Newspaper of The New York Herald, October 26, 1849, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated October 26, 1849 Page 1
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/ I ???? T 11 =g==r.rrz NO. 5620. 1H23 EUROPEAN NSW8. It was 4 o'clock yesterday morning before our telegraphic despatch of the Kuropa'e news, from Sackville, was finished This late hour, together with our large circulation, compelled us to put the news in two editions We annex that portion of the intelligence which did not appear in the first edition. The Europa probably arrived at Huston last night, in time to have her mails despatched by the Kew Haven train that will arrive here about 5 o'clock this afternoon. Tito Turkish and Haulah Difficulty. Pending the decision of the Kmperor of Kus-ita upon ^.be appeal made to him respecting the extradition af the Hungarian refugee*, the Knglish paper* contain many report* respecting the probabilities concerning the if sue; but of course nothing definite can be arrived at until the resolution of the Kmperor and his Imperial Council shall be made known The reply of the Kmperor, which was expected with the moit intense anxiety, would, It was thought, rsash ths Turkish capital about the 10th or 12tb October. Apprehending that the decision of the Csar might be a declaration of war. the Porte was sxcesdlngly impatient to learn Ibe effect produced upon ths Cabinets cf London and Paris, bj ths bearing of thslr representatives to the Subliuis I'orte. A large fleet of steauicrs is collecting In tb# waters 6t the Bosphorus and In the harbor of the Golden Hern; and between the entrance of the Black Sea and the Propontis, and the Sea of Marmora, there are twelve ships of the 11ns at anchor, fully equipped, and plentifully supplied with arms and previsions. la the army of 100.000 soldiers assembled around the i uriiril ' filial, u I ill I ug auu iiimiug |nu| uu flew daylight to duak. A latter i f the 25th ult ituten, that, before enterinf tbe Tuiklsh territory official assurance.* were given to Keseuth. tfcat be anil hl.i fellow refugees were welcome, and aliouid be allowed to proceed to any part of tbe world. A conslderabia cumber of refugee* bare keen put on beard American coreettei ami the French steamer L'*ti?kren. Their destination u raid to be iireeoe. kopm'h fcas written a v< ry eloquent letter on hi* present position te Lord i'almersts>n. which t> published entire in tbe F.ngltsh joui tie I* From Widdtn the new a 11 somewhat startling. It appeal* lliet Auiillah bad been eent to urge tbe refugees to embrace lelatc'-tn and has not ho n unsuccesstul. Koeeuth. Dembloski Guyon. Zaraoyikl. and other* all swore that no p?r*?n ?h >uld induce litem to apoatacy. bun bad to ?ucb soiupie. Tlie mo?t unwelcome fea'ure of th* newa from Turkey U, >at tboae paahaiict in Kurop* which are partly I Greek and paitly Turkish a-# in a at ate of great foment, in oenaeijueD-e of the threatened rupture between Turkey and ltu'sla Under the influence of Rnaaian emissaries, cbielly member* of tlia Greek eburth. these vassals of tbe Suluu betrayed a serious intention if taking; advantage of the present opportunity. to get up a revolt. Tbe greatest activity prevail* in the sending of conrltra fur and troci all the priocipai ports of Furope; but the gt-Dcral firmness cl t),e public funds indicate* that the prevailing opinion i* that no aeriou* result* ' will arise The correspondent of the London Timet, writing from r&ria, says that a note, addres'f.l by the Kngiish gcvernnn nt to 1t? Ambassador at 8t. I'etercburgh, on tbe subject of Constant inc pie. c >uched in Arm, moderate terms, contains not a single expression or threat ealcula'.* J to wound the susceptibilities of Nioho'.ai, whilst It announce* the d< termination to support the Port* agair.pt eitgeuoiee that would compromise the dignity of an iudtpendrut sovereign. Lord Talnurstou has. likewise, sent proper Instruetinm to Sir S. Canning au-1 he* placed the Mediterranean fleet at hie dir poeal, which has, by this time, sailed for tlie Uardaneime I have alto rsa on for rep-aMog that Franoe has Imitated the conduct of F ngl.md and that tha moat perfect unanimity exists between the two power*. Affair* In Franc*. Tbe Manilrur announced the appointment of Lnolen Marat a* V.taiiter to Turin and M Jain Dei* La Comte, 1 cow Mirtter at Turin, as Minister Plenipotentiary to Washing!' a But tlio fart was stated. of which tbera i was no doubt, tbat th* (in *| snoU S'.II tsfoily i|ssran< . #/ what had pts.td ia ? /*?>no* ukak. Uvtt Lr Cdnle tat i.tmid. Yhc only allusion mad* in any nf the paper* raaelead, ta U a difficulty bet we u th? Krench a.ul American JoanliiimiU. i? tb* foliowtug copied from tba Tail* Vr*?c : ? Vroie explanation* of tbe affair are necae?ary. Tba . VaoDcb gorertime rt demanded ao indemnity for tba ]o*ee* caused to French ?ub;-ot? by tba war In Mexico. Tbia I'duaul having met with some difficulty, tha j r resell cover titr-ent charged *t* mlnt'tar to announoe to the American garnuaient. that the Indeainitle* claini d would be kept ba-k ut of the annuitlae not yat due out of tbe t?< nty-fn# million franca for which wa ware the debtor* nf tlia l ulled State* It appear* that tha letter written on tb- subject by M Puuxsln mi eoucbi d In rather uumltahle language, of wbleh tha French government malntatalug tba alalia, ba* . *pre?<rd Ita dleapproral In aoneequeaee uf tb* tlliiea* of M Kalloux, tb# di* lea In tbe taaaribly an the Italian queit'ion. and tha affair* of lha Hlear flat#, tog- ther with tba tia-riaaa and Tnrkleb dispute* hare all been postponed On the 4th Inst . tba A??embly wire principally oeeupled in dl<cue?ipg a bill telatlre to tbe completion of the Lou ire the bill d-tneiding a or-dit nf it million frauca for ita completion and tha lengthening of the t<lrrli whleb. after a lengthened dlro union waa I passed by a majority of 8W to 8'j A* waa eipected the propoeal nf M Napoleon Bonaparte baa loet with tha approval <f the ( omrultlea to which It wa* referred 'I hey declare ! that tha uniting (?) of tbe ffomboua and a naeity to tha luaurgeut* of Jane. heitg Intituled In the aatne p-npoaltlon, established an unbecoming assimilation ?f tha two partle* mentioned. and at once unanimously daelded on recommending tha Ataembly to Ink* It nder r o ld. ra'lnn Tha proceedings In tha Assembly. betwaan tha 5th and Uth Inet . are quit* unimportant Urn da llautpoul baa he-n appointed to taka tba |>la?a of Den Hoetolao, who definitely refused ta at*y at Horn*, notwithstanding the nrarture* nf M Vercler M Ttapp< II. the ei Koroy of tbe llnntn republic, who It accused of havlag pnhlleh-1 false newt from Hume whleb occasioned the movement of the nth ot June, In Pari*, haa been wut, under no aaoort of genJ'lrwrt to Rolifllt 1 ha b ee experienced by tha f*r?lgn aoinmerca of ' Par la. In Miftee qaejtrca af tha revolution of February | am >nnt? to .lot uillbm francs a* comparnd with tba i return' of 1*47. when tha total am an', of tha foreign trade vtt 2 Oil' million franc* it In 'in?il tbat the government l? to recall portion f lb* Brmy la Italy. and tolmran dielalon at 10 000 n*i at < luta Veccbta A rlnyle regiment la to occupy the capital of dt a again, anil th? Spaniard* ara to ?ntar lloBa Italian Affair*. The F rench government bad r-ceirad adriae* from loatr lot lie 4th i net A latter ftiim Hon* atata* that. " tha elfeet of reiving tba rtata ot rtrg* of that a ty d-tnaaded by tha tbr-a ardiea!*. will fa to deprtee tb* French yn.-al of all authority In eltll and political queatlon*. and to ln?a*t tha cardinal" wl'h unlimited pnwar. Tha F'reneh prefect of pnl.ee had. In awtiaequeora. epprlead eavarel axdrputira r>f tha tlonatltnant AaaaoiUy that warrant* bad barn ir u*d ayainrt them by tha p n'i.lra1 pnlioa ! but that tha French aatborittee wonM auanand thalr attention until tha lat of October; and that in tbo { meantime they rhould hara a fra* ptaengc to Kranaa, with tba liberty to ra?ldo thara flity depuMea laft | Immediately t a?t crowd* a'tan lad them chaarlng them. and hearing their ratna'k* of raapaet Tba ana th n? nl tba paoplc b?d a rlcbl* alf-ct not only on tha Frenih tri i pa. bnt the goveromvat,'' It I* re pott ail that tha pope kn* taken alarm at 'b* 1 numerma *Maa*<nntieu? ot trench aoldierr and baIlea** ibnt tberu laea ext win plot fo* i.? bcmmIm* tion. if ha abould raturn 11* itytaiwl a wi?)i tpa-aforc to remain at Naple* daring n porlloa of tba wiatar. Tha annonncement at Roma, that tha public aad private paannlnry engagement* rf tba repui 'lean go atnmcrit would ba raapaclrd, ha* gala*J amua popularity toy tha Pop* Trltala l?ttar? ffBi CJanara, rt tha 4th mention that j fiarihaldl on arriving at tha l-lnnd of Vta.ialena, demanded paaaport* for F-nglnnd with tba intaatl * of procaading thane* to tha I nl'c.i State*. whar* h* intaadad to #?tlla. Nine* than, bowaver, b* bar raoalrad nrnpoaal* tu rn tha Mnntevllean horny who off'rad him command of tha force* of that republic, which offlaa, It It ballavad. be will arc pt. darttlfila. Tba Vlnlatry baring Cemented nnenccwfiilly of tha Chauibar of Daputlaa to ??u imu im>u franc* of rcntaa. la order to pay tha first Inrtaiirant of tba Indemnity du* to Anetrla. It b#? hern officially aunounced that U>* CI amber at Turin will b# dien ltcd Ilrport tayt that a formidable eoa*piie?? bad been discovered in f'ladmont. which ?ta to ha?c bt. i,? out at Genoa on tha necaaion of tbr landing of tha boa/ ,,f tLharlr* Albert It appssia fri'ffl th# Proneh and TVlmontsro esrrsayndfiM rslaod by tbo Isrln au!h"rltlsa. that tho ocaFpltatcra on bntn aldoo of tbo Alps rookon on the rsfural of ths ? r?nsh Army of ths \lp< to marsh n?a'n<t thsm. and thors I* good rsa? >n to bsilsr* that. If tbay bad or,orontt-d to march Into Italy at all. It Wotlld bo to glaa thi lr rapport to tbo "l?du?onts?o patriot* and not to oppooo thorn, Aaitrla and llangary< It ba* braa raa> rod that ths Hungarlaa rafagaaa *?ar W Iddon ths Isadora oacsptod bars appHs.l for Isart to rstnrn to tbo Austrian tsrrltsry. and thair ro<4?oot would bs gran tod Tbo atatomsnt tbat ttoorgoy had boon ah at at R*g*afbfcl by a brothor of Oount /leby. wbo ?ai oxssutsd by tbo llnngariano, baa boon aontradlatsd. Sororal Hungarian Isadora hot Id so Kooonth'a motbar and Unyon'a wlfo. nro kopt In oloao Imprlsoaaaont by tbo Aartrka authorltloo fraaiono nowa rolatra to tbo aurrtndar *f Comora ia E NE fully confirmed, after the patriot* who held poaaeaaloa of tba fortrca* succeeded la making rery favorable term* with Austria. Pmaala. The Wurtcmbcrg movement ha* formally Intlmated to tba Prussian ministry that it will not join tba federal league propneed by Prussia. Hanover. and Saioay. and th>t Hanorar ha* already announoed it* intaatloa to withdraw from thia confederation Idly. Tba affair* of Sicily hare been nearly arranged. Tba Inland la to hare a di-tioct aduiir.tatratlou from that of Naples with a Coiuulta rr I ham bur cboaun by tba maalcipality. Inlands A faint effort la being mad* to revive the political excitement of the country Conciliation Hall baa baea oprni d? lattcra of ad)ia?ion aa of old, have been read from the ehair. and ? & 6* of rent collected. Joba O't onnell la. of aourae. the principal. Knglantl. In certain quartern, money la offered freely on loan in the share market, at to & per cent on goad securities. Public aecuri'lca have been very ateady during the week. Conaola cloned on Friday at WJ^, and on Saturday reported by telegraph at to XItamea of PMwngerl. Ifr tad bra Titml.ull, Mi and Mrs Otto, ur and Vra Harris, Messrs l.eyardt, Tiiornt' r, Cianyle PaauiDrhem; Mr* r??at?B, Mrs Springer. MraGipps. Kri lutoa. Mr* Oab-.rna, Mr* Hiswart, Mra Scatt, Pev tir Cordney, ('apt Campbell, Misses T?i di rbt fT, Dunn, Starr. Carina, Short, Peek, Letnaaa, kcid. Bkglaa, P cabana a, Wcu. Warm. Bunco, S?itrr. Wstain, Boyler, t'roa*, Coliock Thuia'un, Clark, King Ray, Springer, Thoraton. Dixon, Lean, Vatnnt. Seall, Cunningliarn, CarbaUc, Clark, Auarea, Stephens, William, Pepper. Guy re. hipping lnt?Ulganc?< Arrived from Boston, Sept 23, CMrkory. at Cronstadt, JS'h, Frederick Warren; do Oct lat, Strabo. KWireur; Sd.Catharina, Plutl ing- 6th, Factory, Uelvoat; 7th, Loui*a. Urareaend. Sailed fur ll< eton. Sept Tjk Margaret llai-g* from St Pettrsbtirgh; "ot 7th. Thalia, "ffoom; nth, Pulaski, Deal; llth. litre, Livtrpoel. Arrived from New York, September k?, Bdpar; at Tarragona; SWth, Woodaide, Uruuwarshaw; Chlrrlne, Cadii, Dudley Seldea, Marseille*! October lat. Duo b ra'tri Haiibsrg; ?d, Aspcria, Gibraltar: Sd, Colarobla; Hum) nr*b; 4tb, barmouia, ( lyde; St Denis, 'lavre; Protaua, Marseilles; 6th, Orline, Antaurp; Victoria, Bremeu; Prmca Albert, Graveernil; > anr.y. Falmucth?Off. Herein. Slitelda; Splendid, Havre; Louise. Dovsk? <'fT. Duwavd. lieaoiiv ti? an. Oct H?Ofl, Oliver, Antw-rp; Amphitrite, do; Isabella, Ballast; Pomona, Cowea; Westminster, Grass# ad. _______________ Th* K'cwt|iBper Business In Kurope and Auieilca. the lrintiso press or j.a ratrte, or raris?tux invention of ilK. hoe, of new York. [Translated from La Patrio,. of Kapteaiber 20.] The art of printing is, without duubt, oue of the noblest inventions of the human mind. IJy means of this art nothing can perish; by means of it great men and great events are rescued from oblivion. The inventor of this sublime art was not exactly John Guttenberg, of Mayeuce; the Greeks and Romans were also acquainted with a sort of moveable type, and in the ruins of Ilercuhtneuin there have been discovered letters of invitation printed by means of moveable type. Also in China and in Japan, printing on aep,irate blocks has been in regular use for above sixteen hundred years. In fact, tome historians assert that Gut ten berg was not even the inventor of printing in Germany. They sHirnt that one Lawrence Coster, of Harlem, was the inventor. They relate that one day, happening to be walking in th? woods, He took it into his head to cut out letters in relief from the bark of a ttee; afterwards, with several letters thus rudely lornted. he printed a few verses and sentences ni?on paper for the instruction of his little grandson. W ith the Resistance of his son- in-law. he afterwards invented u more tenacious and tliicker ink than the thud in common use, and finally printed Willi it a book, consisting of pictures und types, entitled " Speculum Pfottra Salvlis." Lawrence Coster, after various trials and efforts, metiucted k me workmen to assist htm. One of these men, named Faust or Faustue, r.fter he had tukrn an oath not to reveal the secret, one evening w ht n his master was gone to midnight prayers at the cathedtul, an?l he was now sufficiently well instructed tu the new craft and mystery, ran off w tilt the necessary implements for starting the business. This dishonest servant afterwards, in 1460, went into partnership with John (iuttenberg at XI... A # . I... ....... t t,. m a ruuori|Uf in |? immi iio wrui iu l'nns, and dird there in 14W?, having been accused of witchcraft, because he sold liibh a piiutcd iu led Hi There is a world's difference from printing, such as it wes then to what it is now Never in any art has such wonderful progress been made, ami especially of lute years. There is, however, one man, w ho above all others in these times, seems to have carried these improvements to their utmost possible pitch. That man is Hoc, of New York; ne is the inventor of the press ust d in our office, of which we give at the head of this article, faithful repies* ntation, by means of a wood cut. This press, of the invention and manufacture of Mr. Iloe, print.- oft i:i3 copies in a minute. It often exce< ds tins number, because its velocity and sw ifinesss dejiends u| on the speed with which the workmen are able to supply the_ sheets ot paper. When our journal, 7lit I'u trie, first began to use this press, the workmen, or feeders, were only able to teed it with 4,t>00 sheets |>er hour. Hut since they have acquired, by constant practice, greater -kill in ti.rir wmk. they !?tinn'ii .-upply the er.ormous (juaniiiy of 8,700 sheets per hour, which the machine of Mr. Hoe prints off. It is now above four months since this press is in constant use and oia-ration in our office. Th? proprietors are so will satisfied with its performance, that they have given an orderto Mr. Iloe, tor an<>th< r machine of the same description and on the sam<* plan. This machine will have six printnig cylinders, and will strike off 12 000 conies in an hour! It is hoped that we ihuh be able to have it at work in aboat four month's time. Notwithstanding the above astonishing resitlta produced by Mr. Iloe 'a invention, yet such is its simplicity, that a few line* will be enough to explain the principle of this w onderful invention. An horizontal cylinder, one yard and .35 in ?lo niet> r. moves upon an avle which rests in its so< kcts. One-founh, or thereabouts, of the circumference of this cylinder constitute- the bed of the press, in which the chnse containing the letters, or type, is placed: the remaining portion of the cylinder i> hi plied for (Its distribution of the ink. The ink is put into a receptacle underneath the great cy linder. The feeding roller takes it off, and by n.caus of another roller, which has a vibrating, I .it spreads it over the form upon the great cylinder. The feeding retler revolves with a slow and regularly sustained motion, taking the ink gradually out of the receptacle in which it is drmiM d When this large cylinder is in motion, the forms are made successively to come in oontact with etch one of the four horizontal cylinders which am ariHDged at suitable distances round the great cylinder, to print off the four sheets supplied by the feeding rollers, 1 he sheets are laid hold of, direct from the edge ..c ,i._ i. .1.1.. i... ; 1.... L. c. I "I " ' ' 1 | ?'!> l"K """' l "7 II "II II""*-, ?*' u I'"" rm h f. ding or depositing cylinder. Tbe r-cnvera ?.f the sheet* are anpplifd by media nl wooden frames, which lake them from the 101 ducting strap* <>r bands, and place ihrni in a regular pile uron the four receiving tables. In front of edch ane <.f the cylinders there are two inkmn rollers, which puna over the cylindrical Shi line devoted to the distribution of the ink, t.ke up the ink upon their own surface, and lay it on the i) |* I y the r? volution of ihe main cylinder. I i in lot ma are printed off at ?>nce hy Nlr lloe'i pte??, e n> h hum t? ing in a separate and dis'inct cha?e They are four superficial segments of a ci !nif!? r, detin hi rl {-. m rai h oilier. hihI which are ai l I' a- ute htIn< he <i to or ih l-ch? d from the great ci In it? r. The i ommon and u -oil type is empfor *<l on this press; they are fixed ti,win ihe rre*t cyiia* der, and revolve continually, without any danger 11 t? ci minr loose, h? inn reuined in their place hy a plan peculiar fo.thta press. The pr?nt central cylinder, on which th forrni ar< fixed, revolvea from left to right; whereas the four others, sr Dressing cylinders, revolva from right to hit. "1 Ire papsr la placed, by the workit 'n, in sot h a niann> r that it slip* between the two cylinders on *ne side, and comes out, perfectly stinted, on the other side, when, by means of suitat > strr pa and hi tide, the sheets are atrangi d in a pile nnd?r frames which rue and fall alternately. Sri. h la the nun lone of Mr line, which, hy the | fr ctsiou and exactness of ita op. rations, scents to he, necessarily, the very perfection of typographic i 1 ait. At | rr?ent, it is the apex and summit ol that grind edifice of hi ms>n intelligence of which Coster and Guttenberg laid Ihe first foundation - pnea. 1 as may be seen, we are far beyond the tin's wv._ human arts and sciencca wire only " i, piblicvy, nieans of the j'en. Ill order tu ct.. vpy some icea of the difference ! to rapidity^of between the ancienl evatsm of senbea and the m.? ?< num. tng, we ,?bn..t to our readers tl?IWUVJ? JJgJ; laftoni? Tbe journal Isi Patru contains abont 4,3a? lines 8,0C0 copies make 34.MO.OOO lines. A scribe eon It write shout three lines in a minute; therefore, t won'd rennire I I.&20,fi00 minut?s, or IW.OdOhours for a single scribe to supply H.IKM) copiea ol lx\ i'v trie, or, m other words.it would fequirr IM.OVV n >n io supply, bv copying, the same amount whin Mr Hoe'a prrw np|.lir? in on* hour! 1 run nt i>tfen arrnini.lieheB a* mtien aa it would take th half, at lean, of tba whola Freaoh arniy to aun?>7 % Iff Yd MORNING EDITION?FRU Till DVT1KS 1.1 K.1Q1.AMD O.I FAPEB, ADTEKrikJCMI.ITS ANI) NEWSPAPERS. [Kroin the Ltniloi New*. Oet. 1 ] The following speech of Edward Edwards, con pokitor, waK drlivrrtd at a meeting ol'prialera, ' held at the London Mechanics' laktituuon :? Mr Kdwerd* en Id the prin'lng business baa for many years suffered. In common with other trade*, from a restricted Held of labor, a'd an excessive number of labore! a. la 1840 T. the compositorsof the I nlted Kiogdini In work paid to those out. ne leaa a euui tbaa 4 CI CI Ot about 2 000 journey men lu l.oudou, 340 were wholly without employment I'he latter were aa rue ta six la 1848. the working of an aumtiary land showed that fully a* many men were atiil uueinployed. And in 1848, so lar aa It baa gone, but little relial haa been fell although thie period of the year ought, undoubtedly, to tie tlie moet active, the houses of parliament bring opemd and the other roureee of labor In , einntctii n therewith being in full operatiou We are ' now within three month* of these valuable aid* oloaing; and. an many men continue to reek for work in vain, and, tor aught 1 can see to the contrary, are net likely to obtain it ler tome time to eome. I deem it to be net only justifiable but abounden duty on the part ?f the ; trade to step fere ard and ark for the repeal of those dutlee that deter rapltal from being honorably diffused, ai.d cause men to want work, which, but for them, would be lest difficult to be obtained This la toy apology. if apology be necessary for the crmpoult, re moving in this matter , we are induced to do so because we know 'ull well in reeking tuia benefit for ourselves, that the boon, if granted, will also enrieh the publlo in general. 1 he tax upon paper, or, as soma writers hare very slgnit caLtly turned it, the tax on knowledge." wa* lirst imposed In the tenth year sf the reign of t^usen A one when it wae uiged, as a justification for lisen! actment. that " It wae necessary to raise large sums of mousy to carry on the war " It Is, then, a war tax. | And since the country has happily enjoyed an uuin- I ttrrupted prace for 33 years, surely the argument which led to it* infliction cannot be longer maintain- j ed, ii a-mni h as the cauae has long been removed , therefor* the printing trade, and the community at large, should be freed from its etll effects. kroni the last published returns of the revenue, as da- I rived fr< m "paper," the sum of A741.UCU appears. This amount, however, includes the duty received frtm " all kinds of paper, fine and cnrnmon, while and , I brown," and consequently rnurt not be regarded as the re-lilt cf the tax on " printing paper " only. It 1* conjectural lo say how much of the sum mention- ' ti< ned was paid by newspaper proprietors, publishers, | wititii- ?\u , uut juujiiiig irciu i up uuciucr ui nampa f<lil. and tbe hoi ks and periodical* advertised in ilia course of aysar. 1 am catistiod that at least una half of the antlia ami out. or ?376 COO, ?a? paid, in tba shape of duty, on " printing peper." The number of "penny t stump* " issued in lk4b exei cds eighty two million*, ar i 104 000 nam* of paper Viewing the latter in tha aggregate an earh puying, say, a duty of 10a. per ream. 1 thin newspaper part of printing alone paid paper tax to \ j tba amount of A*2 000 par year, which ia oua-niuth of , ' tlie whole sum lahed l o charge l>;d. per pound on paper does not at first sight, sc ut any very great Imj tuition On papers auch as tha Turn* and Chruniclt, I the duty is but our farthing per copy, or about lis Oil per ream of 6(0 sheets; while upon printad works, ! where the sheet ia not ao large, the addition to the price of manufacture is still less. If thus viewed, the ci n.'Mjuences appear but trifling Vet, when tba nam. ber of copies of a newspaper is multiplied by thousands, and the sheets of publications and works are reckoned by tens < f thousands then the effects of the tai become strikirgly apparent Suppn-log we take a daily journal the sale i.f which is 10.000 per diem - #0 000 a week | ? three millions a ysar. This demand will onnsuine 6 000 reams < f paper, tke duty on which will be (at lis Cd per ream) A3 460 annually. '1 h)i is for one daily news|aper. Now. let the tax be repeal'd, a-id to whotn wouiil this n;i ney go? Cnmpetitii n would obilgs one of two things, perhaps both, to follow Kither the site of the paper would be increased, which would necessarily gits Increased employment, or the price would be ri duced and a laiger sale effected. These observation* are alika applicable to the weekly press As tar as tills duty concerns publications, it* weight ' upi n them is eijually serious. Merers < hauibers iu a 1st* number of their Edinburgh Journal, stated that they were unable to continue tin ir belt penny tracts, solely on account of tbl* tax. To give tbi* remain Its proper fires, they might have said, -'Wfat we have beni obliged to pay. a* paper tax woold bare afforded us the requisite profit for continuing our publication " There are two weekly peili dicals printed whore united sale, each week, is 100,CGO, or eight millions yearly, rotisuaiipg 16 (K)0 reams of paper, the dufy upon which is A'3 0( 0 lielleve the propiletors of tb??e penny publication* from tills annual tax and tiny wouhl neriain1 ly give the j uhlio in return more literary food Go, then, to tb* rrllgloua publtoatlons. and to works that, for tbe future happiness of mankind, should be placed In the hands of every child Many of there enjoy a comparatively large circulation, but who will say. if their proprietors could purchasa paper from (la Hd to 6s. per ream lesa than they now pay according to the lie, that the money raved would go Into their pockets? Why, tbe money thus saved would enable ao extra quaiter sheet to be given, or smaller type to be Intrt ducid, or, by reducing tbe sixe and price Of tbe sheet, double tbe numbers sold; or there might be two megasinrr where there Is now only one. So tsr, I have only treated this paper tax lu a piar' gal sense If I call to mind the Incalculable advantage* which society would lecrlvefrom its removal. In having 1 many expensive works plaoed within the means of all but the very poorest, which saioisdly would be tbe Immediate eonsvquenee and also in enabling the worst paid laborer for a trifling rum. to get that requisite understanding which weuld teach him to respect his privileges and be sensible of his responsibility if this i paper tax be thus considered, then all other thoughts must give plsce to It. ail ravenue difficulties must be surmounted. Inasmuch as the cry fur mental attain- > menis Is irresistible-one which for tbe good gwsruII.. ill < f-i en ly it i- highly p-ditii* to saii-fy. v.ychi -f object hewtver. la to satisfy the meeting that, as per 1 tains to employment, it Is deeply eoueerned in the sub- i ject under discussion. To the removal of these duties, ! prlntera mutt look for tbat tocraaaed hueim-aa which would afl< idlbem mora eonatant work, and render tham far m< re happy In thalr arclal oondltlon than they now ! IN. 1 | r iii??rtici mailt t?* rrilir.ru A'l.v ikX' anditha* bran ml'l that there n??n waa a good r? anon given for It* contlt ntree Apnloglea certainly have beeu off< red Hi ma p? rn< nn have viewed Ihie tag a? th> jr ara wont to eonaloar thora larlad on gold and allver platn ? they ray.Iii aubatanca. thine who can afford to edverlira ran affotd to pay tba datjr But thla l? not trna Ilnrdrrda of tba working elnaaea hara recourse to thi* nralUnt method ?f making tbelr want* kno*a. who ' can 111 afford tba auui demanded. and numb?T< ara pre- ; rented ftm adveiti-'i l y nil of maana. wno-h tba ! taa It. elf aggravate Nor ran tba ahopkrapar ba ? r. n 11 fri in f Ma i law. I "a llfMilN h.-ca he li I daalrrtia rf attending bla trada. wtalob h? can enly , do bp tba agency of publicity. Tba mora ba can m11 tba brttar, will It ba for trada in general. Wltbrut tbla Invaluable aid for bilnglng undar tba notlca of tba public tba warna ba ba< to d! apnea of. many of tbam would tail to ba pure bur. d. and pro- > dnctlon would brnra ba furtbararraatad lilt not. then, e.lf-evldi nt. that If tha trader men could adtartlaa In iba pnblle papara for laaa money tba amount aaved In a alngla advertlaament would go toward' paying lor a i?r<nd notlca tnrrrartng blr burineee by tba tapatltlc n and thaiaby glring additional employment to the productive clawer of the em mualtr ' h rmrrly, thla t?l wi? .!? f d In < ?n at Britain and 2a M .nlr- ? 1 in aarh advertlaament; bat. In tha ratgn of tha lata King William, tba doty waa raducad to la 6d In flraat Britain, and la. In Irrland. on aacb advancement Olrerve what bar been tha affect of tbla reduction ?.f | duty in tba numbar of adrertJaementa, and tba total Mim rrallrad. In tha year prevloua to tba reduction, tba rntlra numbar of newrpaper adTartlramanta. In .ba 1 ntted Klngdam. waa V21 tn.t 1 ha duty amountad to I *1T?,47Q. and bad barn ?t?t|onary for aaaaral yaara. In 1MK tba nrnib<r of nrwrjaprr advertieetnenta la the Vt tied Kingdom wa- 2K9.1.V. or an Inoraaaa of 1 117 ?."* that !r m?t a than doable: tba am ual raaliaad b? Irg ?1M eia lta . which It but A la MB la Irar Tb?n war l? imarly ralrad. aotbat tba raranua la now anffarirg hut littla from tha r. do ti n 'I d ly whilrt tha puMIe bate br en greatlv b?nehted by It. If, tb?n. t a i trada bar b?an to much angiranted by a re<t'iotl?n of dnty of one-half. would It not ba wlaa and polltlt aeei ing that thara la ao much un tmpM labor in tha c nntty, fa repeal it altogether, and ?et the'jtr.nrr ..f Induatry frra ao far aa they are affactad hy tba impatai gitrti to trade through a mora rrady Intercliaoga of 1 e?i> intdltlea o?r with another ' W ith the lor.jnalltlea (f tba taa Itaalf, moat paraonr ara ac.|iiaint?d Tha a I : rant Of In liaaa. and tha one ot f.f T or tlta I bi.rdrrd ara both charged alike: while, aui-h l? the [ power given to the rtamp r..mmieeioutra that n.aoy i -a. i - at< oftaa a barged with tbla daty that bara been It >rrtad by editora ar public Informa Ion In audi ajterrlve rlace? aa l.andon V,ae> hen. r. I.trarn'tl <>l*tg<w I ?Jli,burgh, and I'ublin *T?ry p< Ibl* facility it |Mtn t.? gttcn to Ibl* *I0t|l*nt k'j'1 ?IT"rt;i*l di??i ? if making knowa ImproT-mmInr*ntl'>n?. I add tb* enrrmorlitiaa f t aal* by the tra ding ypiila11' n 1 bt* can only b* don* by rap**ltog i a jrartlrfVi'Dttai: by p-i mittlap a man to gtr* ai a,noli publicity to bla'trad* and at aa ck< ap a rata, a* hia mrara a> 111 ajltw. .* nd ?l at w< nld fellow' (turpi* on ota, prior to tb* raductt< o of tb* duty, war* almoat ' ut known Now tha nam* la familiar to all Oo* dally jap?r ragularly | nbU'tn a thrr* aupplamanta a auk ful?d almoat aieluatraly With ad rilaataaota j "I ha paper and tb* e?pp|ani*rt mak* twrlr* pagaa. alt of wbfrb ar* crcuplrd with paid annouuei manta i Tbw public nut* b* fmtilahed with th* nawa of i tb* day a* th* (articular *ranta r>ccar If th* 1 adrertlatlrant prrtlrn b* Inaraaard. th* papar moat b* atlatgrd. rr atippltimrta Oiuat b* gir*n aa lb* aire rf tb* work or nawapapar J-UriDlnea ! ft'm thla lr,errata, th* printer would b? benefit j t*at In cmtntn with frada geaerally. It la, than Mar tial, ftr th* r?mp'?t* fr*?<iim or trail*, that thl 1.. I.I h* fii.nl. >1 it n..t K.ln, qucflicr al.rtbrr itary nbo ndrartlsr ptn iffnril to I ay thr duty, but rim of lalmr?how It ran ba moon- ! tlfpf ar.d U r jnnp|? l?:trr rmployad. by thr rrainral ! f tl n> import upon thair induatry I bHIar* that It ' Itl) duty im rrp?alrd,'tha mlriamm prW would ba I* for > iitiul't adrrrtlaramnt ; awl that an ao if llv.ttiit If tw?l?? llnra tor trad of hrtw* obargrd j ibarflPctrf tba a??iramit>? wbifu idmmi AlTOn.*1'*' , , thatax w> old f fMl.i n In'hr I nlt.d Btatr. a wnUr I acaiprtnd Ibnt in 1MT Um nrwrpaprra and p?rtndl. '' raid ffUtaiimd full ?! ?rn million* of a<t ?-t tl.rmoa U I ' Ibta I* fit* ttnma tbn m.mbnr ?f tbom publlrhrd In ! " I bi gland and Sootlai.d lb* p'pulation of tha I nliad 1 (l ila'?? and that of ?lr*nt Britain bring about tha nam*, i a or tw<ntj-tw? mlll^ni Tbrro la no tax upon adrrrr tiirr. rntr Id Atnar?*a; "* I ran aeeonat for tbia ait

inordinary difla"'-'* nua?bar In an otbar way to an , IRK I DAY, OCTOBER 26, 1849. by referring It to the feet that men are there allowed to announce their good* fur tale at a cheap rate, no ft real obstruction standing between them and their desires to promote trade by uewtpaper publicity And, now a lew words upon the penny stamp on newspapers ? the worst penny of all. as a noble lord has oalled ft; a tax whioh, In Its effects, Is quite as Injurious as that on paper There never has been agood definition given of what constitutes a newspaper. The Board of Com mission ers are the only judges hi this matter; and if their decisiou be felt to be arbitrary and unjust, they eooliy give yon the opportunity of takiug them into a court of law. which they advise to be done, otherwise their decision must be abided by. This is the first great ihjictiou to the duty Persons may originate a periodical, the sale of which ehall be coafiued to a particular trede or town, if they attempt to give anythirg in the shape of news, such as law and polloe proceedings of a general character, paragraphs respecting the operations of trade, bankrupt notices, aud commercial tables, the authorities of the stamp oflioe interfere immediately, and the periodical must bs printed upon stamped paper, or cease to be published To pay a penny for a stamp upon each sheet of paper, would be to add to the price of that periodical just so much : and this Increase is fatal to the sals, i Hence this Interference not only suppresses, but restrains from being published, many papers and ' flylrg sheets, rauslug a powerful monopoly to grow j up which is, in its way, all but irresistible. What ' with the paper and the stamp duties, many capital- 1 lets are dt-terred from embaTkiug in the newspaper busiruss Tbe details appal them when they are laid before them They are disposed to order 000 roams of paper enough to last, If a daily journal, about a month, and they discover, that as the tax upon paper is charged by the manufacturer equal to ?34o as ths amount of duty only, the bill for 000 reams will be ill,450 tnd to get them stamped will cost 411.200 mora. These two suuis positively frlghteu them Here arc 42 tl60 required for paper and stamps only for four wicks, supplying the sale to be 150 reams weekly, or 35 reams daily?12.(00 sopies, of the else of the L):iily J/rWt CV (Vssltll. It is net the printer's work that concern.1- them greatly About 4150 per week will suffice tor composition and machiniDg. which, thrown over four weeks, shows that the priming labor is jusl one quarter of the charge for paper and stamps, or iltoo Then come the many other demands incid?n Ml 10 a daily publication; aim rucn a total l* made out that It Is quit* clear n?ne but very rich meu can enter tbe newspaper trade In competitlnn with those who now exclusively hi Id it Two objections have been started against any alterations being made in this tax. Look, It is said, at the great advantages which the 1 post i fl.ee gives to aewspapers, through their being rtamyed if it were not ooiupulsory 01 newspaper proprietor* to print upon pai>er so Barked, each newspaper would have te be obarged postage, and thus. Instead of < nc< uraging the saleof papers, this alteration would have the opposlta effect, vis , of contracting their if lit s Others say that the newspaper is a luxury, and that they who need txfra comforts, ought to bv charged extra prices; that, In short, It Is a justifiable source of revenue. Now. If there were uo remedy for the first of tbeee objections, and no evidence to prove that the Second had erased to beteuabla, then the supporters of tbeiu would he quite correct iu their tenacioiisarsa to keep things as they ate lJut the fact* show that without having recourse to any new inventins, the displacement of, or the substitution for, any machinery in operation, that which exists now would still he required On suth works as Punch, the Jhhetori .a l.itnury 0'melt*, and other (so called; class publicetioDS, the proprietors are permitted to send to the stamp office au indefinite uuuil.fr of reus* of paper, which are stamped as ordinary newspapers. These woiks ha>e a town and country sale. J hat is to say. if the purchaser wants a stamped Copy for the purpose of lending it into the country, he pays a penny more thau the customer does who only wants it for his private reading, or to place in his collee-shop or parlor There Is no difficulty iu any way. The publishers soon discover the number of stamped oopins required, and this number tbsy have printed; whila the ri malader, being unstamped, circulate iu honsou at a to tilth less in price, thus saving the responsibility of a large stock, Inasmuch as there is the cost of the paper and presewsrk only, aud not a penny stamp also, lying unproduetively upon the shelves People are iLirlaLsu when they sappose that all the newspapers prlutid pass through the po-t office Hundreds of Ihourands of copies are sent by railways, are filed, burnt or otherwise kept or disposed of hor example it has been remarked lu the papers, that in one week, ia Ihtfi. the nuuihvr of newspapers which pa.seJ through the London po-t i lltce was 74o UOJ I 'l ake, thea, this extraordinary nuu.lier. and tl.r. w It over the year, that Is. multiply It by hi, and the product is i btri j alt* millions \dd to the latter number twenty. I three millions fur paper.; posted in the country offio?s, and there are twen'y million* left. [If tins statement l>e admitted, then there Is a cvpitai of upwards of A'kO,0<d) paid to government for stamps on papers that aie not |svt?(l !J It Is uo rsso n because lbs buyer ran post kis paper, that therefore he should be charged the same price as he who causes the post-off.?e the labor of >raosmission. Let these be, then stamped and unstamped uewspapers Let the poet ofl ce. as now carry the stamped papers. as also tlios# upin the outside of which a ({uvea's head la affixsd. and at once the objection u to postige ceases to be of any importance. Then every publication would ha a new-paper, and writers would he able to publish to thiir readers such matter as thay think would most interest tin m without fear of being visited by a goverameut official, iu the torus or au officer from the board of laland revenue And then to say lbat the daily or weekly newspaper is a luxury, and h ion# a fit tklng to he taxed. Is to raise an antiquated objection. which the extension of commerce and an tool easing p? puletlou ahs< lately show to be anything hut correct hoes the merchant regard his newspaper In any other way than that wbieh be does his breakfast! Aie not both to htm. Indispensable * before him ore ihr |fri sei everting'$ Waving prices of stack, aud a detailed eif.-enr nj the leading novtW'Sli el home and abroad, ji peiutal of their anna him with the oryuivilv knowledge, he enter s the city at ten o'clock, prepared la traniacl hutinett, and to eetuie himielj J ram impoeition Which, to urh m. i.iin td of moat iui nortanon hi< mora In* na nap or kUbntklbf VmiIj. I tellers the former. riiaa look to cefft-w howaes and UfiiiH If it sere not for lb* fact, ihat III CuJm-h? usee both body and inind ran be cheaply fad, tLa; would not be no iueci>i<rul ? they ere (jo Into a coffee-bouaa it right o clock in the morning, and If the innrnlug paper b? not in, ona tola tiinl tii' place baa l< at ita cbier attraction Ton mo* dlfhd extent it la tba aamr nllb Ihr public bona*. All find it to tbeir Interest to taka in ona dally nod weekljpep'ror mora No man can ray, with any degree of truth, that tbr n?w?p?ii?r of tba priont age in a luxury la tba win It i* meant It la a luxury wbaa viewed aa c< ntributlng to lha comfurta of social axtrtenesaud mental attainment It la a luxury wbaa viewed aa trading to make a man rich In gan>ral knowledge; to bring out bia better qualities, anl to tnaka him frrl htr responsibility, but It la note luxury which pride maker Indiepeuaabla nor ona wLloh bat It only baa madea-rentlal All otbar tbingr whiab ara rtylvd luxurlar bava their aiihatltnles; and aoccidlng tolLe position of men. tb*re enjoyments may be Bi'r* extensively Indnlgad In. lha poor man drtnkr beer or coffee, ibe rich man port or claret; tba former dinar < n ' homely tare." the lattar baa hie ma la dlabrr. lint tbr nawrpa|erla the Md> to all Ita broad sheet invitee the ryes of both rich and prof, and tha only d iTetracr consists in thla that tba man wail to do may I are tbr uaeofall tba paperr published, the poor man a right Of a law only or of n ua. Respecting tba restriction aa to riar?that of prescilbing a glran numb' r of eu| rrflcial locber bynd wblcb without extra rbargr. nrwapaprr proprlrtorr murt not go It would fell with the e< mpulaory penny stamp. Ina>murb aa there would be no rea>on la maintaining it ao taon aa tba paprrt were permitted to appear unitamped mora particularly, too, if the portage were regulated by weight. And then, aa per tain a to tba roet Office, let the rbeat, irrerpectlv* ly of Ita site, ba stamped for ona { any, and bmf -beets ae now. for una half-penny, vit d' aat rae-rlat tbeaa sheets aa to six# hnmurege Improrewienta In paper maklug lu all pweibie war*; and If a abrat of t aper ran be made twice tba alta of tha Tieter, and toe platen of tha machines caa ba ?o enlarged aa tonorklt.be It tba part of tha government tc aeairl In inch extraordinary proofs of Induatry, perferetat.ee and Improvement (If ihla restriction in rlxa, tba gr< unda of complaiat ara not eo strong aa thi ra referable to tba duties under notice. The newspapers ara large enough, but tbey are Insuffieiently numerous, and the ranee of there b-lng bat Ig meriting pagers and but flea evenlug ones, .a ae>algnel.la only t# tha paper and ataaip dutira; alkerwlra u muA M aimltiad that tha Pari ?.: it *1)4 4r.irl??u* ar* ?r-atrr r'tjtri loan oar own i" 'ii lrmm I* |r ?o* Who *111 ?ay that th* ?pp?ilt* f'-t (tttnl information and lltrrnry fund I* kttntr li Atiiilrt than It it In t.nRinnd' tt*n inititutiona !,** in t r?l ?d i h* prior* or nrtnpaprr* and prrtodlc?l? ? tli?j h?i* In till* country, aud worn th* fttcnl irtin rifulij, Iu to# pricr* would br rrd'inrd. and th*f* wmld l,i i< mar} p?prri prlnt?d In Knglnnd a* thrtr arr tin thirc A writer In til* J untml, Uita* y* ar* (< ray*:?"On* i f thr tint lblt}t th?? attrart* thr a'trolion of an t n*l1?bin?n aftrr landing In th* t nltid S'n'rr i? tlir yr?al rnnibrr of niwipapari b? irt* In thn reading roriu at hi*"hot?l; but If h? w> r* anarn of thr In mtrnt r urnPrr of dall} and wm kly p*| cr* publl b-d tlriiiahout thn I nlon. b? wonld b* it nir ivtmihtil 1 h* |>< politico of tba I nit*,I state*. <n 1*40, according to llm ernin*. *a? upward* of 17 till (CO, nr.<1 at that p*rlod 13* dally, 1 111 n**kl}, and 126 tttni ai d tri wr*lljr nrw?pap*r*, to,tth*r Bltk SSI | rriodlcil# were puPluPrdiotkal country Accord it p to tbr ar*r*gr anoual iacrtai* for tin yarn front lv. n to |Mu, th> pr>pnlati?n of tba I nltad Statat pr*. iret I" about 22,(Ct octi ami accord'n* to th* h*at c?tln*t* tb* writer i*n n.at front hi* own obn?r?atlon In tb* ahitnc* nf < fPc'al raarn*. tbrr* at* trow at |ca*t It'll dally, 1 410 *?*kly, and IMt irml and tri weekly n*w taper*, tr|*tbir with 2fo periodical*. pnblxhrd in Ibat country Thl* I* a rrry large nuntbwr; bat It Cut'rt r?i advortlor m. i to to pay " Thoa, to roforonea to Iaila. thoro trro la IMh U daily aowrpapora. and II it laid ll at thty ar.tr number M H?r tho otampdaty at fam.otly oqnal to ona half-potmy Th*?o inllirrr-arrlft tin moo',?i o Irdloputable trldoaro of tha In.nrl.aoeffertinf tht datloa oa aa* -ther V t.dorf prlatir g I'ateant all rodattlona ot Imaoatoaad rbaigro )> ' a attotidod with Incalculable food Tab# ||? trtata. of tba V^ttTal^ roar lord by (ottruaient a< 4ll<*.023 t.'adar tho yti ay rata for the eoTrrornnding period In IMt, tho aa>> ant received trat ?1111,111 1*?, bHa| aa Increae# of rieai ly iV i tt) Obaeroe again, tna repeal of tho daty rpr almar aca Tho emmittolonort roporl that thit ) ??nty a at aa tooror ropraled. than 300 now aimanaot Immediately otartrd or n.o telling SAO 000 cnplea; that fciipwaaa Mor-re't being dmblad *ai irealatloa Finally, IER A if 1 urn supported by my follow-workmen in thin grant work of uio-hnrkling tba press nod we ean oommand the tymistbies sr.I assistance of the employer!. I em atlsred that. with the valuable aid which will he eitend. d by the greater portion of the publio Journal!, curb an opinion may be brought to bear upon it ae to indueeihe government to forego exacting the?e objectionable levies Three years ago, it wae found expedient to strike off the tax on the food for the body; and if the people of this country be eioonre in their prorer-tatioFf spainst tbe burdens mentioned, it will be found equally expedient to relieve them of the taxes on the food tor the mind. Whilst duties such as those on work* and newspapers are perpetuated, there never ean be raid to exist an unfettered press. What it I* in name, it o?a>ea to be in practice. The working classes are deeply interested In this endear *r to obtain for tbe public cheap and useful knowledge; for the cause of labor lack* exponeut* of its sufferings and baidrhips Its poverty is the consequenoe of the nonexistence of that power They, tbeu, shonld take up the derire I have here expressed. and resolve to parsevere. with heart and soul, to release the pr-ss from all fiscal < bstructions. as the readiest means of obtaining a iair requital for that labor whioh is so precious to the world's greatness. Close of the Great Fair of the American Institute, at Caatle Garden. Periodicial fairs are of very ancient origin, and p.iay be traced buck to the remotest ages. We hear f them among the ancient Greeks and Romans. The early mode in which goods were bcught and sold was by periodical fairs. Shop! and stores in cities were then unknown ; they are of much later origin. We reud, in Ca-sar's Commentaries, mere hauls resorting to various places in Gaul, trom Rome, and other countries, who carried their goods, to expose them for Bale at the fairs. Thus, in ancient times, merchants were great travellers, and the news and political intelligence, as to the state of any country or people, was almost entirely made known by thent only, when printing and newspapers were unknown. Thus, we read again, in Ca-ear, that, preparatory to his expedition into Britain, he enquired of the merchants what sort of a people they were?what sort of ports or harbors they bod : end it was from Urnm he obtained al' the intelligence with which he was furnished before he made his descent upon that limn unkriown> but since so famous, island, progenitrix of a race o' enterprising Yankees. Fairs, or i>enodical annual assemblages <of merchants of all kinds, and of buyers of all kinds, at one regular place, for tbe purchase and sale of goods otull kinds, ate, we believe, especially of Oriental origin. No doubt the Ishmielirish merchants to w horn his cruel brothers sold Joseph, were going to some greut annual fair in Egypt, for the modern system of consignees and retail store-keepers was unknown for ninny ages afterwards. Ambulatory merchants and periodical fairs are siill prevalent in the East, among a people who love to retain, unchanged, their pnnntive customs. Intiudrrn Europe, the Eastern fashion of fairs came eutly into Use; duiiog the feudal ages they Wi re Hie oniy mean* ny wmcn me ijtnii ium.nei supplied themselves, for the year, with what their households required. At the regular fairs, which were r? gulurly held all over the country, th?-y were | in the habit of laying in their stores of all sorlsof ( things, for all torts of things were there to be met | with, in those tunes fairs were of so much na- i tional and popular importance, that, like the public 1 gi iues of tlreecr, of the Olympians und Isthmus, ' they served lor periods of chronological computa- I lion, and people weie in the constant habit of da- ! ting events from the time of, or before the time of, Mich and such a fair. The lairs in Europe were ul- j ways a groat public holiday, and in process of time i they became the signal fir the assemblage of all forts of people, und professors and professions i TktBtWttMH rttoiM his nostrums, the |iig- 1 gler exhibited his feats, the dancer displayed hia 1 agdity, the play-actor brought forward his drama, while tht merchant sold his wares and the huckster his goods. In England, eaiwsially, where the common people are passionately attached (or, till of late years, were) to their ancient customs and privileges, these old fairs ure still kept up t? riodically, ut dillerrnt places throughout the United Kingdoms. Hut while the frann-work is kept up. the original intention of them is mostly lost, and th y are now merely |<eriodical assemblages of booths and peojde, for the |>ur|>oee of theatrical exhibitions and otfie r amusements ; and the merchandise is chiefly confined to the merchandise of gingerbread, toys, and articles for the amusement of the younger portion of the commuutty. At these times, all children regularly expect their " fairing," which is some toy or present to be brought them from the I fair ; and the village belle expects her rustic beau 1 not to forget her on this solemn occasion, livery- | body knows the old ballad? "Ob <lear what can the matter bs ? Johnny s so long at the fair* He ptrmford to buy ma a ribbon To ti? op my bontiie brown hair " Those ancient fairs were under n? management of directors or committees ; the people, merchants 1 and all, flocked thither by the force of long custom, I snd it was more than his kingdom was worth fur the monarch, or any other power, to think of pre | v< Miaf ilu m At every fair there was a regular eitem|H?raneou? | court of law, called the " fie pomtre Court," of which Him kstune makes mention, in his "Cornmrnlatlrs;" and here were judged. summarily, all the ollenccs which were commutedm the fair, and here all the disputes w< re adjudicated which arose >..<U.... n it,,. ni?ri.ti>tili I tie Imvere or others Home of theae old mercantile faira art >till kept up, chiefly in York-hire, in Lugland, where the cloth niknuUclurem Mill retort, a* in tncien: timet, to the refill In r cloth fairt, to te|| the proc<< dt of their manufactories; aid in tome parts of Germany, ! where, an.ong olio re, the gre.it annual fair of I^ij sic ia Mill kept up, mid is the retort of iner- | chantsIran nil nra dw world. l ot in Ann Tien, a new woild, we have new habits, and have ''ropp'd and forgotten the old f'lidal habits of the old world. In thia country, | till of late yeart. the periodical fun anrt frolic of the fair were to;ally in.known. The ataid, ateady, roh n.n Lahita ol the original actijera repudiated altogether three of the world, in 1 w hic h all the world, young and old. met together t? laugh and enjoy fun and frolic, eat gingerbread nutc, o itd l.i.y toy a and rattlea for the chihlren. In America only tw o secies of f?ira are known, both ol ihem of recent origin, viz : the Ladies', or the Iteligioua Kair, and the Kihibition, or Fair, such as that of th* American InMitute, w hich haa juat cl? -ed ita inicrreiiag period for the preaent year. Theae, our faira, are a /com imitation of their more ancient | reOecexeors, hut are, in fact, aa uolike their g.irenta ns we of ike present day are unlike our fathrra who preceded us The beautiful and interesting exhibition of the great Fair of the American Institute was closed jeMrrday, in a very imposing and interesting manner, and teiminni?d its exi-tenee for this year in a blaze of rockets and fire-worke worthy the oc cai'on At 4 o'clock, P. M., every preiwration having been made, and the arveral committees and j idgra having, w ith treat impartiality, sad, we believe, with strict honesty of judgment, made th<ir decisions ss to the m> rita of the several aniclea exhibited, his Honor, Judge Mrcs, ci toe forth In m the grand commit tea room, atmtd with the books ol judgment, in winch the fate ol the several competitors was de- i cided upon. An anxious crowd gathered below the tribunal from which ihc Judge was about to r< ad the judgments of the several committees, and pronounce the hupi y names of those who Were to he the recipients of the rewards and honors ol the institution It whs fitting thet a judge should pror ounce those judgments; but it was an arduotia task, as the list whs long, and would fill a good sized octavo volume. Accordingly the Jodte read out the nanira In ni the ominous book which he I e'd in his hand, standing beneath an archway, or tuomphnl arc b, compear J of long stalks of Indian corn, appropriate ettibbma of American toil and industry, end significant, two, of the ultimate object of all our toil Mini industry, namely?bread. Voder thia < Dil.li n ntit hI throne the Judve rend forth with stentorian voire ihe several awards, j till, tt h ?t, overr < mc with the fatigue of hi* rxer- ! tiers. he was obliged to cull to hi* aid an assistant to conclude ihe !?nir list. Me-antirue, whilr ?n aaxioua group below tha cotn-f t?tik throne list? n?"d to th^ jii<l?Tm?"nt? of Khadanmiithos, the vast aca of the saloons and galleries w as filled ?"h ?n inattentive crowd of people, of " gf* *"d sexes, roamng about and ndmtrir# 'bo o|?T? ndid ptoducta on exhibition, unconscious of tbo anxious ordeal which waa going on frrm tho tribunal of decision. 'J ho above interesting ceremony occupied a considerable time; after which, at half puat 7 o'clock, the tending was any ended for the still more interesting cr t? nmnv of the delivery of the closing oration by General Talmadge, the President of the Institute. General Ta'madge, accompanied by theoffi-era. directors, and members of the Institute, ascended the platform, while lUcomfield'sbraas band, placed in the opposite gullety, eiecnted in fine style a variety of national aira. As th? Oaneral took his % LD. TWO CENTS. station, the hand Htrack up Hail, Columbia, toktck had a fine etl'eet. and was greeted, at its conclusion, with loud plaudits from the immense aumbsr of people assembled. At this moment (he rrtup d'ail was m&gnifteeat. The various articles displayed shone with dazzling splendor, reflecting back the liuht of innumerable chandeliers and lumps. A multitude, amounting to some thousands, were circulating all around tkv vast edifice, swarming like bees; at each curioan object, niipht be seen a curious group, examining and admiring. In this vast multitude, at least a thud consisted of beautiful women. General Tii.uados then proceeded to deliver the cloning addicts, in a style and manner highly iateretting, adverting with singular appropriateness to the Tsrioui mbject* which presented themselves, a* the teploi of his discourse After some introductory remark* of an Interesting character, the General proceeded te expatiate in detail upon tome of the mem important and prominent object* of American industry which bad been exhibited, and whlob had received premiums and reaarde corresponding with their merit* and the purpose* ot the Institute The first object which General Talmadge Retooled frciu a variety of meritorious productions, a* worthy ad particular remark, were some larg* crucibles, or melting pots, such as are required in the manufacture af steel and which hithtrto have not been able to ho manufactured in this country. These crucibles were from the pottery of Mr. Dixon of New Jersey, and possessed all the necessary qualities of abiding any Intensity of nny fire or furnace. The General next drew attention to some beautiful specimens of American steel, and several fine articles of cutlery manufactured out of it. "Now," said the facetious old General, '' if we have a good piece of roa't beef on our bi ard. wo need M longer be tormented with the plague of bad carving for if you come here and get one of those steel carvers, you may cut such slices so delicately thin as to add to the favor of the beef, and thn pleasure of masilcatlou." The witty etlort ot the General was greeted with general applause whereupon the baud, to give the orator, who was rather lotirat from a receut attack of sickness, an interval of repose, struck up in admirable ntyle. a tine piece of musle, and added cousideiably to ihe imposing and pleasing efi< ct ot llie whole really magnificent scene. The President then proceeded witb his remarks, and called the attention ef theoompauy to some remarkably tine rills of wire, manufaet ured from American railroad Iron. This wire is of astonishing tenacity and strength; the efforts of several horrea pulling at it could not break it. It is of the manufacture of Mr Cooper, of New Vork city, and is the first achievement of the kind is American art Tbs next subject of comment by the General was one of peculiar interest?that was a specimen of Ainericun linen, made from American Max This line* was of very tine and superior quality, and obtained as a primium ' The 1'alinadge Vednl," which it well deserved. Hie next object to which attention was called, ware some fine pieces of broadcloth from American waol. Here the orater commented in a happy manner apon the wondrrtul advances made in this inenutsctur* ullllnll,. I..I f-m t.?. In \ rr.-rl,.. Th.. live statistics on this subject which the <)n*?r*l adduced lire truly aatouisLiiig. * exhibiting th > progress Amrilra bus made and fa making Next la order of the wonders which appeared to b? inexhaustible. were huibh beautiful shawl", tnanufaotured In the Bay State. The stat-menta furnished ?y the orator ou this subject were pertoctlv astounding! it seenia that no Icaa thua 1,000 shawl* per dl?ui ara dally produced from the looms of this manufactory, equal In fin ness of textuia and elegunce of pattern, to the beet foreign imported she wig Alter having dwelt tor some time. In an interesting and eloquent strain upon thla dejiartmeut, the Weaaral thru directed hia atteatiun au<l remark* to the agricultural department II. re the specimens ahewa of tha fertility of the American fields and gardens, and tha skill and Industry ot the American garieneraud farmer, at re ni'sit delightful and wonderful, ktrat and foremost, the parade of culinary fruits and roots attracted general attention fiber* were aome Irish potato** i.f American growth which weighed th* enormous and incrtdihle weight of 25 ox These, with th* mammoth pumpkin.proved that America is the mammoth land, her sou* are the mammoth people, and her frul la en ninioth fruit home pears, apples grape*, and other frnlt* of exquisite iiaenr and large else, were then exhibited, and tha extraordinary tesults produced by art and Industry, callsd forth "some happy and eloquent remarks trots the orator i f the evening. On the subject of manafaotnrus In general?tha great subject aud object of ths great Pair and ia luitrial exhibition-the General stated soma interesting and very striking facts Thus It appears that th* South Is turning In r attention in an extraordinary degree to the subject of manufactures Happy ouj. n this said the General for the prosperity of our Southern l*rethr*ii, and the happy cementation of our national I ui u According to the interesting statlstios brought forward by the arator of the evening. It appears that la tieorg'a, there are now 4.1 cotton factories in successful < peratloo; In North f arolma, there are SO; In tlabaina, there are 10, In ttouth t art liua several exist, and many are biglunfng to etlat; la Virginia, there era 40. '1 liese facts spvak volumes for th* enterprise of oar Si uthern brethren; the* show th* stock from which t hev sprang and that they are " bone of our boue, and flesh of our I1e*h " " What happy promises," said th* General, ' tLeee facts give ot the continued unity of ourbappy I'alex. In one band of brethren united In on* , rotnmoti pursuit, aud one common interest " Thus, th* hi.ulh as it were. Northernlies Iteelf An I let hope that th* Noitb will meet 11 halt way, aui Southtrr.l/e lts? It. '1 b* in si rapturous and unbounded applause followed hi" most profi undly lutereellng add re a of General Talmsdge. which. In Its extent of Information, variety of statistics, happy allusions cheerful bl'a aud plea.ing con mi uts, was worthy of the occasion and highly pleasing to all who wer* within reach of his votoe. f.? It must be understood there were several handrails there who vera engaged in other part* of the exhibition and heard nothing of th* speech, so well worth bearing Whin the closing oration was endej. lilootntiild's bend struck up si nn> lleely airs, and cuutiuued to entertain the company In th* saleon wtib soul-stirring, patriotic mu-lo. till the hour apprnaehed when th* last sci lie of all. the fire worts, Were to conclude ths fair and announce Its cloa* A little after ten o'clock the flr* works biganto play. 1 he UlooBJbeld baud having as It returaed toGoveroor'a Island, paused In their b- ats upon th* water execoUds pertlLg serenade with fine effect. Tha multiluds gatheied together on the Battery, to wltnesa tb* tlreworks. wm pmd'glnua \ at th* greateit order wm praaervad by all pr***nt, though w* 'baarved many ladi** h-aimed up Id lha dfiin- crowd, and utterly unabla to get out or mora an Ireh. After ram* lilt* delay, *udu'.-nly th> blue light#, and red and greeo, and daa llt'K white aud golden thoaera of golden Ore, and wheel# er.d rocket*, and eerpent* and Itotnau candle* were no* aft r another placing away In rapid atid fiery taecwtk n. eauelng burala of admiratloa and pleaiure to rise from th* crowd*. I halaet of tb?n wa*< f eour?a the n o?t eplendid of all. to attempt tw drreitb* euch a wooderful blaie f h'a<< * wmid he la> porrlble, and la ealn. In tb* midrt of all th* flam** and ehnwer* of golden eparka and laud thuodartajr rrcketa * arlng high In air. appeared ao Inscription *r fra, c< nla'ning tbeaa word* ' l ha lair U Cloned." 1 hu? terminated the Fa r with a acvne at rich aad dazzling a* the *iMbitlon it*alf ha* been rich aad fceaotiful in the intuitu** variety of th* otyeeU It ha# br> ugbt t> gethar. Thi* fair, whatever may be itald by 1U opponent*, and whataeer fault u.ay be fonnd with mn* Inevitable aad unavoidable tllvlailtlo*. baa brought together In octal acituatatanra aa Inisiraae number of people from ell luarter*. It ba* eibiblled la a ulrlkmg light the wandi tful ravonrcea of A m? rlcan art and iedaetry, It haa i. h km wn manj Ing r I >u* Inventl c at 1 tntny lagenlou* Iriventore. aht wt.nl 1, otherwi?e, hat* remained. with their iiirenti iiv unknown to the world, it h*e leaded i" atlmi Ms " e lad ??ry of many me> banir*. and ba* drawn eat th* p puletlou of New York city In Imtneue* crowd*, to teuder the hwaieg* ef rnrlreity and admliaMi a to the work* a id Ineenti -wa of their country. '1 he*? are r*-eulta not U> be d -'plied. It I* tc.niath ng to pre,en* to the public la-nlabia ' bjaot# for adanratlun and laudable mine of plea-urn and ainuaemrnt. for atm-ag ail It* other aura eolld tnirit* tblf lair hn? e nib u?d tb* principle A giving pl'atnre and *at*rt*iDment wl h tb* mora weighty I riacipla of promoting utilitarian purpoaaa Tba Hafela, AKKITAl/l AND DkrABTCIU. Dr. TV ma* Henderson. (J 9 A , Mr M'? all. Philadelphia, t) ? oben. Savant ab 8 II. Wa.-ren Tr-y, R. Hoondy, N. Y.;K*v. W Blttinger. l)l?tric?of Columbia;! to towaln. Nantnckrt. < I. St? wart, li 8 Cnalater*; 8 rrultn.y lady and daughter. Haltimra, < hai llndlay. do.: Jndg- Barnard. Iltid"n. N Y , T. II. Haiti* at d lady Hamilton, C. W ; Jo-aph Tifea, blontiial. Mm ft<urn*. Hoaton, Ml**** I horndika, do ; J J Allen, rhiiadelpbia, W Hale i amden i.e.; (i B. Diiwell. Bo*tow, W l ooper. Albany Wm. t. Bontlton aud lady, iipilngfleld; John Stole*, I'M La drlphla. < M l?a<-h and lady, Ilartf<>r4, Inewph It. tbrmeld N< w Harm, Mm ami .Vita* Harrtioa. HalUu < re , la'id 8mith .Norwich; f? 8hriv?r and lt.lr, Trov ' ap'aln ( ? ?. USA. ??m among Ihr arrirala on VkedneMlay at tlia Irving Hour# J. Sl< m?k?r I hllail' Iplna; II D Wolfk, Syraeai*; C. ? owp'f, I lira, A Black. Halifan, J L KAiatna, Bertoa A Andrrrcn Springfield. ) boa 8teph*n? H*. verly; II Roger#, Baltimore: 8 Sal-bury lmrch##Urr; Hrr W.< Banning. Hartford. W ( oflln Newp>rt. Major Walker, YV#r)iiii?t< n, Hon D Bejmorn. I roy; Hog. J Rockwall, Norwich. Una. V ail# Ihiladolphta, I l oiaotn, V. 8. A. arrived jerterday at the Irving Hoar# V/. II Weltletcrgrr Savannah, l?r. Dulathaa Bonten; Jaerb let, I hiladelpbia, K B ( ott. Patrrion, J. u uarKiron Virginia. J lay lor Haiti mora T H Bar*, M'l'ni*. O I (iitiri N Ori?an?. r>r Fa^iiharaoa, W arbln|lot>, II 8atiforii, Albany, ara attka Amarlaan W Hart Pkla; I yu l? ohiirn l.ovall; Oaorga Wn?4. aard.l 'iwUillaoylr, Dr U ' Wrka, U. A ; P. Hal<1? n Baitlnora: S Pi ll?y?. Indiana W I ?g? t'I art 4a; VT Tata. Montraal. P Tnrnay. Detroit; J. PitUr, IB. > '( una weiipy apartment* at m# M?wnro ( apt A Idrn, I $ A . and lady. L. O. Marri* and lady, WeMehaator Pr Rand. Water * Ulead; 4 Tim, Boston war* among tha arrival* an Wadnaaday at tha t alon riaea Hotel. Signer L. da la Roaa. M.ilaea Mini.tar to tha Waited State*, lady and danghtrr, t* Perna, Washington; Dr. Pari* and daughua.i ) Mr tJonaala*. Havana, Mr and Mr* Rasas. Mr MeDonald, N V . Small and ady la war* among the arrival*. yesterday. at tha Vniaa riace Hotal m

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