Newspaper of The New York Herald, August 27, 1850, Page 7

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated August 27, 1850 Page 7
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Mil l mun i ??. ? i .mmmwi The Baalnau and Buktri of California. [From th<- San FrmcNoo Umli, Jul; 16 } The credulity of young mind* is sometimes put to ce>ere lest on reeding tite Arabian Nights' Bute ruin men ts ; but fcince the discovery oT gold ia C'ulilorniM, fetmnger event* and more incredible v-^ narratives, having truth for their bonis, are d-tily presented to the world. With us the old proverb, that " tiuih is btrunger than tiction" has become vert- | lira 10 wie leiier. Among the many illustration* of this to found here, perhaps there is none so striking, or of winch We may teei prouder, than the number and respectability of those who have bettled down in business | in this city. On looking over our tiles for the lot I month, the army ol names that meet our eye, in ; every department, makes us (involuntarily feri that instead of living in a city only two vears old, we | are living in one situated iu one of the Atlantic I States, with a very resectable antiquity. Among the principal commission houses and general meii-hants are the linns of Alfred Kobiaaou & Co. ; J-iniiuonHf Hutchinson A: Co. ; Muses G. i Leonard Co. ; t itts A: Tilden ; Ogden -V' iiaynes; ' John Mattoon ; Ornwtiy Culver A: Co. ; Dickson, ' l)e Wolf A; Co. Finch, Johnston At Co. : (rr-tyson A- Guild : W. ?. Robinson & Co. : and Oiborae A- Co. Among our principal auctioneers are found the firms of John Middleton & Co. ; W. H V. CroDice ; J. H. Cannon At Co j Payne & Sherwood ; Moore, Folger Ar Hill; J. L Kiddle Ac Co. ; W. H. Jones ; ftcoutiy A: Kelsey ; Rending Wainw right ; ft Bruunan ; backus ic Harrison ; and lumbar A' Gibbs. In short, there is scarcely a branch of business that has not men of the highest integrity, wealth and rrt-pectubility engaged in it. The learned professions ure well stocked, law and medicine hxvinK ciowds of able and experienced practitioners. We cannot say much for divinity as vet, probably because the demand for it is but small. We have no uount, However, lliui 111 lime we snail nave a goodly supply of ihe dispensers of the Gospel. Before concluding our cursory glance, we must not onut to state, that we have a d.nly line of stages to and trom &au Jose ; and that the steamers Sena'or, Hartford, LI Dorado, Sutter, Ge?rgiaua, Gold-Hunter, Major Tomkins, M-tripsoi, Tehama, and Maunsel Whiie, are plying daily to and from ?van FrikciKO and Sacramento City, M irysville, Yuba City, Trinity Digging*, Stockton, San Joaquin, Grayson. and Tuolumne. There is perhaps nothing which exhibits in a more striking point of view, the extent and raach of the business of San Francisco, th in the number : of banking houses it contains. Lverv eminent i capitalist in the United States, Europe, Mexico, and ' South America, has hi# representative in this city; | and the tact that most of those br niches are doing h very nourishing business, is the strongest proof of the immense resources of J his city. We hive Iamoug.t us seven banking establishmentsconnected with the lir.-t houses in ihe world, besides the uunietous ti eicantiie houses who ship and injure vjold Idust. 'ihe tollowiug are the principal binkers, with a statement of the larger houses on which they draw :fll Burgoyne <\c Co., Montgomery street, draw on linings, Brother, Sc Co., London; Hottinguer fc Co , Pari*; William Hoge Co., New York; Suffolk Bank, Boston; Maunsel, White, & Co., New Orleans; and Uenoist & Co., St. Louis. B. Davidson, agent of the Messrs. Rothschild, draws on London, Paris, New Vork, New Orleans, Hamburg, V alparaiso, Lima, Mexico, Havana, icc. Ijrflil* 8 i\ing Of ?v iiii im, draws nn >.v Kigtf, Washing'on, and on New York, Ptiilad-I|>hiu, Uiltiitioie, New Orleans, Charleston, and the other principal cities in the United State*. E. L. Di'ubar (California Bdnk) draws on the princifHtl cities in the Union. y God?froy, Si llem A: (Jo , draw on London, Paris, New York, New Orleans, Hamburg, Limi, Valparaiso, Arc. Ar^enti Ar Co., draw on Brown, Brothers Sc Co, New Yoik; Nicholson A: Co ,New Orleans; Brown, Sl,i,>ley, \ Co., Liverpool, A:c.. Ac. Jos. B. Biddenmn draws on New York, Philidelphia, and other principtl cities of the Union. H. M. Maglee draws on Clark A" Co., Boston; Clark, Do<l?e Ac Co., New York; Chubb Jc Schenck, Washington; State Bank, Charleston; ' Warrick Martin, New Orleans; and the other principal cities. Besidej these, th<*re are many houses who sell drafts on most of the principal cities of the United States, and who make and insure remittances of gold dust, niih as Simmons, Hutchinson A* Co., Alfred liobinson, Little A: Pope, and others. There is iiothi>.g so well indicates the extent of the business of San Francisco, as the fret that so many wealthy houses have sent their agents here, and havt established branches of their business at a period so early in its existence. The fT Estate In California. [From the ban Prunclnoa Htrald. July 16.] The great interest excited within the past twelve days in this community, by a suit now pending in the Piobate Court of ihiscitjr, relating to the above property, may make the subjoined narrative ofsoine uit rest. William Alexander Leidesdorff was a son of Alexander LeidesdorlTand Anni Maria Spark, and Wna horn on the Isjsnd of Saint Croix, Danish I WeM Indie*, on the Zfcl ol Uctot>er, into naviu^ been born in " natural wedlock," he waa forin illy and legally legitimatized by hia father in court of record at Saint Croix, on the 18th of July, 1M37. He waa educated in part at the piece of hia birth, rd ia part in Copenhagen ; but arrived at the age of twelve yar* in the l sited State*, and at a very early age entered the American merchant service, on hoard a vei-ael commanded by Capt. Goodrich, in the employment of the well known firm of Alsoi> and Chauncey, of New York, engaged in the West India trade. In thia and other employment* he roue rapidly in the conti Icnce of hia associ *!> <, and .-ix'ii U .iiit* an ollicer, and auhaequently the maater of an American vestel sailn g out of New Orleans. 1 >n the 23th day of February, KM, Iv waa made a citixen of the Uuited S'ates, by letter* ?f naturalization, laaue I by the U. S < >urt for the eaateindiatiict ol Ixtuiaiana. lty virtue of tin* citi -nahip, he nearly ten years commanded veaaela under the Ameriuan flag out of New York and New Orleans, wiih credit to himaelf and profit to hi* employer*. On the Ittth day of November, 1H40, he sailed from New York for thi* const, in command of the American achooner " Julii Ann," ?.wrifl by John U mm i-., m BMMa, i?i?U. H Consul at the Sandwich Islands, and formerly a well known resident of California, lie commmdrd thia vea.-*l for more than two yeart on the coatai of California, but her sale threw him out of employment, and he then eatablishtd himself aa a merchant at Man Francisco, then called Yrrbi Buena In thia new aphere, his energy ai.d activity soon gave him the confidence of his felltfwci mens, and it is no derogation toother* to My that the earljr history ! Man Francisco, mum ji' Id to him one of the tir?t |>Uce? ani>ug h'r moat enterprising and public apirited men iHiring all his residence in thia country, he nniformly ru< uu> d the ch.imcu r of a patriotic Americnn, fond of the land ?t bia adoption, and ever ready to lend a helping hand to its ciuwai in the bout of thair di?trra*. He received the appointment of U. 8 Vice (Consul f.?r the Biy ?f S*u Francisco, and in that station he won the confidence and eeteem of all whose bu-,u*s* inide him n acquaintance. In all the early expeditions of Col. J. C. Fremont to tin# country, lie co-ouerated with him constantly, cordially andafticiently, and devoted much time to the advancement of United States interest*, to the neglect of his own business. The aatne remark ia applicable to the Pacific aqnadrona cnnv in. i <1 hv ('or iniodore Sloat. Mo< kton, ShuItrick. Biddle, and other* When th Anerican nrms were weak in California, and rreaoat, Sloat, anil M" U'on were st-Mjulniif, r in* e from home, without lunda or military supplies. he was ever ready with his purse and his credit tor their rescue. The pri*>f of thin fxct is found in the nnny thsuMsds of dollars advanced both for the military and naval services of the I'nited States in Call fainia, for which he or nia reprc?eB??uv?-? iecei*ed any remuneration. The emnarraaamenta f rowing out of Ihrf' b>-tvy advancea e nihitter<''l li former data, and ( hiidMth moaed hu tiuif to l? ilrrlarra laaolvrnt. A deep gloom fr?ad?J Ikr lilik village of Man Fraaoaco on the I1ih of May, l*i?. tli?- day of hiad'-atli Ihe ferlmg wm universally ?nt--rtain> d and eipreaaed, that the citiaen of ihe youthful metropolis ofthe Weat had p ia?ed a*??y forever. < bi Ihr following day all place* of buaineaa Were eloeed. the flag* of the abusing, the fort and ihe barrai k? wi re flung at iimii i<nd mini"- gina were fired from the ahip* and ihe ton*, aathe longeat pri.reaaMn ever aeen in fun Franciaco moved lowly and giooaiily to th< limh. A? an tacuJ* nt of Mr l^eidei-dorfTa commercial life in California, and to enable him to hold real eatate under the Mexican Uwa, he heca>ne a eitisen of that republic early tri the year 1HM. He became a holder of conaiderable r> al eatate, and thi* property, become auddenly valuable, haa originated the very extraordinary ami now pending in the Probate Court of thi* city. After the eatate of Mr l>i)'?iliiiff had been for more thaa twelve montha in the b^ada of the administrator, wnhont any heir ap>*aring to claim it, a well known citizen of **? ! rim iaco left thia j.i.or for i lie Wr?l lnili>-?. f..r i h- of diacotrermf the hem, aad if any were f.iand, of procuring an agency for, or an interest in. the inteatate ?f- ?le A"era re? <! m - of ?ome month* in the Weat Iixllea, the eote autvmng heir, the inoth-r, Anna Maria tyark. waafonn', and the history of tb> H#re a?H ?a* clearly r-.. Iro n In* birth to hie death. For a valuable cnnwb-Mfion, the Mother of the deceased willed-an mtereat in the rfixte to thia gentUman, and g*?e him full and nioat ample po<*era of atlorw y U? reareaeat her ta?ere?f# in thta crautry. The negotiation waa carried on through the co?irfa ?>f thnt tafand, and the ttovemor (reneral in p? raon, and they adviaed ahd concurred in all ihat am done The teatimony and pewrra baaed thereon. duly ? . . . > and cart-fully authenticated, were filed in the ptoper court, in thi* place, in January last, and an application was made for a transfer of the eatate from the hands of the administrator. After loos and vaieful examination, and much pleading ana riit-ciiBMoii on the part of the attorneys for the ad iiiid 101 rntor, the absent heirs, and the plaintiff, the 1'iobate Court formally decreed that the estate should be transferred on the 12th of February last, aud the |>ropertv was turned over accordingly, and wa* frt/Ui that date under the Hole coutrol of the gentlfuian id ^ueation, until the first of the present month Nearly all the debts of the estate were prompt]) assumed by him, and the original creditors were paid off. In process of time, a new system of laws was put iu operation in this State, and a new probate juilue came into office. Under him, a public administrator has beeu appointed, and this functionary has atked that the Leidesdorff estate should be confided to his hands for safety. On his application, an injunction was granted, without any notice being given to the holder of the estate, to Bhow cause why this measure should not be adopted, and lie wis accordingly forbidden to transact any business whatever relating to the estate. This injunction was issued on the day on which nearly every lease belonging to the estate expired, and at this moment, many of th< tenements are standing empty, ?r are being occupied, without oerinission, in consequence of this procedure. Much of the estate was recently burnt over by the great conllugration of June 14, and new blocks of stores and other buildings were going up on the ruins. Some of these would have been of the first charact? r of fire proof stores; but all is arrested in its progress?contracts are broken, mechanics are ditchaiged, and the whole business of the estate is paral) zed at a siagle blow. An application to give bonds in order to nave the injunction removed, was rriused, and the most vital interestk of this large estate are thus jeoparded In the meantime, the'case has been very singularly postponed from day to day, contrary to the wishes of the defendant's attorneys. On Saturday, the arguments were made in the case, and in common, with the public, we lo*k with intense interest tor a decision of the court, which is to be given this morning. The Outrages In the Mines of California. | From the Alta California, July 17.J We have quite late information from the southern mints, representing matters there an still in a very uusetiUd arid excited state, particularly 10 the region of the town of .Sonora. Measures have, how* ever, been adopted by American residents, which, although they lire harsh and of a character not legalized by the law, have frequently to be adopted in new countries, where the law CM, from the nature of thing*, be but imperfectly administered. However much we may deplore the circumstances which call for such extreme measures, we can readily excuse taem when we refl-ct upon the wnnton and jiro?s outrages which have led to th'ir adoption. When, in an industrious and hardwoiking community, it is found that neither life nor pro|>erty is safe, and that the existing law is powerless to protect, one of the inherent principles and laws of nature dictates self protection and preservatioa. It has become a matter of certainty that not only are there a large number of thieves and murderers roaming through the southern mining district*, but that there is a regularly org inisfd gang of desperate characters, composed of Mexicans, Chilenes, and, it is thought, some equally demoralized white men, who have banded thtmselves together as guerillas for the purpose of plunder. Not only is the miner, returoiag with his haid earned gains, subject to their remorseless Rlticks, but the trader, while upon his lonely path, laden with supplier, falls a victim to their rapacity. Outrages of this kind have been frequent, and have at l<?it aroused ihe people of Sonora to decided action. A narty of Americans have been raided, well armed and equipjied, and formed into a scoutiag party of rangers to scour the country in search of the desperadoes, and with full power to execute the severest retaliatory measures upon those who are found to have committed any act ol violence or robbery. . This MMUf numbersaboul twenty, is regularly orgun/ed and paid by the citizens of Sonora, flt> per man |>er day. They are all determined men, well acquainted with the country, a ad will soon rid the district of the scoundrels who infect it. Our great feat i? that some innocent men may sufler from the hnste which ranger* too frequently evince in the formation of thair opinion* as to tii<* guilt or innocence of a suspected party. The existence of the guenlla band of which we have si>oken, in confirmed by a private letter, handed us by a gentleman dome business iri MMfl. but now in this city. It is from his partner, und bears date on the night of the 10th inst. He stairs that a posse ol about one hundred persons hid just brought int< town four Mexicans, who had bieen found in the act of burning the bodies of two Americans, whom it is supposed thay had murdered and robbed thil night. U|>on examination, their throats weir found to have lieen cut, but their bodies were < much burned that they could not be recognized Subsequently a filih, who, with others, made hit esca|>e when the |>arty were discovered, wai brought in. They were ^I| taken before the magistrate; but so incenfed were the populace tha they insisted upon their being taken upon the hil ea? of the town, whera their case was to be decided by Judge Lynch, and his sentence carried into immediate ex rcunon. Four of them would undoubtedly he hung, bu' the fifth used as evidence to detect ihe residue of ihe party. On the night ol the 9th, h party of Chinese were attacked near the town, and robbed of about $3,000, and one of their so badly wounded that it was supposed he would n?>i rriruvei. Outrages of this charaete r will enable us readily to under*tand the atate of eitusperaiioa which mttsi prevail among the honest citizens of the infested district, ami to excuse the adoption of even th' harshent measures. Since the above was written, we have receiver some additional particulars from the same source r? l.itue to th? five men accused of the MmN ollence of murdering and burning the bodies o their victims. It t|x>ears that they were taken ou on the hill ns stated, convicted by Judge I.ynch and sentenced to be hanged. Just an they wen mliont to utring one of them up, the olbcer* of ih< law arrived, and with the aid of some who had be enrne somewhat mere considerate and calm, res cned the accused, and succeeded in getting then nto jail to await trial. A tnqtttrbs of Avow ?Apart from the beaut] of h? r scenery, and the healing powers of hei sparkling waters, Avon is interesting from her as sociation hi h a reino'e (.,-t On th-' f.irm o Jepktha Wilber, in the N. K. corner of the town the signs of aboriginal occupancy, and of a forti nraimn, in ny piiii i?r rrr ?. j nr |>n/<i)((i iiiu?hi turn* up and dirrloaea relica of great intereat, ail ver button* with royal atany in the rni.MIf. I' >ne* rroaae.i of Malteae form, cylindrical beid*, pain atone*, curioua armlet*, and itorgota have t?-en dia covered. An antiquary would have hi- field of oh aervation much enlarged by inveautfating the*i mrmorula of other year*, and a poet he furni?he< with a Mile,-tin background for picturesque deacrip MM The J? auit waa the lir?t white ayhm < the luxuriant foreet through which the (*eneae< wenda ita way to the blue lake. Tracea of hi m ma ton to the wild Seaecaa abound in thi? coun try. The memory of hia advent ia atill lingering like an echo in the valley of the (Jonemi*, and the French trader, who followed in hi* w?ke, haa aa aoriated a itirrng recollection of hi* adventure with the hill* that overlook, nnd the tributaries tha feed the " Kiver of l'leaaant Walera." Ever] aummer a few Indian* may be found lingering around it* gravea of (heir father*, or hunting f<> wild hernea an the bank* of White Creek, and th woody ahorea of Hig-l<og I'ond. They are degen entc deacendanta of the old tribe* that once mad the inhabiianta of New France tremble in ihei rrorghold*, and trod ?? cunqnerort the hills ? Maine, the savannah* of the Sooth, and the hleal domain of the Chipiwwa. The valley of th OfHM?litktnKN man'* l'aradi*e," a mil ficient inducement, without oth*r consideration for a vt*it from the tosriat, novelist, and hiatoritn In a field laying between Comatock'* lintel an the river, a large Indian village wta found atand ing by the pioneera of Weaiera Naw York ; nea thr site of tkia old <Vpn trace* of a terrific hattl may 'till be seen Hon.* are incorporated witl the soil, and skulla have heea diainierred, n?*rce< t\ I uiiet <<nd arrow head. Wlien thi* held wa fiist ploughed, more than half a cei.tury ago?o the t m i f William, a dagger waa discovered h George lioamer. Eaq., with the arret of l^oam XIV rtnn |? d f n the blade Thi* weapon referred with out doubt to the invaaion of th* waeci country, i H>7, by the Marqvia HeN'envtlle. A rominti ir_.n t.f n>r>.llerii?nn i* iki in mind* familiar wit the pad, ai the thought that on the hank* of th Oene?#e the red werrior and the pabahed Krencli Hi n cloned in th? death pr*t?i>'''. ?n^ * *cen", nn anirt and p"?eefiil. *a? diatutbed cento rtea ago h the war v*hoop of *?va|e vengeanr*. and th tiumpM hlai-t of Gallic tuvaaioa. Wrll won b the native* waa the proud title of " W.-atern JU roana." from a diaromtited foe, but their triotnp waa is vain; the c n'|U> ring Annlo-Snon tame thfir pride, after long and bloody wara; the tei tml rrtwril fire haa (one out at Onondaga, an the batk village, fcharocttnoe, fathered arrow an war-path, are thinga that live only in a letter wr ter'e rereleea mtwioii, or the verae of th- ban 1 heir old haun'a, the ofrenma they loved, th" allot their ring fotta and village*, however, wonl richly reward the viMtera at ntir apring*, for tl trouble of a fleeting vHUAvon Riporttr. The gTandeon of Lotita Philippe haa tmde h fi rat c? it. in union. Moa'ignor Wia? min, the ft ? Hiahop of I.oi ft<rri. oflinatrd. The e* hi?.g, tl aueen Marie Ann lie, the T?uche?? cf Ot'wiui', ar I the ifwn>bet* of th?' royal family, w?r? pr? ?eti aa well aa a covetd* raK?* nnmf>er of u?v.?ti ftienda and edheretita, many of whom h ?d ??ii ftoir V ranee eapecially, to tea'ify on th;? oerni? ?h?ir ?)mpathy and r<-ft*ct for th? illii?irioi esiV*. SCIENCE IN AMERICA. IMPORTANT DEVELOPEMENTS IN TUB inflation for the Advancement of Science She Conclusion of tbe Convention at Vev Haven, Jcc., lire., Jrc. SIXTH DAY. New Haven, Aug. 24. 1850. wction or rmsics and mathematics. In this section Profestor Cook ley presided, and Ptofetsors W. B. .Rogers and Loomia acted at KCtetuit-i. Several communications were |>ostj>oned, and the titles of other* merely read, with a view to their publication in the book* of the society, it feeing imi>ot*ihle lo go through all of the busmtas reniHiniiig to be disputed of this day. The firet communication whs by Professor Olm srfcD, Jr., a young luuu apparently aooui zi years of age, 011 whirlwiuda produced bv the burning of a cane-brake in Alabama President Bache pronoHiict'd the communication a very important aud peculiar one, and he hojwd Professor Olmsted would arc< mpanv it with a chi>rt. The following is an abstract of Mr. Olmsted, Jr.'a, remarks:-? Facts relative to whirlwinds produced by the burning of bruth and timber on several occasions, w ore published 111 I he thirty-sixth volume ot the Amtruun Juvtnal of Scitnte. In the several accounts given in that article, there is a great sameness, tiom the firts having the same origin, and diflrring only in their magnitude. The facts w hich 1 shall present to the association at this time, are diHerent from any thai have been recorded on the subject of whirlwinds, and will, therefore, have the in'erest of novelty, although in magnitude, and 1 may add in magnificence, they arc not equal to those described in the article alluded to. The canes in the cane-brakes of Alabdina, oftea grow to the height ot thirty-five or forty teet They cover the best of the new land, and the thicknet-H and size of the cane is considered as the best evidence of the fertility of the soil. No vegetation ai the North can be compared with the cane brakes in the density of their growth, and even in the Southern States, no other kind of vege isuoii 10 coiupuraoie wiin ine caned in mis re, *|>< ct. Notw ithManding their great height, they gland but an inch or two anart. A thick canebiake, therefore, or one in ricn land, which is not existed to ihs continual intrusion und trampling of large animals, is completely impassable. S>uch cant-brakes are the resort of a great variety of small animals, which make their way to their coverts thiough hidden paths. These animals, whi n the cants hre burnt, are overtaken and destroyed by the llames. The cant-s terminate in a head ol foliage in the form of a wide broom or brutdi, with leaves very much like those oi the oltandtr. From the dense manner in. which the canes grow, it follows that, when cut down, they lie in heaps et great size, and in such a way that when i**rfettly dry, the tire soon catches the whole mass. They are cut down, generally, with a carinrnter'u adze, although an axe or a very heavy kind of hoe, called a " cane hoe," is eometimes employed. One blow is suflicient to divide the stalk. This the lalx>rer takes hold of with his left hand, and thiowing it behind him, advances t? the next. In this way an acre of cane-brake is soon cleared, aiid cane land is preferred to all other kinds of lanil for its good soil, and the ease with which it may 1 be tleaied. When the canes are cut down, they i are allowed to lie for a month or six weeks, until 1 th? y become perfectly dry. Fire is then applied in i several places at once. As soon as the canes ' begin to burn, the air that is confined in their cells, > and the watery vapor, bunt them asunder. They gmerally explode through several cells at once, iinlit In linu T|.JU1J > explosions, in burning a large cane-brake, produce a continued roar, like the discharge of musketry from sn immense aimy. The " burning," however, was unattended with thunder, and, in this respect, diH? r?d from all the cates mentioned in the Journal of Scttnre. On account of the dry, combustible nature of the cane, when kindled, the hre advancea with great rapidity, giving out fUmes of the dee|*st red, the intensity and richness ol i which color are incomparably finer than the Hume* which arise from the combustion of any other kind of wood. The deep, rich tints ol the dahlia, and some other flowers, approach more nearly to the color of this (lame than any other natural object. The finest red of iht prismatic ?{>ectruui, when all the other rayi are cut ol), is not superior to it. Toge ther with the flame there ascendi a very dense black Mnoke, resembling that which urise from burning camphor, or from the chimneys o gaawoiks or factories whi re bituminous coal ii used. This smoke also far surpaatM-d in Ua den* deep black color, anything ordinarily observed The smoke from bituminous coal would not equa it in density, and would be far inferior in depth o color. To the painter the magnificence of the rich red flame, combined with the rolling masses o mioke, would form one of the finest objects h? could select. His darkest color for the smoke, anr richest tints for the llame, would be required tc conveyjhiy just conception of the beauty of thu ktie. 'l he cane-brake which I visited covered a spact of twenty-five tcies. It wus set on fire at the par moat distant from us, and the tract of land .beinj tcmewhat curved and irregular, the tire was a first hid from our view. The smoke, however, wai visible from the commencement, and the roar of i thousand discharges approached us with rapidit) until, with the tlanie and the amcke, it issued fron behind the wood, b}' which it had been for som< time concealed. The heat became intense when we atood, although at a distance of more than tw< i hundred yards from the fire Whirlwinds were no* 9 obs< rved in the hottest part of the lire. They die - not unite in one column, as in all the c*ae? men tioned in the Jimrnut of Sritnct, but were scatter - ed throughout the fire, and several were formed a ? the same time. The Iirttt w?e on a comparatively small scale Their height wai from thirty to forty feet. e>< ' there succeeded othera on a larger ceale, unti r th? y reached the height cf more than two hundre< I* ci, and thr flame and ?nioke whirh formed thei f column* were perft itly dia.mct from the genera > mm which aroae from the fire. These continued to form until we left. White we remained, there f were at many at four or five ol the largest ai/.i * formed. They appeared rather to increa?e>in mm ? and frequency toward the latter part of " the burn ' ing," and many were formed on the aahea, aftei the tire had, to a great extent, gone down Tin " burning" lasted for alout half an hour. Amon| * the ffwMail. ilo t<- were several |?>ints of dif ' fr-rence, by which they might be classed uudei ' four heada. The moat common whirlwind wai f that which waa stationary over a port of tlie fir< ' which waa hotter than the neighboring poitions A second variety waa that which had a proureaaiv - motion, at>d adt taced over the burnt track, throw * ii.k upaohea and cinders, and thus marking in e courae through the tire. S*me of then* ern-rged from the flames. This was probably the case Witt a quite a number, although, h tMng noihirii; to mark t ilit m efter leaving the hf, they t? came invisible V < >ne, however, paaeed near enough to aa to be ob I t< tv-d, and attracted our attention by ita rustling r sound, and by the leaves which it carried ui> t Tina was about fifteen or twenty feet high. Ai * the time this pasted us, we had moved from oui ' first station, and were about three hundred ynrdi Ml the fire TfceM whirlwinds diflered tion '' tin o ht ra in form, being very wide at tha top, ami k contracting to a point at the bottom, like a to| p or a spindle, or, more exactly, they were o ' the form of the upper cone of an hour glaia An interesting phenomenon w hirh attended som? of the whitlwiuds, might render it proper to arrant(< < th< m under a third cIhm In these th ' lie me wai violently whirled at the base; then above succeed ed a dark interval, wh? I* the Harm' *e*m?l t? u eumguiahrd < ntirely, bat toward* the top it br?k> out hik w It waa a mued whirling of llmif ?n< smoke, the tmoke occupying the rentral portion The dark interval wher1 tbe amoke wa? nn. >>n auiiifd, * as greater <r I'M, a* the llime aliove ap pioachrd to or weeded from th*t beneath Then were quite a number of whirlwind* of tbia class Tl e lourth kind of whirl winda were formed of iin runee column* of amoke, ao narrow i.nd lofty tha li<? y reti mMed tow>*r? of several hundred frrtf c > trui ka like those of tree?, in form, estending intc the ikv The rotary motion whs ohviou* 'h'roufch ou'th'irentire length. These column* of sm?k< wer? Kfrerslly afraight, hut sometime* bent at'hi top t.> ihe wind. In connection with the whirl wind* there were sev ral other fact* of interest ob senrd daring the burning of the cane. We no Ik t d the direct.on of the wind was changed. A tint it waa from the, nad continued ii that direction in tha ujjer part of the alnwajliTe at. wm evident from the way in which the column ol smok were ben 11 it shortly alter the com r,?n< f n ent of ihr burn tha air beneath bk? ui all dmcL ni toward* the centre of the fire. Th< I co.umua of f .noke were not bent for uore than i ' hundred yatvia, heace. U|> to that hi ight, the wini hit w in all direction* ttwards the centre of th '* fi e fin adlr. ihaae whir.winda revolted on thei fn m iigkil to Irfi, and 'r >in Irft to rifhi, with i4 i bt ?n? |>rr> iilmg teAdtwy to on* direction mor j. tl.?u i? ibe oth^r Frequently, lb* mm* whirl i' * ,i ft ? ? u <1 rlmnf it* dirrcuoB in which it r? t it i?? im d m om<i ?g?.in rrtiirn to iu tim? I, In * f'W in*Moct? thin til r-^at^d Bf*?n d iin"? i 1 litrdlj*, inth* rnidetoi th" fir*, th* fotMgr < n th? It*** which *f, f nurroondrd by the o lit cum, I?i win (jrnduHlly dry nod (>?rehed, nn<i I iinlty (tight on tcr, burning almost , ke a fl&ak < powder, and adding greatly to the splendor of thu I scene. The light red fl?me of thew trees afforded a fine contrast with the deep red flume of the canec, and tht nearly white sm< ke of the burning trunks was alao in lively contrast with the heavy rolling mattesof black smoke which surrounded the fire. Fourthly. Thechurred leaves of cane, being thin

' and light. were driven of] in considerable quantities. They were carried up, frequently, without being burned, and were sometimes found at a distant e fixni the place of the tire. But, considering the extent of the fire, few cinders were carried up. The combustion was very complete, which I ascribed to two causesFirBt, The extremely light and combustible matter of the cane, which wmldbe, for the most part, consumed iu the in tense Ut-Mt ot tne tire, oeiore rising 10 a great height. Secondly. The Hir imprisoned in the cells of ihe cane probably added to the intensity of the I combustion. Three ccndinong?the air confined , being is considerable quantity, its position being in the centre of the cane* and the centre of the fire, l and itb high ten perature?would contribute to ren, der it more ?flicient in supi>ortiiig combustion Frcm the gt-'at number and variety of whirl\ winds which this burning aflbrded us the opportunity of elitei v ing?from the splendor of the flame, and from the beauty of the smoke, rolled in massea , above the fire, or in whirlwinds, this scene was one of equal interest to th? painter and the student of science. The vast whirlwinds formed in the atmosph? re by storm*, or by the burnings of forests and dry timber, are either too large and too rapid in their progress to he carefully observed. ??r ilit-jr are collected in one column of flame, winch Ins always neatly the same foim, and is attended by the tame phenomena. liut in the burnings of the cane, whirlwind# of a gn at variety of form and size extend over a wide tract, and all their phenomena are perfectly distinct. The next wan an oral communication by W. C. Keiifiei ii, Esq., of New York, on the apparent necessity for revising the received systems of dynamical meteorology. Mr. Kf dflild said that in consequence of the pressure of matter before the association, he would not now exempt to submit his views on this great subject, lie would only say that his views of the theory of winds, had been those which are commonly entertained, but in pursuing his storm inquiries, he had constantly met with facts and difbcultie* which appeared irreconcilable with the theory that solar heat is the great ?r principal cause ot the general winds of our globe. To state these objections in a manner to do justice to his views of the case, and to explain the principal phenomena of atmospheric motion by the cosmical laws which pertain to the nlanetary system, would require more time than could now be allotted. He would, there fore, jutte from this topic, un<1 make a few rem irks on some recent developementa of the l.iw of storms, to which subject his uttrution had l>Vu more immediately directed. He would first make reference to the Atlantic hurricane of the middle of July, which appeared at Barbndoes and the Windward Island* on the 11th rl that month, and, pasting thence to the coast of Caiolinas, swept over a large i ortion of the Atlantic States, in itlBMMBWi towards the hi^'li latitudes. Ileitis; preceded by strong southerly winds, which bore large supplies of aqueous vapor, and carrying its axis path over the interior of the country, it wis I r< dactive of rain in unusual quantities, lis oath was more inland, in these States, than most of the i storms heretofore traced, which had their course over the same islunds. At the meeting of 1S48, in Philadelphia, he had i tlie honor to lay before the association the valuable woik of Mr. Piddington, of Calcutta, whose labors in illustrating the character and courses of whirl, wind storms, had in numerous casts been the I means of saving lives and property from destruction. He would now present to the association a second work of Col. Reid's, " On the Progress of the Development of the Law of Storms," published during the past year in London, a work well calculated for diffusing correct and useful kuow, ledge of this subject. Mr. Redfield also stated that he had at no time , attempted to offer an explanatory theory of the dynamical action in whirlwind storms. He had concerned himself mainly with the facta by which the great law of rotation and progression, in determinate directions, was mailt- manifest; but he i would not withhold his views of the dynamical i theory, eould the association devote time to this object. He would also allude to^another important fact, which should never be overlooked by those who enter on theae inquiries. He hud found the I axis of the vertical rotutioa in the storm-wind to be always coincident with the point or area of least pressure, as indicated by the barometer, during the r entire observed progress of the storm. In thus i tracing collectively these three essential charaoier' is'ics *f the storm, we can best solve the mxia in! quiiy, and are better prepared to give due conwdi eration to the aqueoas depositions and other diversified phem rnena which are contingent to the , storm, or to |>ortions thereof, in different latitudes s and at different seasons of the year, as the storm f advances from tropical latitudes to the colder regions of the temperate or frigid zones Mr. R. then handed in the following document, copied from the Bermuda Royal Oaztllt, of SepI umber ?, 18-16:? ' Et LK IN aiAVA^snir. i?? fruw r"'K" involved In itormn, il invaluable Captain Aailrewa, ra??aader of tli* royal nail iteam.r M?<l?ay on | Irani'j Bermuda for England, on th? ?id eptember, , 1846. lUgireited tha following : ? , lly keeping the wind i n lha itarboard quarter, whan In a revolving aturai In th* Northern hemisphere, iblpi gradually tail from tbr nt?rm'i centra, aud by keeping the wlitd on Iho port quarter, when In tb? ' Southern hemisphere ihlpa aali gradually from tha { cmlre of a revolving (torm t '1 hie rnl* applie* ta three quarter* af the atorm't ? elrela. But there ta alwayi one quadrant In a proprei. i Siva whirlwind aturm.' more dang< rou* tbaa tuc other t thr>*. Wing tbat ovar wblab lb* atorm'a centra p?w? In IU pr^greji, and there wonU be dangar In applying the rule wltE a fkip In thii quadrant Within the tropin. ?hlle tba oomri* of*t?rm? tendi f toward tha went, tha qvidrant of gr?at??t dan*-r will > hern th* wait tldci. I ut then quadrnuti will gra* dually change tkelr pantu.u a* theitorni* reaurva; 1 and In high Talltudai, ai the curie ol the itoruil b? inn i eaeterly. 10 Will tbaee qimdranti of greatelt dangar coma to he ou tha eait ildv of the ilnrm I nor. tier to know which la th* quadrant of gr*at?*t dangar, tha tbrary uuit k? itudied until It li uaderitood An emniple of Captaiu Andrewi'i rule forth" inuth... I. .... ..I I l._ U ,,,rir?? . .. ... Ui.r|.u. ... UJ . J Hnyal Karv. wheu aoairaandlng th? Andromaoba 1 f Igata at Mauritian in 181*0 and w lha mora ri uiarkaI klr b? iauir It waa , lacutad by captain Mooraam bar tola tha thaory of aUraia wait uodar?to??l Leaving | H. M. P. Ariadne. In Port I,aula llarbor at tha wlah of | Inr eommamlrr < aptaln Maoraom fat to "-a l.i tba , A Bilromaaha with the wild at f K . T?-arln? to H 0 K , , jrnlftrr in lord la atrar without regard to tha a< uipa*?. _ aad to k?ap tha wlad ai It veered alwaya opoa tha larlxard or port quarter He bad tomato thla da?lal?n Irra attentively atodylng tba logbook* of ahlpa wblrh r had ?ne< uatar'd hurricane* lu tb>- ?< ghborbood ot ! Maurltlua. aad obearvtd that thawlod ?a< redtbara In { a ui> ni atannar Hy ntfiin* a? d< inifc..1 i 'apum Mi or?"m gradually earrl'd bU frigate aaay frm tha r f?ctra of tba atrra- until ba had gained u? o-H? , iH' and ni' dara a weather Than batlrg tha wlad at N. y ?a? ID( to K V r , ba brcaeM hia eh p upon tba ?tarb<ard tack. la ardar to return to Maurltiu*, ?hl(li poi t ria n aabrd dalajurad " By comparing ntraeta from tba two log boaka It appaara that tbe Ariadne. In Port l."Bla Harbor ?aa la tha eaatre of th? harrleaaa. and bad th? atoria | vary aatrrrly. wbllat tba An-tmManbe by patilag to l *aa. aad being at< arad to aa to kaap tka ?iud oa tin! p<rt quarter. bad armf a.atlvaly mad'-rata w?athar Frofesaor IIknkt remarked that (he whole tub jeitof atom.* antnnf, both in a tti>-orrlic*l and ; practical aenae, which c?uld wall rnixc Hi'- attention of the aanociation It win on< which had l?rn I Miilied in ihia country mora than in any othar part r of ihe world, and It wm due to thoae rnijicd in i this naearrh, namely, Mr Nedfield, Mr hapy, i and l)r. I*uaa, that it ahould lie thoroughly exI air in< d I v thoae iotarented in | h>sica an "iig ua. i The auliject wi? one r f the tnoat involved, per- i f ha|?, ol any whi< h cauld be i>r?arat'.'d tj in* atigation. Prof. II. had aaveral timea reaolvfd j to atuHy the aobjrct, but had been deterfd from . i want or f> <-ta and tilhe, He thought it would l>e | i Wi ll to make the aubject of the movement ??f 'he t air, id the caae cf atorma, a per ml nutter ol dia cueaion at the neit nnnuitl meeting of the aaaocia- i lion, and that the tneml>era of ihia aection ahould , I In requested ta direct their attention to iheaubjrct | during the interveninK time. He would prepara , hif'iMalf ar.H a\\p annia iiawa at tlie nail itIf . i i bcukl he l? p?rrnit;?d to attend. ll?*h?dcom- j menced * aeriea of eioerimrnt* on the volition of | wrter, and had arrived at a number of nonclmnoaa which he did not antlc'pate at the CtwnJl* ncfwnt. Hp found threr ccnerAive cylinder* of motion are along the alia downward*. nnother niffior to thia upward*, and a third downward*. He had aloo made experiment* on the production of volition* produced in air. Hp w?* inclined to believe that tearly (ii the motion and ?ii?i which have h< en advanced by Mr. Redf'teld, Mr. Kapjr, ?nd Dr. Haie, for the eiplanntion of rtorrn*, wore involml in the phenonirna Profe**or Bm mk remarked that he convideted the*wrni*rf 'he V nicd Mate* to I ' of (liferent rl?Me?, and that i ntil tlmae engiged in making the induction* would diacn** rv-rjr observation, (requinng the aid of mechanic*) computation t r auch a rurpoae,) and pceoeni the rtwult td eacli in print, to he eianmud, no deciaion I'kely toatand l<M<g could be rendered. It would not do in fi rming a Itw or theory, to neglect the contradiction*. Profeaaor B. Inttanced the nap* r of PYofr->*or Ixtomie, on the ctorma of ihe Vrit'd Plate*, prerentrd *'>m? yeara aince to 'he American Philoaopbica! fk>ci'!j, aa an admirable ?peomen of thi* kind of niiuction 1BK SoUUI KCIJP*! or JT Lt, Ifftl. Lieut C. It. tUvi* pre?ented the following commnn'catlor, and I iid npon the table a chart ?S/>wliw In detnH th* pha*. a of the nolar eclipne of Joly >1 V.H, I MM, tnf *iher wnk the fl'neti* for ge?r *1 computation. *<! a i<*t of the <>taer> wtiona on thin * continent aai m Eurnpp, lor which it ia compiled erfccially. Facing undeitake i to pr-nate fc r <!*> * vi*i<>nal n*e e ?et of lunar tal lea, eniftn.lytr g the * addition* which Profeaavr Airy applied to L>*n>or Man's tablet lo make the tabular calcul .noaa re- | lUftent aa dourly aa poMible l'lana'a theory, Prelew-or Airy'? correction* from the Greenwich obi-eivationa. and ulao the corrections due to H?nn n'a recent diacovery of the in^qiialitiea of long perioda in the moon'a motion, an tog from the ptiturbative action of Venus, it.i.- a matter of inu res and importance to profit by the eiuellent c< ration aflotdtd by the aolar ech|>?? of July, lfc61, (visible iu the gifnter j>art of North America ard the continent of Europe,) to compare the li MtiiV ohhrrved |.lac* a with the tabular place aa dt tetmnn d by our tables, und to test the nuturc of the moon's eemi-diumeti r employed in our calcuitiiiciim. In order, ih> refi>re, to facilitate and encouiage the genera) cbr-ervation of thia phenomenon on this continei t, 1 have prewired at the office, h ( hurt exhibiting ili*- phases of the eclipse in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, from which, by simple inspection, the amateur observer at any place, will find approximately ihe time of the beginning aud end, the duration, fire.; and 1 have added to it the general elements, a list of observatioua for which it is computed specially, and Bessel's rite, with a rnoditic ition by lleury Sallord. The numerous calculations for observations abroad and at home, have been furnished with a particular view to the determination of longitudes, for which this eclii be is unusually advanlagt ous It would be superfluous for me to enlarge liere upon the inipoitance of protiuing by sucn an opportunity for the approximate deieimiimtion of longitudes in our conntry; imbiacing us it does, so many meridians, ana having to much of its territory unexplored. It isveiy desirable that it should be used as far as possible tor geographical purpose*; and to accomplish this, us well as to fulfil the origin"! object for which the chart was begun, I have obtained the permit!i< ii of the honorable Wm. A. Graham, Secr> tiiiy ol the Navy, to distribute it, together with th? accompanying calculations, freely. On B;ir< metrical Measurements, ud the distance to which cotres|x nding observati us may ?>e used for that purpose, by Professor Arnott Guyot, Cambridge. Piolestor Gutot showed how the different positions ol places, in reference to atmospheric waves, produced errors in the measurement* of heights by the bar< meter. Une plane might fie under the crest of a wave, and another under the hollow lie showed, that in places not twenty miles apart stich diflerences would be found. In measuring the height of the While Mountains by the haro n;? t?T, large dillerences had been found from tliiH s< uree. Analysis of the I)ynamic Phenomena of the Ley d* ii J nr. Professor Hbnry gave an account of his investigations of the discharge of a Leyden iar. Tins v> 11? a part of a series ot experiments he had made a tew years ago, 011 the general subject of the d) iiMiitic* phenomena of ordinary or frictional electriciiy. On this subject he liad made several thousand < *(? riments. He had never published these in lull, hut had given brief uotices of some of them in the proceedings of ihe American Philosophical Sotiety. All the complex phenomt na lie had observed could be referred to a series of oscillations in the discharge of the jar. If we adopt the hypothecs of ti single fluid, then we shall be obliged to admit that the equilibrium of the fluid, after a discharge takes place, by a series of oscillations, gradually diminishes in intensity and magnitude. He had lieen enabled to show ettects from five of these waves m succession. The means used for determining the existence of thise waves was that of th.' magnetization of steel needles, introduced iuto the axis of a spiral. A needle of thin kind, it is well known, is susceptible of receiving a definite amount of magnttnrn, which is called its saturation. Now, it the needle hi- of such a size as to be magnetized to saturation by the pruu'i|>al discharge, i( will come out of the spiral magnetised to a less degree than that of satura'ion, by the amount of the idwrse influence of the oscillations in the opi>osi(e direction to that of the principal discharge. It the. <)UHntity of electricity be increased, the lower of the second wave may be so exalted that the medle will exhibit no magnetism; the whole eflect of the first or principal w?ve will be neutraliz?dby the action of the second. If the quantity of electricity l>e greater than this, then the needle will l>e magnetized in an op|iosite direction. If thelectricity lie still more increased, the needle will again exhibit a change in its |>olttriiy, ?nd s<> on in BUUITBPIVII) QO ill IT JWffCI VI til*; Dfcvvvooiiv " ? " " are iMt-reased. The** experiments hail been made several yearago, but Profrrrar 11. had not giv?n them in detail to the public, becau.-r he had wished to render them more j>erfect. For the last three and a half >ear?, all Iiih time and all hit* thoughts hail hern given to the details of the business of the Smitli?c>nifen Institution. lie had heen obliged to withdraw himself entirely from scientific research, but he hoped that now the msn utmn had got under way, and the regents had allowed him some able assistants, that lie Woulil be allowed, in part, at least, to return to his first love?the investigation of the phenomena of nature. (Applause.) RrcTiox or chemistry and *mikai.o<JY. The leading of two or three of the papers first on the list lor the day, was deferred. The first |*]>er presented was one on the absorption of carbon, by acids and saline solutions, by Professors W. U Kogers and K. E. Rogers. This MfTT ront iard full details and tabulated results of < xfierunents jieifornieii * Urge number of substances, with reference to their MM| of absorbing carbonic at id, as deter/nined by a process which was communicated at a former meeting of the association. Stress was laid upon the results obtained in the case of sulphuric acid, as being remarkable in the amount which it afworbed, and as lm\ii'g important bearing upon the estimation I tarbsnic acid in alkaline carbonates, in air, and other gaseoas mixtures. I'ii feasor lloasroao ini|uired whether it ?w apprehended by the authors that the quantity of csrb-acid that would be retained by the liquids, in the process of Will Fresenius, woulu impair the accuracy of that process for technical imrunars. IT. 1%. b. J\uiit.K> I' ( ill u iIIui wuiir 11 iiu^iii urn be m tioua enough 10 In- ini|>ortuit in the examination of the commercial carbonate*, yet the error Whk quiir t<M) ftPHi to be artinixMble in delicate anulytical nrocraiiew, and e?|>ecially in the d< termination Of equivalent* Thr next |?|*r whk, "on a new method of decomposing Mlicatea in the proc*an of unitlyHia, with an nnal>i>im of imik acapolite of bolton," by H?-ury W unz, of New York. Thia method conhiata in fuaing the silicate with [lire chloride of barium or chloride of strontium, theii tiusolvitig in hydrochloric acid and removing the baryta or stiontia by mean* of sulphuric acid. An analysis of pink scapolite of b?lton had been made by thia method, the results of which were exhibited, showing a composition corresponding with the received formula ol the common scai>olile. "Co Canadian localitiea of illmenile and chromic iron, with remark* upon their association with the gold ol Canada and California, by T. Hum." " An account of six mineral ejwcie*, by i'rof C. I . Shepard." )>etaila of localitiea of theae were gi?m ( iid the specinitns ?xhitnted ot the section. Mr CeofobJ. Kki mi remarked that as hn own nbire had been menioned by Mr &iiej?tr<l, in connection with oznikite, he would Mate thai in hia examination he had obtained in it 77 41 per cent of phosphate ol lime, and thai ihe specimen wan apparently a mixture of a|>?tite and a zeolite, which waa sustained by qualitative analysis, w hat zeolite in *ei>araiM>n, it ?? found impon*i'?te to obtain any ol ib? mineral which would not give the reaction of i'ho?i>hf>ri< acid. '* L'c?<notion and annlysia of allanite, from ! r?nklin, New Jerae)," by I ?r C. T. Jackaon. "1 >eact ijiiivn of lnMiiuthic tellurium or x-tradyinite, from tli*- gold B>iae <?f WbiuhaJI, Va., with an an<-1} eir> ot the mineral. and it* relationa to the gold laaeriatrd with it," by l>r. C. T. Jackaon. l oth of theee pa|?ri< were accom|*tined by th* exhibition of ae*f ral interesting r-xperunenta. 1 be tectum adjourned, to meet at S o'clock in thr afternoon ?rnuoMi MMIOII I>r. C. T. Jaraao? in the chair f irat paper ??'n the availability of the gre^n aand oINr* leriey, a* a aource of notaah, and ila c<ni|< und; by II w'urt*, New York. In thia |<aper Mr. W announced that he had furceeded in forming alum Hy the action of milI liurir acid u|<on th> gre? n Kind, and in forming chlciide of | omnium, by fuautg chloride of caH cium with the aame material. L'r- K E. ]{(?ana 'jueationed whether there would not be too Mtiuua a loaa of actdoccasioned by the iron, aUmina hni? and tnagneaia, in tha gntn faiid, to admit of ita being an economical ?ulnac?e lor alum, but concurred with Mr. W in thinking that thia could only be determined by exIt nun tiling on tie large acale. A fun her rii?c?ia?Min enaued respecting the nature and origin of the green ?aad, in whtch Profeaaor hb?|*iii, Mr. Wmizand I*. R. K. Kogera i*rt?ct) ated. Second ?A notice of foreign meteorites ; hf Piof. t. V. t*he|?id In the (ourae of this com im'ihu'hih n, mi eimiiitea an ritremeiy inief-itirir mttttnif, which fell id I,inn rovnijr, Iowa. I" rrply lo ?|ue?non by Mr Warts, * to th? chrmical nature ot the minute yet low apecka baring j nemllic hietre intet?p< ned ihiough thin mi>h, I'lof .~hr|i?rd atated that thejr were iron pytitea. A diecu?en f ixwrii hei*i en I'rof Shepard, Dr. .latkM-B, Mr. Itrurh, and Mr. Brewer, ro? ceramg the |ie?enoe of eh tonne in met>-ortte*, in the rrune of w hirh it w?a ?ta>ed that although the pr?*nce of chUna* mifki, m rm? raaee, he atilibuwd lo accidental rau?e?, yet ifcert were euei in whieh large qa*n title* of rhlerwe of ina and nickel were Imad in the centre of the imm, and mint, therefore, hel?*g?d m ttpr?n?rljr. I'rof. She|?rd presented copieu ot hta reimrt (una Ameriraa meteotitea t? the Mr ftilwra of the tWti*n. I* tlieaianiifactiite ot iwc, >nd natwhiM, h) It JtekaMi I "pon the ?loae of l>r Jackeoo'a remarka. Major A. C. I'airirgton e*lnHit?-d e|?eimena of the red iir.c ore, aad fraaklisitc, wi'h nim vxitfe of kmc. I and ground franklinite, uaed aa white and brown punt*, together with Mine of the metallic zinc foil. '1 he bubject waa discussed by Major Farria^ton, Prof. khepard, Ur. Jackson, and Mr. lircw-t, in ?Inch remark* were made u|>on the beauty of the white zinc paint, and it* advantage! over white lead, where there la sulphuretted hydrogen. An anal) ma of red mail,of Springfield, M&M., bjT Lr. C. T. Jackson. D. Jackson showed ai>ecinitns of wood peinted with this marl. Mr. Wells exhibited a specimen of the marl it> Beif, end deccribed the proceaa of manufacturing it into a paint. Further remarks were made upon the tubject by Dr. Jackson mid 1'iof Shvpard. On the determination of pboaph< ric acid, by T. 8. Hunt. This communication was accompanied by remark* upon the analysis ol soils, vuth a statement ot results. Lr. Jac ksi.n waa glad to liud that Mr. Hunt had succeeded in bringing the determination of pho?i boric acid of soils to ?u< li certainty ami accuracy. fe believed the limita of barrennet-aand fertility in toil# rest within two per cent in the caae of certain of their constituent*, and then made some remarkd in rtl'etente to leached ashes as a fertilizer. M i. Hi nt thought the limit to lay between much smaller limits iluni Dr. Jackson had stated. The subject of leached and unleached ashes wai further remarked ujion in re?|* ct u> th?*ir relative value, by Mr. S. W. JoIiukod, l)r. T. 8. Jackson, and Prof. Johnson. SECTION OK I'HYSK'S AND MATKFMATTCS?ELECTRIC CfkltENTS AND DISCNAROEA. On the law of the induction of mi elastric current upon itself, and of electrical discharges on straight wires. By J. II. Line, American Patent office, Washington ; presented by 1 r >fe?aor Climated. Abstract:? The first discover)' of the induction of electric currents, wun made by Prof, l iraday. After hia discovery, Prof Ilenry followed in a very elaborate aeries of exjieriiiienis, in which he developed some new arid remarkable phenomena,and brought lUttfie most complete elucidation of the Uwh of I e induction of electric currenta th it has been produced. He discovered the induction of a i electric current ujion itself, and referred it to th general principle of inductive action at a distance, aa discovered by Faraday. Tfce conductor of a current was regarded as made up of an infinite number of i.finitely small fibres, and the induction of ihe curi < lit upon itself was no more than the inductive orce exerted ujion each fibr--, by the currents geerated in all other libres. My object in this communication is, to present the principal results of a mathematical investigation ol the laws of the induction of a current upon it-elf, some account of which was read before a tneetimj of the National Institute in Washington,some two or three month* since. The most material part *f the fundamental law, from which we must set out, has been proposed by Prof Henry, as a deduction from his investigation. They cannot, however, be regarded as demonstrated by actual experiment, and if the results here given, as deductions from them shall lumish any means of testing their truth, one object of the investigation will have been obtained. The fundamental law adopted] .is the bases of the investigation, is this:?The inductive fi^e exerted by a current generated in an iiitinitely short element of a linear conductor at any given |K?mt lies, in the plane of the elemeutary current, in an opposite diiection to it, and at right angles to the line of direction drawn from it to the ijiven joint, and is directly to ilv length of the elements multiplied into the sine of 'he ?n?le it makes with the line of direction, ami inversely proportion m 10 inr p'juare in uie m iic iuuuviks force exerted by a current, generated in a straight linear conductor of urilimits*) length, in in a direction parallel to the c< >nd urtor, hiii I in llM :uv> rw ratio simply of the perpendicular distance from it. The twine is very nearly true with a conductor of limited length, for any point whose perilenticular dit-tunce in small cotiqMred with the instance from either extremity of the conductor, the error being enlyasmall quantity of the third d> (free. In the second |>lace, it will be readily sern, that if a current of electricity wei> generated m a long straight pusmeiic conductor, in ?uch manner tint the rate of developernent should be unifotm throughout the mass of the conductor, the whole inductive force exerted by the entire current wou1.1 tie greater in the central parts of the cr<>Msection th in ator near the suiface. In the case ol a cy tindriciI conductor, the inductive force exerted at the surface would be equal to that exerted at til- centre, as the diameter of a circle to half its circumference. At the first instant of the applica'ion of an e|ectro-mo live force, to generate a current'in a straight cvlindrical wire, we must ex|>ect that the rate of development of the current will be more rapid in fibres situated near the ratface, thau in Hie more central ones. The rate ol developernent in any hbres is inversely, as the length of the shortest chord that can be drawn through that tibre, in the cross section of the wires. In the case of discharge of machine electricity through a wire, there are strong reason* lor believing that the current in most place* never reaches a quantity suflicient to make the r<*i*ance of a conduction much felt, ia comparison with the immense electro-motive force concerned. Th? more comprehensive foimula, lr<>m which this law ia inken, leads to some curious results iu regard to < lectrical discharge. T hat whieh at once arrests attention is the tendency of the discharge to the surface of the wire, pres-nting some anilogyto the distribution of statical electricity. Hut the discharge would far from being < onhned to the suiface; for, though the initial development would become infinite at the very surface, yet the depth to which this extends in an iufinitisrnal of the second degree, so that the discharge 'ui?t be distributed throughout the mass with a large excess near the surface. Another interesting n suit is that, if ih? discharge were passed succewiveiy iii'nuuii iwo wirsi<, oi diflerent diameters, placed end to fi?i, the induction of the currrnt ut* n itself in the two wires, or what nught be termed the rebalance to di?ch >14*, would he directly a* the l?*neth, and inversely as the diameter of the wire, inttead of iltr area of the cr?M tection. Thi*, t-liouUi it be confirmed, would appears like a marked distinction between galvanic and machine electricity, were w>- unacquainted with the induction of electric curr< uta. 1 here was u communication on the nvtho<l of ten naming the velocity of the galvanic current, \y Orange Judil, Yale Analytical Laboratory. Description of a new iiiefrumrnt for meaauring the angteirontained between the optic axis of crystal*, and for goniometrical ;>ui|>oeea ; accompanied by.the angles contained t? twf.-n the optic axis of Americvn micas. Hjr W. 1'. lilake, New Haven. Mr. Blake's instrument i? designed to asaiat the mineralogist in examining the internal molicular arrangement ?>f minerals by |Milari/eri light, and to combine with the instrument all the reuuiMtea for nnuernlogical measurements. He uses ligtet polarized by reflection, and imw a eye [iecea ol tourmaline or cslc ?i*r, combined w ith lenaes, by which he 1a enabled to reduce the size of the system of colored ringa around the optic axis of crystals? thus enabling the observ#-* to measure the inclination of the optic axis in their plates of micas. Mr lilake also presented a table oi the angles contained between the oi>tic axt* of several American micas, from diflerent localities, the angles vary <ng from 7 d* grees to 7<H. The instrument was exhibited and explained a nmm A machine was exhibited, d<-*i?rned for producing uniform continuous motion, I?t ? hu h the name of tli* f'pnng Governor km hern projKurd. The apparaiua was invented by the Mri?r?. tlond, of (nmbrnlge Ii consists o| n tram '>1 wheels communi' Htiiiit with a lly-wh? e|, intermediate between which sndthe motive power in a de?d twatescaj*nteat, contacted Willi a half-second ix-itdulurn The conn'MHon between the eseap* m< nt wheel and the real of the machinery is through a spring The elasticity ol the spring allov ? the motion of the circumference of ihe eacaanient wheel to be arreated at every beat of the pendulum, while the re at of the train continue* movinir Ky tine nte.ui* all change* in the mi tive power are ell*ctuall) controlled, and a rotation perfectly continuous and unifoun aecured in the fly-wheel, no that the movinj fore may be tBcr>'teed without affecting its velocity. The |Tinciple may be tallied to variou* f??rm? and kinds of machim ry. The design, in the present irttance, wis to secure an inv* table motion to the recording saffacas employed in the electro telefttaphic operations of the const survey. A clock of this description is to lie constructed lur inf <rrr?i rvjtiaioriai 01 inr ? ?nu>ii'iir- w aareatory T*i irt qrwrrtrm. Tke following are the obe-rvation# of Itoetor Hare, of rhilft<trl|it>ia, on the 10* q i<?ti.>n l>r. Max* wuof opinion, ihm hc?fwiw might be perforated, or cnrnmin'ited, Ike r^d-ie would le tound of the Mm* apeeific irratity aa the nw" aat of which II had been formed, and, eon??.|aei?ily, lo what**er eileni II n ifht p?-a*tMtcd by water, the reuniting maee would he a* much liahtar than ite bulk ft water, aa th>- ir" fom.maed he it ihrald he lighter than water ; morw.eer, aa below the teaiperaturr of ?dcg , the deaaity of water itimiBiehee aa II becotma colder, at the temperalure which thia liquid mu*l hor wi htn the lateral i< ea of an Icy imw, II would not, of itaclf, ainh threagh the wanner aubjaccnt aqiieoua atraU, tad. of cnree, it conld not cauae any t-* with which it n at be ateoeiated lo alith Tkia booyaacy of water n?ar the temperature of congeatioti, had heea eon! nHer?d aa a ni?t iratrreeling aad important proeiaixo of nature, by which llK ron?>lidafn>n of large n aaeeaof water ia the polar regtoaa w?? |.re?rmed, when Mkerwiae 11 might take pure vutakakt) o?d the laffueace of the amnmer ana to ri mmt II ta liquidity Pat, aa la a maeaof water coclad thn ughout to M itef , the colder porrtoi mnal ha 'V^rer, aad caaar n neatly eapernataai, tMa potttou. to?rther With the ice into whirh lie aupertnr aarno* la ewaeervd, forate a eon of wlaier clotfclaf. a htah iherfca the growth of the ice with aatflc?cy which augnienta aa the we thickuaa. I)r IUa* coacurred witk Profmnor Weary Rager?, la (he idea thai tkc icy man* covr ring a body

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