Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 10, 1849, Page 6

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 10, 1849 Page 6
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Mr- *r-r -v^rmm i n? i AFFAIRS !NEUROPE, Our Oiibiin Coi'i*#piiii<leiic?. Iuih.in, Mali !i ii>, i <!>). h t>h Mtitirrr?J/intrrt*?Tin Haft in Aid?fiu'l to*,.-'*?Diij/l/'n Co.-,, i'fC. i !tl<- new* Ijmh tr:iiiri>ir<*d shier I wrote to \.i? <ii M? rainy Inst, with the exemption of a < < ! |>if i (shindies whioh lock plnce on St. l\itrirk*n ii. \ ih'IW I'i'ii ill ' noiiiiui v aiioncs ami i/r.i i ir* . iii 'In North, Tlu't day, an una J, w in Iobr. :?"il I v procession*-, which, in mhiio instances, i.iia i iiti.il to man) Uiousunda of perseus, all anxious ,i ;...y !c:-r< < I the memory of their patron saint, unci tin' inajciity not at all disinclined to pitch into their neighbors. the Orangemen. At Crossbar, near 1 r wnpnlticb, u fiital collision took plan*, and on the authorities interfering, a policeman and u woiiiaii were killed, and several wounded. A siinii :r collision took ple.ee between Kathfriland and Htiiibridue, in which it is reported two persons were killed and several wounded. The "rate in aid" hill opposition trains ground rapidly. Lord .lohn Russell has given notice that on Monday next it will he introduced into the House of Commons, and if it can be attempted with success. 1 ant credibly informed the govrrnrnent, notwithstanding the rcmonstruuceH of sotue influential parties, will strain every nerve to accontp't: h it: Forurthing inust he done, and, to tin* great mass i f the people, whatever is done, is immaterial, so that relief is obtained. I really do not know what will become of the inhabitants, though the tide of emigration is so rapid that if it continues us at present, the only persons who will remain will be pauper tenants and puuner landlords; the papers from the South state that landed proprietors and merchants tire selling their estates and establishments, and emigrating; and 1 *?? ?? iin*..tmn irnm tlin WOOt ??nrl fr\ return to their homes in consequence of there not being berths sufficient for them. Mr. Scrope, M. 1'., proposes to bring in a bill to umend the poor law, to he entitled, u bill " To Promote the Employment of Labor. All the city wards arc about getting up memorials, petitioning for the liberation of Mr. Duffy; it is not likely tnat government will offer any serious objection, as they have already got enough ot him in their State trials. Sheep and cattle stealing has become so frequent in this country, that public meetings are being held for the purpose of petitioning Parliament to enact laws to remedy it. In the west of Ireland it has gone to its fullest extent. A meeting of the grand jurors and magistrates of the county of (lalwuy was held on Tuesday last, for the purpose of considering the best means of forwarding the project of the extension of a line of railway to Gultvuy, in anticipation ftf laird John Russell's promised aid to Irish railroads. A memorial was agreed upon, and a deputation appointed to waif upon the premier. If this undertaking were completed, there is no doubt that <ialway will be made the packet station for America and the West Indies, which would greatly facilitate the means of communication between those countries. On Monday last, the great Southern and Western Railway opened as far as Fernioy, and on the same day, Mr. Dianconi discontinued running all his cars with flic exception of one from Cork to Cloiinicl. A great number of them are to run in the North. Upwards of two hundred horses, however, will be discontinued. The cholera has made fearful ravages in Limerick. Early in the week, there were upwards of reventy cuses. and only eight recovered; but from ceeei nts received this day, 1 ant lwppy to say the di-ease is abating. Belfast is now almost free fiom if. Dublin lias, hs yet, escaped, which is probably owing to the precautions which are taken. A snnetoiy commission has been sitting for some time past, which has charge of the regulation of the health of the city. At the (.'Ion 111 el Assizes, on Friday last, five respectable young men were indicted for having, with Mr. Dohortv, the barrister, been illegally training and drilling. On account of the Crown not pressing punishment, they pleaded guilty. Our Berlin Correspondence. HfkI.in, March 20, 1849. 'l\t Crttis in Germany?New Constitution of Austria?It'hat trill be the Course of the IVutional Assembly at Frankfort??The Austrian and ItUStUin Sllimnrc ^ijiiihn uciniuny?im vw icntratum of Troops?Tic Absorption of Turkey?Anticipation of Hostilities on the Danish Question?Tie Wth of JIarrh, fyc, Anothe/ coup d'etat lias been carried out within the last ten days. The Austrian Parliament id dissolved, and a constitution octroyfe is promulgatcd for Austria. Th? announcement of this event has created the most profound sensation throughout Germany; and whilst 1 write this, the destiny of the German nation is being decided by the resolution which the National Assembly at Frank" fort is about to adopt with respect to the formation of a union of the German States, with the exclusion of Austria, and the election of the King of Prussia us the head of the German empire. The hostility of the cabinet of Olmutz against Germany has excited indignation in the breasts of all true patriots. The alliance between Russia and Austria is a fact no longer to be concculed frOm the public; the occupation of Transylvania by the Jfussian troops, and the concentration of Jiussian forces on the frontiers of Germany, have awakened serious apprehensions of an invasion on the part of Russia in the German territory, whilst they have proved, beyond a doubt, that a coneerted plan between the cabinets of .St. Petersburg und Olmutz is in operation against Germany. But the dissolution of the Reichstag and the constitution ortroyie, issued by the Austrian government, un- not merely a fresh confirmation of this. Matters have actually been hurried into a crisis in consequence of these measures of the cabinet of Olmutz. The separation of the German States of Austria from Germany has become a fait arf mp/i; lor, bv the new constitution for Austria, all I... W... 1- M... I no |iiirt of which can />< severed from the whole, or form a memberof another State. The intelligence of the dissolution ofthe Assembly at Krcmsier, and the publication of this constitution, excited the utmost sensation in this cityj but at Frankfort it created the greatest indignation against Austria. Another note from the government of that State to the central power was received by the latter Ht the same time, in which the new constitution is announced, and it is proposed on the part of Austria that a union should be formed, in which the whole State of Austria might enter. Every State forming a member of that union should govern itself us it liked, and there should be no parliament, hut merely one representative chosen for every million of people. I'he Senate, consisting of these representatives, should form u States Council, and the government should be vested in delegates to be appointed by Austria, Htisaia, and the principal States. According to this plan thirty-eimit representatives would he sent by Austria, whilst Germany would only send thirtv-two. The Sclavonic, Croatic, Magyaric and Italian nations, of which Austria is principally composed, would, therefore, soon gain trie ascendancy over the German population, and within the next ten years the Cerm in States would form provinces of the Kussiun and Austrian empire. Convinced ()f the necessity of making one more, probably the last oflbrt, the National Assembly ut'Frunkfort is at the present moment discussing the motion of the deputy, Air. Wekker, proposing at once the publication of the new constitution for Germany, the formation of a union, with the exclusion of Austria, and the election of the King of Prussia as the head of the German empire. The result of the vote, which is, it is believed, Ht this very instant passed at Frankfort, on this motion, cannot yet he know n here. J5m f can assure you that though the existence of the union and of the National Assembly is at stuke. it is generaljy believed here that the motion will not he curried, or receive hut a small majority. In any ease, however, I am hound to fell you that strong doubts are entertained whether the king of Prussia w ill accept the olfer underlay ether conditions than those stated from the first, I IV tin. cnnciirrinri' of'nll the nrineCS of < iortJiailV. Hut the present state of things and tin' evident danger of a general Kuropoan war, which becomes more threatening every hour, ma,y, if the motion < f W.-joker lie adopted, influence the greater part of the Herman princes to give their assent to the election of the king. Nevertheless, up to the present moment, this is by no means certain. ' >ne thing, ho*e\er, you may rely upon?that if the National Alterably rejects the proitosition of Weleket, jt will completely extinguish itself in the opinion ef Hermany and Kurope. Its dissolution and the publication of a constitution nrlr<iyic for Germany, t>v Austria, Prussia mid Havana, it is believed, will then have become unavoidable. It is stated here to-day in well informed quarters, that the Austi inn government has mst dec hired to this government, that if th. king of Prussia should accept the crow n of the Herman empire, it would he regarded as a breach of the peace. An army of 70,000 troops, as we have bee n informed by private le tters, is reserved by the Austrian government for the event of a w ar w ith Prussia and Hermany. Austria, however, counts on the support of Russia in case of hostilities with the. Herman States. According t" the latest account* we have I rf the movements of the Russian armies, all disposable forces sre being concentrated in the south and southwest of Huseia. lite cabinet oj St. Petersburg, it is believed, in conjunction with Austria, at present contemplates to take jioaaession cf L m vr-nl |Toviru < s < f Turkey. The Litter State is li tilho nctivi lv pr< f>nrinf( for war. t The heHilities between <iemwny arid Denmirk t illc- ;.|j( lit I -n.iieil. Prupuicifj rei'.'Utly II! lil J t l.y 1 iii*ieml li r the iirolon^.itnin <1^ tli ii;;.a..uue f have .list la it i?v i x tiin iiK, iiinu .'n uie i itcjfj nations to i itli- i? |H-ac - are fiill going on. I ( t-( nni.- n-i i-ivi-d here yesterday slute th.it 11 part j i f the I'nriirh ffi* -t is already on tin: w iy to < Morkado the (irrnutn coast. M-'nuwliilv, the I (Ininn>i Mi ops have recently received ord -rs s in move id tin- frontiers of Schleswig. A division I of 12,(KM) Prussian troops will at onee be sent hy i iln- government here to Holstien, but will not ad- i vtnn-e la-yond the frontiers of that duchy. It is not | yet known who will be the coiiiinnnder-in-ehief of ilio < iernutn troops in case the war is resumed, ("ieneral Von NVrntigel, who has been offered this poet, has declined to accept it. The Hpprehensionseutertuinedthat the eighteenth of this month, the anniversary of the revolution, would not tatss without serious disturbances, have proved unfounded. ( Jreat military measures h id been taken to prevent all demonstrations 011 the part of the people. An order had been issued by (ieneral Von Wrunnel prohibiting processions and other solemnities in honor of those who had fallen in the revolution. The burial place of the heroes of the eighteenth of March, was occupied hy troops, and strong patrols traversed the streets of that part of the city during the whole of the dav. Several regiments of cavalry and infantry were stationed near the burial ground, and (ieneral Von Wrangel himself was present with his staff, directing the military operations, liut besides a great concourse of visiters to the graves, no demonstrations in honor of the dead were made, and all passed off quietly. The chambers have, until now, been occupied .1 r ' .1 I.. . -I I.J C principally wnii iruininir mc repiy u> m<- nuun w ui tin' king, but will shortly commence discussions on the constitution. flu- It crept Ion of tieii. Taylor's Inaugural Atltlrctj* In England. (Krom the London Times, March 23.] I The inaugural Message of President Taylor will not fail to excite n certain sort of admiration. If it does not appeal to the warmest sympathies of un Englishman?if it does not possess that semitragic interest with which regal Europe listens to ] the few and solemn declarations of her princes, it i is for reasons some of which are immensely in favour of the American Ilcpublic. In these elder countries the heir of a throne founded in the obscure originals of history addresses the assembled representatives of many classes, many races, many interests, und many traditions. He can Beldom escape an explicit reference to the greatest cula- j niitics und difliculties that a nation can suffer in i itself or by its international relations. Perhaps we are menaced by the ambition of n neighbor, | or entangled in the quarrels of allies; perhaps the , soil of these isles or a brunch of employment is too crowded; perhaps effete institutions arc to he renovated in the face of inveterate prejudice; per- i hups the knotted web of medieval law is to be un- | ravelled; at one time pauperism cankers the soul of self-enslaved myriads; at another time famine, decimates a neglected and helpless race; factions , lacerate and deht burdens the land. In the midst , of festering sores ever ready to open, and sur- , rounded by conflicting cries, the sovereign tvyice ] a year titters a few sentences, the chief merit of j which is that they put a fair face on the sufferings | of the nation and the short-coinings of the legis- ( laturc. Across the Atlantic we see everything t changed. There, a youthful empire, with a rapid- 8 )y increasing population und a whole world before ] it, is hounding on to new regions and new shores. ? Political ambition, mercantile rivalry, the jealousy t of classes and of creeds, are subdued before the ? ardor of a ruce of which wealth, in every form, ? is the prize. The chosen leader of the people ad- f dresses a great company of adventurers, started r afresh on such an enterprise us the world never j yet suw. His topics are duty and hope. Ilis f tone, und the very rythm of his sentences, remind t us of the deliverer leading his armies into a longpromised land. j The most distinctive features in General Taylor's , address, are his renunciation of nil party ties, his | reference to the traditions and the early Presidents , of the Union, his pacific aims, und the impartiality , he desires to maintain between the vurious , branches of industry and wealth. Such profes- j sions are easily made; hut never wns a President , more entitled to make them, either by the circumstances of his election, or by his known character. The exaggeration, or rather the burlesque of poli- | tienl controversy, which, in the United .States, has , afforded incxhuustihle materials of sutire to the European stranger, has gone a good way towards . effecting its own cure. The late cletion was the J result of an amicable and a wise compromise. The i merits of the man, as proved in a difficult and pro- 'f ti acted war. and us further illustrated in what wc i niuy call a most gentlemanly canvass, showed him to no the person in whom all parties could meet without loss of credit or standing- It ist in fact, the peculiar position of the American President, to he the arbiter and umpire of that unparalleled federation. The same policy which has placed the capita! in a neutral district, belonging to no State, on the river which divides the Northern from the Southern States?the agricultural from the mercantile?suggests that the occupant of the "White llouse" should be a peculiarly neutral man. The langnage of the address is that which, in the United States, has long been associated with the whig policy. It expresses a cordial adherence to the existing practice of the Executive, und u value for those who have acquitted themselves well in the service of the Union; but, particularly, a reliance on that method und guide hy which alone the integrity and identity of constitutions is preserved. "In the discharge of these duties, my guide will be the constitution, which I this day swear to preserve, to protect, and defend. For the interpretation of that instrument, I shall look to the decisions of the judicial tribunals established I hy its authority, and to the practice of the govern iii< nt under the, earlier Presidents, who had so J large a share in its formation. To the example of ( those illustrious patriots I shall always refer with reverence, and es|>ecially to his example who was, j by so many titles, the father of his country." For , our own part, we believe that both in politics and in laws, there is a much less interval between the I'nion and the mother country than is generally assumed. It was the rule of "the first President, to give up no more than the necessities of an independent and republican organization absolutely required. To this wise abstinence from gratuitous innovation inay he ascribed a stability which has surprised the whole world, and which promises to last for ages still to come. Even in the midst of revolution and civil war, when it was necessary to cut the natural tie between the mother state and the colony, with the strongest means and the most strenuous determination?even then were found men, and they the leaders of the movement, who could warn tnc infant nation to stand in the old paths, and who could proclaim the oracular warning. iintiyudni fxifuiritr mat rem. In that wise foundation of the American i*>liry we recognise at once the surest pledge of permanence, and of abiding sympathies with the parent slate. Of late years, the " whigs," in other words the conservatives of the Union, have been passing through the same political phase as the conservatives of this country. They have been ardent protectionists. It is unnecessary here to tight over again a battle so thoroughly decided in this country: so we will assume at once that the enlightened " whigs" of the new world will no longer confound imports with innovations, and suppose bales of foreign produce infected with revolutionary principles. We have no doubt they arc rapidly throwing ofl" ibis error, especially now that the Pacific is opening its shores to their enterprise, ami telling them that there is room for all in this world. GeI nerul Taylor, at least, though tied to the word, sufficiently guards himself from being supposed to advocate the thing commonly understood by "protection." The declaration of ini|>artiahty runs through his address. He nnpcals to his election by "the body of the people," and to his previous " assurance thnt his administration would he devoted to the welfnre of the whole country, and not to the aup|Kirt of any particular section or merely local interestan appeal which he could hardly carry out by enriching a few cities in New England. at the expense of all thFother portions of the Union. When, therefore, the General says, "It shall he my study to recommend such constitutional measures to the Congress as may be necessary and proper to secure encouragement and protection to the great interests of agriculture, commerce, and manufactures," we will not suppose that he menus n policy which must certainly encourage and protect manufacture at the expense of the other interests wisely associated with it. He . i i ? :n n.. | can only intend ll nmrsi' which win njumj' en- .. rouriipe nil, (>y opening every' possible avenue to (, the general increase of the national resources. r( [From the Liverpool Times.] _ ^ General Taylor, the new President of the United r| Mutes. assumed ntliee on the 5th March, on which ju occasion he delivered ? short address, explanatory j,j of his future policy. He commenced by repenting of his often-expressed determination to govern without regard to local or sectional prejudices. With Sc regard to the army and nnvy, he reconuiicnds that 1(1 they should be Kent in the highest state of efticien- th cy, thoiiL'h (as will be seen from a subsequent pas- ?f vHge of his address) only for the purpose of resist- (|, ing aggression?not of inflicting it. With regard to to foreign nations, the course which Gen. Taylor js reet mini nils is fine of strict neutrality in tlieir dif- ,,| ferences with each fither or amongst themselves; and of eonciliution and peace (wherever peace in possible), even if difficulties should arise with the ]. United Mutes (whic h, however, he does not anti- .1' I'll .ilrV \nll.ii.rr ,-nn In- nmrp Iwinnrnhlc III (!pn. i Taylor then the sentiment* which he eipreanett on f, this Mihj? < t; i,nd w<- ?rc pure thutthese sentiments will he reciprncuted by the government and people jj <1 Knchind. On the occasion of the lust difference jV between this country nnd the United Htate*, the T'rfli'b government offered, but ui v?m, to refer n he questim in dispute tt? the decision of un itnjni ml umuiie. li any difference should arise l>t wccii the two countries during the presidency t let,. TujSoi, we ni.iy conclude, witii coufiJ *uc join lie ft Slowing passage in his inaugural addresliitt he wilt not refuse tli.it cheap, easy, and trul unoruble method of settling differences;?"A tinericun freemen (-siys tin- gallant general) w aiinot hut sympathise in all efforts to extend t.'i ,i. i iit?.r??. i..? ..t !. VitU una *.? a1110 liino, wo are warn -ci by the admonitions i liistory, ttiid the voice of our own beloved Wasliim ton, to abstain from entangling alliances with u reign nations. in all disputes between eoutlietin governments, it isonr interest not lean than our dut to remain strictly neutral; while ourgeographic position, it lie genius of our institutions and 01 people, tne advancing spirit of civilization, ani above all, the dictates of religion, direct us to til cultivation of peaceful and friendly relations wit all other powers. It is to be Imped that no inte natiooHl question can now arise wliieli a goverr merit, confident in its own strength, and resolve to protect its own just rights, may not settle li wise negotiation ; and it eminently beconi?8 a gi vernment like our own, founded on the inoralit and intelligence of its citizens, and upheld hy tit iillections, to exhaust every resort of honorable d plcniacy before appealing 10 arms. In the condiu of our foreign relations 1 shall conform to tin s views, as 1 believe them essential to the best int< rests and the true honor of the country." Tli most doubtful point in this address is that whic relates to the question of protection. It will h seen that what lie says is?" that it will be hi study to recommend such constitutional measure to Congress us may be nccessury and proper to si cure encouragement and protection to the grei interests of agriculture, commerce, and manufai tures." It is not easy to tell how much per cer this means on goods or shipping ; hut it certain! does not give one the impression that Genen Taylor would he a party to a total and uncoml lionul repeal of protecting duties either on muni factnres or shipping. Fortunately, however, he i it candid straightforward man, and there cut therefore, he no difficulty in learning (at the rigl time) how far he is willing to go, and in reguli ting our measures accordingly. We know that is the opinion of very intelligent Americans tin he will never consent to open the coasting trade i the States to llritish shipping. English View of the Crisis In Canntln. [From ttie Luudou Titues. March 21.] The bill "for Compensating the Rebellion Losst in Lower Canada" need not be so outrageous a pr< nosul as it hus been described. A similar mcusui has long since been pussed for Upper Cunadi though the nredominent loyalty of that distrii proved an eftc-ctual bur to any rebel desirous i a there in the boon. The present bill bus bee some time contemplated for Lower Canada, an lias apparently been delayed, from the difficultie which I he divided state of the population threw 1 the way of a settlement. .So long us the loy: jmrty were in (>ower, it wus likely that they woul frame the measure on the most exclusive, and, fc Lower Canada, the most unpopular principles. , [commission was some time since appointed to ir piire into the losses occasioned hy the rebellior ind a letter addressed to it by Mr. Daly, the Iat Provincial Secretary, instructed it to receive an nvestigate into all claims, even, as we are give o understand, beyond the originul scone of th commission. The bill introduced by M. Lafon uine, it is mujiitained by his friends, is in perfec iccordunce with that letter, though we do not se low a comprehensive inquiry could justify a la nd objectionable selection. We are further told hut so fur from the bill being expressly for th ;ood of the rebels, nine-tenths of the |ktsoiis to b oinpensuted took no part in the rebellion; am veil with regard to the property of confcsse ebels, we are assured, what is very conceivable hough not much to the purpose, tliut any comper ation granted upon it will fall into the hands t inofiending creditors. It will probably be remembered that the propert n question was generully destroyed by the con non chances of war. Excepting u trifling pr< iruinary collision, the first actual fighting ensue >n the attempt to apprehend M. Papineau andsom of his associates while they were avowedly organ r.ing n rebellion. The village of St. Denis wa fortified und defended by the rebels against Colr.n< Liore. who was obliged to retire wi?!; considerabl loss, leaving a six-poUnuer behind him. That sij pounder, however, hud done some damage to large fortified stone house situated in advance ? he village, and surrounded by some extempor works. The damage done to this house, the prt lertv nnd the castle of Mr. Wolfred Nelson, is on >f the items of the proposed compensation. Mi Nelson, who wus then conqueror in the field, ha inee triumphed with equul success over his pc iticul antagonists. Instead of his " large fortinei itone house," he is now nrohubly occupying am blending an official residence; and. besides ca; uring the six-pounder, he ih in condition to mak 7nnndn pay for the shot. This, then, is one cas > -i j-- V : /-<_i >1 damage. vn me faun: u?y .uucuicituui uuiuut iVetherell attacked Ohambly, stormed the work vhich the insurgents hud erected, and burned th rillage. with the exception of one house. We nr< luine these are to be paid for, as well as the bridge which the insurgents had broken down to retar lie Colonel's approach. A more considerable a nutrient under Sir John Colborne captured S hiit-tacke after a severe engagement ot an hour juration, und after great loss on the purl of the it nirgents. The church, which they had turned t some account us u fort, shared the fate of war, an tvas burnt, us were also many fortified houses i its neighborhood. Whether they were fired ti the usual uccidents of the conflict, or l>y the luuid sf the exasperated royalists, or by the rebels then selves, no man can tell, and it now matters no But it seems they ure to he paid for. There wet furious other cases of damage. A mill was garr >oned and held for some weeks hy American syn ththisers, who only took to their heels wlten a fet liois from a reul siege train began to shake th >ld walls about their ears. Now, ns things hnvc turned upside down sine 1818, and what was then the rebel cans is now th government of Canada, it is obvious that no men ure of compensation is likely to pass which doe lot include some of the offending gentlemen tlieni elves in the bill of damages made out. The nltei in ti ve is cither no compensation to anybody, or t II alike. This must be very annoying to the roy lists, who marched to and fro, and who incurrei iixnse. wounds, and loss of health, by thei roinpt Miccor of the ?State. We do not like i urselves. It if not an encouraging or an edifyinj pcctacle, considering liow many there ure uniongf if who would like to rebel next year, and lint liemselves her Majesty's advisers in iy<>0. If w< vould judge of the feelings excited in the breas if snch| ardent royalists as Sir Allan M'Nab, wi nust suppose a parliament of chartists and repeal rs, not only dividing among themselves all tin ifKces of the State, but also compensating one ano her for their past sufferings with magnificen ;rants from the treasury. In fact, what we nov vilness in Canada will help us to form some ide rf a reul Irish legislature. What a bill of cost vould he made out at once there against the trea turr! There would he compensation for the " n lellion lasses" of 1(140; do. for 17JW; do. for 1818 lo. for penal laws; do. for alleged destruction! Irith manufactures; do. lor the expense and troubl f ngitating for cniHnciimtiou and repeal; do. fc LJuniel O'Connell and all his family; do. for vo> ige to Bermuda and hack; do. for various war brings on the fcflievenanion mountains; do. fo isits to France, the United States, and othe laces out of British jurisdiction; do. for ruin n rospects, exclusion from office, and other injuries oo many to 1m- told. Besides the living victims o ppression, the injured dead would be representee y their heirs, ana we ouestion if the whole reve liie of the United Kingdom would he adequate tc neet the long claims of immemorial rebellion. That the loyal population of Canada should b< onaiderably excited at the proposal, and at some ther which sthcy class with it, is by no means nur uising. Even if we could hope that they liavt omewhat exaggerated the enormity of this mea ure, still we must regret their settled impressioi hat rebellion has been rewarded and loyalty in ulted by the British Crown. Such an idea is in minus unvwhere. nnrtletilarlv in a colonv wliiel mugs l?y n thread. After nil, however, we are dis osed to net down much of thin excitement to th< iinple flier that parties have changed placet", nn< hut the colonial clique, which for generation* mo opolizcd office, power, and pay, and which, w< rgret to say, abused its trust very aeanduloualy, ii ow in opposition, with no other inducement u ivalty than what the mass of the people have n ll times. It is all very well to arraign the in ifrtice of the fiites, which have made loyalty nnc hellion change places ; hut we, in the mothei mntry. are so accustomed to tliHt see-saw sort ol oik that we take it aa matter of course, and contide every five or six years that it is now the iiTi for the others to conic in. Sir Allan M'N'ah, * family, and fri? nds, had their full sw;ing of lice, and certainly made hay while their sun lone. Another set of men are in now, and they cin equally determined to make the hest use of eir time. Offices arc being filled up as fast ns ey fall; and, as they do not fall fast enough, lice* are made for the occasion. There is no ine new in nil tliia. At least, we lire accustomed it. Wr can only recommond|our brother royalty tn resign themselves to the invurinblr condition : constitutional mid responsible governments. [From the London Times, Morrh Tl ] When our loyal readers are informed that the nropH has brought us wlmlr acres of Canadian bates, with speech en and letters innumerable ?out the rebellion losses," they will expect to id their worst anticipations realized. In common, patently, with some members of the Hritish wise of Commons, they will expect to hear that . Canadian re|>< Is, having now got t)?e upper nid. are screwing the unfortunate Royalists with vengeance; and that Met* , i'apincau, Woltred r- ' on, M.ck'n/io, and Co., are now revelling in cabi - tin plunder of the t<rirs. We are verysorryto i>eu< if disappoint that love of the marvellous and the nitn , dreadful which run feel a sort of pleasure even in us c ?, the o, littiiiiii M oi'' ni>'i'itori?tuH men. Hlutik and un- uec< y interesting as the announcement will l?e, trutn coin- con' .) pels its to say that thus fur there is no real ground res tor the pntiie which hits suddenly seized a jiortion ciph io of the puhlie on Canadian afluirs. Noacthasbeen cuui passed; there is not even a hill before the ('olonialPar- trad if lliiiiii'iit; there is not even a definite scheme of coin- Si j- peiisntioii; there is not a single name, or a single last 1 *- ...luiitio/l l?tr tin* f kiln 111 rf* tlis* nnii

g have utiulbhrd tlirm in this Stiitr. with itil tlivir iuci- ltus y \t Ik ! * is as yet mi iiubibuf; it is true there has been at <J ;l a tremendous and most noisy incubution; the Lower toai ir House at Montreal has held an almost continuous tion 1, session for a fortnight, the opposition have made j>rin e speeches by relays, and but for a vigorous effort clud li and a little strategy, would have been speaking at shot r- this inoiuent; but we assure our readers, inoredi- dep< i- hie as it may appear, that the origin and result of u |,y | d row which lies almost assumed the form of a grand late y loyalist rebellion, rimy be comprised in this sbort fori i- and simple resolution, moved by the Hon. Mr. La thei y Fontaine. Attorney-! Icneral?" That tliis I louse do to tl ir now resolve itself into u committee, to take into \Ve i- consideration the necessity of establishing the t>fs ;t amount of losses incurred by certain inhabitants was ic of Lower Canada during the political troubles of Hn(] IK17 and 1838, uud of providing for the payment Tin ic thereof." _ _ _ dan h Whence then all this ft rment 1 Why is fcjirAl- ()fw e lan M'Nab working up the loyal population to fury, urin is and why does Upper Canada talk of " annexation" the s with the luited "stars and stripes'?" Why are p0r ;- Dui hum, Sydenham, Metcalfe, and Elgin now pro- juc it claimed traitors in disguise ? Wliy is England olio i- itself infected with the colonial exasperation ?? lin,| it Because this was the first time this question has ;iQ(l y been agitated 1 No such tiling. Claims have been ,]av il continually sent in, and comiiensation has actually (||r, i- been given. In I'pper Canada compensation to the ,.?j| i- a mount of ?40,060 has long since been uwurded. at / is As for Lower Canada, claims came in so thick. l, that in 1846 the government of the day, being itself nj0| it unable to give them due consideration, appointed |IC?, i- a commission to receive and investigate them, wet it The commission, finding that some of the claim- that it unts were the gentlemen who had themselves done deni )f the mischief by taking part in the rebellion, asked con for further instructions, and received them, to the ?ft] elFect that every cluimant should be admitted, except on legal proof of treasonable practices. The pj^e coniniission was not a judicial hotly, and had no ht.n, s means of deciding on questions of guilt, except i- where tliere existed h conviction in a court of law. pyy1 e 8o matters stood before the present ministry came Iire i, in, and under the very persons who now head the o{>- to ( it position. It it evident therefore that nothing can be .,jr, jf objected to the present resolution which could not 0f, n equally be objected to what has been done long be- F,|? d fore under very different auspices. What, then, is s the peculiarity of the present easel First and (0, n foremost comes the unpalatable fact that what was n,j] d the disaffected and rebellious party in 18117 is now the tl in power, and commands a majority in the legisla- r(.|i ir ture. It is, therefore, surmised that the bill found\ cd on the present resolution, and the whole course dre, i- of action arising therefrom, will show an evil bins i, in favor of the rebels?that their claims will not be the e properly sifted, but, on the contrary, favored. The exti d " royalist " party is discouraged at the fact of this n investigation anil award being conducted at such n mt)] e time, under such n government, arid such commis- (.rp i- eioners as arc likely to be chosen. (W^ it It must be admitted that there is ample room to (;rt c do a good deul of mischief; if the powers that be are |H.p x not restrained by conscientious considerations. f?]j I, The list of claimants, which we must beg to re- j.-n. e mind our renders is not a new thing, but published j\a, i< in tin* appendix to the journals of the Canudtun que d Legislature for 184(?, contains 2,176 names, and the the d total sum claimed is ?241,975. A violent partisan lint] , asserts that nine-tenths of the claimants are of wo, i- French Canadian origin. Most of the claims ure th<> >f for property destroyed, but some are for casual, tim speculative, or imaginury losses. Among the latter trac y sort are cluims-for loss of time while in exile or in r- prison, claims for presumed loss of business in con- ant| sequence of the disturbed state of the country, and t],e d demands for the repayment of passage money from j},al ie Bermuda to Australia. One of the most impudent ni0, : den lands, says the colonial iournu! We refer to, is ^re is (hut for a sunt ol .?127 12s. (?d. taken from the trea- 'p?, *i surv of the church of St. Cyprien, forcibly " enter- ??t1 e ed by Dr. Cote, against the will and remonstrance hllV c- of the churchwardens," the fact evidently being a thut Dr. Cote, and the physical force of the parish, this >f being Roman Catholics and unhappily also rebels, r?]f e applied to the purposes of the rebellion the funds of wjt] i- their own church, and now demand that the 9? | c Colonial Legislature shall make good that sacri- ^.,n r. lege, and so reimburse to the rebels the costs of the s their rebellion. he ^ t. ********** |!OI1 (1 That these claims will be met in a partial or an 0?t il indiscriminate manner is only a matter of surmise, h That they will not all be granted. is evident front A e the fact that on going into committee according to e the above resolution, the House very speedily il limited the amount of the intended grant to ?100,- js V s 000, which, from the fact of some payments in an- bB1.( e tieipation, is only a new grant of?90,000. <$ici * . * * . * # * plar s We continue of opinion, therefore, that at pre- whe d sent it is quite unnecessary we should throw ourr selves into un agony of indignation at the conduct iu t t. of the Canadian cabinet. The province, of course, ' J'" s' is in a terrible excitement. Sir Allen M'Nab ia l- now out of office, and has nothing to do ; so to sa- tua o tisfy a mind of more than common energy, he has t.pti d taken to agitation, and is lashing the whole colony lent n into foam. But happily we are out of hearing, and M?j y can think of the mutter at our leisure. We confi- of r Is dently hope that there will not arise an occasion * r'.' i- for tlie use of Her Majesty's veto, as Mr. Gladstone r<>1! t. and some others appear to apprehend. The debate e on the niinisferial side in the Canadian Legislature trot i- shows great moderation. Now, though modern- the i- tion of language is easy enough in the victorious Km v paity, it is also a pledge of moderate conduct, fin e Even the terrible Dr. Woifred Nelson, whose mon- n"* ster claim is the subject of such nngrv comment, e lias declared that he only maintains it because by e surrendering it he would prejudice the similiar j.1"' claims of many poorer persons. A letter by Mr. -phi' s Hincks to-day gives the ministerial view of the <iiMi case. The render will also gather from it that the the - question has gone oir into many more issues than tlicj ... i .i ... ...i tv. .i ,,.,t i# iu umc ui?. i u nim^i u? \tin British public an interminable squabble about tha ] "f d locul appropriation of the colonial revenues would, r indeed, be an unnecessary addition to the existing ])ur t miseries of British life. \ < n ; not J The Critical State of Affairs In Kurape?Tlio ^'J.1 1 Attitude of Russia?The Possibility of n , ' ' 3 European War. t [From the London Times, March 17.] , y ' e We advert with reluctance to a subject which tlini - threatens not only to ndd a serious cause of dis- M i-' pension to the numerous controversies and dis- uj,. - putcs now afflicting and distracting Europe, but the t which has already occasioned some coolness be- less; v tween the British government, and that cabinet of " a the North with which it is at this time our esne- J' s rial interest to maintain amicable relations. But j"1* i- the manifest alarm of the Turkish government, and rJ ,, its active preparations for defence?the attitnde of : the British Ambassador at Constantinople?the H(r.n <f language attributed to the last communications of eoiii e the British cabinet?and, above all, the tone re- the t ci ntly assumed by the Emperor of Hiissia himself, Buln '- arc facts calculated to give far more importance to |,'i' ' i- the present state of the Eastern question than has {'.'"J" r of lute been attuclied to it. It matt he acknowledged u',r|(j r that at no period tince the revolution of February, i,rj? f hat the atpert of Europe hem let* pacific. In Italy, pnri , the outbreak of hostilities is daily expected; m and DentmirL. f 11f* nniiKliiT cviurr y nnt wcA with no in on i immediate indication that the preliminaries of t<"" pence will he signed within thnt period ; at Frank> fort the scheme of h German empire has been re- * , vivcd by Welkcr, in the form moat hostile to ! Anuria ; in Hungary the war is carried on with ?rr , doubtful success, and not without the assistance of thri a dangerous and costly ally; at Gaeta conferences for i ; are about to open between the Catholic |Hiwcrs, Ham - with a view to the restoration of the l'oiie by force 10 " t of arms. All Europe is filled with warn and ronton "" - of ware, save that, by a marvellous exception, !" ' - which still gives us ho|>ea of pence, the French rr'?u ? nation have learned by their recent misfortunes, tj,r , - the necessity of adhering to that pacific and con- ? *yt pervativc policy which the government of I .on is n?r. f N'a|>oleon practises in concert with this country, first. We had hoped, and we have not yet ceased to nr?? hope, tliut the Emperor of Russia, clearly discern- ''""J t ing the causes of the manifold disorders of these > times, would steadily reserve the influence of his cl'n(n t government, and the resources of his empire, to up- tj?. - hold hikI assist by lawful means, the restoration of ,Tsgl I those principles of authority and right which hnve sang' r been so openly violated, and that, without display- rp? ?l F ing any arbitrary intention of interfering in the in- ,im" tcrnal affairs of other countries, he would hold himself iii readiness to combine with other stable goi verninents, wherever just ice and the peace of Europe t i-tw'iT 1 might require such protection. That temperate vul,( and dignified policy which the Russian cabinet the t< has hitherto pursued, would naturally insure to it a the l fair and useful influence in the affairs of the Ral- Final tic, in the alliances of Germany, and even, less could directly, in the arrangements of Southern Europe; " hut such a policy is wholly at variance with the prosecution of selfish and ambitious schemes in the Fast. If we arc to hold that the Emperor ?f these Ruma is capable of taking advantage of the pre- air< *< sent rlistrncted state of Euro|>e to turn his own to hit ttrniH Hf?!inst the < >1 tomM MitpiBf, he hog a direct pivm interest in aggravating the confusion which has gynt paralyzed the world. 1 !? miaf be jwrfectly aware o,\ that democratic government*, jnst emerging from n revolution, or Mill struggling with social anarchy, ltnr arc wholly unuhle to o|i|M??ie nny serious resistance r..uil? to the niilitury execution of project*, which at any Mcj.p other period would have called forth the opposition p?rnii of every MnteMimn and every army in Kurope. ten I Hut he must hho he iiware, that such an underta- J' Ivtj Lirg v.'oulti citiui ^c Lis* govcrnmwut iiuiu every tr [net which is interested in the maintenance of :e and the restoration of order. He would self become the accomplice of the revolution, ompletely as Alexander became at Tilsit the uuplice of Napoleon in his worst projects. The duct of the Russian court in these circumstanwill determine whether it is governed by print's or by ambition?by a firm adherence to the re of authority, or an unscrupulous pursuit of itionul conquest. nbseqently to the disturbances which occurred summer in the_ Moldo-Wallachian provinces, to the occupation of those provinces by the sinn and Turkish troops, the Russian Embassy onstantinople was instructed to urge the Porte ccede to u modification of the existing regulas for the nomination of the Hosoodurs of those dualities. By the treaty of Aekermann, conled in 1826, it was stipulated that the Hosjiodars ild be nominated for seven years, and might be used by the suzerain or the protecting powers ; he treaty of Adrianople, signed three years r, it was agreed that they should be appointed life. The Russians required, for reasons of r own, that the Sultan should consent to revert le former conditions of the treaty of Akcrinann. shall not attempt to examine the precise merits ueli a question; nut certain it is that this demand > vigorously resisted by Sir Stratford Canning, was, thereupon, rejected by the Porte. The kish Ministers were probably well aware of the gerof this species ot opposition to the cabinet t. Pctcrsburgh, for they instantly proceeded to i the whole frontier of the einire, looking at same time to England and to France to suptlieni in the course which they had been pined to adopt. The Emperor of Russia, on the L-r hand, lias signified his extreme displeasure irritation at tne measures taken by Turkey her other allies to oppose his views on Moliu and Wnllachia, and has intimated, in inct language, that the next time he makes a ipaign across (lie Balkan, it will not terminate idriunoplc. Ithough we' no not entertain a very lofty opii of the military resources of Turkey, it would in error to estimate them no higher than they e during the campaigns of 1828und 1829. At : period the fleet of the Sultan had just been troyed at Nuvnrino, and Admiral < Jreigli was lplete master of the Black Sea. The reforms he Turkish army were in their infancy, and pt contributed little to the defence of the emAt the present time the Turkisliarscnals will d out 40 ships, of which 8 or 10 are three-deck; the army now in pre|wration amounts to 300,men, of which about half are irregulars, who already on their way from the Asiatic Pasha lies Constantinople; tne revenue of the Ottoman ein1 has prodigiously increased since the abolition nonopolies in 1838; and there is every reason t<> [>ose that Abbas Pasha, now hereditary ruler of rj?t, who lias just received his investiture at iMtantinopic, would place the whole naval nnd itury force of that dependency at the disposal of Porte, his suzerain. Such a force, animated by vinces wliich they have occupied for four hunil yearn, is not to he despised, even hv the greatmilitary power of Europe; and we still infer that Emperor Nicholas will not push this contest to emities. lie real advantage of the Russiun party, at this ncnt, lies in the division of the European powand esjtecially in the want of confidence heen the two most pacific of them?Austria and at Britain. "Were the ancient bonds of union rveen the courts of St. James and Vienna in force, and, still more, if the government of the nch Republic were iuduced to co-operate with tiia as well as with ourselves in the formidable stions which are agitating the South of lTurope, progress of llussiun absolutism on the Danube, i the permanent triumph of unarchy in Italy, uld be alike impossible. We have no doubt that language of Sir Stratford Cunning lias been I of u statesman manfully resolved to defend the litionul policy of his country, to support the :m. rity und independency of the Ott<>-mn Kmpire, to avert an aggression which must be fatal to general peace. But it is of extreme importance ! not a wort! should have been said at Peru with e energy than will be shown in Downing et, and if Russia construes the preparation of key into a pretext of war, it must not be for?n what responsibility rests with [towers who e countenanced those preparations. For oures, we should deeply regret the occurrence at crisis in the uflairs of Europe of an event calited to disturb the harmony of our relations li the head of the Russian Empire, and to add large an element of discord to the chances of . Such an event would be disgraceful, and in end calamitous, to Russia herself; but it would till more fatal to the restoration of order on the tinent of Europe, und possibly to peace throughthe world. pcct of Affairs In Italy?Anticipated Hostilities. [From the Paris Siocla.] 'hut is the effective force of the Itnlinn army ? It ifflcult to say. Italy, without reckoning the Loml-Venetian kingdom, the kingdom of Naples and ly. could. Including the legions of Nice and Savoy, c 1 'O.Odti men under arms. Tlint number of men, n well eominanded. at tucking the Herman* on tlio ilu line of the To, to Tuvia and the Adriatic, raieing heir passage Parian, Moilvna und the Legatione, ild assuredly be formidable, and could purely suc1 in a few monthK to send him routed on the Tyrol lllyrin. or to block hiiu up iu aueli a way on \lanand Verona, that no other course could remain n for him than that of Wuriufur. The military tail of (ieneral Chrranowski are liigliiy spoken of. f heaven aid him. for he in opposed to an adversary are experience, who last yeur conducted himself liko iptain and a politician. It would be glorious tor the eh general to triumph over such a general. But. urtunuteiy. lie is far from having the 150.000 men . spoken of at his disposal. There are no regular ips eapalde of fighting a pitched battle, but those of Pieduiontese nruiy. consisting of 65.000 men. The itConsulhailnot.it is true, so tunny, but he was d Consul Will they suffleo to General I'hriaski ? We hope so. sincerely, for there is nothing we re more ardently, after the happiness of France, n that of Italy. To the regular rieduionteso troops t be added 20.000 or 30.000 volunteers, corps-francs, composed of bombards. Romans, and Tuscans, se troops arc brave, but not being ueeustomed to iplino. they ennnpt render any great service. If I.ombard volunteers have not more discipliuc than r had a year bark, they w ill lose plenty of men withdoiug murli good. The sauie maybe said of the cans, who suffered so much under Mantua, without ig great damage to the Austrinns. As to the Itois, now that the Pope is not there to restrain undo, they will art. no doubt, on the frontiers of etia. But they will not art effectively, if they are better organised thaii they were nine months ago. he l)ri nta. between Treviso and Vieenr.a. Charles it lias also a fleet, sufficiently numerous and well nod. Joined with the crews of the Venetians, it keep the Adriatic free. This is a good deal; for ice. well victualled, by sen is impregnable. 1,'nforttely. letters inform us tlsat the want of steamers, ,U ..... ... ?...U f..1? l.at Viua not >u.a?i moil.i Tlmt is greatly to bo regretted, for with steomcrB Austrian flotilla would be rendered militarily use; but. by sacrificing Home vessel*. as Admiral Albidvised Inst year, it would be forced under the Are lc eousts of lllyrin. with a great clmtiee of dostroyit. This would be a result of great Importation, fur ould liuTe for first effect to cutoff one of the menus oinmunieution between Austria and Venotin. Tha trian flotilla is almost completely composed of mers; and the Sardo-Yenetinn nrmninrnt. with its ng vessels, is powerless when the w ind blows from east to prevent vessels passing from Trieste and t to the coast of Venice. Will General Chrzanowaith his talents and the forces of which lie can dis. cast the Oermuna iuto the Adige and the Adriatic will have great difficulty in doing so. Marshal etiki. nrrordiiig to the lowest calculation, can g lot),000 men into the Held, without including tho isons of Tcschlcra. Verona. Mantua. Pulmuiiovn, Opopo. auiounting to probably Uh out) or 110.000 s. All these troops are exceedingly firm, accusd to fire, proud ol' their success, feeling a certain 1 empt for their adversaries, full of German honor, ' at the bottom, whatever rumors may be circulated, edingly attached to their standard. The Ifungadesertions. of which the journals speak so much, jultr insignificant. The Italian populations have misfortune of very often taking what they desire rluit they see. The truth is, that very few lluiigas hnvc quitted the Austriun army. That is owing ic excellent organization of that army; there are lungarian region lite there, any more than Boliei (a* Croatian ones. There are nothing hut Ausi regiments, in the ranks of which Hungarians, tians. and Bohemians live, fight, and die one by dde of tlie other. Desertion is difficult with such d< in. and takes place hut in a very restricted manTwo tilings must now be borne In mind ; tho that these loo.nisi Germans occupy exceedingly >g positions; the second, that they have In Maritndetr.ki. one of the most experienced generals of rn times. The Austrian army can successively id itself wiili six great currents of water?the Tithe Adda, the Mincio, tho Adige. the I'iaon. and Tngliamento. The Mincio. the Adige. and the iaiurnto, above all. can lead for their passage to uinary Isittles. Kuch of these rivers is. so to t. the retriating lino of the other. Beaten or ril on the Tieino. the Austriims can form theins again at Lodi and Cremona on the Adda.? Id that liver !>e forced, they ran withdraw on tlie I., I., .... Itiiivt.?irii,l.l(. i.c-Hinn covered hv the glc of the fortreaar* of Praehlera, Verona, and uu. On the Adlgr. thoy will And I.egnago, and ,| rraldable lino which forced Bonnparte to flglit v attic of Areola, and Mcracnn that of ( aldicro.? ,ly. in Vnietln. aupported on I'alnianovn, they !' 1, rn the rinva and tnc TagMamenlo, retrieve by ' tingle victory, nil their nfTHiri*. few nnniea 1 i tit better iltunted. and Italy muat witneaa mora 0 one day of herolain before ehe ran get rid of there n a. Marahal Radctekl, too, la a man to turn all t| advniitngca to the utmoat account, ua he hua iy only too well abown. The Intention It. ascribed ii of finlahlng at the beginning of tlie campaign by | g battle on the Tieino. TIiIh runmr nppeura to be ly credited In Piedmont, but. we know not from 11 tourcc it hna been derived. It la naelraa to aay " It hna only tho value of a minor. The Maralird c iidlaet year, aa maybe renumbered, a dilfereut V of conduct. After liming abandoned without p at. not only the Tieino, but even the Adda, he r rd on the l hle?e.n little atream In ndvnnee ofnnd lei to the Minico, and he waited lor the I'lcdmun- ' n the fauioiia pluiiia of .Vontc-< hiaii, whieli for " l-four yeura had aerved aa manoeuvring tielda to r' oopa. (Ait off In thia ponltlon byt'harlea Albert, advanced from Crtuuun by forced nmrelnei on n Goito, Kidctiki first retired und?r th?> Apa of Pr?*rM I then under,that of Verona and Mantua. Finally, when he had received by the route of Trento a id v leenM the reinforcement* he required, he profited hy the dtsproportioned extent of the Piedmontcsc line. whlofc imprudently reaehed from the Lake of Oarda to tb* frontier* of Parma and Modena. nnd broke it in DM middle, throwing It in disorder on Cremona on the one hand, and on Brescia on the other. Will tile Marshal recommence this rnmpaiKii, which soldiers have ad* mired ? That will depend a (food deal on the m irch of the Piedmontese. If they commit the enormous fault of attempting to cover all Lombardy instead of only marching, according to all the traditions of the wan of Italy, by the line of tile i'o ?n Mantua: if Oeneraf t'hrxunowski. ceding. as the King of Sardinia tmprtM dently did last year, to the cries of terror of the LomJ bard towns, should undertake with his fifty and odd thousand men to cover all the country from Milan, If I not from Bergamo to Cremona, it is difficult to suppoMfr that he can maintain any given poiut before the 60,009 or 80.000 men wlu>ui the Marshal may always haws under his baud, and there will come to pass a second time, what we had the grief to see Inst year?the Pied* montcse army destroyed in a single battle, without finding a place to reassemble. It must be hoped that the cruel experience of the last campaign will influence the Italians and their general in the present, that tbn sad lesson of Custosu will he lost neither on the soldiers nor the rhiefs, that neither will udvanee. as they did before, by cbauce. and that they will understand that they liuve before them a formidable enemy, cC whom they cannot free themselves except by pruilencty perseverance, and energy. It must bo hoped, also, that the populations, roused by the noblo example of Pled* mont. will not content themselves with sterile wishes, and will not lose their time in singing to tho success of the ltulian arms, but that they will rise as one man to drive away the foreigner. Without tills rising en tau**e( without great union, iron discipline, and flrftt-mto strategy, there is nothing to expect from the new cam* pnign; but with them, on tho contruy? in the stats hffi which the interior affairs, and especially the llnanoso^ of Austria ure, this campaign may be decisive. Manifesto of the Plcilmontcae Government to the Kuropcan Powers. The Sardinian government, forced l?y f!i" pro?ress of events to resume the course to which th? erire of the Italian people, determined to re-conquer their independence, had called it, turns con fluently to the opinion ot Europe, in order that it* intentions and conduct may be justly appreciated.! The origin and progress of the Italian revolution* which broke out in consequence of many causes, slowly accumulated and matured by time and by the progress of civilization, need not here be stated. The lirst cry which it sent forth was the vow to restore national independence; the object to which it proved itself constantly faithful in its vurious phases was to remove the obstacles to the uccomplislnnent of that vow. These obstacles are all comjiriaed in the domination of Austria over the LomDaido-Vciiclian provinces, and in the influence which she, either openly or secretly, constantly aspired to exercise, and really did exercise, in th? various States of the Peninsula, llcnce it was natural that the Italian revolution should see ia Austria her principal enemy, and that it should unite nil its strength against her. Could the Italian governments, even had thejr wished it, have annulled thut vove of the Italian revolution T The most spontaneous and serious considerationslead to the conviction that they could not, and then less than tit any other time. For th? nations who had just obtained from their governments those liberal institutions, the desire und th? necessity for which were so inveterate, felt not only love for their newly-obtained liberty, but also the conviction that true liberty cannot exist unless based on independence. Ana, therefore, had not the governments shown themselves staunch friend* to independence, the people would have conceived suspicions against their sincerity, and would only have seen momentary concessions easily to b* withdrawn when circumstances might have changed in those very liberal institutions. Nor coula tM people, besides, have avoided the constant fear that their new condition would be continually opposed by Austria?a perpetual enemy to liberty in Italy?he* Cause thole she always saw the principle which must destroy her dominion and influence. Ilence it is cleat tVint Ttulmri nrnunrnnionfo onnM nnf aHnmnt t/i restrain their people without, as it were, divorcing themselves from them, and throwing their State# into oil the horrors of civil war, to be followed; o? course, by the greatest disorder and the dissolution of every soeiafinstitution. Were the Italian governments to oppose the de? 6ire of their people, merely in obedience to th* presumed rights of Austria! These are founded iu possession and in treaties. But us to possession* it may always be inquired what was its origin y and as to treaties, how they have been established* and how observed! Above all, it must be considered that the iiossessions of Austria, in the several territories of w(jiclf the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom was composed# are of varied origin. For it is not to he believed that Austria means seriously to refer to the ancient rights which the Emperors of Germany boasted of over Italy?rights which, supposing them to be historically admitted, have been entirely destroyed by those very facts und those very stipulations uporf which Austria takes her stand to support her pretensions. To reproduce the titles of jiossession of Austria for these provinces, which formerly constituted the Duchies of Milan and Mantua, would b? renewing the dispute on the legitimate reversibility of the iiefs of the empire; it would he reviving mi- |>i im i|Misi i'i u ucuuici junwpruueuce lojuuge * living and present question. If those provinces which formed the continent of the Venetian Republic tire considered, the possession of Austria emerges as founded only in one of those great arbitrary acts, ever reproved by universal conscience as being contrary to all the rules of justice and equity, and in virtue of which two great powers agreed upon a compensation of territories bjr making a small state disappear. The Sardinian government well knows what arguments may ha adduced when it is pretended that the hereditary character of the past is preserved untouched, or when all the arbitrary acts of mer? might are to be legitimised; but it would bo us named to confute them iu these days in th? presence of Europe, which bus already acknowledged, or is on the point of acknowledging, tho necessity of reconstructing universal public right U|K>n u new basis. Profoundly convinced that th? preservation of the civil order of things depends upon obeying this necessity, Sardinia does not re-coil, nor will she recoil, from the consequences c? the principles she has frankly adopted; and, readjr as she is to defend them with all her might, sh? does not hesitate in most loyally declaring them. And, therefore, the Surdiiiinn government, beflieving that the Italian governments cannot recognise Austria's right of possession, further believe? that her pretensions, founded on treaties, arc not the less groundless. The old treaties need not b? mentioned, because they have lost every value itt consequence of the successive stipulations that profoundly altered theni; and as to the trinities of IK 15, to which Austria more particularly refers, it is known to the world that Italy was forced to undergo them, und that Austria, as well in Italy as int other countries, completely eluded the spirit of them ill the interest of her policy of absorbing th? various nationalities which compose her states. And how can the idea fail to present itself spontaneously, that Austria cannot be admitted to claim, in Italy the treaties of 1K15, after she herself ha? broken thcni by the violent occupation of Cracow, against wiurn tnr protests of nil Kurope still resound. Moreover, if treaties can settle <|ucstion? pending between nations, they cannot dispose of the very existence of nations, no more than thejr run cancel history, abolislt a language. or determine that a transitory fact created by force shall perpetually prevail over the laws established by nature and Providence. Italy must, like other countries, exist by herself, not merely in geography Hnd statistics, but in the intercourse of civiized nations ; this has been for many ages the desire of all the nations of the Peninsula, the most constant manifestation of Italian opinion and feelings, in science, literature, and art; the object which at various times sotne Italian government* had in view ; the meditations of the most elevatedl ntinds : the hopes of an innumerable host of martyrs of liberty. This desire, this manifestation^ inis object, whs during a whole year the unanimoutf cry of all the populations of Italy?a rry that dai'? increased in energy and menace at the announce? nent of all the acts of violence Austria had recourse to to restrain the provinces s-.ibiect to her Joniinion?a cry that changed into a universal un cstrainable call to arms, Mt the outbreak of tha evolution of Lombardy and Venice. Could tha Itulinn governments oppose such an explosion of lie national will 1 The Sardinian government docs not shrink front he responsibility i f having commenced the war >f Italian independence ; on the contrary, it beieves it may be proud of it, not because in so dong it neeeded to the desire of the people, and thua iresei ved the most saered prineiples of social orler. All the governments of the Peninsula then ati i d with Sardinia ; all sent their contingent to he war: all showed thus tla.t the vow of (tolyn adept mlcnce v,as the vow of all the people of taly. 'i h? Sardinian government feels it beneath it? liatiity to s|>crify tne unfortunate complications by t hi* h it remained alone in the struggle. It woulct nin not pronounce a word which might he painful a the princes w ho were its former allies in tha i inetu n cause, and perhaps guilty only of haviutf |? v.-.t I k.. --it- ..n't 1.1...nr...- n... r? wit U'litinmtc defence, it cannot avoid deela-ing nit the lind Buccem of the war, ana the reoenC hnngi h tlmt Iihvo token place in (Wntrul Italy, nr? lip.ripiilly to he uttiibufed to thorn; Hovernmnt* ir.l nppnfed tin- decided will of tip' people formon* I independence. Ambition* intention* of Striiiii: were f'poki'n of; hut how could such ?ua >iioiiH be conceived on srcinir tlmt in the l.oiiih inioi iiitiun province* uud the ducliieti, loo-ily occuied by her victorious trooiif, she iib*t.?m<d from veiy exercise of power, till those populations hail roved, hy their nneiiinioiis MifTrHffe, that, agreed h they were in rcijtiirini.' inde|icnnenee, th -y Were ;tii lly eo in wishing to unite thenieelvea to dm iirdiuimi people 1 The ltnlinn revolution was toured ?.I mi intention < t ou< sin ning e\ uyi!i:agko|

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