Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 12, 1849, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 12, 1849 Page 1
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TH NO. 5424. The Navigation Laws of Great Britain* IMPORTANT DEBATE. Imperial Parliament. HOUSE OP COMMONS. If men 9.?Numerous petitions were presented gainst any alteration of the navigation laws?among others, one from Liverpool, of enormous bulk, and one from shipowners and others of London, signed by nuariy SI,000 persons. MODIVICATIOK or THE NATICATtOR laws. Mr. Labovchebe moved the second reading of the Navigation Bill. Mr Herbie. thereunon rose, and exnressed his d? termination to offer hie moat strenuous opposition to the further progress of the measure. He felt it incumbent upon him to move, as an amendment, that the bill be read a second time that day six months. Tne dissuasion might be regarded ar a resumed one?as a eon1 tinuation, in fhct. of that which took place last year. The interval which had elapsed had boen fruitful in information bearing upon the subject, and in expressions of public opinion decidedly adverse to it. Mr. Labouchere had placed the alleged necessity for this measure npon three different grounds. The first was, the supposed anxiety and determination of Canada to bave the navigation laws repealed; the second, the ecesity for tneir repeal, for tho sake of the West Indies; and the third, the menaces which had been held out by foreign powers, and which it would not be prudent to disregard. He would dispose of these three grounds before he came to what he called the real question in dispute. As a ground for the repeal of the navigation laws, the case of Canada was good for nothing. The anxiety of the Canadians was not for a repeal of the navigation laws, but for a return to protection. Nor was the argument endeavored to be made in connection with tho case of the West Indies in any dsgree more fortunate. The measure before the House would be disadvantageous to tho West Indies in many ways?in none mors so, perhaps, than in the additional faoilitles which it would give for the introduction of slave grown sugar into this country, the free competition of which with West India produce threatened our colonies with destruction. And as to the third ground, that connected with the attitude of foreign powers, it was as unsubstantial as the others. During the interval which had elapsed between the first and second Introduction of tho bill,the government had been in negotiation with foreign powers upon the subject. The communications received from them deserved the attention of the House. Not one of these communications was of a satisfactory character. The foreign powers had been asked what they would do if we repealed the navigation laws, and the reply of the majority was to the effect that at present they could not tell us. This was particularly the ense with regard to the Oerman states and cities, who referred us to a period which would perhaps never arrive, namely the establishment ' of a central government In Germany. But all the Dutch and German states and ports, Hamburgh, Lubeck, Mecklenburgh Sterlits, etc., wished to postpone their decision until the before mentioned central goivernment was established; and he thought. Indeed, that it would be advisable that the house snould accede to his motion for puiting off the rcading. of the bill till that day six months, by which tiuio theyjnight have received more satisfactory answers. Kven Prussia, j their great ally, could give them no consolation until j, the central government was formed. (Hear). Russia, luuvcu, cuuwuiru iu WHO UN, 1 US uniieil State* would not answer u?. The United State* were always very careful in such proceedings as these. They never committed themselves. (Hear, hear). But what I did Austria say f A more reproachful note than that which had been received from the Austrian minister ould hardly be conceived. It barely catne within th* limit* of diplomatic courtesy and politeness. (Hear, and laughter). It was thus the Austriau minister wroto ou the subject 11 Ada. Cc n'estpas sans surprise que le gouvernnraent Imperial a voulu qu'une question telle oue cclle k laquelle il e'ugit de repondre. a pu lul etre addressee par celui de la Grande Bretagne. 11 rroyait pouvoir se flatter que les principes on ne peut plus libi-raux qui president 4 la legislation Autrichieune stir la navigation, et qui sont justement apprecies par toutes les nations eominer{untcs, ne seraient pas ignores en Angleterre. 11 cspurait que le gouvernoment Brltannlquo n'aurait pas voue k un cnticr oubli cc que l'Autrlehe a si franchement fait valoir dans plusieurs occasions, et particuliercment lore des negociutions qui ont precedes la conclusion des Traites de Commerce et dc Navigation du 21 Decembre, 1820, et du 3 Juillet, 1838, savoir que lee bttimens Anglaie ne sont assujettis dans les etats dc l'Kinpereur a aucune espece de raesure restrictive, quant a leur provenance ou leur destination (le caboUge soul excopte), ni quant q l-espeee do mar handiecs qu'ils transported; et que l'on ne pergolt cu Autricho dc tcs navircs, k la suite desdite traites, aucun droit differcntiel quelconquc. La navigation Anglalse jouit en coasequonce en Autriche des avantages les plus etendus, pulsqu'elle y est places, it l'exoeption du cabotage, eur le pied d'une pleine et parlkite egalite avec la navigation indigene. La preuve, | par eontre, que le pavilion Autrichlen n'est poiut traite en Angieterre d'une maniere analogue, est amplement fournie par le moderatum mentionne plus haut. * * * L'Autricne ae trouve d ailleurs a present dans un etat dc transition. Si une t?lle situation rend par elleinimc it tout gouvernemcnt tres difflcile. sinon moralsmeat impossible, d'arreter et do proelamer d'avance tout un systems politique, une pareille entrepriae aerait aujourd'bui pour l'Autriche encore specialement difflcile par rapport i aa politique commerciale, tu aussi la position dans laqualle elle ae trouve plucee en sa qualite dc membre de la Confederation dormantque." l'bat was the style of answer we got from Austria. (Hear, hear.) Fvcn from Belgium they hud got no very positive answer. No doubt Belgium would rceslve anything proposed, and get everything she could; but the government of Belgium was now doing that which all good governments ought to do?acts of juatice to its own cltiscns, and of protection for their industry.? (Hear.) Lord Howard de W'alden wrote as follows from Brussels;? " 1 have the honor herewith to transmit to you a copy of a note which I have received from the Minister of Foreign Affairs, in reply to the communication which I made to him under your lordship's instructions, conveyed to me in your dispatch of the 22d of Decembor last, relative to the alterations in the British navigation law, intended to be proposed by her Majesty's government during the present session of Parliament. I exSresscd to your lordship at the time that It was not proable tbat the Belgian government would abolish the differential duties now levied in the ports of this country on British goods not imported in Belgian vessels. Subsequent conversation with M. d'Hoffsehmidt, and the tenor of the present note, confirm that opinion; indeed, I very much doubt whether a proposition to admit of competition on perfectly identical terms between British and Belgian vessels would be listened to for an instant." There was another state to which a communication had been made?he meant France. Now, nothing could be more civil than the reply of France, and yet nothing more decided than the opposition which she gave by her acts to our proposition. (Hoar.) la the Interval which had occurred betweon the time at which Lord Normanby presented the note of our Foreign Secretary, and that at which he received a reply to it. the Chamber of Deputies had eoine to a decision on the question of the salt duties, directly at variance with our plan. They had imposed a duty on salt coming in French vessels, and an additional highsr duty on salt coming in foreign ships, thereby excludiug British vessels. (Hear.) It was a very remarkable thing that all these things should have occurred in France, in Belgium, In (Jermany. and other places; that the hostility to the proposal of the government should continue, after all the missionaries from this country who had gone abroad to teach those benighted foreigners what would be for their benefit and for their good. (Hear, and laughter.) The hon. member for the west Hiding (Mr. Cobden) had been on that mission, and ret he had failed to convince them of the efficacy of Lis doctrines. (Hear, and laughter.) Not one step was taken towards that system of free trade which the hon. member weut to teach. (Hear.) The hou. gentleman then nroeeeded to stste the real nuestion at Issue he fore tlx* house. It w>e maintained on the one hand, that the navigation laws had secured to this country a large commercial marine, that a large commercial marine wae necessary to a great naval power, and that the repeal of the navigation lawa, by crippling our commercial marine, would Impair our maritime strength. On the other hand, it wae contended that the navigation lawe restrained enterprise and Impeded commerce by enhancing the cost of freightthat these laws were not essential to a large commercial marine?that, even if they were, such a marina was not necessary to a strong naval power, and that their repeal was desirable, inasmuch as it would be of great advantage to trude, and of no disadvantage to our maritime strength. He admitted that, to some extent, the navigation laws imposed restraints upon commerce, by slightly enhancing the cost of freight. But he maintained the necessary connection between these laws and the existence or a large commercial marine, and the necessary connection, again, between a largo commercial marine, and a great naval power. The question, then, lay between the advantages of the navigation laws, on the one hand, and their inconveniences cm the other. The restraints and impediments, which he admitted to exist, were of too insignificant a character to be weighed against the national advantage# conferred by the navigation laws upon the country He then proceeded to make good his position, that the growth ol our commercial marine was promoted by the navigation laws, and that their repeal would, therefore, he detrimental to our maritime strength. Were they prepared to purchase a slight benefit, in the shape of diminished freights, at the expense of so great a national calamity: This was ths real question he forest he House, brought within a narrow compass and in giving its decision upon the subject, lie warned the House to keep this simple issue in view. He concluded by moving his amendment for the rejection of the bill. Mr. Wii.sow, in reply, after putting the ea?c of tha Canada* and that of toe M'est Indies in a very different light from that in which the right honorable gentlrmau had put them, and explaining the exact position of the question with regard to foreign powers, obsrrved| that the present was a peculiarly fitting time for the adoption of a measure like that before the Jionse, and that reasons of a domestic and Imperial description, urged to lis adoption. He then proceeded at considerable length to show that, whilst they threw considerable impediments in the way of commerce,the navigation laws, as they now stood, were of but very little importance to the British ship-owner, who had ' ' already been subject to severe tests, and had enceesstnlly emerged from tlx* ordeal of competition. His severest trial had been that with the American shipewrner, in which the statistios of the American trails would show that he had been eminently successful ? And ubilrt the navigation laws were of but little ben* E NE MOI fit to the British ship-owner, their operation wu sometimes such, that they virtually protected the foreign hip at the expense of the British one. The fact being established that the British ship-owner had successfully competed with his rivals?with the American in the American trade, with the Prussian in the Prussian trade, be.?he could not bring himself to believe that the British ship-owner commanded, in general, a higher rate of freights than the foreign owner. It therefore followed, that the navigation laws, as they stood, did not. as a general thing, secure to the British ship-owner a high rate of freight, as compared with that commanded |by the foreign ship-owner. They certainly gave him accidental advantages in the shape of high freights, whenever a great and sudden demand arose for foreign produce, and the amount of shipping purmitted to import It was limited, as compared to the demand for it. This was all the advantage conferred upon him, and the souroe of the injury which was inflicted upon the consumers, b^the laws in question. The object of all classes, of tne ship-owners amongst the rest, should be to secure as much uniformity in this respect as possible, and the repeal of the navigation laws would lead to this uniformity. He then briefly considered Mr. Herries's argument, that the proposed measure would impair the strength of the Royal Navy. Not only would this not be the effect of the bill before the House, but the very reverse was likely to be its result. If, then, our navigation system was really beneficial to no class, whilst it was injurious to several, and if it was desirable to dnpart from that system, the question was. how was this departure to be most judiciously made? Inhisopinion, the measure before the House embodied the wisest, because the only practicable course. Mr. Gladstone, last year, had expressed himself in favor of reciprocity.? He, however, was opposed to this principle, thinking it unwise, inconvenient, and, indoed, impossible in practice. The House should ensure to the merchants of the country the greatest degree of certainty and simplicity in their commercial transactions. The system of reciprocity would not ensure them this. There were Insuperable difficulties in the way of carrying out such a principle. The least of these, perhaps, were the "favored nations" clauses in so many of our commercial treaties, and the multiplication of tariffs to which it would be necessary to resort in thoroughly carrying out the principle. If, then, the navigation laws, in their present operation, were of but little advantage to the ship-owner, what was the object spught by their repeal ? The great object Of !!? !? reneal was. Srst of all, to do justice to our colonics; next, to remove certain impediment* which they created in the way of trade; and. lastly, to come to a particular ease, to de justice to the sugar-refiners of this country. The great bulk of the honorable gentleman's speech consisted of statistical details, introduced to illustrate his different positions. He concluded by recommending the measure to the House as part and parcel of that free-trade policy on which we had embarked, and which lie hoped would soon be the commercial policy of the world. The Marquis of Orakby then rose and expressed a hope that the House would not be led away by the speech which had been delivered by Mr. Labouchere in Introducing the measure. Disguise It as the promoters of the bill might, the real question was, whether the British ship-owner could or could not compete with the foreign ship-owner! In his opinion, it was no difficult matter to show that he eould not. The proof that he could not, lay In the fact that every thing in this country was dearer than in foreign countries. The honorable gentleman who had preceded him had endeavored to show that the British had successfully competed with the American ship-owner. But it was notorious that, in such a competition, the American had every advantage. In proof of this, the noble lord quoted | at some length from Mr. Mackav's "Western World," recently published, to show that the the Americans had infinitely greater resources at their disposal than the British shipowners had. He agreed that the resources of America were greater than ours; but he dissented from the conclusions as to the future prospects of England, which Mr. Mackay had drawn from that fact. The house should not forget the number of artisans who would be thrown out of employment by the repeal of the navigation laws. The government had made out no case for their repeal, either in connection with Canada, the West Indies, or foreign powers. Their repeal, by crippling our commercial marine, would aim u direct and fatal blow at our maritime superiority. The government proposal was replete with inconsistencies, which were generally acknowledged. It was fruuglit with danger to the empire, the contemplation of which, he hoped, would induce the house to rtyect it. Mr. Cakowkll approached the consideration of the subject with a due sense of its national importance. But he could not escape the conviction of what was due to the great mercantile interests of this couutry, of - r pcurc ui jurucc vu vuc cuiuoiei miprrftiiTrij urhaandcd, and of what a due regard to the shipping Interest itself required at their hands He regarded it as all important to the interests of this country that they should come, as soon as possible, to a right understanding with regard to the long voyage trade, if they much longer delayed doing so, the results would be anything but satisfactory. Kvery day for which it was delayed, subjected to fresh danger one of the most important interests of the country?the warehouse interest. He was at a loss to conceive what was the intention of the opponents of the bill, with regard to the demands of our colonies, and was utterly astonished at hearing one of Mr. Herries' knowledge and ezperienee, treat the case of < anada as of no weight whatever. The more the case of that province was inquired into, the more must every one be convinoed of the absolute necessity of the repeal of the navigation laws, If they would save to Canada one of the greatest and most lucrative of her trades?the transit trade of the West. It was for the interest of the British shipowner to come without delay, to a fair and equitable adjustment of this question. The shipping interest of this country had nothing to fear from a real, fair, and effectual competition. it was urged that the proposal of the government would impair our maritime power, if our maritime power came in collision with our commercial interests, the tatter must give way. But the final settlement of this question would not put in conflict our mercantile interests and our maritime power. All the arguments which hud been adduced upon the subject, served to prove that the settlement of the question was necessary to the mercantile interests of the country, to the welfare of our colonies, and to the prosperity of the shipping interest itself. In the existing law there were anomalies which it was impossible to defend, and it was the Euramount dutv of Parliament In deal with thrm immediately and effectively. The question for the Honse to decide wan, (hould it object at once to all progress in the matter, or. should it go into committee, to hear all reasonable objections to the bill, and to giro a fair consideration to the representations of every interest which its different clauses would affect, so as to arrive at a conclusion, and, at the same time, a satisfactory settlement of this most difficult and most important question. Mr. Henley thought it rather singular that Mr. ( ardwell was prepared, because there were anomalies in the navigation laws, to sweep them away altogether. The existence of anomalies in thrm might be a reason for their alteration, but it was certainly none for their abrogation. As to the long-voyage trade, so far was he from agroelng with Mr. Cardwell, that he regarded that trade as necessary to the welfare of the warehouse system. Much had been made by the promoters of the bill of the case of ( Anada; but nothing had bean said by them of Nova Scotia or New Brunswick, simply because these colonies were unanimously opposed to the policy of her Majesty's government. He thought that the branch of the subject which had especial reference to our maratime powor, had been sedulously avoided by the government and its abettors. Bat on this ground the whole question ehiefly rested. Could they secure by the repeal of the navigation laws, advantages sufficient, in variety and extent, to counterbalance the national disadvantages which would inevitably follow from such a step? If not?and that they could not was his firm belief?what folly was it to run into certain dangers for remotely contingent advantages. The honorable member from Westbury had repudiated the principle of reciprocity. If that honorable gentleman expressed the sentiments of the government, its conduct was most Inconsistent. If reciprocity was an indefensible principle, why had the government entered into correspondence with foreign powers, or inserted into the bill the clause reserving extraordinary powers to the Queen in council? He warned the House to pause ere it took an irretrievable step, and to consider in what, position the country would be placed were the contemplated experiment to prove a failure. He concluded by putting some questions to the government respecting the apprenticeship system, impressment, and the registry of tonnage, and by contending that if the government pursued a consistent course, it would not stick at throwing the coasting trade, as well as the other trades, open to the shipping of the world. He concluded that the present time was ill-chosen for the carrying out of experiments, seeing that the country was in a state of general distress. The number of petitions from populous towns, which bnd been presented to the lionse, manifested plainly the sentiments of the public out of doors upon the subject; and be confessed that he for one was not disposed to run the risk which he apprehended would be run if the present measure were carried. (Cheers.) Mr. Uladstosi: moved the adjournment of the debate. Lord J. Rcssrt.i. said he had no objection to the adjournment. provided it was understood distinctly that tlie debate would be resumed on Monday, that the House would then some to a division, and that no further adjournment on that day would take place (Hear, hear.) Mr. Krss was most anxious to say a few words in explanation of the vote he Intended to give. ("Oh. oh." and laughter.) He thought tlmt Irish members nod a right to speak on navigation subjects, and he was of opinion, from the manner In which this and other measures had been introduced by her Majosty's minister*, that much credit could not be given them for deep thinking and judgment. (Loud laughter. In the midst of wblrh the hon member suddenly resumed his seat.) 'J he d< bate was then adjourned to Monday. Mowfftv. March 1} The adjonrned debate on the navigation laws was then resumed by Mr. OLAUSTORr.. who sustained an elaborate argument In favor of a departure from our present system, by a series of comparisons which went to show that our tonnage, both foreign aud eolonial. had increased at a far more rapid ratio since we embarked on a system of relaxation, so far as the navigation laws were concerned, then previously to our so doing. 1 his wns. of itself, a complete answer to those who held that further progress In the course uf relaxation would b? destructive to tho shipping interests of this country, He woold not then enter into tlie question of time, his conviction being that, on eotnmerrliil and other grounds, this was a fitting season for effecting a large change in our navigation system. IT this were a proper time for making such a change, the quveliaa was in what ?mntr it W YO INING EDITION?TH1 could b? best effected7 Hero he must nay that he differed from many who supported the preaent measure. Hie doctrine wae, that they should not abandon the path of experience. Iu his opinion, it was only on principles analogous to those acted on by Mr Huskisson and others, that we could safely depart from the system of navigation which we had so long pursued, and which had been for centuries interwoven with our national policy. There were several demands which the shipowner might fairly make upon the legislature. I when it was about to deprive him of protection. In the first place, he was entitled to the removal of everv peculiar "burden by which he *u now hampered, if wo exposed him to unrestricted competition with foreigners, we should giro him a drawback, or a remission of the duties upon the timber which he used in the construction of his ships. He should also, in the next place, be relieved from the restraint under which he lubored with respect to the manning of his ships. There was still another compensation to which tne shipowner was entitled. By repeal of the navigation laws, he would have to undergo a competition from the Baltic, sharp, as far as it weut, and from the United States, all over the world. He was. therefore, entitled to ask that we should secure for him, if possible, an entrance into those fields of employment from which he was now excluded, as a compensation for the entrance permitted to the foreigner to those fields of employment of which he had now a monoply. The policy pointed out to them by experience was that of conditional relaxation. He had never eiftertained the notion that we should proceed by treaties of reciprocity with foreign powers. There were difficulties in tho way of so doing, which it became a prudent legislature to avoid. The American system, so fkr as it went, was that to which he would look as a model. By adopting that of conditional relaxation, they would avoid the difficulties inseparable from the system of reciprocity treaties. The immediate effect of conditional relaxation would be to give to the vessels of such States as conferred privileges upon our shipping corresponding advantages in our ports. Such a course would be in accordance with precedent and experience, whilst it was that which was demanded by justice, and which would be found more easy of execution than the plan proposed by Her Majesty's government. There was one feature of that plan to which lie had an insuperable objection. Kvery word said by Mr. Wilson on Kriday night, against the system of reciprocity, told with augmented fore? ttgttlnst tb#t of retaliation, lie Woii'u jcih readily with those who might endeavor to get rid of that feature, regarding it, as he did. as a material defect in the government plan. If the government would not consent to legislate on the suhjest conditionally, he would advise it to do so directly, without the accompaniment of retaliation. Indeed, the conditional system was that upon which we now practically acted with regard to many of the maritime nations of the world. The plan which he thus proposed, would do more for the general liberty of commerce than that which had emanated from the treasury bench. There was another feature in tha government proposition which he regarded as defective. He was of opinion that the mode in which it proposed to deal null IUO I-WIIUK uuue nuum ur luunu idcupclliai lor the purpose in view. Before we could expect to get the boon of the American coasting trade, we nuit throw our coasting trade unreservedly open to that country, lie did not believe that we would secure the coasting trade of America by proceeding on the principle of unconditional legislation. On the other hand, by proceeding on the conditional principle, they had every reason to believe that they would aecure that trade. If this plan wanted another recommendation to entitle it to the favorable consideration of the IIousu. it would bo found in this, that by proceeding conditionally, they might at once effect a final parliamentary settlement of this great question. Mr. Robinson regarded the speech of the right hon. gentleman as a powerful argument against the whole proposal before the House. If the measure were to be forced upon the country, the least that the interests affected might look for was that our legislation on the subject should be conditional. The condition of our laboring population, the state of our finances, and the exigencies of our royal marine, all appealed against the passage of the measure beforo the House. The only shipping interest that would benefit by it would b it of a most active and formidable rival. Mr. Clav would vote against the second read in the bill, although he did not regard our navlgatic trm as on such a footing that it could not be a. 1 with advantuge. Mr. Hornby opposed the second reading of the expiating his former flirtations with free trad y abusing free-traders, and making a protccti t speech. Mr. Mitchell, In supporting the bill, exposed Mr. Hornby's fallacies, and agreed with much that had fallen from Mr. Gladstone, although the speech of the right honorable gentleman wus, in its geuera) turn, such as he was surprised to hear from so distinguished an advocate of free trade. The right honorable gentleman could not have taken a more effectual mode to damage the whole scheme. lie did not believe that tha general rate of freights would decline in consequence of the repeal of the navigation laws; but their repeal would enable us to oseapo the inordinately high freights which, in time of sudden emergency, we were called upon to pay. The result of the measure before the House would be the equalisation, and not tho general reduction of freights. Mr. Warn condemned the bill, as a measure the whole object of which seemed to be the promotion of the interest of the foreign at the expense of the British shipowner. Mr. C. Barer gave his determined opposition to the bill, as tending to the ruiu ot another British interest, and fraught with peril to the maritime supremacy of the country. Mr. Wu.cox supported the government, on the ground that protection had ever proved itself the bane of the interest sought to be cherished. As to the lachrymose forebodings of the opponents of the bill, in reference to the national defences, he could assure them that the public had learnt to look with suspicion upon such effusions of patriotism from those whose chief regard was for the pockets of a particular class. Mr Hilltaho followed in opposition to the measure, denying that the shipping interest in this country was a monopoly. Mr. Ricasoo was surprised that Mr. Oladstouc, after having clearlv demonstrated the misehiuf and inconvenience of these laws, should turn rouud and say that we should make our abrogation of this mischief and this inconvenience conditional upon the abrogation of similar laws by other nations. The right hon. gentleman having given in his adhesion to the repeal of the cornlaws and the ultcratlon of the sugar duties without any such stipulations, he (Mr. Rirardo) could not understand upon what pretext he could defend himself in requiring these conditions in regard to the navigation laws. No new argument in regard to the shipping interest had been adduced, although it was still asserted that American ships were cheaper than English ships, though It was a mathem4tieal demonstration that, as all the elements of shlp-bullding were cheaper In this country than in America by one-third. British built ships must necessarily be cheaper than ships built in Amerira. The hon. gentleman said it was proved before the committee of the House of Lords that the West India merchant preferred American ships to English ships ; but for his (Mr. Ricardo's) part, he could not follow the evidence of the West Indian merchants before that committee. Almost all of them candidly confessed that they were quite unacquainted with the navigation laws?that they bad never read them, and were wholly ignorant of their effect upon the local interests of the West Indies. He denied that he had ever underrated tlie Importance ?f the mercantile marine of this country, as some hon. members had imputed to him s but whut be said was, that the mercantile marine of this country was independent altogether of acts of Parliament; that it depended rather upon our insular position, upon our daily intercommunication with those possessions the inhabitants of which spoke the same language as ourselves, bad the same wants and habits as ourselves, and upon our people being a seafaring population. (Hear, hear.) If a mercantile marine could be produced by an uet of Parliament, how did it happen that France and Spain, who had navigation laws far more stringent tliau ours, bad no mercantile marine upon which to calculate ? (Hear, hear.) He held that it would be most dangerous for this country to depend upon the mercantile marine for the manning of the royal navy. That was a question on which he did not consider the officers of the royal nary the persons best qualified to give an opinion; but he was quite willing to admit thut they were able to furnish important evidence with regard to matters of fact; and taking the from hi* opinion*, he thought that they they afforded a decided proof that we were trusting to a rotten reed in depending on the mercantile marine for the manning of the nary, unless we reported to the system of impressment; and did any gentleman in hi* sense* imagine that the country would submit to that again ? (Hear. henr.) Admiral Bowi.c* wonld take the liberty of telling the government that an awful roeponaibility reeled apon them if they gave eupport incautiously and rashly to a meaeure which might endanger the empire. Mr. Dm wmomo said the object of tbie bill?and moat Ingeniouely contrived it had heen?wa* to keep rapital in the country, but still not to employ our laborere (Hear, and a laugh ) The promoter* of it did not eend capital away; but they kept It here for the purpoee of employing foreign laborer*. They bad all heurd of the Satanic (cbool of poetry in literature. If tiler* wa* eurlt a thing ae a entanic *hool in politic*, the author* of thi* bill certainly belonged to It. (Hear. hear, and a laugh ) It wa* a very remarkable phenomenon that at the prceent day it seemed tlie fate of every statesman, no matter to what party he belonged, or 011 what aide

of the Houee be eat, to be doomed to eat every word he hud ever uttered on any one oecaaiou (a laugh) and to go agaiuet every principle which he had ever endeavored to establish. If. therefore, any honorable gentleman were at a lo*? to meet the argument* of the government and It* *upporter*. they had only to go buck to the speeches of tho*e very gentlemen, and to appeal fri in the drunken Philip* of the day to the sober Philipe of ten year* ago (Hear, hear ) In fact, the beat apeeeli against the mraaure of Karl Urey wa* the speech delivered not long ago by Lord llowirk. (A laugh.) For year* poet, the rountry had been under an evil genfu*. It hud been well described by the honorable member for Buckingham (Mr. Disraeli) a* a fate from which no minister could liberate himself?It seemed, as it were, a sort of myth of a force which bound . them dowu while chancellor* of the exchequer peeked at their liver* ad KMhiwt. (< beer* and langhter.) The moat celebrated statesman of antiquity declared that ''there i* in maritime State* a corruption and Instability of moral*, for they import not only merrhandiae, but morals; so that nothing ran remain entire in tbeglnstilation* of their country." He might quota the opinion* of Lord t. hat ham and of Mr. Fanning to a similar effect; and of late day* they had an eminent writer, who, in hi* work on Oarmany, spooking of Frankfurt, Mid, Usat "in tun IRK I [JRSDAY, APRIL 12, 1! i sequence of ber commercial relations, she was so thoroughly under foreign influence, and so polluted by a mixture of all foreign manners, that ner population could be hardly said to have a character of her own."? What had fltted them to be clttsens of the world had unfitted them to be citizens of the country to which they belonged, for "they judged of the happiness ol mankind by the rate of exchange." (Cheers and laughter.) Now. all that was applicable to the Manchestoi school. The grand fault of these gentlemen was, that they could not form a conception how anything thai was not good for cotton spinning could bo good for an] thing else. (Renewed laughter^ "But," said tho sam< writer, "let no one blame theur for forgetting, in th< fiursuits of the money speculator and merchant, th( ntereet of their country; or, at least, before doing so let him visit tho ports of London, Liverpool, or Bristol and discover, if he can. a purer foundation for Lnglls; patriotism." (Hear, hear.) But ho had one mors au thorlty for honorable gentlemen opposite?their darlinf Adam Smith. The only quarrel ho (Mr* Druuimond had with honorable gentlemen with respect to Adau Smith was that they never would read bevond one natri of him. (A laugh ') Let them attend'to this:?"Ai their (the manufacturer*') thought*, however, arc com monly exercised rather about the interest of tnelr parti eular branch of business than about that of society, theii judgment, even when given with the greatest candoi (which ltna* not been on every occasion.) is much inor< to be depended upon on the former than on the latter The interest of the dealers in any particular branch o trade or manufacture, is always, in some respects, dif ferent from or even opposite to that of the publio (Hear, hear.) Yet it was for such men as these thai the legislature had acted for many years back, ant acted still. The manufacturer sent to Africa for hit cotton, grown by the African luborer; having employot the African laborer and shipowuer, he would lake 11 home and spin it into cotton; then It was put on board a French vessel, and eicliaugcd for French silks 01 wines; so that, from beginning to end, not one Knglish laborer would be employed. (Ironical cheers from th< ministerial benches.) When the poet, glowing with s Gn* enthusiasm, exclaims :? " Breathes there s man with a smii so dvad, VI ho utter to kiiuevlf hath said? * This is my own, my native land ?" " 0h; *<*j" '?i'S the honorable gentleman opposite, "al Manchester there arc a thousand of them." (t'hsen and laugter.) Not sontent (continued the honorable gentleman) with resorting to bribery to get up accusations against your sailors?not satisfied with assailing them and your naval officers with taunts, you now say we have a " superstitious reverence" for the navy, it may be true we liaTe a superstitious reverence for thai gallant service. It may remain among us yet. Tuns was when we had a veneration for it. There was indeed a time when we liad a national faith- when w? venerated, aye, worshipped, if you like, the statesmen who guided the destinies of this country?when w? respected the magistrates who administered her laws and admired the searaeu and soldiers who devoted theli lives to her service?a time when our national ereec was "Rule Ilritaunia," and the finest anthem In oui ritual was ' <iod save the Hueen." (f'heers.) Mr. Lxnoi-cHKHr. argued the question upon th< ground of British iutrrest, not omitting the shipping interest itself, the advantage of which he regarded as deeply involved in the success of the mear sure before the House. The question then before th< house was the principle of the bill; and he did not look for the vote of auy honorable member in favor of it who did not admit the propriety of a departure from the system of the navigation laws, lie avowed his readiuess to consider any suggestion in reference to the details of the measure, provided they were uot inconsistent with the principles on which the bill was introduced. The right honorable gentleman theu briefly recapitulated the arguments which he had formerly offered In connection with th* colonial, long voyage. and coasting branches of the subject lie saw do rr?on why the present retention of the lumber duties should operate as a bar to the immediate repeal of the navigation laws. As to Mr. Gladston?'i suggest i"n ho thought thut the House would tako i nai n w and erroneous view of the true policy of th< eountry were they to adopt it. Mr. Gladstone hat claim 1 Mr. Huskisson as an authority lu favor of hi suggestion; but he (Mr. I.aboucbere) thought that th< high authority of Mr Husklsson wan opposed to th righ honorable gintleruun'a euggeetiou, and in favor o the policy proposed by the government, lie did no think that ? ur commercial policy should be made t< d< pend upon the views and caprices of foreign states He hoped that the houre would well consider the sub jeet before it adopted Mr. Gladstone's suggestion. Ii committee ample opportunity would be offered of son sidcring that suggestions in all its bearings. He eon eluded by urging upon the House the absolute neces sity which existed for settling this important queslioi wfthout delay. Mr. Mi/wti inferred from Mr. Labouchere's speed that he bM great doubts as to the result of his owr measure. Ihe repeal of the navigation laws would diminish the returns and profits of British shipping If not, why repeal them T But there was one advantage which would be derived from their repeal. Their existence was the only excuse now remaining for the failure of free trade. (Cheers and laughter.) He would help the government to gst rid of this remaining exeuse when free trade might be fairly tested by its fruits. Having stripped every other class of protection, he did not think it fair to protect a particular class. When the navigation laws were repealed, it would be dilBcul to say wbo would be tbe gainers. Mr. ScHOLcricLD observed that in his opinion, th< people of Birmingham would be gainers by the repea of the navigation laws. Mr. Musi* did not mean to say that his eonatitu ents would not gain by their repeal. All that he mean was, that one class would gain at the expense o another, but that there would be no national gain. The House then divided, and the numbers were :? For Mr. Herries's amendment (that the bill be read a second time that day six months). . . 710 Against it 3(H) Majority against 00 The announcement of the number* elicited load an* prolonged cheering from the protectionists. The bill wan then read a eecond time. The other business ?u disposed of, and the lion* adjourned. Fin dat, March 33. The telegraphic despatch In the Courier says Mr. LARoi-cHK.Hr. moved that the House go into com miltee upon the bill for amending the navigation laws lie said he had an important alteration to make in th bill, which he was bound to state at the earliest possibl stage; and he bad at first proposed sdeh a modilicatioi of the eoastirg trade as would allow foreign vessels, a well as British, to combine ooasting with foreign ves els. He (Mr. Labourchere) therefore did not fuel jus tided in asking the House to agree with that part o the measure which would throw open the coastini trade; the bill would consequently return to the shapi In which it was proposed last. Mr. Ui.adiiohk said the right honorable gentlemai had been more merciful in the withdrawal of that par of the bill which proposed to open the coasting trade than in justifying the original of such a modification It was evident Sir T. Freemantle's opinion had fromth first been adverse to the proposition of government; 1 was besides very Inconvenient for the Minister to mak statements for his conversations with subordinate! Such persons' practices perplexed the publie mim with rcgurdto the person upon whom the responsihilit should rest. Mr. Wladstone then concluded; state that be should not embarrass the government by di Tiding upon his amendments with respect to reciprc city, as he should now prefer the bill as it was?no bi! at all The right honorable gentleman then gave a; outline of the plan he had intended to propose for eai rylng reciprocity by means of conditional regulatloi and repeated that he would not press it to a division. Mr. Hkhries said the proper course would be for th government to withdraw the bill and introduce a nei one, after the material alteration that had been mad in it. He should divide the House on the side readlnf The House then went into! ornmittrt on the bill; an on the first clause, section four, Mr. Bouverte move the addition of a provision to the effect that the exist lng retrenchment should continue in Tore* until It *p fit-urn to the satisfaction of the privy council that th ike restrictions upon British ships trading to foreigi countries had been removed '1 his division was op poecd by Mr. I.abouehore, Mr. Ilcrriee, and others and. ufter lengthened debate, the Committee divided The members wi re:? For the provision 1. Against it 13; Majority against it IV The provision was consequently rejected The elans was then egret d to. The other clauses up to No. V were agreed to; after which the <_ hairmon reported pro gress. Adjourned at 1.VVkry Latk from Vai-takaiho.?Letter* wcri received in this city this morning, snvs the Botlm Travel/rr of the 10th inst., from Valparaiso, over land, to the 2d of huM month, having hern short o forty days on the wuy. A number of vessel-* hut arrived from the I'nited States; among others, th< ships Pophiu Walker, from iioston, arrived I-Vb. 9 H. Krving, from do., arrived Feb. 21, in 76 days passage, and the brig Horatio froin do.?The *ni[ Fanny Forrester, ( apt. Sweetlin. from N. York with government stores, arrived Feb. 11th, in J* days' passage, and sailed for Monterey. Tin U. S. ship Islington, from San Francisco foi New York, via Kio Janeiro, sailed from Valparaisc on the 2d of March. The purser writes home that he took on board f860.000 in gold, $181,000 n! which is to be left at Valparaiso, to be coined, tc return to the mines for trading purposes. The following is an extract of a letter dated Valparaiso March 2:?" You are just getting the gold fever ic the United States. Here it has been raging foi four or five months. Valparaiso ianearlv descried All the commission houses are gelling nard up toi clerks, and arc trying fair and Ton) means to pre vent the young men froin emigrating and leavinj them alone. About half a million has been re ccived here in gold already from California. I yields, after paying all expenaes of freight, smeltin) and assaying, about $18 per aunce." Court Calendar this Dag. BrfMio* Coi ax.?Nos. 41, 42, 61, 06, 07. 110,113.114 116. m. 120. 43, 1. 6, 11, 64. 13, $3. 30. 32, M. 76, 126,71 6,44,117, 127. 182. 183.134,136.187,138,130,140.141 143. 144,146, 147, 148. 140, 150.161, 163,164, 165. Com mow Plea??Part lat?No*. 200, 2ll, 218, 215, 217, lit 221. 223. 225. 227, 220 231, 233. 287 . 230. Tart 2d 41 86. 00. 02 04. 100, 102, 104, 106, 108,110. 114, 116, 111 120. IE R A 349. Tb? Charter Election. "We give below the returns of the charter elec[ tion, as far as we have received them; they are r very nearly correct, and would have been entirely bo, if the inspectors of elections had performed i lheir appropriate duties an they should have done; but having some other ends to serve than the j completion of their duties and the furnishing of ? a report of their work to reporters, we failed to get frsm some of them the result of their labors, t From the tables given below, it will be observed 1 that the whigs have elected not only their Mayor, " but thut they nave also fourteen outot the eighteen F Aldermen for the next board, and that theBoard t of Assistants stands the same. In short, it is a 9 clear whig victory. ? Mayoralty Tltktl. , 1*4? , , ISO Ward. DitL Whig. Dtm. Whif. Dtm. t Tan.Sekaltk. Brailj. 11.ram 11 1M 171 164 150 1 Ut 104 IM ?S ? 1M 900 80* VH ' Total. .~7? ~M4 70S IX t 1 SO* 111 10* 144 I S MB 0ST ?ST *08 TatsJ.~4? ~7#T MS } 1 not 7* S4> 1ST I M IM 41# IM 113 1?? <> X21 | Tit*.1,117 111 l&i "*1* 4 i IT* *1 1M 900 ; i* *o* i*i 46* 2*3 si* M 602 i J84 MS im Ml TiMl. 74T l,06t ~li% ljioi ; I 1*1 m 176 160 1*8 1*4 Mi 114 9*4 168 81* 1*2 888 10* KM 117 Ml 136 M7 180 I T?M1.1,M* 6*4 ijvi 1~0M I 1 87 1M 175 ton J IT* *8 IM so* ) 87 lot 87 436 4 1M 174 111 Ml ToMl.. W* 844 "?M 1^4*1 T 1 *71 M Ml 1?] I S *M 144 Ml ion M* IM 8*4 1M 4 **4 111 IM i?] Ml 1*4 161 M< MS 1*7 *16 ?11 V *87 *01 14* IK i ToMl.1.14* 1^008 1JM 1^481 1 *88 *04 *M 141 *88 80* MS SM 4 888 888 US Ml 4 888 *08 188 181 4 888 888 M* 111 8*8 808 1*4 SM T 888 008 17* 188 008 008 M 16* Tltol. 888 008 1,808 1^60 8 1 SM 188 801 1*4 1 *08 188 U7 Ml a UT Ml 108 *64 4 90S m ST* M7 471 Ml 448 4M , 8 48* *88 448 Ml ; TiMl.8,081 1JT8 im ljui e 18 1 l*M 188 8*4 101 f 1 10* 163 *48 U; t a 1*8 *63 *00 181 > 4 *17 810 1*8 131 8 MO *00 *34 I* ToOoi.1^81 l.oos fjaoi l^so 11 1 188 184 111 *81 ? 1*8 *0* 1*7 *2 a 168 Ml 144 KM 1 ? OKI 093 Wt * Ml 1M 148 1M i 8 393 431 Ml 471 I Ttt*l.M4T M31 1~U4 ljbt Ml M tM Ml M I IN W M m ' TtM.~Mf *008 7M ~737 18 1 349 801 Mt 19 a 398 M7 171 aoa . 147 124 179 M7 4 497 M3 aaa 877 Tttal.lim 934 778 1,010 14 1 188 188 Mt 118 t M M8 118 SM a M8 M8 188 811 4 144 178 188 117 t I 19* 308 148 871 Ttttl.~8M 14* M? 1471 18 1 808 008 178 IN 1 888 808 871 131 8 888 888 448 1? 4 808 808 410 181 Tttel.~008 *008 1408 ~6* 1 18 1 MT 184 844 18 a MT 198 818 38 . 8 878 830 884 81 4 881 MS 349 SO 8 MT 417 300 43 Total. 1483 1488 MOT M? IT 1 000 088 188 SO s 1 988 808 814 31 b 8 8* 808 111 M a 4 888 808 141 10 B 8 888 888 181 34. 8 808 tOO 360 181 V tot to# MT 414 < Total .0004 8008 M?8 Mli 1 14 1 844 378 830 387 9 439 410 449 441 J 8 049 808 103 847 '? Total. 1^138 M78 M87 l^O! ? 1MIK1TI MATOIALTT TOTH. * . 1348 , 1MB ? War4. WUt. Dtm. Whir. Drm Waadholl. Taa Hehalak. Bradr. Hareta '. 1 738 684 708 827 I I 474 418 408 60 5 8 1,237 811 1.384 91 U A. TAT 1 HAD AAA 1 AO I- 6 1,267 09? 1,817 1,08 608 900 768 1,28 7 1,849 1,002 1,726 1,48 ? 1,7#1 1,013 1,842 1,98 o 2,002 1,378 2,908 1,88 ?, 1,261 1,008 1,300 1,89 11 1,847 1,831 1,148 l,76i ij' ' 126 1,808 738 T? * ! ' 1,187 92* 1.018 1,27! ! u"". 1,724 1,128 1,004 1,48! r {I 1.881 640 1,800 881 d 2 1 482 1.688 1,812 1,881 d if 1,704 1.334 1,891 1,801 - 18.'.'.'. 1,128 1,078 1,090 1,181 Total 20.648 17,604 22,107 28,091 ? 17,906 22,101 Whig majority. 2,648 Datn nudoriiy.. 981 i 2,841 J Whig apparant gain 8.631 Taj I or'? majority in Nowobw, 1848 4,741 j Waodhull'i sonority in April, 1849 4,311 0 Whig apparant low j ** Common CBonell. ALD8MI3, mi, WKit. Dtmotratit. Fr$* fa#. 5 1.?jaalaaa.... 724 Charllok W7 80 1?Kally MO Dod*a W Dadft ? A- Wood 9*? DUlta 1? ? 1 l-Hafl^V'.V."' rw MalllnA T90 I?M ? i ?ShalU 1,083 Tllloa ? Tlllaa 8ffl a ?y?rdan, Jr. . ?03 Kally 839 Branaaa 991 1 ( hlBWf . . ) 0.?Harriot 1989 Campball 1400 Campball ... . ? 1#.?llawa llr-7 Mara). 981 Mantfamary .. 181 ' 11.?Sharmao . .. ISIS lUtflald Gaga 68) < 11?Clark WO Hall 982 Tlamaa 19. 1 H?Iruraraotl... 10W) Marrtaar 1002 ? . 14.?Baarknar. .. 700 Walah 414 Bard 9H 16.?BrtHoa 1471 I<a? 180 Thora ? > 18.?Campball. ,.1902 Wahk 1611 Wabb ? ! IT.?Fraahlia.. ..1736 FUhar 12? Vlahar ( 18.?Maynaxd.... 014 Jaakaaa 001 Smith 291 I AMtrBTAIT AT.DBBJOH. If*if. DamoaraM*. Ft*4 tail. 1.?OrlliB. .. . m Andaraaa 901 B.k.l ? l.-Maraor, ... 431 UtMt, 401 l??m ? I.?Htartoraat, 900 Para jib, ltd ? Tool, 40 4.?MaAUlator, 70S Oaklay 844 Hobby ? 8.?C'haptnaa,. .1173 Wwttn 973 irtlUoinaoa. .. 10 Sworda,... 402 Parria, HAS Oraoa 373 f.-Wabb 1*44 Waat 1044 Waak... ... 8.?Smith. ...1.177 Bardca, *84 Blooded.... BW II. M. Wild. 121 ?('ran a J044 Bdwarda, ... 1400 Uvtrda. ... lO?Mlllar, ....1144 Praaat Oaia, II.?Pattaraoa, .100 Millar 131] JJ'Hw "17 I IS.?Bradr.I. . . 873 I*?lar, *** Hm?t 04 13.? Paartnll,... 1091 AngOTina,j... ?2 ? , ~ 14.-Woo d 714 Baala, 438 Boada va 14.?Morgan,.. . 1093 Partridg*. .. 184 Parte! dga, ... ? 14.?Dal una tor, 0441 Do a an, .... IJ74 Hantaan, . .. . ? I, 17?Daaa. 1717 Ridaboot, .. . 1334 Rldabaah, . ? f| 1R-Coahiin, ...1118 Baa too d. 998 11 aa toad ? li " THE JUDICIAL RESULT. arruioicti'iT. hiriik court . J' John Durr Edv/mrd K. Cowl** HVlitom W Cumyhtll. Jamti lynch ' J. JL Ho*on. LB. TWO CENTS. Wamea of Ute Candidate* Bleated ~=== ITlupIn liali#*; '"noMMIiMu; mOm, MATOl : CaUh s. WtodkuU. W'o*. ALDEBMEW. AMItTAlTT ALDMUIB* sjmsb* t H1'*, H. Schult*. Warren Chapman. ?' I? ?T"J" John Ore*a. 1?Morgan Morgan!, jr. John B. Wtbb. ^-Jonathan W JHUn. E,ra. Smith. in ? f* Charier Crane. 10 -Robert T llaw. David MilUr. 11 r. 8 8 Patter ion, I 18-r;Vl_ Ct^k' Warraa BrmS^ l 14 JjJu John P*~"E 1 16 ? BLH4*0, RO?BBT 8A?D*, i j? liruton. Edwin D ? ~(>r? ^,bbt. A T DanSEZ~ ID W franklin. Charier Doom. 18.?Wom?W S.jBck*on. Jonei W. Conkiin RICAI'ITULaTIOK. j whigV'0,'1,o,Ie0"c,L- w A . UfUl , J ,IM ( _ * I ? " ? *" WDip . .... 9 Democrat* ... S Democrat! 9 > Free Soil 1 Free Soil ? 1 Whig maj. on joint bal. ft Whig inaj. on joint bal. Z Whig gain 11 Brooklyn Election. TOTE FOR MATOK.?[OKKICIAL.] WHIO. CITY llir. LOCO. IWD. Wit. Copland. Hall. Mil, forth. UcUnrru. 1 128 130 74 ft 2 408 80 146 182 S 874 104 121 2 4 881 SM 218 28 1 421 204 610 122 8 707 207 848 119 7 742 226 610 189 8 80 44 112 ? 0 138 10 81 ? Total 8.830 1,800 2,582 819 Ilim OP THB CANDIDATES KLXCTKD. Whigs larman; democrats ia itnlie*. MAYOR. fcdward Copland. CITY JUDOE. ?? Qritnwood. YOLICE JUSTICE. Trueman Smith. ALDERMEN. i HMs. bp Wit. 1.?Wm. Macdonald. 6.?Lemuel Ilawktkurtf. , Frederick Feet. 6.?John Hie*. i 2.?Franeie B. Spinola. Edward Lambert. F.lisha B. Morrell. T.?Jaeob Boerum. ; I.?B. F. Ward well. William Muemore. Klishft W. Ilinman. 8.?F.lisha Burbank. | 4.?Francis Spies. Jotrph Wilton. Peter O. Taylor. 0.?Thomas H. Redding. 6.?Rodnty S. Church. Rem. Lefferts. | Those marked in italics are democrats ; the rest whig*. The board will stand, 18 whlgs, to 8 democrats. TOTE FOR ALDEKMK.N. Ifit. Whit. Tote. Dem. Tote. hut. Tote. 1-Maedeaald... 809 Bedell 127 Bedell ? Poet 849 Whitney 68 Pest V 8?Spinola 479 Macnamara... 3H7 Payne 66 Merrell 369 Bell 861 Taylor ?T 8? Wardweli... 461 liarney 148 Barney ...... 179 Hinmaa AM Blunt 168 Blant 219 4?Spiee 677 Uarrieon ? Uaalett... .,. 27? Tayler 690 Perrint 306 Oarrieoa... .. .681 ?Naylor A39 Chareh 867 Lane 174 laeeh 407 Ilawkeharet.. MW Ottereoa 174 ' 4? Kleharde... . ? Rioe ? Mann ? 1 Bart ? Lambert ? Towtt ? 7? Boerum ? Hammuad ... ? Tan Burea.... ? ' Mnehmore ... ? Uudeoa ? Tall ? . 8?Barboak 111 Wileon ISO CerUlyen 84 1 Tolford 62 Bergaa OS Wyekog. 89 I 9? FefferU 149 Roberta 70 Hill* 8 S Redilng 14S Booker 81 BrtTcert. 4 for citt rwamn, for folic* justic*. WHIO. EM. WHIG. EM. Wd. Die. Smith. Srttntrd. Wdi. Die. Smith. 0arriton. 1 1 18t 111 1 1 100 88 2 98 69 1 16 ? 2 1 171 140 2 1 184 14* a - - i - ? t 1 260 170 8 1 279 112 2 281 142 1 240 148 4 1 368 194 4 1 ?6 108 2 804 834 1 810 80S 4 1 208 467 8 1 208 482 2 288 814 1 844 281 41? ? 4 1 ? ? _ 2 - - 8 - ? 7 1? ?71? ? 2 - - 2 - ? 8 1 84 166 8 1 84 16* 8 1 141 80 8 1 144 88 WlliUmibnrch and Baihwltk. These town* give a whig majority. Th* President fa elected and a majority of tha Truataaa. City Politic*. Now that wo aro to hare an entirely new Board eC Aldermen, the next thing to arrange is the nomination of a president of the hoard. Who shall we have? course, a man well acquainted with the business of the board. There is one man, who has heretofore served In the rapacity of alderman, and James Kelly is that man. He deserves the office, on account of his former Harriers in the Board of Aldermen. He is an efficient man?on* who well understands th* routine of bust* ness, and who will confer honor on the offloe, if be should be selected to fill it. James Kelly, Alderman of the Second ward, is, then, the best candidate, and will probably bo th* next President of the Board of Aldermen. General Sessions. Before th* Recorder and Aid. Downing and HatAWif. Aran. 11.? The Watch Caee.?Second Pay.?The trial of William Jackson was resumed this morning. The first witness railed was Charlotte Seeley. The Assistant s District Attorney objected to her evident** wliopunnnvt the accused's counsel said that hp could prove by th* r testimony of this witness a different date of facte. Ha rould prove by her the statement of the prosecuting witness to Jacitaon. when he loaned him tl ie $60; bo' cause he (the prosecuting witness) had told her what ' he had said to Jackson at the time. The Assiftant Dlatrlct Attorney persevered in hie objection, upon I which the prosecuting witness wai ordered to take th*' tend agftln. Hr did no; and !n his cross examination , he admitted that he bad lent the $60 to Jaekaon for the watch which he (Jaekaon.) had in hia pocket, withi. out the one which he said he waa about to purehaaa from Miller. The counsel for the accused submitted that the indictment had broke down, and that tha Court should instruct the jury to acquit. The Recorder charged them to that effect. They then retired, and after an absence of about ten minutea, returned with a verdict of guilty of obtaining money by fals* pretences. The learned gentleman who was the leading counsel for the accused, moved an arrest of judgment; and in doing so he said that there were rules which had been laid down, and which had been sanctioned by the wisdom of ages, which must be observed. Men eminent for their learning had adhered to them, and their decisions had always been followed. It waa a grand maxim in ethics, that it was better that hundred guilty men should escape than that ono man should be found guilty not according to law. If tha contrary was tolerated, all those landmarks and guard* which they had for the protection of liberty, would become so much blank paper. The Jury, in the exerclsa of its wisdom, had thought proper to convict?although the evidence did not warrant a conviction?they had set themselves up as the oracles of the law, and aa being more competent to decide upon a question of lav* than the Court. If that state of things waa to be tola* rated, there would be no nseln coming there with their i law books, because they might decide eases without th* I interference of the Court. He submitted that the Court. I should suspend sentence, a* the accused had been found guilty of a charge to sustain which no proof iuul I been adduced. The Assistant District Attossst then rose and sai<| that the jury had shown themselves the most faithful fuardians of the rights and Interests of the public. hey bad not differed from the Court upon the ground I mentioned by the other side, it was not a question of law?It was a question of fact of which the constitution, the laws, and their own cousciencos, made them the . judges, t'nder the selemnity of their oaths, the jury , considered that the charge had been prored. and h? I would say that twelve more honorable meu had nevat eat in a jury box They were well known as citlxctH of the highest resp.ctabllity He did not d-ny the power of the Court to suspend the sentence, but he had i rieeu for the purpoe* of vindicating th?q raotlree, the chat meter and the honor of that jury who had been | unjustly arraigned by the learned geutiemau who bad just sat down. ... 1 His Honor the Hrroanrs. intimated that the c:u<w would be disposed of on Saturday next; afUrfwInrli i'io Court adjourned until 11 o'clock to-morrow (this) ) morning. Superior Court. I Before the Chief Justice. H'.lhniH Mr Orarrly VI .Won Hoy If Co.?This wn* an action of trover for $340. the value of a piece of floor eloth. The plaintiff, in 1M7. purchaeed a lot of goods fri m the Arm of Shaw fc Carter, among which wro the goods in dispute, all of which lie removed to hia own store, except the floor cloth, which he left behind, intending to call and take it awav in a day or two la the mean time the defendants, who alleged they had a claim against the firm of Shaw It Carter. Issued process against the goods in their store, carried them off. and amongst them plaintiff's floor cloth The aaea wis tried before, in F ebruary term last, but the jury disagreed. Adjourned. .Illtrton vi. Ckmir?The Jnry rendered a wrdiet In thla cause, this morning, for the plaintiff, for ris sent* damage* and six cent* costs, valuing the property at $2,200. Mrs. Margaret Howard was arraigned before the erfmtnal court of Cincinnati, on the flth inst.. for the murder of Mary KUen Smith, and pleaded not guilty to thff 1

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