Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 21, 1849, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 21, 1849 Page 1
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TH NO. 5463. THE STEAMBOAT DISASTER on ibii Brawn. Statement of Mr. Borden. THE CORONER'S INQUEST, ANB THE CAPTAIN'S STATEMENT, dec. dec. dec. STATEMENT OF MR. Bt'RDEN, OF TROV. Iron Woukb, ) Tnor. (N. V.) May 19, 1849. i To the Editor of the New Vokk Herald : Sin?So many of my friends having asked mo to relate the circumstances of the fatal collision of the schooner Noah Brown with the Empire steamer, on Thursday night last, and being anxious to anticipate the inqulrles of other Mends, i ask permission, through your journal, widely circulating, as it does, through the country, to give a statement, once for all, which will satisfy their curiosity, while, perhaps, it may throw aome light upon the public uiiud in reference to this most melancholy catustrophe. I had not an opportunity of seeing the schooner, before she struck the Empire, and therefore I shall say uothing ou that point, hut shall state what I did sen, and also what 1 thiuk ought to have been done on the occasion. 1 was a passenger iu the Empire, from New Vork. and about half-past ten o'clock, when we were off Newburg, 1 was passing along the main deck, and being chilly, stood near the engine at the staro<>ard side to warm myself. The engineer was in the ciigiuc room, and we Were conversing, when I heard the sound of the goug, the first stroke of which means to "stop." In an instant, a double stroke, which means to " reverse." in dicated to my ear the close proximity of danger ahead. The engineer promptly obeyed the order; but live seconds did not elapse from the moment the command to " atop" was given, till I hoard a crash on the starboard how. The steamer immediately careened to the side on which she was struck. Looking out, I saw the schooner with her stem right into the Empire. Soon after, I heard the cry that the latter was sinkiug. From the slow progress of her descent, however. 1 knew a considerable time must elapse before she c uld go down. 1 thought all wus right above, and that the captain or pilot would have given the necessary orders as to what shimld bo done, or give the passengers such intimation of their danger, and such advice, as the emergency demanded But no order was givcu. nor advice, nor warning of danger; nor did any officer f the Empire oome upon the main deck, or near the ladies' cabin, where I waited in expectation of obtaining the earliest information of our situation, 1 remained there fully twelve minutes after the collision. The only announcement 1 heard was from some irresponsible persons, who cried out frequently, ' There is no danger, don't bo alarmed,'' und repeated the words when the water was actually over the starboard side of the main deck. There was not even a light available. 1 endeavored to loose the tackle of the yawl, slung at the side, tilled with passengers, crying out in agony, for some one to lower the boat; but I could not do so, for want of a lantern; und it Is worthy of remark that that boat continued fastened to the steamer till it was s pulled down by her uuder water, and the passengers had to cseape from it to the upper deck. There was a general rush to the upper deck from below, which I regarded as dangerous; scattering as much as possible, uuder such circumstances, being most conducive to individual safety, and I felt, moreover, that it was useless; fur there never was a steamer yet b ilt that, with her engines on board, could float when filled with water to tbu main deck; and that the Empire did not sink was a mere accident, upon which no human being could calculate. It was the circumstance of a large number of light boxes, tilled with drygoods, being on deck, which flouted up ugainst the saloon deck, and kept her from entirely goiug down. They probably displaced 150 tons of water, while they did not weigh more than 50 tons, aud thus 100 tons of buoyancy was gained. Believing, as I did, and reasoning from all analogy and experience, that she would go to the bottom in a very few seconds, I now, in the last extremity, waded through the water to get hold of a box, and hastened with it to the after gaugwuy on the starboard side, .... ?K,. i.j.i.ii,,.* .... i... ?f "J P"""" "" """ "" "J > "" Stanchion with one Lund and the box with the other, where I stood till the Empire settled down from under Dj feet, and left me floating in the river. Ah I could not swim, I need not say 1 was in extreme danger. I was half an hour in the water, and iny head only being over tho surface, and even that twice under it, when Host my hold of the box. and my voieo, calling for asslNtance being drowned by the cries of others, there was every probability of my being overlooked, o of being run down by the Van Winkle, had she per ceived the accident a little sooner. While in this critical position, a fishing boat, having shad on board and in the act of taking off the passengers from th > wreck of the Kmpire, fell in with me by accident, and picked me up, and landed me, with the others, at New burg, otherwise I should certainly have bjen lost. I shall now point out what, in iny opinion, was don that ought not to have been done, and what was lef undone that ought to have been done. In the firs place, the captain and pilot ought not to have left the vessel, as they did, in tho very beginning. Tho consequence was. there was no person on board with au thoritv to give orders to take such measures as would save the lives of the passengers. Secondly, it only required a few strokes of the engines to have brought , the steamer to Newburg dock, where all the passengers might havo been landed in safety?tho distance not being over a quarter of a mile, or three miuutes' sailing. In fact, she might have steamed four miles before her engines could become inoperative. Instead of doing this, the valve was opened, and the steam let off almost immediately after the concussion, and thus every chanco of safety from locomotion was defeated. Further, from the peculiar construction of the engines of the Empire, there was every facility for working her to any point. They are independent, and can be worked separately, so that one wheel can be made to revolve, whilu the oilier is either stopped, or reversed, at pleasure. It was. therefore, the easiest thing imaginable to have steered her, even without a helm, notwithstanding tho incumbrance of the schooner attached; or. by working the larboard engine only, she might have been extricated Thirdly, every passenger could have been quietlvand deliberately put en board the schooner, which, being filled with timber, could not possibly sink; and It is astounding that this was not thought of. either by the pilot, or captain, or huuds, or by the captain or crew of the schooner. Of this fact I was uot aware till after all was over. Fourthly, the alarm bell, railing for assistance, was not rung till the Kmpire was half filled. In faet. nothing was done ns it ought to have been done, else not a single life would huvu been lost or jeopardised; and. as apptars to me, notntflg bnt the maiming or loss of life of the captain and pilot at the outset, could fairly account for their non-appearance on board during the whole time she was sinking, till I floated off the railing, when the main dork was eight feet under water, still sinking. II BURDEN. THK CORONER'8 IfiQlTSST. The Coroner, Mr. rarmenter, held an inquest on the 18th Instant, on three bodies, namely, Elizabeth Carson, age 17. of Scotland ; Eliza Noble, of Essex county, N. V., aged about 00; and George L., son of George Buckland, of I'aterson, N. J., age 2 years. The jury were sworn at 0 o'clock, A. M., have been engaged all day, and will probably be occupied over two days. The testimony taken to-day was as follows. via:? Uvosor. Bucki-and, sworn.?Identifies the body of George L. Buckland, as hi* child; aged two years; we came on board the steamer Empire, of Troy at New York; at the time of tho accident, my wife had the rhlld at tho foot of the stairs; the water reached my wife's neck, and washed the child from her arms; at the time the buat struck, I was up stairs, and my wife end children were in bed; two of my children lire missing, after the boat struck, I went forward and found the boat fast filling with wnter; tile steamer liad run into a schooner loaded with lumber; I caw the acbooncr, she had no light*; the *ail* were hoistud, and abe appeared to be under full way; the steamer waa going rather northeast when the schooner struck her; aPer she struek she filled almost immediately, and went down; it *?> dark, but I could have seen the aalia of a vessel a hundred. If not two hundred yards; I should think it was about ten o'olock when she struck; I was in conversation when the boat struek; the concussion was severe; it was about four minutes after the blow that I went below; immediately after the pilot rung the bell, the shooner struek; lie rung two hells; after the last one rung, the schooner struek; I ant from Patersen. N. J., and am on my way to Troy; my wife was saved. James Carsoiv. sworn --1 am from Wilklnshire. Scotland: iduntifics the body of Elizabeth tiar-on as his daughter; she is 17 years of age; at the time of the accident she was lying on deck near the eap-.ain's ofllre. but she was not asleep; she lias the bread now that I handed to her, Margaret McDowell, my wife, and John Carson, iny son, are still missing; we all came on board at New York: there were sevral in our party; tour of the party art^now mTs-Ing yet, vivt Jauette McCullough. Ellen Duncan. Elisabeth McMurray. and Margaret Duncau all from Scotland; they w. re all lying on the deck together.) NaTha.iiel TstME sworn?I was on board the steamboat Empire; I eante on board with my wife at New York ; the accident took place near Newburg. between ten ami half-past ten o'clock In the evening ; I was in the lower cabin aft, lit berth No. f>.">; I had merely thrown off my upper garments; I heard the concussion ; the noise was slight ; I was not alarmed Uy It: I was on deck In five minutes afterwards, and tried to quidl the passengers ; the bout was then careening ; wh?n 1 got <Ait of iny berth I stopped to put on my overcoat ; when I got on deck the women were coming out ef the ladles saloon ; we had then righted the boat ; I saw I lie schooner lying at tiie bow of the boat ; my wifn told um that the water was on the cabin floor iselow : I got up on the htirrieane deck with my wife ; we ana tity passengers stepped on hoard the toh'sorter; re then tfirew plank overboard. >u order that others could save themselves ; the Hip Van Winkle came in between tse. and took off all but ah mt a doien ; I told the captain ttiat we had better get out of the way. that she would ?.0 down ; I was on tin' schooner threequarters of an b/>"r ; the lllp Van Winkle hacked and went around ; after which we heard a crash and a torrtblsi servant ; there were small b?at* around us ; it was a starlight night f the schooner was distinct to my view ; the l'.ip Van Wftthle came up in fifteen minutes after she struck ; I think all could have h-en saved if they bad been ralm ; Copt Kohl,ins was on the geboootr | the sle.'.m' r could hare been run on shore t E NE" if ihe had been detached from the aehooner ; her bow lay directly against the eehooner ; the steamboat left New York precisely eight minutes alter six o'clock ; 1 did not suppose they were racing. CoLDSTsr.aM Baaav sworn ?I reside in Montreal ; I was on the steamboat Km pi re ; I came on board at New York ; we passed the Rip Van Winkle seren or eight miles froip the city ; in the race, we eame in eollission with something ; I wits told that it was a boat ; nothing afterwards occurred until 9 or 10 o'olock ; I did not feel the slightest concussion ; the bows seemed to be at angles when she struck ; the tlrst thing I observed. the men were jumping into the small boat of the Kmpirc ; I told the men to get out and let the ladies get in ; the ladies told mn that the cabins were tilling with water, which was the first intimation 1 had of it ; I heard the bell of the Empire ring after the concussion ; when the cabin had two feet of water I went on deck ; 1 thought my only chance was to swim: I then took three suttees, and got iuto the water, but f dropped the settees, and swam for the shore ; I swam some distance, and found I was sinking, my clothes being very heavy ; I got hold of a plank with a boy on it ; he told me not to get on it. and I did not, but held on the end ; I found that it was the gangway plank ; a boat came along and rescued us ; I did not return to the steamboat ; my idea was. that there was rivalship between the boats ; 1 think ae left New York nearer 6 than 7 ; she went down in from four to five minutes ; the Kip Van Winkle came up in a short time ; I did not examine to see whether the boats were ill contact. Noim I.add sworn ?I reside in Stonington ; 1 was on board of the boat ; came on board at New York ; Cyrus K. I,add. Darius Ludd. Nathan S. Ladd. Kllas W. I.add. Dciia A very. Cecelia Gallup. ar? uii.-??in^ ; the males arc from 10 (o 16 ; it was probably 'JO minutes after she struck before she went down to the promenade duck. Wii.i.iam W. Teresa, sworn?I should think there were 260 on board. We were about opposite the lower dock of this place when the concussion took place; she headed NW. Before the accidcut, I was on the state saloon; 1 heard the crashimg and went out Tho bell rang just before the shock?probably one minute; our object was to go ahead of the vessel; 1 was then on the promenade deck, imd could see all that was going on. The schooner struck the boat; she came under full sail, aDd struck the boat betweeu the bow and wheel; there was not breexe enough to make the schooner unmanageable; there were no lights on the schooner; tho schooner is the Noah Brown; she was loaded with lumber; Kobbins or Robinson owner; it was from live to seven minutes before she went down to the promenade; it was impossible to run her ashore; wu think the passengers were all out?none in the state room saloon, and I think no more in the ladies' eabin; no officers of the boat are missing: after the concussion, we rang a bell; we were not racing; we generally go through without landing; we arrived here earlier than usual, on account of the tide; we did not run against anything in the ruec; we saw something and stopped; it depends how the vessel is situated as to the distance she may be seen; the schooner was into our boat?the bowsprit and bow were jammed in; I am captain of the steamboat; the officers are all temperate men. and I believe were all ut their poHls; we saw ttie schooner, hut intended to pass her; i have followed the water twenty years; theconr.ussion was not very heavy; the rule in regard to passing is, for a steamer or sailing vessel, going before the wind, to go under the stera of the crossing vessel; our boat being low and heavy, our pilot thought it would be impossible to go under her stern; we gave directions fur the passengers to get on board the Van Winkle a fast as possible; the schooner was biating downward against a south wind; it was either slack water or commencement of the ebb; there was no difficulty in seeing the schooner, but we tried to pass her ?Foil. Col II. B. Todd, whose name does not appcur in the list of those saved on the steamer Kmpirc. is safe. The reason of his uamu not appearing among the list of those taken after they were transferred to the Hip Van Winkle is, that he remained on the wreck of the Umpire, assisting in rescuing those uuder the dock. [From tho Albany Argus, May 19.] Capt Tupper, of tho Kinpire. informs us that Mr. W. I'. Bump is among the passengers saved, and not Included in the Budget s list. We learn from other sources that Mrs. Hays, of Troy, was ulso among the saved, but her two children, aged 7 and 9 years, both perished. TKLKt.KAPHlC; Latest Intelligence from the Steamboat E in jil re?A not Iter llody Found, die. did. Nkwbcro, May 20?8j-j P. M. opposite this place, her stern sunk la about twenty feet of water. Rough weather would, it is thought, cause her irreparable injury. No means have been tuken to raire her. The John Mason is alongside, to receive sueh baggage and other property as may be found. The wreck presents a sorrowful appearance. Tha upper rigging contains iniiiiy kinds of human apparel, found floating on the bouts, denoting the extent of loss of life. The exact number lias not yet boen ascertained. There are numerous stranger* in pursuit of the remains of deceased friends. The Coroner's jnry returned their verdict last evening. It censures the pilot of the Empire, and attributes the collision to bis neglect, carelessness, or want of judgment. Another body was found this afternoon, on the main deck of the Empire. It was that of a boy about 14 years of age. The hands of the boat Identify him as a boy who came aboard without money to work his passage to Troy. A Coroner's jury at Flshkill are to meet again tomorrow morning. Seven bodies have been taken to that side, and three on this. The little steamer Annette has been running all day to the wreck, loaded with passengers, and makes a harvest in the way of passage money. As the deck begins to give way and go to pieces, valuable freight is reached. In the clothing recovered, several sums of money, In specie and bank notes, have been found. We are surprised here that no moasnres have been adopted to raise the boat. It contains, beyond a doubt, human bodies,'with valuabl# property. The community is kept in painful suspense, while those who have friends missing, arc afflicted with feelings the most agonizing. SECOND DESPATCH. Ncwaunn, Sunday night, 11 P. M. Another body was found to-day, that of a little boy about ten years of age; name not known. The steamer Is not got up as yet, but it is expected she will be tomorrow. It is said several lives have been lost by towing the steamer to the other side across deep water. Every man here is down on the pilot, and entirely concur In the verdict. 11URD DESPATCH. Ncnet'RU, May 20?11,!* P. M. At 10 last Saturday night, Stephen Parmenter, Esq., Coroner, charged the jury, when they retired, and at fifteen minutes before twelve o'clock they returned the following verdict That Eliza Noble, Isabel Carson, and (Jenrge L. Auckland came to their death by drowning, on the wreck of the eteamboat Empire, ' opposite the village of Newburg, In said county, on the evening of May 10. 1840; that the steamboat Empire wns wrecked and sunk by coming in contact with the schooner Noah Brown, when said schooner wns under way. beating to the south, on her wastward tack nearer the west shore, witli the wind blowing from the south-west; that the night was not so dark as to render sailing or running of boat" difficult; and that the pilot and others on board the steamboat Empire discovered the schooner, and saw her course v lien she was from fifty ts one hundred renin nin?7ce iroin idii sveauiooui. ;? unu me schooner pursued the ordinary course of vessels, under like circumstance*. and i? not cliargeable with negligence or improper conduct ; and we are of opinion tliat it wan the duty of the pilot of the steamboat at unpaid, under the circumstances, to liare run the Mild -teanibont aetern of the schooner and that he might have done so had lie discovered the schooner; that his omission to adopt that course was injudicious, indiscreet, and highly censurable. Names of Jurors:?Allen M Sherman. Henry M. Hershbcrg, Hiram Bennett, John B. Jameson Robert Law.?on. Isaac, Odall, Alfred I'oet. John A. Atwood, Charles Irvin. Samuel J. Fsrnum Stephen II. Vatt, O rant K. Edgar. _ (iAi.r at Qvkfifc.?Yesterday the wind blew fitriou Iv front the eastward, and was the cause of considerable damage. The steamer Charlevoix tiaving sprung aleak, left (lillesple's wharf for Wolfe's Cove, where It was intended to rnn her ashore, but she filled sooner than was expected, and sank in the core up to her paddle-boxes At McDonald a wharf the schooner Marie Louise win stove in, fore and aft. and is completely filled with water. At I'uraut'H wharf, a bntteau, ritli a few hands of flour on hoard was so injured that khr tilled with water, anil the barrels of flour were broken up. Two schooners, also, near Mr. Munu's wharf, in St. Roche, hove received very considerable dim age. A captain ot a barge fell overboard, and was drowned. HurUr L'han . May 10 Knopf Aoain.?The Savannah Republican, of Mundny, sa Vf i?" We learn front undoubted authority that is light frost was seen in this city on Saturday morning 1.V C the 12th Inst This we believe to be unprecedented in the history of Utn frost The thermometer at six o'clock,Saturday morning, stood at flfiy degrees. W YO MORNING EDITION?M THE CONFLAGRATIOJ^OF ST. LOUIS. DESCRIPTION 0? THE CITY. TBS BUBJTT DISTRICT. K. Arc. dec. dec. It is a singular circumstance in the history of this eventful year?eventful we moan, thus far, in judgments and fearful disasters ? that we have to record, almost at the same instant, the destruction, to a great extent, one by fire, the other t>y water, two of the greatest and most commercial cities of the Union, both of thorn situated upon extreme points of ths Mississippi river. While New Orleans is threatened with being submerged by water, St. Louis is suffering from the effects of one of the most extensive and destructive fires ever recorded. The origin of this lire is very remarkable That part of the city where the steamboats are most thickly crowded together, is called the Levee. The steamboats are thickest and most crowded at this point of the river, from the foot of Locust street to the foot of Market street. The space between the river and thu fronts of the stores and warehouses oil this Levee is, we believe, about one hundred and fifty feet. It is, therefore, most extraordinary that the tire, as our uccountslhitherto describes, should have com munieatcd from the burning steamboats to the hou.se* on the levee, thus producing n general conflagration of the city. Perhaps our surprise at this circumstance ought to cruse, when we reflect that (he a hole space on the Levee, during a busy season, is crowded with bales of cotton, barrelH of dour, goods, merchandise, and packages of all kinds, sonic of theui of a most lalluiuni&tory character. Again, our surprise is excited at not bciug able to account for the tact that these stcuiub< uts, being on the water, were not immediately cut loose and taken out. or sent adrift into the open riyor, away from proximity to the houses and merchandise. We can hardly account for this by sayiug that they had no steam up, and were laid up for the time, aud the bands not on board, because it seems that very little i(Tort would have been sufficient to carry or push them out into the stream. Be this as it may, the burnt district constitutes the wealthiest aud most important purt of the city. Wc regret this dire calamity exceedingly. as. doubtless, many who have hitherto lived In , wealth and splendor, will be found plunged into poverty and want. It will also take some time before the city can rise up again from its ashes to its former flourishing condition. Saint Louis is the largest city in the Union, west of the Alleganles, with the exception of Cincinnati and New Orleans, its rapid growtli and its steadily in > creasing commercial prosperity render it perhaps the most important and interesting point in flio great West. * The location is a most admirable one in every point of view, its commerccal advantages of position have placed St. Louis in a high rank among business places, and it is now universally acknowledged that the "Mound City" must eventually become the "New Vork of the West." According to the IVttltrn Melro/iolii. Saint Louis is in 38 degrees 37 minutes 28 seconds north latitude, 13 deg 14 min. 18 sec. west longitudo from Washington, and DO deg. 16 min 3U sec. west longitude from Greenwich. It is situated near the centre of the Great Valley, on the western bank of the Mississippi river, seventeen miles below the mouth of the Mlsouri, one hundred and eighty above the mouth of the Ohio, twelve hundred and thirty-eight above New Orleans, eight hundred and sixty below Saint Anthony's Falls, and eight hundred and flfty by the mail routes from Washington City. The ground on winch the citv is built lies on the river, nearly in the form of a semicircle, and was originally a bold rocky bluff, which has since mostly disappeared. From the river the ground rise* in two benches to thu height of nearly eighty feet above the level of the water at ail ordinary stage. At Fourth street, or the top of the second bench, a wide, level plain commences, which sweeps to a great distance, west, north, aud south, forming an abuudant space for an immense city. The natural advantages of this site are entirely unsurpassed. I'nllke the " Queen City" of the Ohio, which is already tearing down the hills to make room for her teeming population. St. Louis offers an almost limitless space for improvement. Hundreds of buildings are annually going up (last year over seventeen hundred) and yet there Is room. The present city limits embrace five miles on the river's bank, and from one to two miles west. A distance of more than two miles on the river is now entirely occupied by substantial buildings, and iu the western direction the ground is thickly covered as far as Tenth street; and beyond this, even to Sixteenth street, good and handsome dwellings are by no meuus rare, and this " West Lnd" is fast becoming a pleasant and fashionable quarter for private residences. The selection of this admirable locality was the result ol a mere accident, as will appear from the following anecdote. Some of the older Inhabitants of our city relate, that when Laclede and his party first set foot on what is now St Louie, their encampment was made in consequence of there being plenty of wood at hand?most of the area formerly included w ithin the city limits being theu a dense forest. Their encampment being made, the leaders of the party act themselves, about hunting a place for a new settlemcut. They explored for some distance down the river, and theu up as high as the mouth of the Missouri The result of their examination was. that the locality now culled "North Saint Louis" was selected, and to this point the commander of the expedition intimated that it was his intention at ouco to remove. But to this an objection was raised by the ladies of the party! They were tired of moving nbout, hud at length become comfortably " fixed" in their new quarters, and they wouldn't budge an inch ?not they. If their lords wanted to settle elsewhere, they could do so, but as for themselvess. they were satisfied, and determined to remain. Larledi and his followers ht-lug men of gallantry, the ladies had it all their owu way. " Tall oaks from little acorns grow," and the settlement originated by the " we will, and w* won't" of a few ladies, is now St. Louis, the metropolis of thu West. The population in 1810 was 1,000; In 1820. 4.A98; iu 1830. 0.004; and in 1840, 10.400. of whom I,Ml were slaves. But by far the greatest increase of populaliou in St. Louis has occurred within the last lire years; and while the increase during the ten years last preceding 1840 was only about ten thousand, the augmentation since that time has been not less than twentyfive thousand, showing a present population of between forty and flfjy thousand. .Such an increase in so short a time as five years, is almost unprecedented in the annals of any city, but it is universally admitted thi.t the present number of inhabitants in St. Louis Is over forty thousand, and the prevailing estimate is fortyfive thousand. At such u rate, who shall set a bound to the future greatness of the "Young Giant City And this rapidity of growth is not the result of undue excitement, of over-wrought mercantile calculations, of chimerical speculations; on the contrary, the ship is well provided with ballast. St. Louis is the busiuess centre of a vast extent of country, and is the grand depot for the great Missouri river country, the L'pper Mississippi, the Illinois river, and indeed for the greater part of the States of Missouri and Illinois, for Iowa and Wisconsin. Ac. This wide area is in a gn at mea?ure dependent on St. Louis for supplies, and as the upper country becomes filled up. (which is being done with vast rapidity.) the growth of St. Louis must keep pa;e with that of the surrounding region. No site could have been chosen better adapted for the transaction of Iiiiriimr nun iuc uiurirui |m I I 1 VI I 111! Ilir W Kill. Lying an it does near the confluence of two mighty rivers. gives it the comtnanil of the commerce nf the countries on those streams aud their tributaries, ami renders it the depot for all the mineral and agrtcuttuial wealth of those productive regions " Westward, the star of empire takes its way," and this great valley is last becoming peopled bv an industrious and permanent population. St Louis being the general headquarters and rendezvous for all. The river is seldom closed by lee below this point, so that, St. Louis may be said to be accessible the year round by steamboats from the Ohio and the far South An exception to this general rule occurred the last winter, when navigation was suspended for some weeks In Pfoveinb T. December, and January. Another advantage iu the Ideation of this rlly. is the elevation of Its site to such an altitude as to throw it mostly out of the raach of the great freshets which occur on the Mississippi rivir Much damage, however, was done to this plitre by the "(treat Flood'' of 1SIi. a short account ol which we will here Introduce. The year 1844 will long be remembered as " l.'Iunir </<? Ornninn Enar," or the year of the great freshet, whose devastation* and deplorable consequences almmt defy calculation. This tremendous overflow lias had n ? parallel within the memory of the oldest inhabitants of the Mississippi valley. The greatest previous rise on record, was in 178ft, when, in the month of April, the waters of the Mississippi roi? from fifteen to twenty feet above the highest mark they had ever been known to attain at St. Louis, and at some narrow parts of the river as high as thirty feet. During that flood, the villages of 8t Uenevfere, Fort Charlrcs, Ka*kaskia, St. I'hilllppe. ( ahokla, he., were totally sub* merged, and the inhabitants, who had fled to the bills that overlook the rich bottom. Interchanged visits by water from the rocky hlufl's of the right side of the tlver, to the hills that border the Kaskaskla The ro- I cent flood (that of 1844) exceeded that of 1785, by more i than seven feet. At St. Louis, the usual spring rise was greater than In any previous year since I82tl; on i the flth Juno, the height had decreased about four feet ; and on the next day, 12th June, the water com- i menred rising again, at the rate of from six to ten Inches in twenty-four hours, and coutinued in about the same ratio until the 17tli. when It had reached a height of some six ihches above the maximum of the spring rise. ' The river continued to swell until about six o'clock on the2f)th June, at which time It had gained Its greatest i altitude, and had entirely submerged the flrst stories of the buildings on the Levee, (and in some places filling j the second story,) having attained a height of thirty- , eight feat one Inch above low water mark, and seven t feat one inob styT* Uif city grade, At tkif Mma, the RK H 1 [ONDAY, MAY 21, 1849. water commenced receding- slowly, and on the 13th of IbI July, had juat left the first floor of the stores on the I evee. and continued to tall gradually until the 1st o,* September. The city hat caused a monument to be " greeted on a line with the curb-ntone In Water street, to J opposite the centre of the east front of the City Hall, to commemorate this deplorable calamity. On the monument, which is a plain obelisk, sixteen (bet In height and four feet square, is the following iu- int ecription:? n IUGH WATER PM Jt-se 27, 1844. Jm* SEVEN FEF.T~8IX INCHES on ZHOVK wv THE CITY DIRECTRIX! g(< THIRTY-EIGHT FEET ONE INCH ABOVK ,,, LOW WA I'KH MARK. The loss of property by this unprecedented flood was c(>( Lmmen-e. and ludecd some buiuau lives were sacrificed _rl by the iapidily wilh which the wators rose over the wj, hunks ol the rivers. On the rivers above and below St Louis, much live stock is known to have bien do- < vtroyed as also much household furniture, and the rcmamiug agricultural products of the previous season cjt

Iu this distressing emergency, hundreds of families t(, tied from I he submerged lands to St Louts, where they received the kindest cure from the city officers ann the private citizens. Opposite this city, the "American tnj bottom'1 was eulirely covered, so th.it two steamboats tl l plied regularly, for weeks, to the bluffs in Illinois, eigbi, mill's from the river, where they received the U1| great mail from LouisvilU The ultimate damage to V(. St. Lenis Itself was also great. Great quantities of gnods in the warehouses on the Levee were destroyed u,, pud much property floated ofT; but the injury sustuinod ev by the inhabitants of the southern part of the city, near trio river. in being driven from their homes, anil rm losing many of their household effects, was more serious |H, TI10 Hood acted as a damper on tho business of tho ,,rj whole season. and it is fervently to ho hoped that tho Jju groat valley may,never again ho vl.iited by auoh a oa- gt, lamlty. b<) The older streets of St. Louis, or those noarthe river, and a part of those running at right angles with tho river, worn originally planned by tho French, and ara somewhat narrow and crowded The iwincipnl streets for wliolet.il* business, forwarding, to., aro Main or First struct, and Frout street. Tho Levee, or Front street, is tilled on the upper side by substantially built business houses, whence tho grade slopes regularly, a distance of about one hundred and lifty feet, to tho river, forming a lauding place inferior to none on the western rivers. Tlie Levee is paved In the most excellent manner, and at all seasons presents a busy scene. Tho stranger receives a very good Impression of the immense amount of business carried on in this city on llrst beholding the Levee, crowded, as it usually is, with steamboats, and cjvcrud with men, drays, aud goods of every description. The principal streets for retail trade are South and Market. Fourth street is the ' Broadway'* of St. Louis, and is a very pleasant praineuade. being brood, straight, and containing many handsome buildings, among which are the court houso, planters' house, odd fellows' hull, city hospital, several churchos, and a large number of private dwellings. Market street runs at a right angle with the river, has become quite a thoroughfare, and is a good business street. The streets west uf Fourth, and those ruuningto the river, are mostly occupied by dwellings, workshops, tec , the principal business streets being those above named. The extent of the district burnt down cannot as yet lie known, inasmuch as the firu was still raging at the time our last accounts were despatched. According to those accounts, the whole river-front of warehouses, from Locust street to Chesnut -throe squares?were destroyed; aud extending to .Vain street, the flames P swept both sides to Market street?crossing to Second street diagonally; I hence taking a course southward. More than a mile in length, by three blocks in width, H of the ceutre of the city, has been laid waste, aud the thii tire will probably coiilluuo until It reaches St. (ittorge Kr<> strcot xs follows:? glo The City Hull is a pine buildiug. standing on the edge bn of the river, being a commanding sight on approaching the city in a steamboat. We are glad to learn that this a p building, though often in danger, was saved. There hu are numerous other public buildings, forming great de| ornaments to this wonderful otty. none of which, as we am have so far learned, have been injured. These build- Spi logs are ma The St. Louis Cathedral is a large and splendid edi- her flee, on Walnut street, between Second and Third. The awi building is one hundred aud thirty-six feet long, fifty- will eight ftet wide, auil the walls forty f?et high, above wh< which the tower, twenty feet square, rises to the <rt height of forty feet, surmounted by an octagou spire, 'sis covered with tin. crowned by a gilt ball live lent in dinmeter, above which is a gilt brass cross, ten feet high. n?l 'l'lie frout of the cathedral is of polisbpji frun stone.- .JilM with a fiortlco of four massive Doric columns. The interior is handsomely furnished, and contains several tm< elegant paintings by celebrated masters. nln '1 he Third Presbyterian Uhureh, on Sixth street, <"?fl near Franklin avenue, is agreat ornament to that part w'tl of the city. The building is of brick, and has a hand- and some spire, over two hundred feet high, a well-propor- f'or tinned frout, und a commodious basement for lecture pl*'l rooms, \e i toe Ulterior walls ana rolling are splen- 'an dully painted in fresco, uaU it In. altogether, a beautiful We church. gioi The Court Hone* is one of tho finest edifices of the tell kind in tho country. The whole building presents the eon form of a Greek cross, with projecting colonnades on T tU? four sides of entrance. It is built of brick, covered f*h by a light grey limestone, found in the vicinity, which fro: has the appuaraneu of Koeturngranite, iu the centre ?n< of the building is a spacious rot undo, used for public meetings, and capable of holding a great number of I)ni persons. This rotnndo is surmounted by a well-pro- t' portioned dome, which may be seen at a considerable distance down the river, and adds much to the beautl- ,. 1 ful nppearanco ol'the city. Tie cost of the whole cxcecded $230,000. The I'lanters' House is, for many reasons, an iionor " to St. Louis Aside from the beauty and magnitude of " the edifice, the liouse is kept iu a style unsurpassed by P'f any hotel in the country, and which has gained for it J}?.,, tin. reputation of being, by far. the best hotel in the West The house occupies half th? depth of the square " from fourth to Hfth streets, and the front uxtends the " whole length of the square, from Chestnut to Pine, 230 feet. The building Is of brick, five stories high, con- .s tains 230 rooms, and cost ubout two liundred thousand j,? dollars. The Church of St. Francis Xavier is an elegant " structure, handsomely adorned with paintings, and at- " Inched to the St Louis University. \\ in the accounts published hitherto of I lie fire. It was < said that a Mr. Thomas it. Fargo, an auctioneer, had " been killed. This was immediately discovered to be]a Feb mistake. It was Mr. Targee. of St. Louis, and head of the Fire Department, an enterprising and well known . citizen of St Louis, originally of New Y ork. TELEGRAPHIC. We rigrct to say that wc are again without any " despatches from St. Louis. Our correspondent gavo ' us a very good report on the first day, but slneo then " wc have not heard from him, although he promised to send the full particulars on Saturday. .? Army Intelligence. Mai Major Maclin. l'aymastejr U. S. A., left yesterday to pay off t lie troops at forts Washita and Towgon. .. Lieut. Col. Miles, 5th Infantry. IT. S. A., arrived hero ? on Wednesday last, on the Cashier, ni route to Fort " Washita. " Lieut Hagner. of the Topograpical Corps, arrived ? here on Wednesday last. He was ordered on the recon- ., noisance to California, but wefenderstand he has been .< relieved by General Arbuckle, and will return.?Fort Smith IlrraUi, May 2, ?i:ntf.nce of H iotkr.s is Bostoji.?In the Mu- (" nicipnl court, yraterday, Kedrnond Cook, Iiurney O'Neil, Thomas Haynes and Thomas F.arley, were sen- ? tenced for a riot in Ann street, Cook to nine months, ... O'Neil eight, and Haynes and Farley to six months in J thy Housi of Correction. The rlol commenced Iiy tlio ?" knocking down, in the first place, of an American by un. an Irishman. Officer Harrington, who interfered, wus in hie turn prostrated, and several other officer*rough- , ly handled Finally the bell* were rung, as if for fire, ~ and with the assistance of the firemen, the riot was out lied. The font says:?In opening the case, Mr. Parker, attorney for the commonwealth, stated the pro- r. ! visions in the revised statutes, chapters 12 and 120, a prescribing the mode of dispersing riotous and tumult- ,.,f uous assemblages. If the riotors refuse or neglect to .. disperse when commanded to do so by the Mayor, or v . two or more aldermen, selectmen, or magistrates, she- J' rifl or deputy sheriffs, the military may be ordered to disperse them, without the reading of the riot act, and ( said magistrates and officers, and all persons acting uiider their direction, sliull be heid guiltless, and fully jus- ' titled in law. even if spectators remaining on t he ground after order! to disperse, are killed or wounded.?Hoiton Cily Journal, hloy 1U. Mosey Diooino in P<u?tsmw th. X. II.?It will Jl"'1 be seen by the following article from the Pintsmouth Journal, that a clue is found to the treasures of {, the famous Captain Kidd, and that a ' tremendous ex- y , citement 'le the consequence In digging a cellar ? on the promises of Mr. II. Chocver. in the rear of his () store on Market street, a silver coin, rather smaller f h, than a pistarecn,. was found, ou Tuesday last, bearing q. plainly the dateot 1371. It is in the possession of Mr. . Walter A. Catc. We have a pine-tree shilling, dated b ^ l?f,d, dug up within half a dozen rods of the same spot, . six or eight rear* ago. There is no spot In New Kng- H1'' land which has given stronger cvlilenee of being tlie J. ' ' depository of L'apt. Kidd's treusures. A general meet- j,? ing of those disposed to take stock in a company of in- . vestigation will bo held on tlie premises, next Mnnd ?y J at three o'clock. ^ the privilege will be confined " to one thousand stockholders, tliose only will stand a . rhanc# who appear promptly wit h a tifiy dollar Mil and a pickaxe It Is a fact, as one of our oldest and mo?t wi altliy cltixens Informs us, tliat much gold is found by a ilgglnf fgta Domestic miscellany*. of L An incli and a half of tcc was formed at Dubu pie, Kov m the 2d of May. poc Twenty-ftve acres of land in Kentucky, opposite Cln- B?? rlnnati, were recently sold for $26,000. J*' " The cashier of the Union Dank of Weymouth and win Bralntres bos been removed The president and dl- ecrr rectors have charge of the bank till a successor Is ub- thai Laincd ?eU, up I ? JL ERA! :?i?iUng Newa from Panama and Vol|>a- Mr* ratio. arc ia possession of a flic of the Panama Star, April 29, and a copy of the .VWgAiour, published at late paraito, dated March 30. From both of these jour- ?0UK * we extract the following interesting items of elligenee to th 'he publisher of the Panama Star, having secured a c0"' 'sage to the gold digging*, takes leave in the follow- arnir ; style :? ?n4 iV. F. Legg having secured a passage for California crow the Niautic, which will leave during the coming K?od ek, now takes leave ot the readers and patrons of the '"*? ir, thanking them for the liberal patronage extend- tilin to the little sheet during the few weeks he has been H,iur nherted with it as publisher, and hoping that the 1 ne liberality will be continued to those who may sue 'Kn' d him. The Star is not yet ready to set. Is there a P1P1' nter in the city who wishes to play publisher for a I diet die ? * >'< [From the Panama Star, April 8.) th" iuhitsiiik Spirit.?The entertainment given on I'dnoday evening, for the benefit of emigrants in the tal ' y uflllctcd with sickness. &o . was highly creditable tl our national character for liberality and philantliro- bee) . The large hull of the American was crowded with a l"'in ry orderly and atteutive company, and the enter- 1 anient* of the evening highly satisfactory. The ix- Hni liporaueous address of Col. Welter was happy in stylo ""J"' d appropriate in sentiment, and received with many '* irks ot approbation. The music of the evening P,IU ry credituhle to the young amateurs who had so dut, adly volunteered for the occasion. We have no doubt t'?" at much good will result from that one wull-spent v'pl ruing. "PI" Aiirived.?Dr. (iwvnne. of New Orleans, a gentle- < xlt in of distinction and flnu taluutH, reached the oily lob >t week on his way to California. Mr. A. D liriiy, '"a ineipal surveyor in the commission to run the boon- Inst ryiwith Mexico, who won unavoidably detained in the I Ales for several days, in also hero. '1'hu party of tlio t"cr undary commission arc now all in the city , In rendu I"'1'* ns to mil by the first Hteinner for Sun Diego. ronl soau ok n. ? c. company, lnk' Written at sca~Jlir, " Ok SusanuuU." \>nta We're a baud of Tn\jan brothers. 1 K> By the star of fortune led, cv,*1 Ana wo follow our Apneas '' To the placer'* golden bed ; Vex With our bag* upon our shoulder*, ,UI And gold lumps in our heads, ''.n* With our sifter* and our diggers, <:lv1' Wo shall show them ''tve 'aint dead." Chorus : O California ! '"'c We're coming ''by the powers 1 And lfyour gold don't "cnteli a few," *' ul 'Twill ho no fuuit of ours I ' , trod The Falcon steamed us to Chagres, tahli By steaui we'll scrape the rivor, by r And down beneath the water blue bas 1 he gold Hakes we'll discover; eal i We'll till oar pockets full, my boys. slut We'll All them till they sweat. ject Oh ? we shall be the luckiest dogs iu ll On the Sacramento yet ! bcin Chorus: Oil! Califoruia itc riini Com We are rigged to dig. we're rigged t? light. tor|, We're rigged to meet our eating; rpw(j[ And when we reach New York again, tjon We'll be rigged to " stand the treating;" |,ro|] Then, here's a health to those behind. j;ut, | Success to us who go, tlou And when^agulu we reach our homos, caun May we have heaps to show. knov Chorus: Oh! California, Ac. icuc annnia. April 19,1849, J.M.8. then: [From the Star, April 1ft.] thiX Ikads dr.?The temporary detention of Americans at s point,although annoying enough, is out ho dlsa- , ? ; cable as it wonld be In many other phico* ou the J??1.' be. that we wot of. Mauv an inlaud town iu the ited States can scarcely boast nn arrival or depar- "je. e in the whole year ; and the events of one day arc icrfect Index to the uecurrences ol' the other three JU V1 ndred and sixty-four. Not so here?arrivals and ,iU'ri parturos, new faces and new friends, are turning up d turning down all the while. The novelty of a tuish town, this one particularly, the habits unit ,, niters and language of a people with whom we havo J*:?' otofore had very Uttlu iuteroourse, servo to white 1 . ly our loisuru hours, and, if observed to lhat end, 7 I answer to instruct as well as amuse. To those . t have an eye for the grand and imposing, the blue an spreading out before them, with Its beautiful KT''" nds, Its bold coast, its rugged rocks and its wave t?or< ihed beucb, presents attractions with which they will soon Weary. Those who arc more matter of fact in ,st ., If ideas. pall eat their oruuge* in the mornlug, .. ':.0', ill through Main street, chat with the senorltus, ' . , >ku their segars, and sleep till the cool of the eve- , J g. Then eomos a turn on the battery, a cup of , eeaud slice of hiuu In a restaurant, and wind up "ot c li a game of billiards or a visit to a Spanish circus, l""0P' I a horse-laugh at the sports of the ring. In addii to this, we can announce, in a few days, the com- eT' : .ion of a nine-pin alley, for the exercise and enter- 1,1 uncut of those alio are fond of that kind of sport. f^,er re It not for the anxialy of getting to the gold re- '"die us. we would be the merriest and happiest set of r,-<!J'1 ows that ever rhuuee threw together in a strange WJ'1. 1 ........ ??it l* we are rlitht hard to beat. with 'he Journal called tbo Neighbor, published at Valpato. gives the following list of vessels wlilch willed 'b m that port to California between September 12.1818, **"' 1 1 March 21, 1849:- ?? I.ist or Vmrr.i Smurii run Cai.iforxia. 1^. ? It. Sutton. Clan. Same. I'an. Crete. ' I4X, niut t. 12 Chile Ilark Virginia 4.5 14 com 20 Amer. " Undine Id 14 clitic 1!) Chile Ship Mercedes 8 12 ofw r. 42 " Bark Dolores 2 12 ? ,,i 25 " Sclir. Rous 2 29 10 h./, 26 Amtr. Ilark Minerva 50 19 t5U" 30 Chile Schr. Tliili 36 10 TI 3 Kruat. Ship Ann McKim 73 25 nftri 13 Chile Schr. Voladora 0 10 l.t, 7 Pern. " Corrco PaciOc 35 10 14 Amer. Ship Chile 10 23 Keni 21 Ecnat. Scl.r. ProgTeso 12 10 five 23 Chile Brig Kleodoro 03 12 ulth 27 " llark Cunfcderaciun 35 14 ?,,# 30 " Schr. Kmilia . .. 14 10 I -40 i . ' 8 " Ship Julia let 25 J ,not 8 " Hrix Talca 31 14 Inst. 9 Amer. Bark Tassn 01 10 I edui 9 Chile Schr. Munuela Piurro 14 li latic 12 " Brig Felix Araucano 73 12 ?(on 2 French Bark Slaouell 91 22 11? 111 Amer. " Hortensla 21 III , 30 Chile Brig Sci.) de Junio 0 12 edaj 31 " " Antonio Kanio* 4 12 j Tl , 3 Ifainb. Schr. Charlotte 0 10 the < 3 Dan. " Eroil 3 4 j enal 5 Amer. Stm. Oregon 10 40 f?mi 8 Chile Sehr. Adelaide 10 10 I ,,J II Amer. Prop. Edith ? ? I *lln 9 Chile Bark Natalia W? 16 has ? 15 Amer. Stin. Massachusetts l.Vt troops man 15 " Ship Iowa 230 " j tlon 16 " Schr. Invincible ? ? ns tl 17 French Brig Theresa ... 30 16 17 Chile " Imperial W 12 I ""'l 18 llsmb. Bark Una. 9 16 J*0"1 l!l Chile Brig Orion 16 12 been 19 Amer. Ship Fanny Forester 134 troops proi 22 Chile MM Lmm .07 Id | latn 21 French Ship Chatoanhriaud 217 25 i _ 21 Chile Brig l'at k Coptapo 61 II I . , 25 Dsn. Ship Androklus 1 lei I , , eh 1 Amer. " Silvie dc Urasssc 10 23... 60, troops i w"' 2 llumb. Balk George Nlcolans 6 13 whe 3 " " Overon I'l 16 / It m 5 French " Vietorine. M 13 in 11 Chile " Euro pa 78 14 ; ,u11 Amer. Brig G. B. I.amar 8 14 . W II Chile " #vall?. . 57 12 13 Amer. Schr. Sacramento 4 10 I thej IS Chile " Victoria 4 7 critn 14 French Ship Holland 90 18 tile ] 1.3 Amer. " Edwin 5 16 .Mei 17 Chilo " Virginia 30 14 . 18 Amer. " Sea yueon 4, .135 250 troops I . 18 " Sehr. General Patterson 2 10 inipt 19 Hamh. " Ellie 5 10 men 19 Amer. Ship Huntress 30 20 orde 21 Chile Brig Nnevo Perseveranta... 50 12 it,,, i 21 Daa. Ship Adelheld 4 It ^ocIl he same journal gives the following official list o th,. | tors who left the Sandwich Islands between June |c tl Not. 1848:? bMB ai.iforkia MorrMKNTi.?The following Is no ofBclal a cor ement of the number who left the islands since cone ie, 1848 : imp* hose who have obtained passports from the De- ctnir tmentinay be classifled as follows, riz? 'i t, see* of the United States of America 112 fortl .Ives of Gre at Britain and Ireland, and of the was I ritlsli Depend) notes 61 < xp? isena of France 14 hell lives of the Hawaiian Islands 25 'li e .ITes 1.1 I rur*u Austria. Chile, I In >11 t?n r^. Italy, Spain. Sweden l.i.e nil Switzerland, each ] nllei ha. Denmark and Portugal, each i all c! ulco and Holland, each .1 . , H hole No 2.10 f the 112 Americans. U Wi re houn I to til" l*nit<-d I ML of whom two hail rami Ilea, ami om (mtlniM JJ"' Ulafon; 1 with Via family went to Oregon; 2 to J'1' I nschatka; 1 to Jdnuiln; 1 to Tahiti with hi* family- :i of Calfornla. 1 <"'r> I the 61 British. 1 went to sea; 1 to Tahiti; 1 to ",ul paraho; 68 to California, two of whom had families. *"r f the 14 French, 1 went to France; 11 to California r ;'-T f the 26 Hawaiian, 1 went to Valparaiso; 24 to Call- f lia, one of whom had hi* family he Italian went to Tahiti. ' " II the other person* weut to California. The ntimof t'loeo who have gone to California, without pa**- . U>. and of foreign mate* and snilors residing on ,, |,'i,V e under bond to re-embark, who hare gone to < ali- v ila, cannot be exactly stated. ,i > far a* the pnssperts show, only 210 persons. opto ' date, have gone to California the greater part of dui,' in hare gone since the 8th of June, 1*48. .. . It. C. Wl LLlK. (|(|l 1 r reign Office, Nor. 1.1848. to'pn ? f20O.< RROT OF A N0T0*|0T'8 Pit KPOCKET.-OlTlCOr rkweather arrested this lorenoon, in the olhce , .ennard 4i CuonlDgham. auctioneer* at J, I r-mont r, one James Kearn, a notorious New 1 ork plekket whom he detected in the uct of examining the kets of sundry persons who were in attendance rn did all In his power to resist the officer, who. 1 "? erer, stuck to him as he always does to the rogues a*7 " m he attempts to arrest; but It wa.* not until offi. ?'*h' i Clapp. Hopkin*, and Pierce came to his assistance, rd thl ; the rascal was captured Thearrest and *i|ii*bhh- <|ene? retcd a large crowd of persons Kearn was lookcj , 'or examination Bvftv" Jour i.i.\ Maa 12, I ladlei I Mrs,' \N -a D. _ TWO CENTS. Mge of Governor Daun, of MiUnc-Vlcwi out;the Taylor Artmlnlatratlou, Slavery California, Ac. Ac. ? ? The Incident* attending tbu presidential election furninh HubjectH for both ratulution anil regret. For congratulation, bo0 they clearly indicate that the moat aenmUve, d in the American heart, la that which throb* e impulse of patriotlem. General Taylor, by hie discretion nnd noble daring, gare ucce** to our 1 in ninny an unequal content. The sucee*nful de it ui ins country s rigms, no nits Dean promptly ned with hie country's highest honors. Every 1 citizen in net be gratified in the bestowal of such a ird for such services, when done without a violaor disregard of other duties But it is a just ceof alarm, that the people should have elevated dividual to such a responsible position, in entire irance of his views, in relation to those great prince and measures which have ever been the basis of inet party organizations?principles and measures ch the one party have urged as indispensable to prosperity, aiol the oilier opposed as destructive to welfare of the country. Thul such professedly vlnterests should have been thus left to the hazard, le doubtful developeiueut of unknown opinions, inks either insincerity in the advocacy of those elples and measures, or a willingness to sacrifice well-being of the nation to considerations of psril popularity, individual advancement and party 2CSS. lit. notwithstanding these circumstances, which wo not but deprecate as of evil augury, still it is the y of all to give cordial support to his adrninistrai, so far as its measures may aco ird with their coitions of public policy. I doubt not that those who >sed his eli etlon will bo governed by this rule, in nidiug a flunk approval or manly opposition. It is o hoped that the country may not be disturbed by tfeiupt to abandon the commercial policy of th administration which has been so eminently succcs.-ii removing shackles from trade, and in giving to it caged facilities. Especially is it desirable that th'cut financial system of the government should ho inued that great agency, which, by its restrain mil sustaining Influence Inn curried us with com live safety through n universal conviih ion, pollti financial and ci inmorcial, as groat us the world witnessed. le question of the introduction of slavery into on: ican territory, is still an open one. furnishing nlant material for agitation and Irritation, and dciDg tho people of those territories of the benefits of government. In my tlrst annual communication jc Legislature, 1 expressed the deep feeling of the States, thut these acquisitions should continue as then were, free. Time has not iu the least degree toned, but has rather ooutlnned that feeling. I a.-sullied the position that slavery oould not be Inueed there, except by the force of positive law csisliing it; mid endeavoring to fortify that position efercnoe to the nature of the title which the master to his slave?not u natural, but a mere statute, loright? a right which ceases to exist wherever the utc ceases to have force. The same view of the subhas since been taken by the most eminent jurists he country, uud is now not controverted. Such g the case, tho territories in question must forever ifn free, unless .surrendered to slavery by an act ot gross, or by laws enacted by the people of the tcrri s. If they, at the time of their transfer to our juction, hud been permitted to determine the quesI have no doubt their action would have been a ibilion, instead of a sanction, of the institution.? If there were reusouuble ground of doubt in relato the action of the original population, that doubt lot apply to the pruscut or future. Slaveholders, ving tlielv inability to retain their slaves in theabe of law. do not and will not venture to transfer t there; while, at the ss ine time, the reeunt discoof the ltiiuerul wealth of that country Is attracting ter a Hood of emigration of non-Klavebolders Those torles uro probably a* unanimously anti-slavery nlimcnt an any statu in the Union; and, being so, ustitution cannot exist there, unless forced opon i by positive law of Congress?a measure h the most ardent friends of slavery nave r proposed. That country, therefore, is in no t danger of being overspread with slavery,' i is thu State of Maine; the north have no ind of fear, aud the south have no hope of it. l fear and hope might perhaps have reasonably ei1 in iouny minds, before the character of the popuin became fixed by recent free emigration, and be absence of any effort for slave emigration; but e that, they are without foundation. If such, then, ft- true positiou of thu territory in question, cou iounl prohibition of slavery thereiu would be no ! productive of practical result, than a eongresil prohibition 11 Mahomntedaiiism; neither can exhero with or without prohibition; and yet the ti and the south are both excited to the extreme of rnrsr, the one insisting upon prohibition, aud the resisting it as just cause of disunion. The early ilishment of tl-rritorial governments is desirable, inly for the protection of the exposed persons and irty of our fellow citizens, but for thu pnrpoeu of ing an agitation which can only be productive of ....... 0 timber townships contain far the most valuable rations, while they generally hold out hot small cement to settlements. Undoubtedly the largest pis will be itom reservations in townships whioh remain unoccupied for centuries. I am impressed the belief, that It will advance the general inteof education, and be far more equitable and just io future residents of now unoccupied territory, If products of all these reservatious were gathered a fund for general educational purposes; provision g made for the payment, fronj.that fuud, of a stipu1 sum to the inhabitants of any township, in own ation of thuir reservation, whenever they may bec incorporated. In this manner, an important ad>n may be ntude to our school fund, a large portion hicb would remain, for a loug and indefinite-period ive aid to the cause oi education throughout the e ...... he products of agricultural labor are undoubtedly rcater value thau the combined products of all other r in the State; and yet that pursuit attracts less of ral attention than any other. From its unobtrnncss it has allowed itself to be nearly overlooked, ough the great interest of the State. ... with our present means of education, little advance be niude towards its accomplishment. There la in the State, aud probably not in New England, an itution where a practical, scientific, agricultural -ation can be obtained. Three- fourths of our popuin are farmers; three-fourths of the rising generawill be farmers, and yet there is no opportunity >ne. of all this number, to obtain an education ted to. and in aid of. his vocation. ... e policy of exempting a portion of the property of lehtor for attachment, for the double pnrpoee of ling him to supply the necessities of himself and ly. and of furnishing himself with facilities wherein may ultimately relieve himself from his debts, ever been recognized by our laws, and is both hoc and wise. But I am convinced that the exempof a fixed amount of property, of such description lie debtor might select, whether personal or real, ?ad of the list of specific articles now exempted, Id be advantageous, both to debtor and creditor; use each limit iduai ueuior couiu men riiuua in* icrt y best adapted to his circumstance*. and ealeu1 to afford thernostald in accomplishing the objects which the exemption w*< made . . he time is approaching when a now State valuation he necessary. it in well worthy your consideration thcr n more just and satisfactory mod* of preparing ay not be devised. my annual message to the Legislature of LS48. I ;e*trd legislation for the classification of convicts iu State prison, in such maimer as would remove roung offender from association with the hardened inal Impressed witli Its important bearing npon public morals and thu public safety, I ask your conation of the subject. the same communication, I alluded to the general ess-ion upon the public mind that capital p inisht vf practically abolished. by making the duty of ring un execution a mere discretionary one andt* impropriety of enforcing the death penalty while an impression existed. The just inference from nactlon of the Legislature upon these suggestions, lat it did not desire its enforcement. But I have unable to discover the ground* upon which auch istruction of the lair rests, and aui forced to the Ittslon tlint the duty of ordering an execution is rutivc upon the executive. uuleM the power of iiKtution of puuislimnivt is interposed. ? e recent amendment of the constitution, providing in' meeting of the Legislature at the present time, nduccd by the belief, tlust it would diminish the uses of tlie goveiunietit. by sliorteniiig the ses ions, lie result lis proved thi? hope on'irely unfiuud" I ibange Ln. imposed a heavy a id unnecessary bur upon the nictub< r* of th- LegiMata.c and .ill wh ? legislative busln< ?s to trnusaot. by requiring th iir idance at a ttfuc win u the piivutc '-ngig -ui-.-nU ?f ? r- are luo t pn - - \ ^ aid if b.i fatlvl to cure ones ponding public benefit. the circulation (four ban!;- is now . mnp iratively I i i da- v e in it y ns- .ail.ty aulicipilc an hi I ts of .reciniis metals for .'-.ne time to come, the pr nb favoialile opportunity f. r pr .sportive Bcastif**, ill I. ,1 to retain specie in more general circulation, I . make It to son ' extent at I i-t. the bv is of inner Issues, ftpeculativo and tlnanciaf skill r'nrirh itself, though it often roup* ruin from cxi,,?s and contractions ; but the great wiut of proire Industry, next to skill In tlio art of prodtie. i- a uniform niea.-ure of the value of it* produe: and tlie chief.though secret, undo of depriving its reward, is the enlargement of that measure touid Its diminution tomorrow. Th* question vd the amount < f cur circulating medium shall be. her forge or small, is ol very little moment, courI with the question, how shall ?u insure that it bu ge next year, wlien the promise to pay becomes is it is this year, when that promise is made. " * - unquestionably the fixed wi lt and Intention of soph- that our public debt po paid as it matures ; ivide for this the annual assessment of a tax of ItX) will bo required until that object be accouvd JOHN W. DASA. incilChamber. Augusta. May 14, 18-lff. Movement* for California. 9 ship Angelique. Capt. Windsor. sailed on Saturtorning for San Krancisco, Hie list of passenger* leh we published yesterday It bad been announean an association of ladiss. under the iuparintantof Mr*. Karnham. were to go out in this vassal, n reference to the list, we find only the following i, vl* ?Mrs Karnham and servant, Mr* Barker, Urlswold.and MIm Sampson.

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