Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 28, 1850, Page 6

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 28, 1850 Page 6
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Till TERRITORIAL AM) SLAVERY QtBSTIftT, | Speech of Hon. Thomas L. Clingman, in Congress. Tt'esday, Jancaey 22, 1<W Mr. Ci.inuma* haul, tit it tin- committee was well aware tliat he hud, on yesterday, intimated it purjtoae to discus* the qiosi 01 a involved in th- propositions relating to ttte Mexican territory. 'I hit subject was regarded by the whole country a* one of such initio use iinporunc, th n he olWed uj apology for debating n. To prevent misconception (said h-), 1 my iu advunre that I h "'1 great connd< nee in the juiluni'nt. int? rifjr. and patriotism of the President I further admit, tullv, the right of the citizens of each Mate to settle for themselves nil such domestic questions us that referred to in the message Hut wboara the people eniitUd *o to decide, us well as the time und manner of admission and boundary of new States, are in themselves questions for the judgment of Congress, tiuder all the circumstances ot each case. The territory of Louisiana, our first foreign acquisition, was retained iimrly t^n yearn 1 it that condition before she w as allowed to form a State constitution. In the case ot Texas?her people being composed almost entirely ot citizens of the United .States, and having liua a State government of their own for ten years?she whb admitted at Once us a State into the I nion In the present case, there are considerations of the greatest import nice connected directly n? (1 indirectly with our action on this subject. While adverting ' > them, as fully as the time limited by our rules will admit, I usli the attention ii linnet Witli reference to this matter, I was placed at a disadvantage before the country, by u publication made some time tiucr. It is generally linown that there was, ou the Saturday cvening before the time lor the assembling of the House, a preliminary meeting or caucus* of the whig members. The proceedings of such meetings have usually been ltept private. Contia*y, however, to the former usage in thia respect, some individual present Iurnishedtoone of the New York papers what purported to be a report of the proceedings This re{<>rt being, in some rrcpec is authentic, waa copied into other pn|*-rs The writer gave very lully the speeches of those persons whose views coincided with hia own; but. though he made a reference to my position, he did not thiuk proper to set out what 1 did say, so as to rriuke that position at all understood. It will be remembered by tliospresent on that occasion, th.ct, at the very outset ol nty remarks. 1 stated that I had that morning hsd a very lull and free i onference with the gentleman front Georgia, [Mr Toombs J who had moved the resolution; that there was, in rtLtion to the whole subject embraced in it, as well as with reference to themoce of action proper to be ndopti d by tlie South an en'ire agreement between that gentl'iiian and myself. In fact, that there was not, as far as I knew, any dilierence of opinion between us, except ?s to ttie expediency t>f making the isaiie at that tune, mid tha I th?ugfit it preferable to awtilt le: i la ive action, and stand on the defensive nurelv. 'l'lus, among other reasons then given, nuiuied me to request the withdrawal of the resolution. It is proper that I should suy that, in n>y interview thut morning w ith the gentleman from Gtorgia, and with his colleage, [Mr Stephens] 1 gave nty reasons at length, founded chiefly *>n my recent observation ol the state of public sentiment in the North, we believing that a collision was inevitable, and that the sooner it came on the better for all (antes; but that to enable us to make our demonstration in the most imposing and successful mode, it vvnu^d be better to await the organization of the llou-e. 1 expressed the fear that if we moved without the concurrence, at the cutset, of a ii ajcrity ol the southern members, we might place ou selves at a disadvantage bt fore the public,und prevent our uniting the whole South in such a cou s td action ns it might be found expedient to adopt. Looking over the whole ground, however, 1 am not at all dissatisfied with the course which things took There has fie en no such division at the South as would be at all ii It Jy to impair efficient action hereafter. From ttie tone of the Southern press, as well as from cither indications, it is obvious that the South will, ut an early day, b* suffrceatly united to iiisuri the succs- of whatever measures it may be necessary to adopt to protect ourselves from the aggression menaced by the North. As to the election of a Speaker, in the present condition of the House and the country, I have never considered it ol the alight est moment to either political party, or to either section of the I'nton. A Speaker without a majority of the House would be of no adt.isfaire to the aflminialra. tion, wr could ?n\ mete arrangement of committees materially allrct now the action on the slave question. Those, Mr. < hairmnn, who have observed my course heretofore, know well that I have not (ought to produce agitation on this subject Six vrars ago, when I first look a seat ou thin, believing that thr lumens twenty-first rule had been gotten ur ninety an a fancy matter, which was productive only o| ill feeling tu.d irritation between diilrrtiit Htin ns, 1 both votrd and s|iok? against it, and was then t* ttan'- d as res;* nsible to u groat ext< tit for it* defeat. I then mated, during thr discuaaion, that if without cause wr kept ti|> a state of hostility brtarru thr N< nh and the South, until a practical question aiorr like that presented whrn Missouri wrsadnii' mI (lor 1 thrn saw the i'exat anueanio n in the tutur-), thr "greatest possible rn.Mhit-i! niMie." I went on alao, in thr coutar of toy argumrnt. to a ay that slavery could not be abolished in ti.ia Lhatnct without ? d^solution f thr i t iou Two yesra ninety vbM it u^d become certain we were at the cloar of the thru existing war to obtain territory, I endeavored to place the question on grounds where thr North might inert us j conceding, for thr sake of arguinenl, that the government had coninlete jurisdiclion over the territory I enjnivored to show, that while it nut hi br justifud in dividing ihr tsrri'ory, it could in 1 exclude us troiu thr whole, without a pal|>abic violation of tnr constitution I am sorry to say, how i \er, il.?t toy eildrt, thouuh, did not produce the slinh'rst < lit ct upon the action ol any one gentleman of tin own party from the North t hi this side ot the House they regularly voted that th? North siieuld have thr whole ol the UfMlorv, and w?nt against any compromise I regret to or cotnj rib d to say, that instead of showing themselves in any respret conservative, as I us- d to consider Ih'tn, tlir Northern whig member* proved ihemsrlvrs, on this the great question, eminently destructive. To these gentlemen from thr North who aided us in an at eropt to s? t'le *he qu< stion in S'.me mucin not disgracrlnl or destructive to us, 1 tendrr my thanks In standi'ig by the rights ol the f-outf, the >' have shown themselves friends of the const.tutinn and the I su n 8ir, the tone uki no nt of the present anti-slavery n??wt merit ot the North is not understood by the i"k>uth I nui wit! in be Ust tew month-, I had supposed thai even d California and New Mexico should eopi'-in ?s f" r <rv> , the ."tation would ut S'de, so a to pro u no luither action A lew n t nili tr.1? I hi h - i.iter . - ol th .V>rth lot* rh.-ng. d toy p nu n >u? it is now thr condition of I" 1 !tc ? ntiineiit there, that the making ot the M< ii n territory all Iter. 111 any mode, would be regard'd as an anti-slavery inuiuph. and would uci el. rat' ili? f neial mavriio t again-t u? It IS not d tin wit to ( er< rive how that State ot public sentiment h is been produced there The old abolition societies he*e doi e a good deal to poioon the popular n. nd Hy circulating an immense numb' r of utPan.matory pamphlets, till- d with all manner of taleef ood and c bunny against the >k<?nh, its institutions. and it* men, because there w as no l OtiltsOu In n in thai atarler lhs? bad ? rmti d a l"th d? crrr ?t i<rr ndice against n? Aa peon a? it becam* probable ihti llirfe weitldbe an M'O el if rr itorjr, ihe qnratinn el once beran fa gteat | r < al en<\ ard the politic iana lmmedmt? ly ti oh lb" matter m lmnd With a virw at onrf el r t length- i. n : tl ir | "-it "f\ they -f vd iijoo all ihia m-timr ?lm h ihr abol.tioa societies (where aid both | ar 'i- a c urled in the struggle) had f u i nub'd frotn lime to tintr, and ciihufUand airengthenrd it ar much aa p<?sible,and thereby created an immenre anie nt ef hostility tn southern institution* Kv? rv thing there contributes to t)? in.'Vflii' III; Co tl' - ire !tf" ght out by lh<* t aiicu- system. and it bey fall to take that aectionnl go "ltd which la derrn? d strong' ?i ttirrf, Ihey an- at discarded. Tba mod" "I nommting cat tl tiatra, a* w? II ** "ft oniluciing the canvas*, i? d? -I u<livr id anything like independence in ibe r> we ntMive 'I hey Jn not, aa gentlemen often d" in ibr i h and wra, take ground against the ("pillar clamor, and eu*t*in themrrlres by dim i appeal* to the intelhgenre and rea-on of their naautiient* Almost the whole of the Northern ptr?? co-operated in the man meal. With the eaoeptM'B t.( the Xnr Vnrk HnmlH, (which, with its Urie circulation, published matter on h?th side*,) and a tew other liberal papera, everything favorable io the nnmh haa been enrefully etrhidfd from the Nnnhem papera liy these combined rttorta, a drgiee of testing and oreiudire haa bee? gotten uo agaiBit the Soath. which ia most inteaae in all ihe Interior I wa? "indeed laet winter to hear a Northern Senator aay, mat in the town in which he lived, it woaid e ire ire great astonishment if it were known that a northern lady would, at the time of the meeting af the twa house*. walk tip to the Capitol with a Soti'hem is nator. that they had been taught to consider aontherneTt generally a- being *o caarae and rvfTignfy m raaarrr, that a lady would not trust I eraelf w aweh a presence This anecdote, mr, d?ea not pre Pent too sir><ng a picture of the t ondition of penriment in i??ro<>ns el the interior of tint nenhern country Ifow (ar gentlemen on thia H??>r are t(, |m> influenced in th-ir action by such ntate of 'unnion, I fewve fhem to decide. The ni' ?t , tmiiple iipoo wh ;i h the nenhern movement ywpta, which n ?Tre ady adopted l.y MM northern politiciaaa, and to which tttey nil aeem ikely to be driven by the force of the popular cur- I rent there, if the question is unsettled till the next fi congressional election, in this: '1 hat the govern- p ruerit of the I uited State# must do nothing to sane- s lion slavery; that it must, therefore, exclude it from a the territories; that it inust abolish it in th>* Uis'rict t of Columbia, hilts and arsenals, and wherever it : i Iihh jurisdiction. Some, too, carrying the princi- j pie to its ext< lit, insist llldt tne coasting slave trade, | i nod that between the Stales, should also be abol- I i ishtd, nr.d that slave labor should not he tolerat-.d in a public ?flice of the United Slut- *, such as tii*~ I < torn houses, post I flues and tile like As these I things all obviously re.-t on the sune general dogma, it is clear that the yielding of one or more j l*>int? would not check, hut would merely accele- j ! l ate the general move nient to the t nd of the s-ries. | j Ilefore tfiiis end wi a reai li? d, they would probably append, as h enroll try, the principle tna: tne rres;- | I dent should not HppoiDt a slaveholder to office. It i ic, sir, inv delioerate judgment that, in lite present temper of the public inmd at the North, it lite territorial question remains open till the nest election, lew it nnv gsntlcmen will get here from the free Ma tee that hie not pledged to the full extent ol the abolition i latfortn. It is, therefore, obviously the interest (>f all of us to settle thin question at the present session. 'i hat the general principle above stated is at war with the whole spirit ol the constitution of the United States, which sanctions slavery in several of its provisions, 1 need not argue here. Taking, however, a practical view of the matter in coutro, vt'ey, look for a moment at the territorial question, the art at issue in the struggle. I will do Northern tenth men on tins floor the justice to admit that they have argued themselves into the tn lief that they are right in claiming the whole of the terri; lory tor tree soil. Let me state, for a moment, the I converse, or opposite of their proposition. Suppose it were to be claimed that no one should be allowed to go into this public territory, unless he carried one or mote sLves w ;tli him, it might then be said, just as gentlemen now tell us, tint it would he perfectly fair, because' it placed every ntan who might be iuclmed to go there on an equal footing, and might, by means of having thus a | hontogt neous population, advance the general in. ttreM. Northern men would ut once, 1 suppose, object to this arrangement. Then we should say to them, if you do not like this restriction, let it be ! settled, then, that every citizen of the 1 ntted States may go into the common territory and arry slaves or not, .ust as he pleases. This would seem to be uptrlectly equitable and fair arrangement. Northern men, however, object to this, and say that they are not wi ling to live in a territory where others ownslavi*. Then we of the South s.iy to them, that we will consent to divide the territory, and limit our possession with slaves to a part of it, and allow them to go at will over the whole. Kven to iliis they object, and insist that they will not allow us to occupy one foot of the territory Remember, sir, thai this very territory was acquired by conquest, and that while the South, according to its population, w ould have been required to furnish <;i ly one-third of the troops, if, in point of fact, did furnish two-thirds ol ths men thut made the conqutfT And the North, deficient as it Was compatntivdy in the struggle, now says that its conscience, or its cupidit), will not permit us to have the smallest portion of that territory. Why, sir, this is the most impudent proposition that was ever maintained by and respectable body of men. w r, 1 give the North lull credit for its feelings in tut or ol liberty. I can well supp >se that Norihi rn ei nilemt n would resist, in the most emphatic manner, the attempt to make any man who is now lite u slave; hut 1 rtgard them as too intelligent to bt lieve that humanity, either to the slave or the master, requires that they should be pent up within a territory which, altera tune, will be iasullicieut lor tin Ir subsistence, and where they must perish troni want, or from the collisions that would occur j between the races. Nor can 1 suppose that they think it would be injurious to New Mexico and v miiKMiia iwi our people 10 go HI1U Srllie among tlit 111 PromiBcat Nonkm etHtesmen, both in this Houre nnd in the Senate, have described the imputation of lb one territories, and have represented it hp bring not only inferior to those Indian tribes that we know most of, viz: the Cherokees end ('hoetdwe, hut ax being far below the Flat Heads, Black Feet, and Snake Indiana. I cannot, therefore. suppose that they rtally believe that these territories would be in; it red by huving infuM'd into them such a elate ot society as produces such |?-rsona as (irsrye Washington, John Marshall, and thousands ol other great and virtuous < no n. li\ u.g and dead. Your opposition to our right 1 will be regarded as resting on the lust for political | ptw?r ot your politicians, or on the rapacity of j j cur people. The idea that the conquered people should be peimilled to give law to the conquerors, is so prroost' rou-ly absurd, that I do not intend to argue it 1 ? ubilers these people would be willing, not only to exclude slaveholders, but all other Americans, if by a simple vote, they were allowed to do so. J may remark further, that but for the antis ar< ry agitation, our southern slaveholders would hare tarr ed their negroes into the mines of Cablei' i in ruch numbers, that 1 have no doubt but I that the majority there would have made it a slat' holding State. We have been deprived of all eJiuncr ol ihi." by the Northern movements, and by the nct'i n ot this House, which has, by Northern \ otf e, repeatedly, frotn time to time, passed the Wihnoi proviso, so as in effect to exclude our institutions, without the actual passage of a law for that purpose. It is a mere farce, therefore, without giving our people time to go into the country, if tie y desire to do so, to allow the individuals there, by a vote, to exclude a w hole class of our citizens. 1 bia would imply that the territory belonged to I the ja ople their exclusively, and not to all the jh ople of the I niti d Statea. t < n jmr- d w ith this great question, the abolition of slavery in the District oft olumbta is of little relative moment i >n?* e fleet, however, of the antislavety HgitHtion here is worthy ol a passing no- | tier. Within the last two years, -ince the matter [ lias become serious, it has serni'c not improbable that the seat ol government m gbt be removed In m iie district A? this would be extremely prejudicial to the interests of the citizens here, many of them have so far changed in their fellings as to be willing to allow slavery to be abolished, yielding to the force of the pr?!Mire Ironi the North; besides, so many ol tb? ir slaves ate from time to time taken uway by the abolitionists, ns to satisfy them that such prop! My here is almost worthless. A great inipr* saion was made on them by the coming in last of a northern ship, and its carry ing away seventy slaves at once Seeing that there was no cb. nee of getting Congress to pass any adequate law for their protection, as most of the Mates luve denr. the* sr? m to be forced lo assent to some extent to the northern movement. Mr, it is most Mir; r i g thai the people of the southern States should fiHve borne, with so little complaint, the besot tlo ir sliv.s iu< urred by the action of the lire Mutes. The constitution of the tainted Mates I rov id# d lor the delivery of all such fugitives, and Congress pareid an act to carry it into effect; but renntv, n ?>?t, if not (allot the northern Mates fi. vet te i-ry detested their provision*, by forbuiltin ny i r ot their citizens to aid la tbeeircnlion if the law, under the |irtialty of fine and hi prut nmrnt tor us long a terra usually as five | years There is probably no one legal mind in .. H.r ll<r -mir!. niurncia rcgnrii tne?e I I lavs us constitutu n?l. For though the Mates are i tot hound to legislate affirmatively in support of f thr constitution of the I nited Mate#, yet it la clear b that they have no rght to pas* law* to obstruct the c ea? rution of conetitution provisions Private citizen f are not usually bound to be active in the ex- ( erulknol the law; but it two or more combine J to | r? vent the eiemtion of any law, they are aab- fl ject to indictment for.conspirary, in all countriea ti v? here the common law doctrines prevail. It the t neveral Mates could rif hltully 1* ^lalate to defeat , n the action of Congress, they in uht thrreby coin- \ pletr ly nullity moat of ita lawa In thia particular li instance, aurh haa been the reault; for though the n maater ia allowed to go and get hta negro if he ii can, yet, in point of fact, it la well known that the fret n< groea. aholitioaiafa, and other disorderly t Ierson-, acting under tha countenance and autho- a rity of the Mate lawa, are able tiaually to over- n power the maater and prevent hia recapture ' h The extent of the |<>a? to the Mvuth may be nn- h deratood tr< m the fact, that the number of runaway c alavea now in the North is atated aa being thirty | I thousand ?worth, at present prices, little sort of | h tittern imlliona of dollars. Suppose that amount n of prnjertjr wna taken away from the North by fl the Southern Stales acting against the conatitu- c lion, what complaint would there not be!?what 11 memorials, remonstrances,! and legislative reaolu- t Hons Would come down upon u?! Mow would ihia tl hn'l I e filled a ith lobby iiiembera, < omint; here to * press their claims upon Congress' Whv.air.miny g of the border counties in the lavehofdimr States ?< have been obliged to give up their alavea almoal I entirely. It wan slated in the newai-apers the other r day. that n few counties named in Star)land, had, I by the fort# of tin ihohti? in-'s w ithin si* month*. > upen ce mpuiation. loet one hundred thousand do|- C lara worth <>t slave* A gentleman of the highest r aiandmg, frrm Delaware, assured me the other I day that that little SUle loat, each year, it least th tt | vahie c( such property in the same way. A hundred h thousand dollars in a heavy tax to he levied on a ii single congressional district by the abolitionists v Mi I pose a proportional burden was inflicted on i the Northern Mates. Mow would Massachusetts t bear ilo looo annually of one million one hundred a thomai.d dollars, not only inflicted without law, * but against an xpress provision of the constilu- b tu n' w-n ay infer fromthe comp'aint she ha#made c of a el uht lotnavenirnct imposed on her by that re gu.atii n of 8 i arolma whtcn prevented ship captV frrru earning free negro servants to Charleston ) lb ? : ? ... ,,, ,101( (,n l(|, (>ir( ^ xonh ia ? lOMy in violation of the d estitution, bat teems t| to t>e purely wanton, or originating in malice to- b W'frtsthi -m-th It is obvious that ihey do not ta v i t our >'ar-s sn ng 'hem , because they not ci ? my tr ke n. ad'^uste provision tor their comfort, ti l ut. u lact, in many ol th* States, haie forbidden ia ree negroe* to coiur antojn; them, on pain of im- ne riboiiinent, 5tc. It cannot oe a desire to liberate 1 a laves, because th? y have never to my knowledge, wi iten>|)ted to ateal nrgioea from Cubn or Bi j/.il. It is wi rue, however, that h iving the right now to come ^r mioon lib both by land a- -.1 water, they have greater i. idvul.tapea and inilliutilllea For It they Went into 1.1 t foreign country, they would incur the risk of being hi hot or hanged, na robbers und pirate* usually are. eu .- r, if any evil* have grown out of the existence w >1 i-'.KVery. they have not, at |e,i?t, affected the >ii North, f'uriug the day* of the blrve trade, wht h l> (?* I fi.rnierly had occasion to rem irk) was eo i- I' iit;u- ?f down to lN>h by N.-w England vote* in the at - a- v-.n -i. ??..i;,..i ,i loijje profits by purchasing negroes on the coast of vv Alma at thirty or forty dollars per head, aud sell- |>i : i! <r I bun to Southern planters for several hundred cc dollars. The bringing 10 of these slaves caused th large tracts of the Southern country, too unhealthy to to have been cleared by white men, to be brought to under profitable cultivation. The price of cotton 41 lias thereby been brought down from fifty to ten, ki and even five cents per pound. An immense w amcuut of capital and labor is employed profit- in ably in its manufacture at the North. In England, cli also, not less than six hundred millions of dollars th is thus invested, and a vast population exists by M being t mploj ed in the manufacture. It is as i r- w mined thut at least five millions of white pels his, <>i in Hut ope and in this country, get their eniuloy- fr ment, aie ted, and exist, 011 the in.inntacture of to cotton alone. The cheap Southern production ot at the raw material not only is the meant of thus c< giving subsistence to a gre it portion of the ;><yu- ra lation of this country and Kurope, but is clotluig w the world at a cheap rate In addition to cotton. I rice, sugar, coffee, tobacco, end various tropical 1 i n ductions are supplied at a cheap rats, for nor- n< thern consumption. On the other hand, our slaves b? teldem come in competition with Northern labor, lil ur.d aie good consumers of its productions. While hi the Noith libs derived these great advantages, ni the negroes themselves have not been sufii-rers. to Their condition not only compares most advantageously with th>vJ of the laboring popula- pr tic n of the world, Imt is in advance of the position ni they have been able, at any time, to occupy at ct home. The researches of Gliddon atid other st antiquarians show that four thousand years ago ci in Africa they were slaves, and as black as to they now are Since then, 111 that couutry. di where they were placed by Providence, uud in where, from their peculiar constitution, they en- in joy the best health, they have existed only as fr sevi ges. They are there continually made slaves lo of by the men of inure intelligent and enterpri- ai sing tacts. Nor huve they ever gotten out of si the tropical parts of Atnca, except when they st were curried as merchandise. It remaina to be proved, however, yet to the world, thut the negro, m nuy mote than the horse, ccn perm uienily exist, re iri u stute ot freedom, out of the tropical regions, ai Their decay at the North, as well a? other circurn- c< stances w hit h I have not time 10detail, are adverse |a to the proposition. And yet, sir, the journals of S the North, while they deny that the French and tl the Germans, the most enlightened of the conn- It iiental nations of 1 urope, are capable sf freedom, la stoutly maintain that the negro is?the negro who S has never anywhere, w hen felt to himself! gotten tl up to the respectable state ot barbarism which all pi the other races have attained, not even excepting e' our Indians in Mexico and Peru. w While the people of the northern States and the negroes have been benefitted, 1 am not prepared to m admit that (he South (if injured at all) has stillered w as generally supposed. The influx of foreign enii- tf grants, and some other circumstances to whicn I ki W ill uresentlv advert, have, in tuim#* rcai.^etu nut III the North greatly ahead, lint it' you deduct the tn foreign population, which goes chtelly to the North * ? the little we g? t not being equal to that portion v< of our own people who go to the northwestern c? Mates?if vou deduct this, 1 say, it will be found ti that the white population of all the slaveholding pi 5tat?s has uicr* used faster than that ot the free b< States. Owing to the comfortable condition of f? our |?<pulation. if there had been no emigration p< from abroad, the descendant* of our portion of the at American white tunuly would be tnore numerous [* ttian the northern. Nor is it true that we are the m poorer : on the contrary, it we arc to tike the vain- re aliens ot property in the dliferent States, as assess- at ed by the public otlicers, it appears that the slave- in holding Mates sre much richer in proportion to hi tin ir population than the tree, liven If M ex- hi dude the p?groes aa pioperty, and count them in lo the population, it appears that the citizen* of Vir* th Einia? the oldest ol the slave Mutes?are richer, at per head, than the citizens of any one of ihr free fil Mules. It will also appear that the slaveholding w States have vastly less paupero-m and crime than ot the northern States. Looking, therefore, nt all 'u there ditlerent elements, vi/. ; greater increase of ot population, more wealth, and les< poverty and 1 crime, we have reo?on to regard our people as b? prosperous and happy. P? Mr, 1 have not, lor want of time, gon r into de- ik ails on ill* nt* pointy, but contented myself with fu lie statement ol those general views which every in vulid inquirer will, I am saino'.evl. llnd to be true. p? do not seek to MM 11 MpUWOM ihal might be ei rrgatdtd a* invidious, unless by way of defence ?) tpiiinsl hahitnsl att?< ks on us ; but I regard it as if right to say, on this occasion, that whether ennui- Hi dried with reference to the physical comfort of the in people, or* high state of public and private mo- tr rals, elevated sense of honor, and of all generous T. i motions, I have no reason to believe that a higher tc it ate of civilization either now exists elsewhere, w it has existed at any time in the past, than is pre- m tent* d by the southern Mates ot the I nion. as When we look to loreign countries, these views th are continued and sustained. Hruzil, with a po- ?y I ulation ot two slaves to one freeman, is the most prosperous of the South American Mates, and the th only one which hus a stable political system of ubu ta greatly in advance ul the other West India at islands, though St. liomingo and Jamaica once St rqusiird her b*U?re the emancipation of their ct -laves. II*sides the expense of maintaining her of u\ eminent at home, Cuba pay? Spain a revenue in nt neatly fourteen millions t his is a greater sum w lor her population than two hundrad millions would p* be fi r the 1 nitrd States. Could our people, in ad- in Mion to the expense of our Suta governments, nay n? mi times as much as the the federal government has ut rvtr yet raised by tnt|>ost and tans? That Cuba w ihould be able to bear this burden and still prosper, 'I is cvideiite ot the high productiveness of the syw hi t? rn. In spite, however, of these great farts, which lo rmght to strike all impartial minds, the course of Hi the North has be? n constantly aggres'ive on this to question. The ordinance ol I7K7, adopted cotem- dr .siraneously with the constitution, made the terri* pa ory north of the Ohio free, and left that aootti of <> lie river *lav? holding, giving th- N orth more tban in tall of all the existing territory. When Louisiana se *as acquired, slavery could legally exist in evsry sti mtt of it. The Mate of Missouri having lormrd n er publican constitution, proposed .o come into the tai I nion, but the North resmtcu her application hi ir.coign nrr cousuiiiion recognising sUvsry w .is n recisely like those of a majority of Uw old States, of ret liter, against all cori-titutional jr ncij i-. be- cc ausegnry had the power m ope branch of ("on- n* tr?-e, obstinately refused her sdmi-non. until it 'h *hs ptovidrd by art of Congress that no other fsi lave Mate should exist North of .Hi Hy that !?' titans, after leaving the ^outh only territory for ab i stable State, (Arkansas.) thev acsaired enough ar n extent to make ten or fitte. n large States. Now, on acouraged by their formar success, and having an recome relatively stronger, they claim the whole mi l the territory tir Mioald w? give wajr, w- hat is to be the result T ev 'ahforma. Oregon, New Mexico, (teserct, and of dtnceeota, will come into the i nton in less than nit Ive yrars, giving the North a clear majority of en i n or fifteen votes in the Senate. The census of to he coming year will, tiader the new apportion- <h< nent, give ihem nearly two to oae in this House tw Vith immense controlling majortttas in both ar ranches, will they not at onee, by act of Congress, ea bclish slavery in the States? Mr Adam*, who, pli n his day, controlled Northern opinion on this i< ueation, said that there were twenty provisions of tr* he constitution, w htch, under certain c>reiim- in tanreg, would give i ongresa the power Would ni? ot this majority find the power, a* easily aa they ob iave done in their Stale Legislaturea, where they to lave complete sw ay to nullty the provision of the tht i neiitutii n for the protection of fugitive slaves ' art lave not prominent northern politicians, ot the sts liphrst positions and the greateat influence, whose w< ames are well hnowj to all gentlemen on thia *< bor, already declared that there is nothing in the W onatitution of the l nited Statea which obstructs dr r ou ji.t to obstruct the abolition of slavery, by w| -a. in the Stales' Supposing, however, to his should not < cctir, in twenty years or less, nit i thi utn' wsc oisittona of territory, they * . dd thi ft the power,by the coming ta of new freaStates, rri r> amend the constitution Inr that purpose Hut nl have no doubt, sir. that other acquisitions of ter- let itoiy will be made. Probably after the next att 'residential election, we shall get that part of ?e? lextcowhich Itea along the liuli, as far as Vera mz : and from which, though well suited to the lie re fitable employment of slave labor, we should th' >e excluded, nevertheless, by the adoption < f the dit nnciple that slavery should not be extended in ho tea. Conceding, however, that I atn wrong vet rt both these ?impositions, and that Congress it vould neither violate the constitution nor annul < !e t thus, what are we to expect! Slavery is als 0 be kept, they say. where it now is; and we *t re to be snrroundec with free Statea Thesa nie tales not only prohibit the introduction of slaves, lis ut also of free negroes into their borders Of pri <>urse the whole negro popnla'ion is to b? h?re. i>| Iter confined to the territory of the preseat fifteen Pr lave ftitta. Thst population in twenty-five oft ears will amount to seven or eight millions, and ml 1 ftity ) eats to fifteen millions However dense t bl lie population might become, the negroes will not are e gotten away, hat the wealthier portion of the tot htle p-nruhUtoa (T mean such as were able to the migrate) would Ifavr the territory The rondo ton on of tne 8rn?h would, for a time, be that of Ire- the t.d, and soon, by the destruction el the rent- n t ntH of the white population, become that of ft. pei rmiiigo. There ate those now living who j ot

[told probably we this state of things; but it to i uld be certain to overtake our children or j wl andchddren These facta are (daring us in the dit ce as dletinetly as the sun is the heavens at , dit loncay. Northern men not ouly admit it, but con- ' tin antly in their public speeches avow it to he their the irpote to produce this very state of things If no e express alarm at the prospect, they seek to in uuse t:s with eulogies on the |>lea,ing* of the on (! era I Union, and ask us to be still for a tiui'. the hey do well, tor it is true that ceuninunities have he tUally been destroyed by movements which, in tin e beginning, intlicted no lmuiediute injury, and pel hie h were therefore acquiesced in till they had fin op re seed too far to lie resitted They have, too, a i instant example s in the ceuduct of brute animals, na at do not struggle against evils until they begin uu leel pain. They ure doubtless, too, encouraged it hope lor our submission on account of our ac- ac< liescence under their former wrongs. They in now that the evils alreudy inflicted on us, to mi hich 1 have referred, greatly exceed in amount w, iy it'iury that Great Britain attempted when she tin rove the colonies into resistance, besides, sir, ha leir aggressions have infinitely le>s show of con- iht right or color, of natural justice. But rm hat they now jaopote is too palpable even for qu ir Southern generosity. If, after having Imen wi ee for seventy yearn, the Southern States w-re N"( couerlit to be slum degraded and enslaved, in- co ead of ihe pity, they would meet the acorn u??d to mteirpt of the universe. The men of this gene- ' ition, who w ould be respnuible, ought to be ou hijped through their fields by their own negroes go that k tiod that there is no one iu my district that no think to meanly of, as to believe that he would ex jt readily conie into whatever movement nnglit C* necessary for the protection of our rights aud of tierty. 1 tell Northern gentlemen, who are in lit r>|>et; that the Sculh will Be divide,!, that we shall fr< at have halt as many traitors to hang us we did nil iries in the revolution. th If gentlemen mean that the Union, upon the lie inciples of the constitution, is desirable, 1 will ar jt controvert thut opinion. 13ut the Union never >uld huve been foimed w ithout the written con- ih ituiion f?o, if ycu now, by your action, practi- ? n illy deatroy the constitution, those injured, it able t e i mist, will not submit. That instrument was or- vn lined, in its own language, to "establish ju-tice, St sure domestic tranquillity, unil secure ihe bless- be g* of liberty" to all parties to it?namely, the ha mien of the Union. If, therefore, und-r its vh rm, gross injustice is done, insurrections excited, fa rd the citizens ot part of the States politically en- d< aved, then the Union ought not to stand, as an in- ce rurni mi of vnu and mrinm, w There is throughout the South a strong attach- cc lent to the Union of the States. This sentiment th sts not so much upon any calculations ot interest y i ou historic association* and the recollections of as amnion ancestral struggles and triumph*. Our th ople take a pride in the name ol the United se tales, and in being members of a great republic fo ml furnishes a che ering example to the friends of su betty throughoul the world. But the eveuts of the in bt tew years are rapidly weakening this feeling, of eeir.g that there appeared to be a settled purpose in th ic North to put them to the wall, many of our peo- y i e, regarding a dissolution of the Uuioii us the in- A litalle result of this aggression, have looked tor- ar ard to the consequences of such a state of things, sh 1 will (ell Northern gentlemen, in the hope that ta mny of ihcm are not yet past the point of reason, es hat is the view presented in prospect to many ot w te highest intellects in the South it is well th nown that the existing revenue system Oj>erdtes in axdly on the South and the West. The govern- m tent raises upward* of thirty millions annually by ur duty or ta* upon imports. But this system acts ni try unequally on the different sections of the lie hoi try For illustration of the mode of opera- ?| on, 1 will take a Bingle article. Railroad iron is m educed in England at so cheap a rate, that it can pe ? brought to this country and sold, we may say, fo ir $-10 per ton. 'J'his is much cheaper than our CI ople can afford to make it at. Tliev therefore so k the government to reunite the payment of $20 su r ton by v y of duty The imp rrter, therefore, ar istead of liai? for par ten, must ask jbO, to m in.burse binn-elf for what he has paid out abroad, pr id to the government. Every person, therefore, ci i the United States, who purchase* railroad iron, S? ts to pay $20 more for each ton. There are, th jwever, some advantages to counterbalance tins a i es. In the first place, some of our |>eople, finding ha lat they can make a profit by selling railroad iron Bt ? 0 p? r ton, engage in the manufacture, aud thus Ei ltd t inolot inent. While so engaged, I he ** ner- toi of consume the produce of the furmerg ar,J uri hers, and thus make a home market for agricul- iu tal pioduc?ioof. We nee, however, that the lo w inl flit) per ton lab's on all those in any part of the nti iiitt d Elates ? homay consume the iron, Hut the .ill nefit is confined to those i*-r?ons who are en- fci igi d in muking iron, ar.d those who live so near In em that tliey can conveniently get their produce cu the factories. In fact, this sort of manutactur- tui g is confined to the ritate of Pennsylvania, and wl tltspaa lew oilier localities. Hut my cnnstitu- so its can no niote pay the manufacturers of Pcnn- n? Wnn:a tor iron IS lite , ri duction of tlieir farms, to an thry could the Krltish iron masters. It is, | ch >e re fore, to cur advantage, as me must pay fur it ch cash, to get the iron at the loweat rate. This is f? ue of the ?siuthern und Western people generally. mi his illustrates the effect of our revenue ami pro- fit etivr system. The burden is diffused over the pr In Is country, but the henefft is limited to the m.iilarturrrr. and to those persons who reside so near be i to have tin reby a fetter market; very little more Tl an one-thitd c f tne t nion : ets tli>' benefit of the ta| stem, in exclusion mainly of the South aud West, mi It is not easy to measure the precise extent of Ol is burden. It has been sstimatad that two-thirds on all the articles which would, if imported, be an bject toj-sy a duty, are produced in tne I nited IK tales. To return, for ready lllastration, to the mi se of railroad iron. If two of every three tons on iron costumed in the I nited States were made do thia country, it would follow that the person wl ho consutrea tboss three tons of iron, while he so >id twenty dollars to the government on the ton P? iported, would nay forty dollars to the borne thi anulacturer; ana It he lived so far from the mnn- lo? acturer that he could not pay him is produce, it to oold follow that, in fact, while he paid the gov- wi nment but twenty dollars, he would low sixty to ineelf on account of the duty. When, there- hi) re, the government gets, ns it is doing, thirty- fa? ree millions of dollars revenue, the whole burden pri the consumers of tins country would be one hun- m< ed millions of dollars; of thia amount, the 8outh tin ys, according to its population and consumption, no rty millions of dollar* This sum I tbtuk too low set tact. In the Pstent I dTice report, made to the last he seion of Congress, (the last one published.) it is ci ?ted by the Commissioner, Mr Hurke, a north- de a man, that the annual value of articles manuc lured iu the United States, is five hnndred and h. ty millions of dollars. This statement do-s not bu elude iron, salt, coal, augur, wool, the products <" nsnrrieo, anu oinrr article" on which a duty 1a coi Heeled; adding these, swell* the amount to p?* atly seven hundred million*. t 'ur import* for lie at yrar were uuusnaily large, on account of the ad mine abroad. Nenrrtltelese. all the articlea im- all rtrd, on which a duty ia collected, including the tbi overrented in the statem* nt of manufactures, ?ti r m value only t-ne hundred and eleven million" ?'? e hundred and f.fty-four thouaand three hundred el< d titieen dollar*. It thua appears that the amount *? nnufacturrd in the country, ia more than an 1 nea that import! d. It ia not pretended, how- th< er. that thia cotrpiriaon afford* a i<roj>er meaaure Sti the arrouat of the burden which the country r? I ?y auataia ; and that while it pa^^th- gov- ha tment thirty-three inilliona, it paya two hundred *e? the manufacturers indirectly, thereby making th? r whole lo?a to conaumera, in the first inatanee, <h> <> hundred and thirty-three nnlliona .^ome tew th? ticlea are manufactun d here as cheaply a* they ry, n be elaewhere ; and a eery large nusib-r, at the '** irea where they are made, are chenp-r to the fre nsurner than would be the foreign article when be< MptftMIMVC. It i? also true, however, that I t a great many case a the consumer loara even <h? >re than the whole duty, becauee he is not oaly ? liged to pay it to the manufacturer or refund it *f the importer, but also a profit or per ceot on 'h? a duty to each trader through wluw hands the nic dele pa??ea before it reaches him la other in- r?< ncea, the | rice is intermediate between what it of uild be without any duty and th?t which it ?'< mid amount to by tne audition of the duty.? hei ant of accurate knowledge of all the facta rrn- np' ra it impossible to determine precisely the eff -ct ha| tich our revenue system produces; hut that it ??t most powerful and controlling, cannot be de- 'uu d. The government actually raises more than J h rty millions per year by these duties. The lyiniifactnrers. who certainly are interested in ' v llirg their productiona at a high rather than a v rate, and who understand their true hitoresta, *h ach the grrateat importance to the tariff aya- 'ar n, and attribute to its operation rffect* evin Kei ?at?r than I have atatcd them to be There slai s been less complaint among conaumera. because ad* cost of most manufactured articles his been I'1"1 ninishing from time to time This fall of prices, tot we\er, is partly attributable to the great disco- con rie- ma<!< during our day fu chemistry, median- If t rt, and the arts generally, by which tnsse arti- to ? s arc produced with much more facility. It ia the o attributable to the comparative repose of tha If I u!d, winch has directed capital and labor, for- f*f r!y c neiimcd in wars, to indu?trial pursuit*. I*n? nee, though there is a gradual reduction of f 1 res in the 1 nited State *, yet it is still more strk- ? 1 r on the other side of the Atlantic, la (ireat !*'? -a.n particularly, as well us in certain portions <Ti t die continent, sur h ^s the ari umuUtinn > f r^p|. t*ki and ?o great the nun h< of la w Iio are r*t 1 iged to work for a mere euh*istenre. that pricea ff*j at the lowest po?#jh|e rate We have a right -ke advanttf of this state of things. r,.i as Kuropoans d<> of our cheap production of rot- ?J,f'' Instead of giving us half a dollar a pound, aa y naed to do. they aa w ell as the people of the tbern states, seem glad to get it for fi?c ccut* V ' pound, in consequence of our over production the article. We have, therefore, a natural right purchase their productions at the lowest rata at uch we can obtain them, to couuterb tlauce the 'tidvantage we sutler from th* accumulation of a lerent kind of capital and labor. To alleviate a burden, we of the south get back very little in foim of protection. Why, then, have southern n been willing to submit to a syvtein so unequal its operation 1 Because, as I have formerly bai casion to state, in tiie convention which made * federal constitution there was a hirsain mi le tw een the North an J the Sou'h, that, provided -y would allow our slaves to be represented, to unit importation tor a time, and to deliver up {ltives, the f<outh would, on its part, aj:ree that nujority of Cougrrss might have power to pass ligation on turilflawa As the gilt of the power der the circumstances necessarily implied that was to be exercised, we felt J hound in honor to qulesoc in the action of the majority. B -cause, ihe second place, protection to sui-h extent as pht give our infant manufactures a fair start, is calculated to advance the interest of the na- | n as a whi-le, though for the tune it might bear idly on us. And because, thirdly, that we hoped u lilt riiuiiirin Oini.i. nuuiu, aiiri n uiur, j;r( iu i .nul.iciurmg themselves, as their interest reiied tlfin to do, and thus escape the burden. It is thus that southern gentlemen, ev.*n after the rth hud partially failed to pay its share of the ' ntideration, w itn great magnanimity continued u-tain the system The manner of (Usbursement is also adverse to ' r inter* sts. Of the forty odd millions which the ! vernment purjao'ca to disburs- this year,?I do i t believe that live millions will in any way be i pended in all the slayeholding States North j irolina, for example, is burdened to the extent j not lets than three millions, and yet does not I r hack one hundred thousand d. liars in any way , m the government. Tks ch ar loss in a pecu- ? my point ot view, on account of the action of j e government, may be set down Ht three mil- I f s| annually. The soutnern States geuerully e in the sanie situation. W'nat would be our condition if separated from e North ! It is d.tiicult to de'ermine ihe precise iiount i f the exports of the slaveholding Stales, cause it is not practicable to arrive ut the exact hie |,of (hot portion which is sold to the free ales. Hut the amount of our leading staphs ing pretty well known?1 mean cotton, rice, tocco, sugar, A'c.?we can urrrve at the whole lue of our exports pretty nemly. Tliev cannot II short cf one hundred and thirty millions of liars, and this year, perhaps, considerably exad that sum. This is nearly as much as the hele of the exports of the United States to forccn untrits. It must be remembered, however, that outh the free States furnish jmrt of otrr exports, t that which they do afford is scarcely so much the portion < our own products which goes to em lor consumption. If, therefore, we were paroted, our w hole exports to the North and to reign countries generully, would be equal to that in. Of course we should import as much, and fact do at this time consume as inuch. A duty thirty per cent on these imports (and most of e rates ot the present tanli I iw are hi ;her) would eld a revenue of nearly forty millions of dollars. b the prices of almost all manufactured articles e regulated by the production of the great workioj>s of Europe, w here the accumulation of c ipi1 and labor Keeps down production to the lowit possible rates, I have no doubt but that sum ould he raised without any material increase ofe prices which our citizens now pay. We ight therefore exjwnd as much as the "govern flit 01 me i uiira Olmec ever cia ta tune 01 peace > to the beginning of G?neral .Tdck.-ou's udinibtratioo, aid still have on hand tw.-nty-ti/e milms of dollars to devote to the making railroads, ?ening our harbors aud rivers, uud tor other doestic purposes. _t'r. by levying only a twenty r cent duty, which the Northern manufacturers und ruinous to them, as they said, under Mr. ay's compr mise bill, we should be able to ra'se me twenty-five millions of dollars. Half of this n would be sufficient for the support of our my, navy, and civil government, l'ne residue igfit be devoted to the making of all such imovementa us we are now in want of, and esj>enlly checkering our country over with railroads, ibjerting the goods of the North to a duty, with oaefrom Other foreign countries, would at once give xiwerful stimulus to our own manufactures. We ve already sufficient capital for the purpose, it, it needed, it would rcme in from abroad, iglith < apitallats have filled itel^ium with lacus. Why did thia occurf .Simply because -?tiicm were ciimpe; lhere and taxes lower than Ens)l?d. The mom motives would brmg tfiein 0 the Southern country, since both the reasons signed are much stronger in our esse. It has re.dy been proved that we csn manufacture me kit ds of goods more cheaply than the North. New Knglaud, too, owing to her deficient agrilture, every thing is directed to mmutaoring, and the system is strained up to u point iit!i isattendid withgreat social disadvantages, as to tetard imputation. In the South, it need 1 be to. The climate and noil are very favorable ucricultural pursuits Our slaves might be it if) occupied on the farms, while the poorer ess if our white imputation, and n portion of our males, could be advantageously employed in snufucturiug. We should thus MM that divery in our pursuits which is most conducive to the osjK-iity und happiness of a people. Our carry ing trade would probably, for a time, in the hands of the English and other foreigners, us, however, would not be to our disadvangr. s nce northern shipowners now charge as icn lor freight between New York and New leans, as they do for carrying it to Canton, thr opposite side of the globe. The whole lr.unt ot the freight on southern productions, ceived by the northern shipowners, has, on a nute calculation, been set down at loriy millions e hundred and eighty-six thousand seven huntd and twenty-eight dollars ($-10,1.*46,72*1 ) The ,o!e value which the North derives from its uthern connection, has been estimated, by some is? ns most familiar with these statistics, at more n eighty-eight millions of dollars. Whoever ks into the condition of the different ^utrs prior the formation of the I nion, and compares it th their situation at first, under low duties, up the war and tariff of INItl, and its successors, flily protective ns they have been, will find the ts tully sustaining the opinions 1 have ex seed Northern writers or elementary books, ide for school children, "of course, represent ings differently, Hnd deceive the careless and igrun' My opinions on th<se points have been tiled for a Ion,: while past, though I have not rrtofoie been in a po?iuon where J thought 1 uld exert uny controlling influence, or effect any sirable ob;ect, by giving utterance to them. In throwing out these views, Mr. Chairm m, I ve not sought the utmost degree of precision, t I have no <hubt but that all the facts will he ind, on examination, not lesa favorable to my nclusiona than I have stated them. .My purse, now, is simply to present to northern g- nmm such general views as are likely now to Ik oped by the 3ouih Your course of aggression is eady array ingagsinst you all the highest miada of r South? men of high intellect, and higher natrism, whose utter indi tiers nee to all personal onlerations will make them, in the language of my tjuent fn?nd from t seorgia, (Mr. Toombs,) "dete all they hare and all ihey are to ihia cause." Hut r> st!? n ? n ?i e.i k ol 111. rtiliimltv ..f nui,n> ? boundary : miU the rendition of^ the border nit* of Maryland and Krntucky are particularly emd to. I'udoubtrdly, each State would vr the right to detrrnune for itself to whir 1 *tion ?f the conirdrrucv it would belong. If >se to* Statiswrr* to unite with the North, n, ap it would not b* possible for them to change ir rendition immediately with respect to slave, if they ever did, they would, for niiny years at at, form a barrier against the aggression* o| the Si ep, until, in short, the Mouth would have rtnir to? great and powerful to need puch aid. i?ke it, however, that tbrir interest would lead to to prefer an association with the South, ith reference to fugitive slaves, Maryland I mid not be materially worse off than 1 have 1 >wn her to be, if she were n..t, in tact, leas I dented. There would, however, be peine great 1 stenrailing advantages She m jn advance 1 n.(M ot the Southern S-ates in manufactures, ' J a duty on Northern imports would give ( r, for the time, better prices on such things as 1 w come from the North Baltimore would, per- ! v, trom its c< nsidemhle sue and its capital, bene the New- York of the South New \ ork itsell ist st once lose mote than half ita foreign trade arhston and New ('rleana would expand rapidThe like might occur to the cities of Yirriuia. en the little town* on the eastern coast of my i n State would more than recover the trade 1 ich they hud prior to the war duties and the i irt ?I M'i The northern tier of rouatiea in I ntrrky wo- Id perhaps be obliged to remove their l rrp to ihe South But there would be to her unfai: s in the change. ?imilarto those of Mary- I d hentm ky supplies the South with live stock I i great event; hut she has to encounter the i riI?ti'icn of t 'hi? snd other northwester? States. 1 he productions of these Stales were subrcted i i duty, she mTht for s time have s monopoly in t ttade. I would do injustice to these iwo States supposed that they would be governed solely or ( n mainly by calculations of interest Mary- , 1 and Krntucky are tilled with as courageous, , f nrrctif, ind am oobl^-rmodrd mrn and wom^n | exist on earth; and following their bold im- ? es, they would make common cause with their t rrssed sisters of the South, and, if ncces-arr, j > their places where the blows might fall th'rk- s in the front of the column, with the same high j ng? that animated their as-eatorsonthe battle- |, I? of the revolution Bather than that they *] lid sepsmte from us, i think it far inpre proba- a i hat some of the north western free States would ] it to their advantage to go with the Month r we have been threatened that the North will n > pooaetsion of the Lewer Mississippi. The British tried that in 1813, but found Andrew JucVmB aud some oi the southwestern militiamen t? the way. In the thirty-five ye.irs that have since parted, those States have become populous and strong, and would doubtless be able to protect their wuteis from aggression. The southern States having now a free population of six millions, and producing in succession such soldo rs as Wattlington, Jackson, Scott, aud Taylor, need have no serious tears ot foreign aggression 1 rubiuit it, then. Mr. Chairman, calmly to northern gentlemen, that they had better mike up their minds to uive u> at once a fair settlement; not cheat us by a mare empty form, without reality, but uive something substantial for the South. We nnulit ii<v}u:c?ct* in the Missouri compromise line. 1 tin uld individually prefer, under nil tli- circumstances. gi\ tug up the whole of California, provided we could hnve nil on to is side of nt up to about the p?r.dlel of-ID deg , not far from the northern line of the feiaie ot Mi;a<siri, rather than it* southern? 3t>deg 30min. We would thus, by getting the v hole ot New Mexico, und having the mountain chain Hud desert on the west, obtain a proper fioctter. We might then acquire, at some luture day, whether untied or divided, p-ssrssion ?f the coitiitry along the Gulf ot Mexico, well suited to be occupied by our slave population- I mean, sir, that no re st net ton ought to he inti?;sed by Congress on this territory, hut that after it has been left open to all classes for a proper pe riod, the m tjortty may tlun, w hen they make a State constitution, deter* mine for themselves whether they will permit slavery or not. The South will acquiesce in any reasonable settlement. 15ut w hen we at>k for justice, and to be let alone, we are met by the senseless and insane cry of ' luioc, union!" Sir, I am disgusted with it. When it conies lrom northern gentlemen who are attacking us, it falls on my ear as it if a band of robbers had surrounded a dwelling, and when the inmatt s attempted to resist, the assailants should raisf the shout of ''Peace?union? harmony!" If they will do us justice, we do not need their lectures. As long as they refuse it, their declarations seem miserable, hypocritical cant. When these things come from southern men, I have even less respect for them, liven the most cowardly men, when threatened with perseual injury, do not usually announce in advance that they mean to submit to all the chastisement which au adversary may choose to inffict_ And those persona who, seeing the aggressive attitude of the North, and its numerical power, declare in advance that for their parts they intend to submit to whatever the majority may do, are taking the best count to aid our assailants, and need not wonder if the country regards them as enemies of the South. If northern gentlemen will do us justice on this great question, we may consent to submit to lesser evils. We may acquiesce in a most oppressive revenue system We may tolerate a most unequal distribution of the public expenditures. We may bear the loss of our fugitive slaves, incurred because the legislatures of the northern States have nullified an < tseniial provision of the constitution, without which the t'nion could not have been formed, because mere pecuniary conaideratious are not controlling with us. We may even permit such portions of the northern people as are destitute of proper eelf-respecr, to send up here occasionally representatives whose sole business seems to be to irritate as much as possible southern feeling, and pander to the prejudices of the worst part of the northern community We m*y allow that the northern States shall keep up and foster in their bosoms abolition societies, whose train purpose is to scatter firebrands throughout the Soutn, to incite servile iusutrectious, and stimulate, by licentious pictures, our negroes to invade the persons nf ruir alntr U'nmpii Rvt if in m^ifinn Ia nil these wrongs aud inaulte, you intend to detrude and utterly ruiu the South, then we don't go it. We do not love you, people of the North, well enrugh to become your slaves. God h:is given us the power aud tne will tort Mat. Our fatnera acquirtd our liberty by the a word, and with it, at every hazard, we will maintain it. But before resorting to that inatrument, I hold that all constita11 on it 1 means should be exhausted. It is, sir, a wise provision of providence, that less force is required to resist an attuck than to make it. The constitution of the United States has been well franu-d on these principles. While, therefore, a majority is necessary to pass a measure, one-fifth of the members may demand the yeas and nays. In spite, therefore, of any change of rule which the majority can m?ke us long as this constitutional provision stands, a minority of one-fifth or mure, if firm, and sustained by the peojile at home, can stop the wheels of the government. If it is ascertained that no proper settlement can be gotten of the territorial question, it would be in thn power of the southern members to defeat nil thn appropriation ?nd km tl,e government to a dead halt. Perhaps it ni:"!." ** well to give such a cup to northern gtnilenieu; for I wu .'"toeniber hat when thecivilsod dipiomeuc appropriation but was under consideration, with the amendment t.-om the Senate known an Walker's, which would have settled the question of slavery in the terntoritiea, a number of northern geutlemen resolved to defeat that bill and all other business by constantly catting lor the yeas and nays, if they did not succeed in striking out that Amendment. ] recollect perfectly, that while 1 was pressing a Pennsylvania member to vote against striking out that amendment, which was the pending motiou, a member of high standing from Massachusetts said to me, "Vou need not give yourself any trouble shout this nWitter; if we do not succeed in changing it, we skull prevent its adoption by having the vena and nays on motions to adjourn, un<l calls of the House, till the end ol the amnion." From similar declarations made to me by a numl>er of northern gentlemen, as I went through the House, I had no doubt but that, as he said, enough had agrrvd to have enabled them to ellrct their pur|>ose, it thn motion to change the character of the um'-ndmeat had failed. It is not long since, too, that another citizen of Massachusetts [Mr. John Ltavis] defeated the two million bill then pending in the Senate, by speaking till the end of the session. A4 north, rn genii, men have, therefore, been accustomed to this mode ot rtMMace to sucb measure# t.> they do cot like, I t.Jtr it that th?-y would hnrdly comi lain of tin* kind of retaliation. 1 tell gentlemen 'hat, if w? cannot in advanco grt n fair settlement of tlna question, 1 ahould be pleased to are the civil and diplomatic bill. the ttriry and navy lull, and all other appropriations, full W e ahould there by jnahe every onioer ana every v xp? tunit of public money directly intereatsd in having jin-tice done to the 8>uth. It would bo far better to have this temporary inconvenience lor a year or two, than that we ahould see a bio ?dy revolution, or something worse. 1 hold it to be the duty of every southern representative to stay here and prevent, till the close of our official term, ibe parage ot any measures that might tend to force our pennlr to unjust submission la the mean time the southern Mates could, in convention, lako suck steps as might be necratary to assert their right to a share in the public territory. If this interrepnnm were tc continue long, it might dnvo hoili eeitioi.e lo make provisiouargovrrnmenu, to beer me |iermtiient ones in Ihe erd Hut it is advised, in certain portions of the northern press, that the members from that section ought to expel such as interrupt their proceedings. Let them try the rx|>erimeot. 1 teli gentlemen, that this is our slsveholding territory we do sot intend to leave it If they think they can remove us, it is a proprr case for trial. In trie present temper of the putdic mind, it la probable th it a collision of the k<nd here might electrify the country, as did the little skirmish at Lexington the colonies in their then excited st.ue. Such a struggle, wtioevi r might prove the victors in it, would not leave here a qiornni to do business, GewUemue may rail this treason?high treason?the highest tfewmdl that the world ver saw. Hut their trork are idle. We shad def* at the ir movement agaiuei us. Ihit evi n if I thought otherwise, I Would still resist. Sooner thin, submit lo what they propose, 1 would lather see the South, like 1'oLnd, under the iron heel ot the conqueror: I would rather that she should find the fate of Hungary. It was but the other day, and under our own ryes, that the gallant Hungarians asserted th-ir inuej? ml nee Though in the midst of, and struaglii.g against those two imniesse empires, that i on id bring more than a million of armed in-s in'o lln field. tb'V were nirnutul ?t 4ir,i " > * down thr power of Austria. It *? aut antll soma k| h> r ?ona br? mur usituisihat llun^ ir? w ? fiaai|v ovrrj*>wi red, borne down, and |?onl i>> drug |>y the long col uina* and gi > * ?! streig tolHitaia. irwcrMirj, let auth be onr late " Better bs Wh?r? Uit wtlugwtobed Mti> ?r? free, In tbelr pruj rharaal of J'b-rawpjla ' Itath? r let thr future traveller, he paaaes beer 1 lilaikenrd and den rt at |e ,t r(i tin, " Here lived and died n* noble a race is the sua ever ?hone upon " If we were to wait until your mrasun s were consummated, and your coil, lika lhat of a greet #erp< nf. *11 completely around u?, then we might he crushed. ?*reing the danger, wa Itave the wndorn and the courage to ui*et me alack now, while we have the power t<> r siat. We mu*t prove victor* in thia ftruiraie Ifw-r- th? wave of agression now, we *h?ll have p- tee. The ibolitioniat*, defeated belnre the country na tba Tima iwiie, w ill not have power lo alcet ua. I have thua, *ir, frankly epoaen my opinions on hi* great (juration, with nd imrpooc to menace, but >nly to warn Gentlemen of the north ought themirlvea to *ee that, whde submie-ion to what they >rooo*e would be rvtnous to ua, it w ould not ia tha ad be beneficial to their aectioa. Seeiiu, then, he taatie in all it#b? annua, it ia fur them to deride. They hold in their hands the deatiny of the etiatiag rovrnnatnt. Should ci renin wan ea divit- m, 7 ?i?h that you may prosper From all my know?d*e of the -dement* of vonf nocierv, 1 hav- doubt* rtial w e shall, tinder the farm ot Pro ia II even's, take o*rr ot ourselves, r have ao ! <r* u conclusion, I have to eay, 1X> ua justice, and wo onfinor to stand with yon ; attempt to tratfpU oa a, and we part company r"

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