlick, with three brigades, had taken up a position at Torna, on the flank of thia hostile devastating column." Now, one letter from Hungary, of the same date, assures us that? The corps of Gen. Sohlick exists no more ; it was utterly routed, half destroyed, half dispersed, by the Hungarian corps of Gen. Klapda, who succeeded Mcs ??ro?. senucx nime?n msue ma way, wun some or bis cflloera, to Peitb, and baa bsan (ant back to tbe Tbaiaa to bead a newly-formed eorpa, tbna to make tbe world belle re tbat bia old eorpa atlU exiata and bolda together. ln fact, Georgey'a oondnet ot tbe guerilla war in Upper Hungary baa not only (truck freah courage into tbe breaata of tbe Magyara, bnt exoitea tbe avowed admiration of tbe Anatrian offlcera. Hia laat feat baa been tbe re-capture of Kaaeban. Whilat George y ib thus not only maintaining his ground, but destroying his enemies in North Hungary, General Bern has been equally successful in Transylvania. At first he was sore pressed by the hostility of the Servians and Wallachians, (as the Tranrylvanian Rumtni are called;) but Bern has succeeded in explaining to the people and their chiefs that Austria merely aims at the enslavement of all Hungarian races, making UBe of one to subdue the other. And this conviction seems also to have been infused into the Croatians, who began te waver. The native race of Transylvania have since turned against Pucbner and the Austrians, and the result has been the cry for aid which these hare sent to the Russians. Our letter from-Pesth, ot the 18th, doubts the entrance of the Russians, which, however, is circumstantially related by the Vienna paper. Whilst the war is thus carried on, and can be perpetuated in the mountains north and south, Dembnnaki remains at the head of such a force on the plain beyond the Theiss, as to have for six weeks deterred the Anstnans from passing that river. In whatever attempts they did make they were defeated ; so much so, that both Windiechgratz and Jellachich saw that they had now better return to Pesth than remain in the face of an enemy against whom they could do nothing. Windischgratz, therefore, betook himself to the capital, and to the beloved task of shootiag and torturing prisoners, and sxtoiting money, hoping that ere long his lieutenants would destroy the insurgent armies under Georgey and Bern.and then march onDemblnski at Debrecazin, enabling him to cross the Theiss. In these hopes the Austrian general has been completely disappointed, and be has now marched to see how he can h&nole Dembmski by himself, and subdus the Magyars in battle. Whatever be the result, the Hungarians have at least redeemed their character for military well as courage. It is now, indeed, known that Dembinski from the first recommended the retirement of the Hungarians behind the Theiss, and that the defences made at Weisclburg and at Mor, were merely owing to the impatience ot the Hungarians, who did not like the discredit of a retreat u;ifKmit m BKASV Msiatanon ? ?MWT? VI IVVlBMUiVCl X 1UUCCU. displayed a great want of generalship, since, had his aim been serious resistance, he could have rendered the passes of the Bakony Wald impervious, and attacked the Auatrians with much advantage as they passed between the wooded line of hills and the fortress of Comoro. There is no doubt, however, that what the Hungarians most wanted was generals. And it is a signal proof of Austrian jealousy, that whilst they have 40,000 or 50,000 Hungarian soldiers in thetr armies, they advanced none of that nation to the rank or experience of a general. Meantime, the proceedings of Windischgratz at I'esth mark his tears and his embarrassment. Money and supplies already fail hina; and from seventy he has turned to otiers of conciliation. Count Louis Bathyani, when brought before aeourt martial, refused to plead. As a Hungarian, he demanded his legal judges, and refused to answer any interrogatories of the Austrian officers. He was remanded to prison, and his (ate is uncertain. Windischgratz is also said to have summoned Heak^and proposed to him to form a liberal ministry with a constitution for Hungary. Deak refused to have anything to do with Windischgratz, on which the latter is said to have angrily offered him the alternative of taking the post of prims minister, or of being consigned to a dungeon. once declared he would infinitely prefer the latter at such hands. Windischgratz, after thin, gave orders for fortifying Buda, and he has erected blockhouses with palisades at each end of Tierney Clarke's suspension bridge. Of public opinion at Pesth, the following extract (rem one of our letters gives a sample i? The efllem at the theatre always ery eat te have, Ooll trkmltt enter Kmtttr, (the Austriaa Got save the King.) susg. I may observe, that they a# loagee play It at vies aa, where the aotieaee resolve* It la edema and lugubrious sileaee. However, the oSoere Irani! It of the orehoetra at Pesth; hut the Haugaslane laetaatly elsmsr ht their JUteks** mar eh. Heads by W Y O SUNDAY MORNIN' b? or both being played. Bat WtadteehgraU, to re* tore qalet, hu been obliged to forbid both one end the other. We learn that not one ef the magnates who support the insurgent cause has madenis submission, whilst several who had remained quiet till now have been so disgusted with the project of centralization and destroying the rights of Hungary, that they have openly declared their determination to resist it. Amongst those who have made this declaration is Count Esterhazy, ol Dotis, a wealthy magnate, who seldom meddled with politics, but whose influence in several comitati, even of the west, is enormous. In consequence of the Count Esterhazy's discontent, the comitat of Gras has re-risen in a kind of insurrection. The Hungarian Lutherans are, to a man, tortha insurrection. Count Charles Zay and Baron John Zeszenak, the superintendents or chiefs of the Lutheran church (the office is always held by laymen,) are in Kossuth's camp. And, indeed, the seat of ihe Diet in Debreeazin. the chief city of the Calvinist Magyars, shows tnat all the Hungarians of the reformed religion look to the prevalence of Austria to be a religious, as well as a political, subjugation. It must not, however, be supposed from this that the Catholic Magyars have any sympathies forAustria. The crown of St. Stephen, placed by Kossuth in one of the churches ol Debreckzin, and almost adored by them, is symbol enough that they are determined to defend Hungarian independence. The Magyars are, indeed, all us one man. and no defeat in the field, however overwhelming, would quench their dogged discontent and indomitable nationality. [Since the above occurrences,the Austrians and Hungarians have had several more skirmishes, in which the Hungarians reaped as many advantages as the Austrians.?Ed. Herald ] Via* Revenue and Kxpifenrtltures of tlis Chinese Umpire, die , die. [From the China Mall, Deo. 31.1 We have been lavored with the substance of the following interesting information regarding a subif ht little understoon~the revenue oi China:? A fundamental principle ol the Chinese system of revenue is to make each department pay itself. 11 there is any surplus, the money is put out at terest, to lsim a reserve fund in time ol need. Several institutions, especially those belonging to the court, have funded propetty, independent of the income from the State, out of which all the expenditure is paid, and a fair surplus always remains in the exchequer. The Imperial treasury is quite distinct from the National one. No accounts of its receipts, disbursements, and deposits are ever published. The sovereign ol China reserves to himself the power to appropriate any amount of money fcr his own use; and the twelve millions mentioned in the subjoined list, may be taken as the average minimum. On this point, however, no certain data exist. The list contains solely the disbursements and income of the supreme government, and of the provincial authorities, in so far as they stand in immediate connection with the general administratien. Of the strictly local and municipal finances, it does not appear that any accounts have yet been laid before the public. It is a standing rule, that the national granaries throughout the empire should always contain 31,355,077 shih of paddy, and 12,022,458 shih of rice, to be used in time of famine.* Whenever the new harvest is brought m^the old stock is sold at a reduced price. The receipts ol the present yesr, compared with those ten years ago, show a great tailing off, and it is to be feared that the decrease of revenue will be more considerable. The government having lost much ol its vigor and energy, the collection ol taxes is frequently resisted, whilst a series of famines and other calamities in some districts have rendered unavailing all efforts to realize the ordinary revenue. Whenever public works are to be undertaken, or any extraordinary expenditure is to be incurred, government collects patriotic contributions. Their amount is now and then published in detail, and they constitute occasionally large sums. The donors are frequently rewarded with office and emoliimrntR (or their lminifieenre Many small items which are expended in maintaining the numerous dependents of the Mantchoo dynasty, do not appear amongst the receipts. It is, on the whole, very difficult to come at certain results ; but the following statements, which have been extracted from Chinese state papers, compared with other documents, may be regarded as an approximation. It will be borne in mind, however, that it is not the gross revenue which is here stated, but the estimated surplus, after meeting local charges; a principle followed, though not to the same extent, in our own revenue returns,which exhibit, not the sums collected on account of each department, but what is actually paid into the Exchequer. Thus, in the case of the post-office, the ?864,000 given as its revenue, is not above half the groBs income of the department:? Retemce KsTuas* or thi Chikme Emms* in 1847. fTaeU. Land tax 28,308,6% Forwarded to the capital In kind from the various provinces, 4.719,386 ihih of riee and other grain, equivalent to 0,488.670 Duty on salt 4,704,883 Transit dutiss 4,199,896 Duties on forsign trnds, inclusive of Mongolia 3,000,000 Tas d?rived from the mines, paid in kind.. 3,021,106 Tribute of silk, cotton etul!S,and other manufactures, equivalent to 307.690 Sundries . 3,739,607 Bent from the land of the Eight Standards. 463,043 Tsx on tea plantations, ho 108,481 Surplus per oentago paid on ovory sum receivedinto the publlo treaaury 4,318,884 Total 69,496,993 [Equal to about ?17,000 000sterling.] Public EinnDiTVRB. rati*. Pay te the eivilians, police and military . fleers 7,087,198 Army and navy (ons-fonrth consists in kind, sueh as riee, flour, he 4,605,613 offieere of the Supreme government nt Peking 068.377 Poet establishment nnd relays for pnblie functionaries 2,014,914 For dykes, pnbllo buildings, nnd other exigencies 3,800.000 For sundries 1,817,108 Deposits In the treasuries as a reserve fund, to meet any emergency 7,370,742 Stipends to scholars, expenditure nt the examinations, he 363,806 For benevolent purposes, such as donations to the aged and poor 833,672 Gratuities to distinguished men, pensions, he 401,669 For sundry grants to priests and national establishments 183,182 Total 17,044,160 [F.qual to about ?7,860,000 sterling ] IurxRiAL Establishment raio our or the National TaxAtvnv. Tat It. The Eight Standards nnd Mongolian auxiliaries 6,463.431 Riee and other articles la kind.. 4,664,800 Gratuities and pensions 401,689 Allowances made to children, the aged, Infirm, and tha poor amongst tha Mantahooe 981,148 For religions establishments at the Llama temples, the saorifices at tha Imperial tombs, ha , 844,(74 Imperial manafaeturesto proride tha eonrt with artlalaa at luxury 801,809 ? 12,217,111 Provincial dlsbnrsamenU far tha IS provinces, Turkestan, and the eetoblishmant la Thibet 8,(07,880 Tatal of public expenditure 44,008,(48 Paid Into the Imperial Treasury, for tha sovereign's private nee. about 18,000,000 (This sum Is not specified, bat is merely estimated) Total (7,008,048 [Equal to about ?18,880,000 sterling.] Deficit in tmk Ravnnrs nvaina 1847, In land tax 882,181 la duties 470,808 la the gabelle 880,718 In sundries , 808.700 la kind, 1,178,088 shlh, equivalent to 2,848.188 Total revenue af Ho-aan expanded to suaeor tha starving population 9,909,708 Surplus ssat (torn the other praviaaes and tha capital to He-aaa 888,000 Tatal 8.884,428 Dlsbursameats 87,008,848 888MioT( Receipt (0,408,002 Actual deficit 8,708,881 e A ehih le eqeal te 180 Ika | One Tsei is sqeal te 1X esasea SIWI OF Tax DAT. [From tha Paklag Oaaatto] Tha Emperor haa promoted thoae soldiers oi tha imperial guard mho showed themselves most skilful is tha uae of the favorite Mantchoo weapon, the bow. There ie ao aecount of matchlock practice. which sufficiently proves that firearms are not held in great cauaaauea at oowt. IRK I G, APRIL 1, 1849.

Tscukwang has issued a very strong edict, in whic h he complains of the negligence with which theaffaiis of the grain boats are treated, and the large embezzlements and bribes which ruin this important branch of administration. There is something paternal in his exhortations, which, no doubt, will be followed by more vigorous measures, should the mandarins not attend to the remonstrance. Apprehensions were entertained that the large grain junks would not be able to pass the great canal through Shan-tung. The authorities nave therefore chartered SCO smaller vessels to lighten them, and carry put of the cargo to Teen-tsin. I The gradual decrease of the water in the great canai nas never been aatistactoriiy explained ; should it continue, this great aqueduct, the wonder of the world, will become quite uselesj. The captain a of the junks which imported the grain from Shangbae to Teen-tain will make good a part of the 1o6b which their cargoes suffered from becoming wet on the passage. Considering the immense quantities ef rice, wheat, and pulse, which are annually transported , to the capital from all parts of the vast empire, the superintendency of the gram department at Peking must be no sinecure. The officer at the head of the granaries is an influential man, and his responsibility is very great. Recently there have been many defalcations in the receipts, and much corn was said to have been clandestinely subtracted. The Director, however, in a very able paper, has shown that the deficit is merely imaginary. Several pages of the Peking Gazette are again filled with a long list of names of persons recommended for promotion by the Governor-General of Keang-nan and Keang-se. It is by no means probable that these wealthy contributors to the public funds will soon be satisfied in their demands. Still the number of claimants for emoluments is yearly increasing, nnd must ultimately press so heavily upon the administration, as to produce a catastrophe. A secretary in a prefecture was, in 1841, transpotted for ten years to the Ele territory for smoking opium. He was employed during this time at the arsenal and the copper mines, and had been veiy successful. As a mitigation of punishment was lately granted to convicts, the authorities applied to tne throne to procure for this criminal a reduction of three years. The Emperor, however, would not hear of it, for his aversion to opium smokers is not yet abated. The Emperor continues to pay frequent visits to the Eirtpress Dowager, generally in the morning after breakfast. The audience given to the mandarins takes place very early, often before 5 o'clock, even in winter. On such occasions, those officers who have crme on business to the capital, or have been promoted, are introdueed. After a slight repast, a cabinet council is sometimes held, and if matters are very pressing, another is convened at Bight. The papers which have been received the previous day are then taken into consideration, and either immediately decided upon, or sent to the respective boards, with orders for them to report thereon. The final decision, however, depends 1 I? .. .L- :i j .. ? " - , cmiigijf vb ins uuuucii, iuu in wriuen dy me r-.niperor, with the vermilion i>encil, in very short sentences. If an ordinary matter, it is published in the Peking Gazette; if on business which concerns the countiy at large, the sovereign himself issues a mandate; if a mere state affair, circulars are addressed to the various parties interested. This is done with astonishing promptitude. The document is sent to the Board of War, with a sentence written on a Blip of paper, specifying the number of days allowed for it to reach its destination, and the couriers are instantly despatched. It seldom happens that they are after their time, for the relays are iudiciously placed, and the whole system is regulated like clockwork. Any matter laid before the council is immediately attended to, and numbers of secretaries are always in waiting?the most experienced, plodding, and trustworthy men that cap be found amongst the mandarins. The names of those members of the Privy Council present at the deliberations arc mentioned in the Gazette. Thus w e find Psou-tsing and Kwangyin en the list on the 1st August, ana on 1st September Ke-ying, Koo-ching, Boo-too-lee, See. All ike mmutin: of form are observed, and the whole icrformed without the slightest deviation from established usage ; but it frequently happens that the routine is strictly followed, while the matter itself is overlooked. The Chinese constitution of government is a consistent despotism ; there is but one master and lord, ths Emperor, the others being merely his laves; while the so-called privileged classes are only such by favor; and no honors or emoluments can be conferred without his express sanction. It is true there is a numerous elass of hereditary nobility; but the title bequeathed from father to son is considered as of little value unless the Emperor adds fresh lustre to it by a new decree or grant.? A host of the scions of the imperial clan,the greater portion of the Mantchoo and Mogul chiefiL and a considerable number of the Chinese hereditary nobles, have as little influence ia the affairs of state as those who lately acquired their rank by purchase. It is very far from being the wish of government that the nobles should occupy situations of trust, and consequently few will be found in the liats of hich military or nnyal nr a to the civil service. It would seem as if the Emperor were afraid they might ultimately become too powerful) and usurp those prerogatives which ought only to belong to royalty. A decree has lately been issued, prohibiting ihem from holding more than one office at a time, and directing that great caution should be used in conferring appointments. Affairs In Cochin-China, (Prom the Straits Times. October 21. ] Bv the arrival of the Jadul Karim, from Turon, w e have received intelligence from Cochin-China to the end of September. The accounts are replete with details of distress, which seems to be very general throughout the country. It would appear that the tyfoon which occurred last year, the day alter Sir John Davis arrived at Turon, had completely devastated the country, and destroyed the whole crop of sugar canes, which were then nearly ready fer cutting. The new crop was not ready in September last, nor had anything been saved from last year's crop, to enable the growers to meet the expenses of the present one. The new and youthful monarch has already shown an independence of feeling and acting, instead of relying on the dictation of his ministers. Some advances made by the crime minister caused dissatisfaction, and he was dismissed from office in the middle of August last?another being appointed in his stead. Much complaint is made by the Cochin-Chinese of the conduct of the French in the disastrous visit of the frigates, and the fearful slaughter which took plnce. The sad records of French slaughter are constantly before the people?not merely by the remembrance of the deaths of more than 1,300 persons, but also in the ?m:t of there now being at Hue about 350 poor wretches, some with loss of limbs, and others severely wounded, with little hope of mtdical relief. The Cochin-Chinese version of the circumstances which led to the feartul onslaught, differs greatly from the account furnished by our Gallic neighbors at the time, and which, if entitled to any portion of credit, reflects on the attackers. The following forms the substanse of the Cochin-Chinese version :? The French Admiral Cecille having heard, while lying in China, that a French missionary was in some part of Cochin-China in confinement, despatched a ship-of-war with a letter to the King.? The vessel accordingly proceeded to Turon, on the mission, and found that the PrimeMiaister refused to receive the despatches. The missionary, however, was given up immediately, with orders nev^>r to return again to that territory. This was not aufficiently satisfactory to the demands of our Gallic neighbors; they remained in Turon for upwards of two months, with the exDeetation of their letter being eventually received by the King's minister. All efforts to negotiate proved fruitless; and the King, finding the two vessels did not quit the harbor, sent to acquaint Commodore La Pierre, that he must take what provisions, wood, and water he required, and proceed to sea in three days; and, if he did not, that the King would open fire on the vessels from his forts and shipping. In the meantime, every preparation was mads for an attack, 4 vessels of war having been sent down from Hue, the seat of government, and orders given to all the forts to be in readiness for the attack if found necessary. The Commodore took umbrage at the threat of the King, and determined not to be driven from the harbor quite so unceremoniously; consequently, after the third day, the King's vessels opened a fire on the French men-of-war, as did also the forts; the latter did but little damage, the guns being too small, and the forts too far aistant from where the vessels were lying. The Commodore immediately returned the assault, destroyed four vessels entirely, and killed upwards of 1,200 persons. Three hundred and filty|other poor wretches are now living at Hue. some with the loss of limbs, others severely wounded. After the action, the two ohipo left the harbor at their leisure. Thus ended u eoufhet nst in any way creditable to the character of a civilised, and, said to be, the moot polished aatioa in ths wsrid. IER A Intelligence from 81am. C* [From the Straits Tims# ] Advices have been received to October 2d. His Majesty had not recovered from the fears caused by the death of many of the royal elephants, and was still laboring under the appreheuBion that, as a murrain amongst the elephants had occurred just prior to the aeath of one or more of his ancestors, so his own end could not be far off. Much sickness was prevailing at Bangkok. The Rev. Mr. Caswell, American missionary, expired on 26th September, after nine years' labour in the Christian cause. To Mr. Caswell's ingenuity and mechanical knowledge the royal builder, I'nnce T. N. Chau-Fa, is indebted for much of ttie success attending his study and cultivation of shipbuilding and machinery. [From the Singapore Fras Press, Ootobsr 10.] The prcgress which the Siamese, within the last ten or twelve years, have made in the art of ship* building, principally through the spirited exertions of individuals connected with the royal family or the court, has been very great, and very successful, as is proved by the number of fine vessels now afloat, which have been turned out at the royal dockyards in Siam. The crowning achievement in this important art has just been accomplished by one of the royal family, who has constructed ana launched a small steam vessel, which workB satisfactorily, and who ib about to undertake the building of another on a larger scale. I'. is in the highest degree gratifying to find the princes of such a valuable and important country as Siam, thus giving the best proofs of their attachment to, and appreciation of. the advantages of civilization, in their successful imitation of some of the most useful and important inventions of modern ingenuity; and it affords good augury for the future of the country, that she should possess such inen among her nobles. The following extract from n communication from Bangkoa, under date 14th ultimo, will furnish our readers with some account ot the Siamese steamer, and its royal and truly illustrious builder. It is to be hoped that his highnees's example will be followed by many of his countrymen; and that the cultivation of Euroiiean literature, arts and sciences, may be promoted by the success which has attended the attempt in the case of Prince T. N. Chau-Fa:? Seme time since. It was Intimated that his Royal Highness, Prince T. N. Chan-Fa Khromakhun lnaret Kangsan, had commenced the construction of a small steam engine. This, under the most indefatlgabls and psrseverlng exertions on his part, has at langth been completed, and the Siamese can now boast of having running on the river Menans, a steamboat, every portlen of which has been made and manufactured here, and entirely by native artlAoers. She la 26,1If feet long, 3 feet 10.', inohes broad; theengine being 2 horse power. This little phenomenon has made several trips up uu uvnu ?UO llTVt) UIO AVIB1 nigUBVBB bUO I C1BOC gtl* nrrally acting steersman himself, in full view of thousands of astonished and admiring apeotatora, wbo crowded tba banka of tba rirar on eaob oooaaion. Tbe Prlnea ia naturally anougb vary proud of bia ataamcr, and some lav days alnae, passed up and down In front of tbe palaea with bar before bia Majesty tba King af Slam, wbo vaa graciously pleaaed ta pare tba blgbaat encomium* on bia ingenuity, made him a munificent preitat, and honored him with hla commands to bare another ateam reaael conrtrncted, sufficiently large to be capable of proceeding to Singapore, whloh bia Higbnaaa baa undertaken to accomplish. From not baring copper or iron here of sufficient thiekneaa, the boiler baa been constructed in such a manner as to add very considerably to Ita weight, and in eoneequenoe detracting much from the spaed of tbe boat. Ilia Higbnaaa eipeota, however, to be able to rectify thla in soma meaanre?to effect whioh. he baa commenoed building a boat an quite a different model, mora buoyant than tbe present one, and with larger paddle wheels; and baa tent to Singapere to bare copper auffloiently thlok for new boilers, brought np. The workmanship of even tbe moat minute part of tbe engine itself la truly admirable, and reflects the greatest credit on ita royal oonatruetor, wbo had every portion of it made under bis own immediate superintendence and constant Inspection, and by workmen all salf-inatruoted, being His Highness' body-servants and retinue. A few years since, no ironwork conld be done bare but of tbe coarsest and simplest description; but at present, under tbe auspices of this prinoe, work of this kind can be turned out nearlv if not quite equal to that made in England. Hla machineand work-rooms are well worthy a close inspection; and it la a aource of much gratification to him to exhibit tbem to European* wbe visit him at hla palace. Hit knowledge In these branohea has been principally acquired from books, ot whioh he has a large and well selected library, which be takes the greatest care of, and derives much pleasure from. There is nothing almost he turns bis mind to which he does not accomplish, however irkaome and difflcult. Amongst other things be baa directed his attention to chemistry, in wbieb solenoe he ia no mean profloient; ship-building be is also conversant with; military and naval tactlos, gunnery, navigation, the use ot nautical aud astronomical Instruments of all klnda, be Is thoroughly acquainted with; Indeed, were all hla acquirements to be enumerated, It would be scaroely credited by parties unacquainted with the versatility of hla genius. He ia at present busily occupied In the erection of a handsome brick dwelling-house, entirely after the European style, which promises, like everything else he undertakes, to approach towards perfection. A large garden in the same style is attached, and is in progress of being laid out in divisions, flower beds, fountains, ho. His Highness has already commenced models for the nrw steam engine; so that ere long you must not be surprised if vou see a Siamese steamboat steaming into the roads of Singapore. Affairs of Japan. [From the Folynesian, Nov. 4.1 ?.. = r,lw.n ..?/..J j-J- -i I * Mi/no uiivuiivu ao uwn luiiica lunmus uic cuttire of Japan, which has so long remained a sealed ook in the history of the world, but which, to judge from present appearances, is soon destined to be opened. English, French and Yakkee curiosity is on the yttt vivt to get a peep at that tabooed land, and to become better acquainted with the race of people who have so long managed to pursue their exclusive policy without provoking the hostility of foreign nations. Formerly, the Japanese were a commercial people, being, previous to l.r>86, engaged in trade with sixteen countries, but owing to the difficulties occasioned by the Jesuits and Portuguese, during that year, a prohibition was put upon foreign intercourse. The external commerce of the country is now limited to two Dutch ships and twelve Chinese junks annually. N&ngasaki is the port of entry for these vessels. The exportation of nearly every article except lacquered ware, camphor, and copper, is now prohibited. The profits of the Dutch trade have been greatly lessened by the restrictions placed upon importation and exportation. They are only allowed to import $360,000 worth of merchandize annually, and to export nothing bnt camphor and copper. Several vessels of war have visited Japan, for the purpose of opening intercourse. All ellorts have, thus far, proved unavailing. The Japanese are extremely polite to their visiters?supply their wants free o! charge, and politely request them to go away. The whaling fleet are destined to exert a great influence in opening intercourse with the empire ; of Japan. Several whalers have already had comI munication with the shore. Accounts of the viI sits of the Manhattan and Inez have been publiahed in our columna. Several wrecked Japanese junks were, last year, picked up by the whaleshii* ' cruising in the Japan Sea, and their crewa put on J board fishing smacks. Capt. Tower, of the Moc| tezuma. informs us, that, during hia cruise this I season, he fell in with a junk disabled and drifting to sea, the c.'ew of which he saved and put on board another junk. Several boats' crews have I landed, the past season. Captain Swain, of the David Paddock?which vessel was wrecked in the Japan Sen, Aug. 20th?landed on the southwest cane of Saghalin. where they remained three days. They found only a few inhabitants, most of whom were Tartars, and the remainder Japanese. They were treated with great kindness?furnished with a house and food gratuitously?but not allowed to go into the interior, being guarded by a body of soldiers?and, after being presented with four or five thousand pounds of rice, were requested to go away. They accordingly left, in their boats, and, in crossing the Matstnai straights, fell in with the ship Globe. The Governor and principal men were Japanese. It is believed that the common people of Japan desire to hold intercourse with foreigners, but are Srevented byffear of their superiors and the law. lany of the vessels cruising in their seas will find pretests for landing ; and when their visits become too frequent, the policy ot firing them all they wish will become rather unprofitable, and may, in the end, induce the Japanese to receive pay. So many whalers annually visit the Japan Sea, that intercourse seems inevitable. If the Japanese continue their poliey, Yankee curiosity will seon be gratified, lor it will be impossible to bow a wrecked ship's company out of the country without a conveyancej and if they pursue an opposite course, they offer the pretext?so eagerly sought by foreign nations?for interposition by force. Anmxxatiom of CtniA.-We saw a gentleman, theevher day, who had been spending the winter in Havans, and he told as he was surprised to fiad the subject of the annexation of Cuba to the 1 Uaited States ao generally discussed there, and that the sentiment among the people was almost nnanimonsly in favor of it. we also loarn from him that annexation was not only regarded there as a possible but aa a probable thing, and that the impression was, that something looking to it had Msscd between the governments of the United States and Spam,?Miwwrf Amtrif*, March 90, LD. TWO CENTS. Canadian Matters. [From tbo Toronto Patriot.] Alas! Britannia has ceased to care for her ofiguring ! She hae ruined the West ladies by a most flagrant breach of faith. She bade them emancipate their slaves?she promised, in recompense, to protect them against competition. Unwillingly, they consented. She broke her word, and gave a | preference to their rivals, the slave-holders. It was an accursed deed, and bitterly will she re'*Canada suflers in like manner with the Wast Indira Thnnaanda h?v?? hean inrlnnpH in /?nm? here, under a direct and oft-repeated pledge of H8eietance and support. That support la suddenly withdrawn. The lumberer is ruined?the farmer is disheartened English manufacturers?the most selfish of mankind?over supplying their own market, are covetous of engrossing the markets of the world ! They advocate tree trade, because they hope to pri nt by it, heedless of the curses drawn down upon England, from myriads of ruined foreign artificers, whom she would fain undersell. In England, evil counsels are in the ascendant; Canada is left to depend upon herself; Canadian loyalists have to contend us they may with republicanism and disaflt-ction, unaided by the mother country, nay, chilled by her indifference. What marvel, then, that those upon whom the grievance presses most sore?those who are a second time threatened with the terrorism of 1H37?should east about for aid against the impending.infliction? should look southward to men of kindred blood, who, however differing on questions of public policy, are at least English, English in name, in language, in history, in feeling, ay, even more so than it will own. Wbat hope for the British of Lower Canada, who find that we of the Upper Province, instead oF aiding them against the foreigner, are only, by our representatives in Parliament, aiding to rivet tighter and firmer the shackles that were once so nearly forced upon them 7 There are other quarters from whence this word " annexation" has been heard. In newspapers, at public meetings, in the street, the same sound is echoed, day by day, in Canada West, and the social meeting has been invaded by the unusual opic. [From tbo Montreal Journal, March 20.] lliiiEi.i.iow I^issks ?As we stated a few days ago, but for the late pitch forking of no less than twelve political partisans, of the present cabinet, into our Canadian House of Peers, their iniquitous rebel paying scheme would have received its i/utefui, in tne second branch of the Legislature; 1 ,L?*a anAiilel hous Kosn onmo itnrtP nf nnaoa UIXU U1CIC nvuiu l???v wvvu BW..IV IIUJ/V VI l^HVV being restored to the country?peace, without which, it is vain, utte ly vain, to expect the restoration of our prosperity. That a house divided against itself cannot stand, we have the highest authority for saying; and no less certain is it, that a government which sanctions and rewards rebellion against its own authority, must fall. If theToyal people of Canada, wne, in obedience to the summons ol their Queen, risked their all?life and property?for, had the rebellion succeeded, in there any man so basely insincere as even to affect that the loyalist losses would have been considered by the successful revolutionists'? We say, if those who risked their all in defence of their sovereign's authority, were wrong in so doing?if they are now, as a consequence of having crushed rebellion and vindicated the majesty of the crown and the authority of the law, to be punished for their welldoiBg, to be taxed to pay the losses of the rebellions?if the Queen's name, in itself a tower of strength, is to be prostituted in so foul a cause, and used "To dress the ugly form Of beae and bloody Insurrection, With ita fair honors." ? if such be the reward of loyalty in the subject, what can be the claims to fealty in the sovereign \ But it cannot be?we will not believe that the honor of the British crown, in North Americs, at the bidding of a temporarily dominant faction, in to be turned into abye-word and a reproach. * * It is the duty and privilege of every British subject firmly and respectfully to warn his sovereign of the consequences which must result from the adoption, by her government, of the unprecedented and unheard-of principle, that, as it is within the bounds of her royal prerogative to pardon, so it in within the powers of her provincial parliament to pay, rebels, at the public expense ; but it eaa neither be the duty ner the privilege of any subject of Great Britain, while acknowledging his allegiance, to plan and invite discussion upon schemes of separation and annexation. The time, alas! may arrive, when,it deserted by the crown, and left to the tender mercies of a Franco-Canadian faction, the British Canadian royalist may be driven to seek, by a I ?iil< iKn?? nf his nnrn r?r?. althniivh muter a d liferent form of government, those British rights and institutions which are here denied him; but that time has not yet arrived?may it be far distant. [From tho Boston Herald, March 30.] In our evemag paper of Saturday last, we gave our readers some important information respecting a projected revolution in the adjacent British provirces, and an intended simultaneous invasion thereof by a body of Irishmen from the United States. ... Since our first article, we have been comparing notes with several persons who are cognizant ot this affair, and are enabled to make some further statements in regard to the scheme. It was the intention of the committee who have the direction of the movement, to have commenced their operations in the early part of the month of February last, at the time when the St. Lawrence waa frozen to such an extent as to render the navigation ot it by the British navy entirely impracticable. By operating at that time, thev would have been able to overcome the British troops garrisoning the strongest posts in possession of tne English government, before assistance could have been procured, and thus made it as easy task to complete the prostration of the power ol Great Britain in Upper Canada. Alter the acquisition, by conquest, of Quebec and Montreal, with the large quantities of military stores and munitions of war therein, those ports were to have been madn the bases of operation*? and that part of the population of the provinces which had thus far kept aloof from the struggle, either through tear of the British power or from loyalty to the British crown, were to he mvited to i join tne insurgents and their allies, the invaders, and secure the political independence thus placed within their grasp. Great reliance was placed by the committee upon the effect which this bold movement would have produced in the minds of the " sympathisers" in the United States; and, doubtless, there would have been thousands throughout the Union who would have joined them, in defiance of the laws and whatsver military force the present administration might h&vn placed upon sur northern and eastern frontiers. We are not informed with certainty ot the precise reasons why this plan was not carried out at the proposed time. It is said that the low state of the funds which had been placed at the disposal of the committee, and had, until this period, been expended in the cause with great liberality?oc the hesitation of the leaders ot the Canadian insurgents to begin their operations so soon, or perhaps from both these considerations united, the commencement of the struggle was delayed for a time, though the preparations still went on with as great activity, zeal, and secrecy as before; aid in ous opinion the time is not far distant when oprations will be commenced m earnest, and prosecuted with an energy that cannot but ensure complete success. Tne late passage of the "Rebel Indemnity Bill," tn the Provincial Parliament, and the consequent outburst of indignation among the heretofore loyaf party of the provinces?the threats of an insurrection throughout the columns of the leading journals ot Her Majesty's dominions, accompanied by calculations of the advantage! to be derived from an immediate annexation with tne United Statesall portend that the secret fires of this ^olitical volj cun, so long smouirreu, *?,? ruuu uir?? ?.>n with a violence that will sweep the power of Great Biitoin forever from the Canadas. We aie informed, bv undoubted authority, that c wealthy gentleman, of Irish extraction, residing in this city, and a somewhat prominent member of the whig party, has been for some time pant engaged in this movement, as one of the o uinal committee, and has exerted to the utmost the influence which his wealth and position among his sountrymen give him, to carry out the project to completion; and so seoretly has he done this. that nobody but the initiated have been aware of' his connection with the affair. Within a few weeks past, s hardware firm, doing business in Dock Square, nave sent seventy stand of arms by the Western Railroad, to some of the aforesaid committee, in Western New York, and have, from time to time, dnring the winter, sold considerable quantities of arms to persons in Boston engaged in this scheme. Perhaps they would inform us of the whereabouts of tne arms this* despatched by railroad, and also how many stand of ansa have at various timsa been sent by them in the same direction. Ws know they were not sold to gold diggers. ... In a few days we shall publish ftrthef, lars of this intended invasion, and shall giro tb* public such proof of the truth of our statements, ns will place them beyond doibt or cavil.

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