Newspaper of The New York Herald, November 19, 1850, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated November 19, 1850 Page 2
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NOMINATION OF GEN. SCOTT JOB TBI PRESIDENCY. SPEECH OF JOHN M. CLAYTON, EX-SECRETARY OF STATE, TO THE WBZGI or DBLAWAKI. On Saturday evening last the whig* of Delaware giivr 11 grand complimentary dinner to lion. John M Clayton, tor the i>uri>o?e of welcoming him batktohia native State, and of eaprewmg their approbation of his conduct u? ihe chief of the etilun>-i of General Tay lor. A'trr a to?*t nll^red by Air Lupout, Mr. Cl?ytou nmcie tJie following MCtajt. I tiae language hut tine uud tree, my fellowcitiztur, when I say thai 1 cannot find word* adequate to express ihf l< time? ahich overpower me at this i'i?-iin-iit. I come before you as .i mere private ii iliviuvul, without ollice, without ctauou, without (*>wcr No oi in tvuhin the sound cf my voice, or elsewhere, c<in e*?>ect, by reudertiig hom?pe fo, or conferring praise upon me, to receive i auv thing, t-o lar at. 11 iow, now ?,r li'-reifter 1 in lik' inc who h*8 returned f'ro.n a long 1 voyuge to jl diHiaut country. Ihivcac-eii ma-h ? mui h of which I wifh to apeali to tny ok<l coinputiious andfrit nds. liai I bring with me nothink but tt iir?t'tut heurt "Uil un honest purpo-1. My hVllnw Citi/.rns :?My chi-f object in accept* mt; your kind invitation lo meet you tiiw dty, v? h t- io i) ii net' my thnukH lor the confidence and supi*/n which, through a lung punlic life, whenever [ lisve hft ii in puhiic station, or a candid ?te (or public < Hice, huH been couj-.iutiy extended to me by . the |iM |)it ?.t my native dale 1 announced, be* | loie ihe elecuoti in Ifelaware, that 1 wtd no cantitrate lor un> otiice. 1 i?io't>ou?<l tliia cnf-ting 'ill altf r ibat cbctiou hud trlt'U pla rt io enable cthtii- (oily to uiidrtft uid my ,>urj>o*e tin I poai'ioa. I ii vr tub d t-o many or th<- riinnt n/i?>ort.iut o ticei II lli?- ill of 'Ik* i-eoplrnf |Jrlaw<tre, ( feel l>* m il io ru-il>e mui |i>i 1 c aean-nvierf^meut io iboer * ho have Mend l?y Ine uiillflrt all iii- btorins 1 t>i I. riy violrijce ? toivh h.iv- ewej1 ov? r i he conn- j tr? flu-i. j t?'? la-' <i i trier of i o-htiry. I an well j antrt tlint no M"rvirr-n l' mnie o<'.ul<l hive can* Crlicn, ?>r o:? 11 |ep .y, the debt of urallt I h? I owe id'in; jiiinirtbe i-'imiitrd, but 1 cannot do it wuli1.1.1 e;ii" turn, low 1.1 a iy, up->u Una oMa-ion of ine? ii ; 'i.<ui, . fti r u lorg wpn anon with what MD? r. jilt; -lire It. k" my olrt friends ind M ow ci ! ; ri s by ihe hand, hi d ackuo w o i1?e tne n-arifelt o!v lijE--.iit ct. hv which 1 hip, and evernhdll be, t> mad io iln in. W> b^ve (ia?irri tnnm.b anoihfr rl-clioin enu^ cniiip iuii,hiiiI lor ihe lir.n tune iuit?|U trier i I a ceilturv, ihe whijtfuot L)-l iware n *v.- |o*t the i jowtr oi the State, whu h lias been trau^'errrd, by a i?Hin ct tcidtiiis o our |? o,i,io i-iiih. Kir , the |*rio<i j <s< named, the party to wiue'i .vehivc* h?en mtHch?d ha<? held tne lej^i-I itiv<* |><i*<*rof [ thix Siuif, without oue * < ?*;l" <i-?v of i>n rinuision within my rec<iilc- u< a Thai po*?.*r has amr goo"; I to 11??- party tnirf turning directly uppo lie ohuioii*. Kui it h?H not cunt* to th?*m, ?ml uiey do not hold , it, by the turirt- hy which wr held it. Wc nH 1 it by Me will of ? majority of the citizens of D-U- ' wme They do doi bow ti>>id it, nor, iu r?v jadi?- ' ii r*ui, will ihry ever boirt it, l>y the wi.l ?t <t m i- j jiirny <.f the ci'izenant lJ. I t*' The G ivvraor ! ihf) li>ii elected is the rrjip -'-uUuve Governor , of ? minority in the State. Ttie Reur<-d.'iitative ( to C< n^ret*, whuin thry h-?ve-em to I-ii1-! tie t'>r Uh, in ii minority re present* live, a lid do-s no!, ' ai.d, in my juflgwenr, never will, represent, ?s the whig le^jr eentulivea have proadlv dnue, thr* I wid c.f a majority til the freruieu of the tiute. | Th< whiga tilnue can elect men trut rep e<ent a DDijoiity ?f the jieoj>|e of IVIaWnre. N?? otftpr j*ar'> rtirte lierr tint i* able to do that thiol? t>ut the ?hm |>Hrty Look at the riceut canvim. liuintreaa uj>oii hundred* of o*r titenda, calling ? ' .. ni| viMuvv ....... VM'OT U 11/ t>'nkt down iIn- ji.iiiv to tiiry it i I .idnered for iwmiy ye?ra. That i? a subject for the? to uj oii ; i.ot u ttul i*ct ut>uu which I choose to ?t>? i<k u> night And 1 only advert in Uct tkiiwv nave Neii aii.okf-u down, as it were, in tbr house of our friends, for th?- pun<ose of Raying thu' the whig |i;irty h u lint been countered by I its old political enemies, bat i* an strong, if not istroi iIih n it hasiHeti for ihf- jm?i ten yearj; kiid ib i if ihot>p who eutertaiii tae Mine senti- j na iits ifiai u ifiti.-fit.n upou the great iiukwuI jut .-non* wlm h divid>'?the I*vo gre.ii ptrtiegof ti e. country, hrd voted according 10 their own i'iiiiri|)lrb fand ihi'ir cn professions, ?> should have txx u in a innjonty mb triiini,>'iHiit us tliw tow* of Dt lawnrv ever were from their origin. Fiiiuw ciiimhk, 1 did not come In-re to ili-cms nmiu IS of local ililrttil. 1 hiv deviated thin lat from til) purpose, iih,h ll>-d by the strouK lerlii.iiH<| ilie* iiiomtnt 1 have wnnt-sfd loo much ol ike I'uity tlnfc to We-ire unnecessarily to inix tin of ifir n i>r? difii'f> ol ih it hitter cup with the t ii rrtKii nfiii ol this d*y Vet I f<*H ih*i it is mv <l?t>, ?iid I tiiii>w it is exacted of me, thttl should i-*y a few wolds iii relation to some of the sii m pewi.ts wbioh H^vf thecouutry during II ? Imsi two yeirf, uui *till continue to excite ] it lli. advent ot Gmt rut ray lor to power, coiiati- j lui?d n new ?ri in ibe history of th?- republic. He r?iii? into ? ftice by the eurt'iaitfs of 'he people; J yet h?* pre*<n<><1 the hrn ini'mcr of a PrrM'ieut, so ?1'Ct?d, with h practical majority in both lirnr.i he- of the iiitiou-tl It ijMUture, opposed no? | Only to hiin, hut to the principles which secured hiaelectnn The ori4iti/.i ion of bjth haute* of CoDg!ft>? was ?UMin>i huii, hrfore he had uuy op(Mirtuiiity to devriojir thr inenMiies of policy upon w huh he n.trndi i to aiiniiiiaier lite Rovprnw-at. Wot a nr?le cooimi"?e wo* hli in either br im It which was not a >poin'M ui<on ?>?rty princes, in opposition u> tho?e uho elevated him to office. He wd?, therefore, iu*uiitly nurronndrd by uupaMlleitd inibrir?-ciin Mis Mint ditftt-uiiits, pre?<niiut> u in w and u< ti d occasion to test the treuyih and saccets of our republican sy?te?. Aft?r noil y yearn of virtual disfranchisement aid proscription, the ? body of the friends who Imit fiirtHiiied him lookt d to the returu of a sinte of tliini{)t u hich should prrseut ihem, at lesti, H|>t>n mi iipn.1 fooiKut ?i li tlifir pjlitioil op(x>i)t'utf; uud, while among u huudr.'ti applU i Chots for office, out only could obtain it, the im,till* nee of euch ?? were dia->p|M)imed ?u?too often sure to he succeeded hy re?-iitni? ut that their "-^'niftiN trete i ut u.efrmd. JSucii did not require the pit irpringf) of oth?-f? to iudace th m to swell the rank* of the n,?t>ot>i ion, noih iB nO't out of Coimrt hi. tfv|irriti<<rd to lh*?e dilIV:Ullies w.?s the prcnlisr ni .tt- of hlUir-t antiav! out of the r<> eeiit aiiuexxto'ii of me ??rt t?rrnri?* ceded hy th*- treaty 11 Mriico dtfficul les which thr<*at?oed the peace of th* country, and aptilled the stout* at hearts out'iig the coutiuuanc ut that ud* luinU'rt ion which had waited ihf war, and incurrrd the mormons exp*-u* - of the uc.piuitio.i Dutinu the srraion ol Coniir- *? which preceded ii? i PP "ni'Mi t ircm II ?? iiyfOj iII~ f A r tuna ui Ihf th*n <Mfiun adm iii-trdiio?i were diifctod ia vain to he removal of the tlillicutrtea to which I ktT? rtl' iTtd. I ha'Mdtn'iM-tr?tti .i h id r ||? ctuiily | rnSKd ihr derron of <1i!H.ord. h it ,?roved utterly itip<>t?ut to a 11 > it. Yet, in my j i Igm-iti, m my of thr r*-ccmmrn<Uik>Da >( Prrti<irni I'o'k in In* | tat iDMinlmiwid' toC^niirt^, wen? e iiine.tly witr. pntuottc, and joal, ea^-cmlly iho-e which n'Pt'*l?d the <?t thr new territonea aa ] Stutcf, I' ft to form their own rfmit'tlic in-titu'! in? Without control, and without any t'oi>i{lfwiM?l tennctiin m r??ard to th" aubjTt of alnv??ry Hfttitf I I'tocrni further with th?* bt?tory of Ui >" rx.-ma, jirimit in* to fflil to ynur TtiHlecm n h?* cotiT4* which I mvaeif sur* win)*- reprraei.ting yru in the p mlij council*. in rrlerenM ti> hi* aubjeet. I'iriiig , tfcf ii'wmr ol 1>*I7 and <t vi ilent d^bai D|>rui<i( up in th?* ?v nutr vt ih>* Uuii> d "'.Atea, { whirl. ?? conducted ?ith uiiim ihI acrt nonv, in ( rtg'id to the rtL'hta of 'he ct"?."ii* vf the c-ott'hern ftntfp to carry tkHr tlnvea to o the ii?-w tfrrirolies On th>- |-art of th* North it waa affirmed 1 th*! ili?? terri?rri?? were "frre Nil" bt Ue Mt'Jican !awe, * liicb, it wna m ?iu'm -? <i, atill toniiune.l j to and would remain i.i force un'il alirogv Ud by the |NiWt r ol 0?>ngr?**< or ih?* erection vf ' fl-t'e c*-nfri ni?-|>*? wi'li'u iht? territories. On Ihr |> It ~T the f'on li. it w ta conf*nd?*d thit th" ] rivlit to Mijot alave propedy within thea* lim'ts *aa a ntt'iiary ?:on?'jnen?? of the iieq'tisition ( obtained by the common blond and tr-aajre. Th'w clashing opinion* wrre w<*g*'d wi h cort- ( tnmmate ability on both itden, i.n i c?(<C?!Mlly in ! the Senate, ol which I wan at that ti>nrim'<le ! ber Tfcrenta of ?tiMinn*n ofi? n r-uijj through tii* hall* of h/ith blanch** o| i:?ni!'r?, nritinf of J tbia cinl'n t of t pitn?n. I did n?t .^rUcTiiate tn that drbote, btit fSerled to bold * poMtntn ' m\4-w?y '.!,f PftnfnriiBH p<rn uke the 1 Ptme I repreMiit'd, and to Mi/r the ti at occ..|. ' frioa trprip whirh f could nwrve ?lVei:iiv?ly to nlUy ' in** RglWMirn Hlld, ir po??ni-, f ho- ine con'roverey. I dirt not dteiyn to biif pn*er or to *11 nftv element of diftord by the Intro 'notion of other toMC* unconnected wi h t!i? qiiiH'ioii before w?*s and I thought ?h?i?, an I t>e- ; lifvr now, thai th? intKiimiiMI i<%? If prwrnfei tti" natural and ptoier n>?wl^ to terni'tiate the atrw ?n 1 mnintain the iuteguty of the lrniua Wnila thd etorn of iii?cord v. aa at Hm* fiigh*"*'t I pr'Viw t<? i>"th (tr iMitirt tl aettle the ?|ii 8'i >u ky "I ?v'iB the awM?Ki of the conti'ntion isi the orpni.tiaiMiD )f new territorial noveri>fii''at? otrt < itliforuia nnd N> w Meili>?, without the Wil.n >t ptoviwi, t<ui with lh? witive pivviaie to brtu* 'hs auhjert ofthe rtofM to hold al\*va unler it* la*?, M* they fmMerf, before the l/wurt nf the 1 nlted Stat**, th?- tribunal n^point>d b|r the fcther*of the repvMir to ,?.-c?d between the r intending members of the ronfedera -y Thi* pritl<oa lion w?e m?-t in the nv>v. cordial a|>irit? ?r>4 approved, W.lh a few "*c< t.tmn.-?, by the jr at hody of the Southern members id C >titreM in h.ith hr*?icV a: an I after an r?citto>B nnd protracted debate, n 1 ml t? ihatHlect, r*i>ort'.d by tco nil ttee of wkt-.h J 1 wutlie chairman, pissed the 8eute of the United Slate* by a majority of two-thirds of all its rr?? libera. During ita p.iaaage through that body, ft fierce opposition was excited ugnust it io aoiue oI the Northern States, where political purposes could best foe subserved by the continued agitation of the question of itlivcry. Mr. Van H>ir<-n b?v cawe the leader ol a new party, orgaaiz-d up;>a this piini iple of opposition to thia or any other plan of adjustment without the Wilmot proviso; and I lor this measure of peace, which. I shall die in the j belief, waa better calculated to compose, in the dtatractioDf an<1 divisions of the country, tlian auy which ban evf-r yet been offered, I wm met in the North by the fiercest spirit of denuncittion. It waa immediately announced that fifty thouaind men had asst mbled in the I'.irk in New York, to expreaa their o; t osition and to utter their execr.itioai sgiinnt what ihey were pleased to call " the Clayton Compromise." The friends who stood by me in the North in my anxious efTorta to restore peace awl harmony to the ooautrv, were denounced as having been aold to the South; 11 (I amid the din and clamor of these p?r?y combatants, rea*on anrt argument were either unheard or lost their proper iuHu'-nce. In tku utui^ ..? . *W.. U .. ... J .U. O.. kuio nai? wa nimj;-, I 111 mil U |??W?f*U U1C :r* u?if, after wet-ks'of discussion ami one protracted ression i>f twenty-two hours. durum which Mr. I)ix, of Nev York, and Mr Nilesf ot Connecticut, txiih members of the new free soil school, distiQfjui?h?<) ih< infelves, in opposition to the measure, not l< m by iheir ul-ility than hy their unmeasured zeal, it Wii* presented 10 the House of Representatives lor concurrence; there, and without use word of d< h.ite, wiihout a single refert nee to u committee. without, as I *111 hound to h-lieve, any proper knowledge or appreciation of its true character, it w<s immediately sit;ingle<? by a motion to lay it on ilie Uhle, by a majority (I think) of tour votes out of more than two hundred. 1'hia measure, which met tlie hearty co-operation and concurrence of the distinguished sialism in of South Carolina, John C Calhoun, now no mure, and received the voree not only of both the Seuaand < f all the Representatives of that State, M?'i. li' o and secured at the same tune the aequick( nee and the adheiiou of the Mouth generally. The defeji of ilie? measure w w considered as ind < i!iu??, on the pun of the North, a determination to refuse 10 .ibHe hy the decision of th-- common arbiter, appointed hy the constitution itself to setile the rursuon I tleeply regretted it ?it the time, and liavt not ceased to deplore i' That d-teia'. e.dded Itiel to ih>- tlarne already existing m the South; and I, with others, conrcioua ot that f tct, tin nedia' Inokrd wuh auxiety for some oth?*r m-asure ot |wcitication, winch, like that I had proposed, would not coinpromit the principles or outrage ihe feeling of either section of tlie confederacy. There denied to he but one mea-ure left winch could eflecii ally secure the tame object; and when Mr. folk's me-si^e, on the commencement of the next sexton of Congress. su;r?eaced, in torrnu not to be mistaken, that Congress nigh' safely leave the question unnistorh?d u oil the people of California und Xev Mcmco should pp'v t.?r admission as toveityii Stilts of tiiis Unl >11, there -eemed to t>* a general wish, during tlie aestioa or IS 14-!), that tlie |n ople wuhiti ilmse Iuiiiis, in tlie free exercise ot their ti^h' i f self government, should, upon the admircinii of ihe?e new S ites, settle this and u!I otf?er questions of (loin'xtic ;>o!icy to suit 'hetnpeivis bills to admit th- Stites were introduced into both brum ot Congress, and the prospect ol purification and udjustineiit hiigti'eued as it b came known that thM l*r? sident elect favored the mine |*oluy. Mr Calhoun, the acknowledged lea ler of the Soctheru section, had pi (claimed th* rik tit of self government in the penile of th ?se tetnutries, hi Ins celebrated resolutions of ISI7, in the followii)^ terms :? It.' 1 t-J, Thkt it ii a fun Janmutil principle In our political er< ed ilist a p.opl*. in firming a eonstitu linn n?T?- ri.e uu -otai' icaul right to tortn aim adopt I hi' -cwvu iiiuvM utilch 1'iey duj think hast ealcuUti a 10 wtum their liber.v. prosperity. Had hsapln*s#; aui in conformity lUnVkto. no other con liu >a in iwpoei il by I tie IvOrrm nouilltutiou on tlttlK, iu orui r to t>? aduntUd into tut* Inion. eiuep: tu*t Its ccnmtutM n ebu! tie republican,*' uod hatth? iuipoMii -u ?f mvj oilier by Oougrext, would not only lie in tlolaiiuu ot the codmItution but iu ilir?ot with the piiuciple on wbkb our political H/etem r??n. Mr. iu his menace 'A December 5:n, 184H, inculcated ilif same doctrines " Tins question," taid ht*, 'is believed to Iw rather ahMrsct tli ta I rncticiii, w heihi r*l ivny ever can or would exim ia Hiiy jiornou of the* scoured territory, even if it were lelt 10 ih>* option of ibe bl<?\ctioi lin^ States ilicrntvlvti. Ftom the nature ot the climate and production in much tbe larger proportion of it, it is ceruui that ii cuuld rever e.\ist. And ugmi, he t?>: " iii organizing ijoveioiiientB over th.-se terII lot it h, Lodmy imputed 'in Congress by Hie conitinitMin requires that they sbouhl legi-Ule on llie Nubjrrt ol slsvery, while th**ir p iwer to do no i* uot l uly seriously questioned, l>ut denied by nmuy til i) i soundest ? uii.drrs of that instrument. Wlit Im r Ciugtfts (hull Ir^uUle or not, the people o< the iu.'i>ured teirttoiiea, wh?a usstsmbled iu couwmiou to f??nn Hute couftitutioas, will pi?ssess tlie sole and exclusive po^er to determine for tl.eriiM|ve? whether slavery shall or shall not e.\i?l v. ithm 'lit ir limits. If Cougress shall abstain froin interfering with ih<* qoestiou, ih'- people of th^e tenitonea will be left Ire-e to adjust t! ihey may think proper when thry apply lor n-in?:?Moa a? Smits into the Unioo. No eniu'ineat of Con^res* would remain ih? people of any of the svvtrtign rStites of the l/nion, old or n? w, North or .Suutb, slaveholdintf or nonsi-v< hi iiiui", from detfrmiuiiig the ciumcter of their domestic iusiitutu ns a- the) my deem wise ana proper. Any and all of auth grtu-s |>os**>? iiui r'L'hi, end fnuigresa cannot deptiva them ol if. The people of Georgia might, it they chose, bo alter their constitution a-t to uboli?h alavcry wi'hin it* limits. Tne |?*opte of Vtrntont might so alter their conciliation as to admit slavery wuhiu its lir.'.iui. Doili mutes would possess the right ; though, as all knuw, it is nut prooible that either would exeti it. It is fortunate for tlie jieace and hirmony of the I'niou thai this qufubu is m its nature tcin|H?rary, and can only conunue for the frirf (>eri\?<l which will intervene b<tore C;iliforni* und New Mexico may be a?1nuit?d na Mates into the I'nion Fro in theudeof population now tlowii g into is Infill) ; to )?blc iJut this will soon occur." A* flviwuils mills, that "if Congress, iusteiol of observing the c< urae of non* interference, le>ivitiK the adoption of their owu dom??'lc institutions to the |e.?p|e who may inhabit these territo* tits ; or if, msietid of extending the Missouri compromise line to the Pacific, shall pr*fer tnsutv nnt the legal aj -1 constitutional wmch ny arise to the decision ot the judicial tribunals, a* wa? proposed in a b.ll which passed the tf-aite at your I ?' semon, an adjustment nny bo effected in this mode. If the whole be referred to the Judiciary, all psrinof the Union would cheerful!} acquieece iu the final decialou of the tni inil ciea'to o* the coiatitatiou f.*r the settlement of nil qurtiioiis which nuy anae under the constitution, treaties, and liwoot he Untied State-i."' Uf ttie ft uiKiiieM of the opinions here expressed, ! never uteiiainej a doubt. These were justly re^ardtd, during ihe uliol. Kwn'n which preceded the close cf Mr Hulk's adrmuthtr .on and the liiunfu ration uf <irn> ral Tajlor. as the l-admsc dnc'rines not t>'ii) of South* lu ats'fsmeu, but also of the iltmocra'lc party. Not only waa the cabinet >il President Folk comm tted to these dosUiktl, tut his party in Uoniiesa espoused ths i'.nte pnneiplt-s; ai.d thear priuciplea a tin-d strength dining 'he whole of ihat sessi<>n, to such .in extent lhat good men throughout the coun'ry renamed them ?t the ark of their political stfely liom the threiteui'ig evil* ansui.? out of i ur territorial acjuiMtions The l!<>u? of l>ep?es?-ntati*e? contained a sin ill majority, ?? t?e h?ve wen, in opposition to the iVst ni'tisuie recommended by I'r*sid n' I'ollt, whi<-h | Was the hill 1 ha'l introduced at the previous j Misitl: aiol as m my who hid opiwied that uill | ivo??d themselves friendly to the measure re- I coronienl' d by hiei, of awaiting the anion of tJic j (.If. In the .onufWI ' ! governm-i's, lio'h ; in (.'ulitotina and New .Mexi< o, I aconieiced in the |tntr*l ^eunn.fiit which 1?\ -red th it curse of [a he?, henu-e it wosikl >.s ?ff?-ct tally settle the a hole (oMltitrnr when th' ""tatea ahoald be a<l? muted, as the bill 1 h-d proposed f->e suttmtttia.' ihe question to the jiiiltctsl Ui^iantlsj sn I I wu lest ous to avoid ih>; orrocitioO bt *'i't aa !is\iiiii once vnt< d ignn^t tt?s bill of . ioe I ' |>i <1 ( ??>, < .1, fr-m~he in' i" i?ri-! ot i"'.u .mI ncjF, wnuM |>ri>h iMy |-t*? * ere in donjf ? ?. I thought then, HI) I lh?\ yrt, th tt Uiat bill |?r? ?rn?p4 l<> far the iik tt ll._,bie in*mIi? of decitmg !" 'ittrMiop tint cnti'd he Miyicatfd. With l'ret?rie|.? 1 ilul not dr>ut?t unit "nil p\rt? ?f tl'r l't<ton woiiM th? ? iI'llly a>i>tea?te ta the *.iihI ilrtwoi of the tribunal < .rated by tlie Nkrinulii'ii, lor the aettli ni?nt of nil i|tie?tioai ill-ma unlet tl.e ron?lltuti in, tre viea, *1 u<1 li*? >f Ihr (Jiiifrrl Mnf*a.'' Ujion the form4ii?m of t?TnMirthl jM'verctm nt?, jtirii'Mil frtvtntU were neimiii) in be eat an! th* conatimti'ia Dcminai dt d nr, in the erection id ?<ich irihuil*i iimmkr tkt n' crwtry r?'giili?ioii? for to th Mi.reme Court it* jurisdiction Tut* pro*i? ? n in the 1>, 11 w?? tfcr rehire a ineitiife, in rnv * 1? w, f n.p> TM11* r ly df-lllx Riled of CMgreW, ahould te rn'on.i gnvrrnni*tta l*? > U'li-lu d B it no audi rti? -lire wa? neortaary, m (M*#" it ahn i| i he detrrmm* n 'hat I'/nnin w should not mter'rre, tu th<* la nun of Prraident F'.ilH, "for the on-f pt nod w hich would rv-ne h^lnre CjI fornU ntd N-w MfXi o would tw atnnirnl ?* State* into the | I uinn evi iiN w hich he d-clnrr I, "it w ?* h'e'ily ( N'l i.Me would - "tm occur "'irneed ?> ttie*' i(*ittil*r<Morj?, my own sentiment* > u tins anhjcot neif, ihiia l*r, entirely in < in- id ii with 3 urhrrn Hatenoien, and the leading mrn of tha demo, rtnttc |?trty -elf. It was at this antr* of (?? iir?KP "a of 'hie agitu'ion, that I *m honored hy IVm i ut T?)lor w ith a place in ht? rahinvt. i ['( into po m r wnti * xithetun'Ml mi|ority ngainet hint in both Hou?e?, hl? great aim and end hein< tb? ha/moiiy and ' t n? fa t.f the crttntry, he n i?urall?. and. aa I tbmgn?, w u? ly, cob. luded that it would b;*t conduce to the successful adjustment of these quevioas, to ii carry out the policy suggested by his predecessor, pi had tnmined, ?b 1 have stated, by the very party ci which opposed hu owu election. tie nought to tl make no party issue out of the controversy, but fi deeply deprecated the geographical division* which v would necessarily ariae out ol such an issue. d Upon the organization of the. first Congress after f< his inauguration, he recommended it to await the f< action of the people in the formation of State d governments in the new territories, and expressed 1 ihe none opinion with hia predecessor, th?t the?e v eviits would probably boon occur. It waa ap- ii pureut that by thiB niertns the vexed question o aa to the power and duiy of Congress 10 in- ti terriict slavery within these territonea would be ti avoided, without doing violence to the feelings v or prejudices of either section of the country; and I when his California mensuge was sent to the tl House of Representatives, recommending this n course of (jolicy, the op|K>sition press of thf conn- tl try hurst lorth in one general outcry that he had Ii but adopted the resolutions and principles of the p democratic |*rty, and copied the recummendation 1; of President Polk The complaint was that he p had proposed nothing new ; and while a studied ti effort was mude t? heap praises on those who, it o was allegi d, h id originate! ihese sulfations, he ti was denounced in unmeasured term* tor his '* im- ii becilily" in merely following la the footsteps of n others Their censure under such circumstances it was the highest ericonium that could have been d bestowed upon him It is well known to many of d you, my fellow-citizens, that 1 was opposed to the li :if(in i k 11 ion iif i)ihi.? territories I n< vit voted for tl such an acquisition. The Legislature of this State j< l)H<l instructed nit* to vofe asjainst (he annexation 11 of uny new territory, without a prohibition of i< slavery wiihiii its limits I obeyed these iiiHtruc- 1: lions; and, in purtuance of them, I v?ted for the tl restriction, when the treaty cf Guadalui>e Hidalgo 11 wan before the f?erate It i* known to most of you t thar, in common with muy others with whom I was c accustomed to act, 1 p ttdicb d the evils which have n since fa I en upon th?' country in consequence of ti the purchase ot California and New Mexico. But, ii when that ti rritory had been acquired, I tel e boui.t), us 11 Iriend of the I nion, to promote its har- j Itiojiy by any urd ev ry measure wtiicli would pre- 1 vent the alienation of one portion of the country ii Irem the other, or the orgMnr/ation of geographical fi parties wiiiiin it 1 did not believe, and do not now t believe, that 'here was any danger of disunion b frrni 11:e adoption of the measure* proposed l>y 5 Pri sclents Poih and Taylor. 1 read the speeches li cf gentlemen of "ren. <f-unction, who pointed ill p vivid colors ihe horrors of diMinion, and predicted, a in melancholy jeremiads, the total subversion of .' i ur whole coiitedented system, in the event of the admission of New Mexico tod California us States 1 ct Ui.ii u. The lights of oratory on these a topics were inter. Ming e.\hibiiions of genius. The u paihos and efiect with \\ hich ihe dissolution of the I confe.leracy and the consequences of civil war t were depicied in Ci nereis, mole deep impressions t on li e country, and, in common with oth-;r.j, 1 can- ' ft j? ihri l sdmirtd 1 'How cunningly tli" blood and teari were drawn." a Frtl never tenon.-ly belit ved a syllable of the story a that there was danijer of dusolutiou of this glori- a otib L'mon arising out of waiting tor the action of ti the people of the territories in the creation of their r owu dome*tic institutions, or of acknowledging a tin ir right oi tell-ii"vein;n? nt, by the adnnssiou of c the Slates iuto this Union. 1 vm ul I no turn on my i heel to pluck u fea'her Irom the plume of any of ] tbose diMinuuiahed orators who, under the belief | that Mich mean* h i re necessary to save the Union, t kept Congress and the whole country in a sute of e continued e'Mti tton for ahont t'-n month*, an 1 who, I having r?ife<? the ghost ol disunion, afterward ob- b tamed the credit ot laying :t My Mtti in the per- J petuiyof our glorious republic, ret>ta on a some- r what better foundation thin theirs. It believe it t was not, it any moment, in the power of any of i tin in?no, not c.l ull the memtiers ot Iwj'.h House* | combicfd?to absolve ill's luion I lirmly l>eiieve t thii the lirst h ricus, pulpaMe, and tungitde overt ( a< t of tr? aeon would have b**en succeeded j j by the degrad iiion of the trai'ors. The hlrHsinea ' i flowing from tins I'nioo are too deeply b atej in I the 1 earls ot ihe American people lor them to cuf- J IVr any number of demagogues, whether iu or out I of Conferee, to snatch from Itn in this priceless in- 1 h? titan* e. I have lived loo loin; in public lile, m l I tt-i n too much of public meu and their |>olicy s to ni'?take th?- lavings cl n fer madmen, in either g tection of the I'nion, for the decisions of whole v communities resolutely beut on tht ir own or their t] cotmny'siuin. 1 uniieat the MniKgle'oftlie j>o!iti- tl can whoeeekstoat.'uinpirty ascendancy forhtra*elf l> or his friends, by endeavoring lo Host higher up 1 n tiiju suv o:hera u|>on ihe waves of sectional excite- j t D ent There is no danger in these demonstrations, , i| so long as the great American heart?the heart of | n the people (I do rot m ~n of L'ungre-.a) remains i ti sound. 1 cen laugh at the effort of the political fa- j w italic or mudmnn v.ho stiives to mnke it appear to > ti either section of the Union, that he is ? better b fii?tul to it than anybody ?l;e, nnd, to gain distinc- it lion. onl-lletcds lierod and ov?rrt> es lerma- . it There is, geuetally, 1 say. uo dinner in all b tins to any but those who preaait, und uttcmpt to l> practice, abaolnte trea?on and disunion, nnd, indeed, ii there is u< nemllv very litile danver evea to them. a It is " a vnlmni ii?*s that cat* his breakfast on the ii lip of a lion;" but he is in no peril, while his depre- r dations r< main too ins'i'nilii .iui to attract notice, t] 1 he ofatious made to show that disunion would be ? ihe cob?r'|uenee ?f granting the right of self-go- j v? rnii.eiit to the j?-nple of the territories. were line, i . The praxes of the Kupheroist hi the moni?tery 1 were well merited. " Marvellous licc words," said j ^ dam?* Gcndeuntt g, ' marvellous line words, neijhbor Hopper, are tiirjr not?" " Ilrave words?very a brave woidt?very exceeding pert woris," au- H swered the nnlltr; " neverilit lets, to apeak iny R mind, a lijipv of bran were worth a bush-l : o'th? m " Th? greatest enibatrassment both to the President and tj tne country?the principal obstruction to all legislative measures n arose out of Ihe I'utile eflbtt m ide during the w last session of Oongreas, to embody in one bill I" on Ibis subject, measures absolutely incongruous, ' or having no proper connection with eaeii other. 1 11 When the State of California presented herself for 0 admission ttlo th*. t nion, and the President had n distinctly pl?c?d that n?e?aure oa the very corner j 0 atone of hu w bole sy> < m of |?oliey iu regard to tlio ' in w n tii? tin I'-<i>.i nm i XIM m ;??IUi j ' of Cfftiurem a autticient of opporiuc vu,',? V to previ-iit the |iM^H)j!i* of the urcriMrjr bill. But ' iwho ti ok the lead in 11??- recent inearure of '' udjuatnunt beving reaoiv*<1 lint na man should ' voie Icr the adniirMon of California who would aot !' dftff to voir, nt tlii' phmi' lime, ten miHimis to ! '1 ejaa for u iel< ?*e of h? rdawn to a poruoa of New I ' M?xico, an well aa territorial government*! for the Ut r and tor Utah, the ilitlicnltM-a which hail he- I * fore am founded Ihe iji?e*in<n immediately thick- j en?d, and ?i>rt ad a deeper daikne?a around ua. A ' majority ot eith*r House might have been had ut any tinr* for? ithrr of ihc m? aaure* embraced in the , hill veporatrly ; hut the majjiiuea for eac h of the*e ; i> NiUtri a'iMM have beeu cnni|>oerd of very dif- '' fei< nt iiidit idual*. Mure than fifty Northern mem- .. beta of Conxrem were willing to do justice to th'mearuf prn|i???ed h? Preffdi at Taylor for the ad- .. (MfMon ot Cshtcrria, who w?re uuwillins to ...t-.K- i... >.. t ? ? -j ri ..Ill < ....'.I.J .VI >11 n J?- in<ui|i|lll)r, WI III I (iatiM n for tl otgan./ation of the i>-mtoriea without the ivery provi-o Oa the other hand, J-1 many Southern mfm'wra of Conyre** were willing to vote f< r oi e or loth of the two Unt ni??aure*, . who w? re unwilling lo volt for th? lirat. Diepoa<d is I * *, nny,even inxioHf,th<t a*tjr measure ll>iot!ir?nr a to a KttUnif di iif tl e i;>ie*tiona heft>re u* tftunld he adopt# ?i?nneereljr rWirom a# I j w;iato grt rid of the not"* of ihe ulariniat# and ngior* m 'ongrrra, who were <{*ily makio? more hue i Mcr> on ikot toj>ic< thin all ihe rift of ihe couatiy tot# in#*, liKhmit ifcemtelvea into fury, ! n fri'jMeuing the timid at kotnr, and crratini ' ' liruaioDt mnonp nil th* fnei da of rttlotial freedom Ih r<< 'I? 1 would h*ve been a any 'inn- trul> rej#.jr?d to hud tk' do<>rway for l?g:*Uiioti on other 1 ' ?ul>i*cta?#11 of which hart been cotii>4*telf eidnd- JT cd hy 'he introduction ?>f what w,m called the MtjntilbM hill"?again ?|>. n?d. the eoun'ry <]:iiet- ,, ed, cud the agi'a'ora ail-ncd Tftia Omatbu* j ' hill hur># in the" doorwr.y more than ait month*. ?j while 11.imc who aitftii|4>d lodiivc it thro""* linuitit ita pontage ohatnicted from ita own iin- > 111 wo My cr nt|T)fl'too, fcfeout? d at the ?f rhnr * Ibtiita to ali.rm the t onimumty. ;,t,|| j, j,?n? ,n ^ tb" t-r.lrtnre, jammed on ho^^^ ft,r ? f)infcr " i?#rn d it could he ?f jih- r K,,( nnr ol? J* An tun'* h-.iam(! ncceaaary for it? pro- ' hrhle lailiire ; at l JnMautly tlie Prraident " waa ?tta# ke ! Nre*J?e fir h,j not r'Tninnrul- * ra It li wnn mnnm ii rr-01>e,| itiit hp theulil W 1'fnr the btnhi'- ?>f ?(? A tirw cotlition, : 1 *hn.h hrl btt? fointfd to i><mh it through hy mun c rttu-kiti, in t.;y<'Mitu,n to th> rml wi?t?. ul !* i t denutiiiee not only th?* l'rr*idi*iit, t?ut the members ?>f hi* cab-net, to-ccif it mM " fcntpo A Mfim si* onllril in M? eiijr, I* ri- j |.re?e public pjiii "n in It* hvnr. Anotht r meptinif na'ui>lly Niowti in ?>i|iovnon to it, at which I n >n?uiit ti? *etr i d?i|>?td compliment try to t?i?* iH- ' n.itmtr itinn. nod pmicHurly to mine of its li tinb<r? It i? HtedlfM for rr.e to "iiy to you th?t I ?tirt i.i t ironist *iih*-r ??f tin. m-rimf*, an<1 knew txitl ii B ?>f ih< |>roc? rditifi* of eiioer until 'hey wf ' " I uhln-hed. \ ft, when the wvnl (iir? < (the latter ivt-re I <i?t b?for??ihe Sfimir i f the f'uiie.l ?Jt ilea, m ' rhiiti'e w.<s distinctly tnnde tfut I wit* the mithnr i II the ttMlntmiifi 't'l * hen fhififi* drnud by 'if of )onf Senator*?my ev.remetf frit id, Air. Wilrt, who w?i prrtwut?n chart* ! wlnih )?>i nil knot* io hp utieil) and h twine, it tini | r*i?>ted in. and, f helnre, never I" teintlid All ihiu win hut a pirtof ? uriifnl Mil lay the fuilnrr nt ihe ij?t iitiua oa l'reiitd<*nt ' ' Ti*)l?>f hfii hm dntinistrfittiin Hut Pinvidence tf'tnt to h i*e deurmi-ted that thta reene n'miild fnil m d be fxp'wd. In ih'' ttnd*t of all tt?r clamor brat the prriH ??f the Unto*, ih?- Pre.xident died, and ? hi w HfJmiiti- trail' u c?in? intupowi r fnmr week* ?1*1*1 <1, dutms which the pe?'pr> e<J Oompr mtiae, instead of ?>*iii>rg fr>*t Hrenjf'h evtu in ili? S"iia:e. la the lluu??, th? re wm n. vcr a pnaaibl* rhince frri'a r*">*fte. It ecoaWeil ?f aever*l he-er ><e I Mouc dttuile, t ach ol which had crigiujtcd ' i wmr operate resolution or bill proposed at the revious wi-mou, or on some former occasion To irry it through, it was amtoded to any ami every

t?*l* b* which U could set uotiwr vote : and. unity, though Dot tt all in the shape in which it ias originally introduced, the whole project, after ittrat ting the country for ao long a period, and ef ctually | r^ven'inf the passage of any measure ?r the public good on any other subject, waa voted own. Thin waa lon? after the drath or Piuident "?y)or, and the dissolution of hit cabinet, and vhrn it was made palpable to the world that it was rnposnble he could be the cause of its defeat. The bbtruction caused by this bill being once removed, lie way was opm*d for the first effective motion nward the bettlernent of these questions which ras promptly made by a distinguished Senator from rlarylai.d?Mr Fearce. He grappled at once with he pincipal difficulty attendiuit the whole adjustnent the quesiiouof >he Texas l>oundary He look hat single measure by i'self, made a new boundary me, dinerent from and more satufactory than that roposed in the Omnibus; and to him was eminent^? far more than any other?due the credit of its at-f-ege. I le saw that this would lay the foundation for the succor of the other necessary acts f legislation. Knowiug ihat it wus impossible d lift the enormous weight of all these ucongruous measures at one time, in one ibsp, he Feparated them, and as other men [i ordinary lite are accustomed to conquer ifficulties, he resolved to take them in detail. He id nie the lienor to consult me on the subject of is bill bi fore lis introduction, and I <hd not hesiite to advise him to iwrsevere in the couise he reposed. The result was soon seen. The hill he atroduced, unclogged by other measures, was assed in a few days without difficulty, and by a irge majority; and 1 have never doubted th<t, if he same course bad been pursued at the comnencement of ihe sesbion, Congress and the nalon would have bttn saved tix months of unneetEaty distinction and alarm. Viewing all the ueabures in common with thii subject ut this line, as they passed Congress, f am far from sayni| they were the liest ihat rould have been adoptdi T lip Bfttlfmi'nl fit Iho Tiivac Knnn/laru hn I h m udiciaiy, or the Congress of the I nited States, us 'resident Tii) lor recommended, would have been, a my judgment, more consistent with the honor nil dignity of the fcovernment, and would have avrd ii? fiom the ?lT? cm of u. precedent which will >e invoked<u tome future occasion, when some State shall ierk to take the law ioto her own lands, to induce the government to submit toimOMiifn, tinder tl?e pretext of buying pence. But u adjustment of ihe beur.dnry by Congress o' the udiusry had become impracticable, in con=e'utice <f ihe t ncouragemeut held out to lYxas to retubt until { he should he paid for her cquiefcenee. As to the territorial governments t New Mexico ami I tali, 1, of course, would e among the la?i to object to iheir organizaion on the principles of my own bill, which passed he Senate two jears before. The<e territorial ills provide substantially for th* very measures 1 tad myself proposed anil strongly recommended; i d, individually, 1 was perfectly content with the doption of my own scln me t f settlement, so far si these territoties we re concerned 1 should have teen satisfied with the admission of u State governnei t in JNew Mexico, as well as California, with constitution renttog ihe question of slivery acordmg to the will of her own people. But l ht\e lot jet ceased to deplore, and I fear that I shall leieafter have mm h more reason to deplore, the a i lure of the hill 1 had proposed, on account of he dlssatisfactiot expressed by the South with the dnnssiou if California. So far us rega ds CaHI'tnia, the tdjustment of the ve xed question, by uUn i'lipg it lo the judicial tribunal*, would, as ?lr affirmed, and as I now repeat, have terminated the controversy forever, without any of hat dissatisfaction now raging in the South. It Mit tmpofbible that any Southern State, and escinlly tBftt South Carolina could have continued he ag'tation, as it now exists, with the vous of 'alhoitn, Butler, Burt, Rhett, and all the distm;ui.-bcd men e f the delegation of South Carolina, n f.tvt r of the bill, backed by the votes of Mason, hinter, I'avis, of Mississippi, Berrien, and every -otitis* rnSenatorrnd l!epr??? ntative,except Messr.*.1 ^edcer, Toombs, Stej In ns,ard three or four others, ["he fetlle me nt of the question by this mode would ir.\e I een final and conclusive; it would have b"cn i thfnctory t?> nil ptrtiea Our people are a lawbiding people; end the whole proposition simply fas thai both part it s i fiould agree togo to law before he Sapit me Court of the United States, and abide l'i? roinlT. 1 hifv lifinnr. miH uelf- u-< >iM ?.ve compelled ell sections f>f the country t3 *u!>lit to thi' decision. No man feels himself diaruced by it. wlio in beaten ia a law suit on a sheer uetticn of law, after a full and fair trial. The if a*ure w ould have waved the honor of hoth parts, in any event. Leading Southern statesmen, 1th whom 1 was associated in the Senate at the me, ?>ftcti said to me, dt ring the | rogresf of the ill through that body, that, let the decision ?0 ns R"8ht, the honor of the South wan raved hy the i der to her of a fair trial before an impartial trii.eel, and the would be sa'it tied. lhit when thia ill vi detested in the 1 lou*e, tlie impn>?ion was ? mediately made upon the BoWhl rn pjlad tt> .t, M f< ir tiiil had be* n iefus? ?l, theie was a <!> lib-rate it<niinn cu the nher tide to dinrrgurd ^onthern i!?hta, and trcmple thrni in the diut. K\er ?inee In- if a?i? n of 1M7, that feeling has rankled in the outbetn boom Ilarvt later! lethali* arundo. ir*1 li \r the edmitsiou of California, with a ronuutitn i lolubiting ?lavtry, without the benefit of ie trir.l demanded t>y the south, haa produced an le nation from the teat of the confederacy, ninons fine mistaken g? r>U? -men in that region, which I ray to (io.1 in his mercy, may *oon give way to ic more generous impulses winch properly belong >ai.d criiee the Boutin rn h r etrr And now, .) ? Hi nit'i n?, I h,iu to ?;>y, that I hive KCI othn p in the measure* adopted by Congress, to 'Inch 1 hate lef.rrrd, which t-houd excite any ortion oi Una Union to resistance against the MMkM anihoritie-of the country, an I I itin k is the da'.y of every good citizen, whether he does r doec not thick that ether ana better nrte-asures night have bt?u aubstituteil in their place, not niy to Mibmit to the laws w hich have been enactd, btil to Hard by end support the ??v<Tiimn>t, |f i res vy. to the f1'! r\trnt fif hi* ?!>iliiy, in carklii' iluVe lawa into successful execution That 'ruident I illiiinri will itn lit? wh?l<* ilntu In <kl > i fjxct, 1 hn\r not a t>ht<(<nw of doubt; ftml I li?|?OM are nil willing to join with nc ia ?u,uiJfi him in lti?' discharge of that duty. la lita piloiitin, and that of the members of his cabinet, I arc the utmost contidrore. I have no reason to lieire that either of thrm would hire refiiRrd hU id, at nty moment, to the ntdriMH of !i rxrd i,uet?tirnn on th batis by IVeidmt Tat lor. Thry have acquiesced in wn;it aprated to them to h' thr i nly practicable scheme f acjurtin* tf;e?e difficulties. Thry iwh k to soistin thr rir*'it?ti<>u ami the law* of their country, r<d 1 honor rtx in ior th? >r iurp??c While they i ly Mir Viion 1 *hnll br with tliom and for if m If there be any one sentiment in mr b som tore di?i ly seated ted more dr> ply chi ri?hed inn any an I all otimrs, it ia that of lo%r and Tradition f <r thr iiisUtuUnus which our fathrra h.?ve tt us, ar.d for die ciMOtiy, thr whole country, ov?rrd and protected by thr American cono'itnon There will be t?o hepr left for tnr or nunc hen th'a I nion shall be broken tip; and should ut rrrlanrhrly period ever arrive, I shall b* a nderer v?iihout a home 1 can take no part for lit tettjon as^inat the oiI:?f. To me thr preset*tion of this T'flipn ia a m .tter of interest above II Mhetf, ar.d if re;en?rv, 1 ?hall be found true i tho?c who inrtjin It to t)i^ J?I?' drop of tny blond id my bremh. C#Merita was denim Congress r pfoMctioB of the laws of the United Silf*. brrala of trunnion brfha to be otterrd by those ho lour d thr mm h? a tint* desertrd: an<! to r.asur. im of tfce puttmsil care ?f the goTeruir.fot, tn l i isKctlcns to a?rirt them in any pjiuMe cde, a rprrial mtMinccr, Mr. Kiii*, of Georgia, i* ilerjatchej to California. He knew aad n iiiuntcated to thera the wiahc* J,J re?4r?t for thfir oud w-lfire, .1 hi* Jet-ire that' JtJ ?hould ffltftV the protection the l n"-u nod the brnHi'* of a f ov- rn??t rf their own choice. Tin* minion, w hich, r krow, wa* attended w iih highly beneficial reitie, m allajmf the diftontent then griiwinmn mt trrn'cry, vraa aoon mn-le, by tintrrupuiou* 'litieiHiip, the theme of oMotjiiy and reproach, lie i'tefiiteni an>l Inn cabinet W? re charged, with, ii' tliHilotv of 11111 h to luatify the ? < tai'ion, iih h i>irr itiatigate^l the ( ilifurniana to en.-lude nvi iy. in ihe fotmation of the Htnte cotiatitimoa. hr faUehiod and contemptible in?l mi>ty of nit the ilmiinieti n thm Mbitct have recently heen put to rt toiever hy the publication of a corn'Ufioiiilrai.t ;nirn Mr King ?nd 'he navalandjntlitary oont iiiitit if ?'ii nr viiimriM mnon i new C'lnui tt, !iV? a kttiM Mkrtl of a fimiUr character, n i d the p?T| o?r of the four wh'-n they origtitiil, i tin will rrcn aink info oblivion or connipt. Next in niacnitnde to fhia 4iif*tii>n of h\< ry. (imofif ihr cause* of rmtianaaaoienr which itruuoded itir administration of General lay lor, ?r i tp ta ? hich I have already briefly aduited, iwrB rut of nppoinMii ma to office. lie wan ihrirrf l.jr the ojyooltion prew writ proecript nnof j ?i|>|or.? nff, tin IT any of the dian,>i>oinied ofi'ce I?tk <>f his own party,of conr.-e, ioin<d in tne i n or agjitiM '"m " W>H I*' found, upon an , ? n iiif f'Mi of the, during the whole ?'o<t i f lil? cdmini?trntion, he did not remove a fT'rfmt n':mt^er to cive Ma own fnenda an rqial Hte c f the c Hire* of the government) and as to eprojri-ty ol the oominationa to oll'ice m*de ' him, OHO pirgle fwt la snllicient to put real firevtr (he al^nder* of hi a enemioa. /\1 i m sh he r.rcrafiirily madi- m?re nom nation* the Senate than any other PffrtJeiif of the I ni?ed ale a f rer did in an filial perlo<| of time, yet fe?*r ue rejfrcrd by that body than ou any former r?aion after a p?ditiR?l revoln ion. Wlie# Q?n fl??rn rarne into Hl're, in I"'.*", he w. a s is un? I a larse patty majority In the ^?ns e T*r-n')' ara afirr. n hm Hen. Taylor miw1 into ;<o\v r, fie *u a large pwty rt?jnrity in th- S-n-it ),> posed to him. Yet more appointments were rejrci?<l by thai body in the session of 1H29?30 than id thai of 184#? 50 It ia a very easy thing to charge either proscription or improper partiality Few are willing to admit that their own peeuliar nierita do not entitle them to preference; and the accusation of injustice is too often a tribute due from hi Bbkucceohful applicant t* his own wounded vanity. Another difficulty which presented i Use It at the outset of General Tsylor's wdmiuiatratioo, consisted in the number of private claims against the government, which ought to have been decided by the preceding administration, but were left so many legacies of trouble to their successors. The decisions made by the appropriate he&da of departments upon these claims, whether for or Bgaiiist the claimants, were, of course, seized upon as ruhjects of complaint. 1 decided in favor of one of thet-e claims, after fully investigating all the facts myself, and after taking the precaution to ascertain the opinion of the Aworney-Geueral an the subject, which concurred with mv own. Backed al?o liv the opinion of the former Secretary of the Tit amry, Mr. Walker, and of Hon. Joseph K. lugcrMiil, former chairman ot Ite judiciary committee to the 11ouw, aa well as of several committees ot hoth Houtes, and following a long Iim of precedents in reference to the subject, I ilr?M in favor of the claimants for a part of their 4mmaud, and rejected the other part. The columns of ihe party otess were forthwith opened agmust the claim, which was as palpably just, to the extent to which I had allowed it, at- .my claim th-it evert listed. This wan the l.?e la Franci'i claim. I wus availed with s ill greater ferocity for disallowing the tobacco claim of M Por*e. It soon became apparent that no decision couM possibly be made by uny hi ad of department, whether for or ogain^t the government, which would not become th? topic of malignant cent-iire. One of these old clam o, which had be?n referred to a previous Secretary of the Treasury, tame before Mr Mereditli He referred it to the proper law oflicerof the government, the Attorney General, who, alter a full leview of the whole subject, decided the question in favor ot the claimant. The justice of hi* <1> cisi? n would nevtr have bren impeached but for the unfortunate fact, as it turned out after the mojj*> had bt tn paid, that the Secretary of War, Mr. Crawford, < t Georgia, was interessed in it; it circumstance which was entirely uuknowu to any other member of the cabinet at the time of the decition. 1 did not know that there war such a claim in existence until many weeks after the money had been paid I suppose the motive which ii/duc* (1 ihe Secretary of War tw conceal his lutert st in ihe claim was one of delicacy ; hut 1 have a perfect conviction, without eriiertaiuin<! a doubt of Hie justice of the demand, that, had the fact of his pernntiI interest been known or mei t.o;ied at any cubmtl meeting before the payment or the money, no settlement of that claim would have been made while Mr. Crawford remained a nteniWer of the administration. His conduct in otic-ring, as he did, to Co?gt? ss to abide the judgement of the ipfeine Court ol the I'nited States upon the legality of the claim?to waive every advantage of defence except that arming out of the law itself, uud to return the money in the event of a decision against him by the court, should have exempted him from :tiit abuse which has been so profusely and unjustly lavished U(>on him. Indeed, my fellow-citr/eus, so constantly wis my attention occupied witti the ] ic| er duties of my own department, that very litj tie time wis left me to look after those of others. I Hut 1 must in justice add, that so far us my obscrI vatioB extended, the business of every other de! pamuent, during the admutration of Genenl Tav! lor, was conducted, notwithstanding the unexampled embarrassimnti which surrounded hirn uud ' them, with n degree of ererpy, nnd industry, end { intt fciity, which lias never hi t n surfaced. Tins I trtbu e in justly due froai me to my ua?ouiat< s in that c,;l inet, whoae kindness and courtesy to me, ciiL.fl occasions, merited my waimetiackn'jwledgj ineiiis. There has never existed an administration in this government in which there was greater ' hurmony and concert of action 1? the gentleman ' who composed it 'he President entertained uaj l<ui:dtd confidence, and they retained tlntcou; lidt cce to the last moment of hi* lifi. Falsehood rnd calumny, directtd ngiiast th'm, as it wat>, ; In m so many quarters. failed to make any impression on his mind; and he adheied to them with u tenacity which was increased by his perfect know ircgr ?'1 mr iIII>I?1 it r whii ? men mry ivrrr im: uiru. Co.rejoin? in tentiment wi'h liirn on nit ini|H>runl Hibjects. his wi-h ivi - their luw; und when li*- heard to often the pitiful nsp* rtion ihat his cabinetruled him, knowing, a* h<- did, h<-w faithfully th? y Carried out his own will, while tliey were often nude to bear the whole responsibility ol his decismus ami actions, he scorned the attempts to aliens e him from those wliom he hud acltcted as hid a.tvieers. it would be difficult to uny man to know, funding rutside of that cabinet, the extent of the injustice drne to its respective members by th- device, v hit h was as cunui02ly conceived its it illustriously propagated. that the appointment*, ecd even the actions, of the executive government were dictated by th? cabinet, und not by the l*re?idtnt liimsrIf. 1 hu\e repent* illy known ( cabinet minister alms' .1 for mouth* b, the wli . of|<csitii)D press cf the country, on account of an appointment which he hsd never suggested or recemmeeded, but which hud been ordered hy tho I'renident alone. The utauccessful applicant for ( Hire often found a balm lor his wounded feelings in the belief, w>ich he chose fondly to cherish, ifcut he was the victim of fonie secretary, though lie was a fuvoti'e oi the l'resident Tin>-e und similar slander* en the mnnbeiS of the edmtmstiaiion were nui? r? <1 t. o rie rally n> piss wrlio r contrn.liction. They wt re too laboriously engsged in the discharge if their respective dune* to take upon themselves the ia*k of refuting the thiisaud falsehoods which either |>arty or cisonnt nmlice was constantly hatching agsmst | th< in; << dm ioua that, win n ikt pu*?ions aud pn: judufs of the hour should have |>a*ed awuy, |usnce wculd ke doce to them lor the hdelity and untiring /ca) with which they discharged theirilutiea tmid greater obstjcles than ever okmcted ilit cotirte of tny previous administration The foreiga lol?c> of Pre;ideutT?yltf(Wiumarked by ?a ttiUCttnee to the pr incites inculcated in the iaje well a dft i? of the ra!hft of Kit mnutri }!< annoht TIA trnrs of aggrandize meet or cooqwit IVncr nnd commerce with foreign nat lot*, on fair and honorable t-rma, were the object* he mmt d ut. lie regarded war, with the horror* ?n I danger* of wbill) no man wan more intimately ari|'iaiuted, ua a rm-aaur* nrvrr to be retorted lo uuiil every ?11*- it t>f honorable diplomacy should be ex ham ted In the fwntof hia whole ayatem of policy, <n iilia hr muni'eated a *cm|>ulou* anxiety lo n* hi.Itiiii our neutral obligation* and the faith of Menu?*; i nd his piinciple* we re fully illuatr?te 1 in ike courae he |>uii>u<d towtida Denmark and 9,?ain. (?n ihr other hand, no tiua wu more aeriaui.e on point* of Ba:ional honor : and the promptitude and rrMSji with which be d-mand'd and rrcovrred the foreigner Vht, after hiving sought nn *?)lrm on our ahorea, waa kidnnpped and carried to Havana, at the very moment when he ?u uibiaiaiaiM, in their true spirit, our treaty atipulutiona Hub Spain, by ibe tuppret-Hion of the On b in expedition, waa an evidence ?f Mat atern di trrnuaiuon, whiih never abundoned him, to mam < thip, tinder alt circumatancea, and mi all hazmda, the honor of hia own country While n.Sat noma rnm mi interfen ncr wuh the dnnwic concern* of foreign patiora, and all cB'itngling alliance*, he did tot withhold from aurh aa maintained th rep islier n jaiem.or etrupled to throw of) the shackle* of de*poii*m, the fiiliar-d free exprtwion of hi* own geaeroua aynipithiea. For he waa a republican i.ot merely in name, but in heart. He reimcedin the ha|<pii>ena of hta fellow men throughout the world, and hia boaoin throbbed with hojw for the ?ue <e.? of etrtv ellort. rnide in either benntph* re ft rt|iea-,rfad c'thoae liberal principle* u^qh whi^L he pofttrdly Kin ved, their happtotaj >ttlie liiat dawn of \bc ITTOluii'- Huiiirlirr Ve wb? reedy lovrcrffaU '....r .n.t/J1 * I tkiiuld b? '""nl ahlr to maiatnifi it; and at the i *rl* 7n? ir.rnt w ben an unprincipled prra* w*a rn> irac'rd in driiotint l is htm a* moat friendly to ihe dr?|m>tic piw< r? of luro|*, he wu direction i m<?hoii to oitiee the iatefrat of ilnn goveraatrnt in tlif ni!>lr < rtort of hungary to br cntnr fr> f. when l.rf << it huff J pr? plr fill hrnra'h thr h?yoo<-u of thr cr?r, llr still publicly nod proudly a*owrril, in n tnr?*?fe to uoi>arca*, thr an.itetjr he had ml for ih?tr wrlftrr. ' tl>o?i?jh," aaid he, " ii m^arjr hi>* fallrn, md hrr rniriot c children arc now in rule or in donna, i *111 hi.ii free to wjr that, had ' h.mcct < <j?j in iimtuiiaining her independence, ' ?e should hnvr h??n the brat to welcome li?r into the family <f nation*." llr directed our mtoiatrral cona'antinoplo to trndrr to the suit in h liee puaw^e for thr unforlnnatr koavuth and < htatorrp.iiiiona in captivity on i>??rd an amrricin frigate thru layinn iu the hoaphorua, prrjwred to bring thriii to i he american shore. hr innitued i thr firat minion to the heltchj republic he mu tight the frri^j hnd armrd wvn thr arrngth of h>* own country and her hl^h fund among thr iiatu n? of thr rar h, juntfird uu.l jem indrdjof her i governmmt to lake a n< w position in reference to the oliaira of l.rngu eotmlrim, not hy aaiurning m attitude of i? fttlity, or b? thrva'a of ( nn> r to any, l>n? t y hir m?>n'f< aintina of thr atrial- i rat rrgard for if e rornn f rntil aril |?lincil right* rf the american people a* cornectrd with tho?* | cotmtm*. no n tn etcr soiiiht more rmtir?tiy to ( prrvi n* thr intrrtvrrtice of for* iga go?rrnmeath ia < thr i fair* of the american continent. vrt hr do- j mm d ia b? r to p:tro t frrrign .iggre??iont> upon thr i right* rf tfr wi nh anient>.n republic*, hy r?mon- j atreitee ?o their behalf, than by threatening ho^'ili- < ti?* in their drftner. in t^? re^ntinti<?n of th t'?ntral arorrioan tr-aty?to irorutni the rntific ( tic n of which waa thr (tat official act nf his lifr? , h?-juatftfd ?'n n clmae, no* to hr f.mnd id ih * t t"ity, whir h denird to t ireal hrrain any tighr, in f fit tut r, to colon tx". fmiifv, or n-*n>n- or r*rrei?e f ant do iiinion whatever ov? r any part nf (vntrnl an rri? a o? it>r m. kjbiio coam? a clviae wuich j ej|t?a?lj fuihid* to (iteat i'rrain thr right to n?e f nn\ ffoieotornte fc>r th.-|i?r|*-(?e of ?*erci?ii> t do , n l"iee. and ?>'ao f< ?hi<tp ti he r an* ri^'ht tons'in* j d< mibm i: for th' potftc ?.f ni .ia: ii.iiuj; a pro.rcio | rate. He himaelfdesired to rteoniir the Nicuiiuu ii'le by the Nicaragua treaty, but i*>ft the question, after submitting that treaty to th?- Senate, with au avowal of few willingness to ratify ft, to be decided hb the Seuate should think proper. I left the Depar'ment ot State before the Senate acted on the t-ubieci, and, of course, 1 have no knowledge oi >Leir decision. but 1 have aeen, within a few d ivb peat, a statement purport ink' M embrace an official 1< tier from Mr Chatfield, the Briiir-h Charge d'Afluirea, to the Minn-ier of Foreign llelations of Nicaragua, in which it is declined that ihe treaty neeoiiait d between this government and that of < '.reat Britain, " expressly recognizes the Moa<iaito kingdom, as aside from the right* which you (the Nicerafcua nnnit-ter) pretend Nicaragua haa on the const." If Mr. C,Hatfield tver wro e such a letter, which 1 corneas 1 greatly d?uM, he has been guilty of a perversion of the treaty which no honorable government could defend for a moment, and which ihe British authorities, 1 mn well satisfied, woald disdain to adopt. The obj- eta aimed at by the 1'resident in that treaty wtre to obtain for our country a speedy passage to the Pacific, not only by a great ship c-nul, but by any and every other cunul or railway across the Isthmus which divider North frotri South America?to secure ihe p< rfrrt neutrality of he vast region unbraced in ihat Isthmus?to save the expense of maintaining any naval or military powere to protect these routes?to guard them againat Morkude in time of wi>r?to bring into closer relaiioi.a with us our (oesrssions on the Paci* tic?and to dedicate the hiitfiwoys to the use oi all nations which might a^iee ?<> extend to them the siiine protection unuh the United States and lirifmn Kuti oiiar^nlwH tons it is not iny pur|* so to dis- iihh these subject* in lir-tttil, and 1 have only tlmicc J at this one for the purpose of preventing rm?con cpti.>n in regard to one of the moat unporiant act* of i Jeueral Taylor's administration. Ttie multiplicity and extent of cur lortigti relation*, which wore constantly increasing in iiitt-reat end importance, made the duties of the df|?nineiit over wtii.:h it waa my fortune to rre?id>>( iu the high*-*! degree burdentonne and laborious. feueh v h ihc pressure of public business, an.-iug from tnis <iud other causes, that I wus coni|>elli-d to dr voir* mysdf to it to tha utter exclusion und con?#tio? nt d Nii{rmeat of ray private and iiermnxl* I was therefore hiixioiip, as eooii 8B the ?>fthe negotiations entrusted to my eh-trge by the President, would permit it, to rt'ire m^wid to privm-lifn It was for liiie rewFon that, in June ta-t, I i< ndered to th? President, through Hie hands <-f iny personal frisnd, the Aitoruev Gen? r. i, my resignation, accompanied bv a pressing r> ipie^t hi it he would permit roe 10 retire, ai d woulu aiyoint my successor, lie reluted to accept ihe reM.nitioii; and when he informed me and my tiieud thtt my retirement wi uld embarrass and dmtr>-i-K linn, I ( It that, however necetfary it h?d bfcomi* f >r tny private interest to withdraw, yei I could not leave l?im while *uch were hin convictions His influence with me wus such that i should never huve ventured af?aiii to pr> tn ihe subject upon hun; and when he hn 1 done *|>eakuig u,>nu the suaject, I fe t tIiht 1 would us soon ii ivo ruu tway fom the battle of Buena \ isia as o> h tvodn^rted htm And now, remenoering within how shnr: a time after ihis interview, his manly tr.ime and noble heart were luid cold iu the embrace of dettih, I rejoice that 1 jieldi d to his wishes, at any sacrifice ofejae, health, or ionnue ^'y f-l'ow citizens, it will remain to me a subject i f p?otii consolation that F enjoyed ti.c perfect con lid. nn and in'itnate friendship of thin great and good nun during the wholt penod id his adminbtri ion; and that I Ubored with u II the devotion of who n 1 wti capable tj serve fiiibfully is a in-miter of hU cabinet. Knowing his qu?li'ie-?, as I did?f ihiak no nun had e belter oj'iortuniu of Itnowin? theni than I ht*d?J believe I onii 8 ?nk of hitn as he was. 1 know ilut all the ei do he aim d at were " hi? country'*, liis God's, aud truth's " llis inortl, like his physical courage, wan iidomit.hle. No on? vrr a| prim hed the considers ,>u of a great jntblic question wnh more deliberation or caution ; and when ;:boui to decide it, he "toi k each mau'scennue, but r? served his j>idKmeut When he had determined, no one w?s mole firm, or could be more resoiu'e in adhering i<? hi- purpose. lie waa one ?<f the few men ? meet with in this world, w ho n n never descend to a base, in-an, or dishonorable action Though un practiced iu the at.til.- g.f fix il r..t..r~ k/> ed the executive mHD"i .n, Ma strong and vigorena intellect, aided by a profound knowledge of nature, for th?* :ic<|H>-itw>n of which no one ever enjoyed infer op,.ortiniitiea, amply supJied ilie want i f experience m? ? civilian ; and the kirtiDit* and benevolent ?.t hu> nature never faih d tr> win the he?r * ot all who ctme within the ritcle of liis iatimate acq uittance. Snrroaaded by enemiee, who daily sough' to nt?h the reputation he had earned hy a loiiii life of public aervice, )>ia conscious lectiturfr enablnj iiiin 10 " amile at 'he drawn dagger and dety it* point." Tliia waa liia shelter an id all the Ht?rtts of political oppoaiiion: nnd the conldr-nc of sincerity from all dartre, resulting tr< m thia consolation, never deeerted him even in hi* dvi.g mom-ntr. When, iLforiued by his physician thai hia laat hour wa* Hiproncbici.', his simple rematk indicated the feeI11>?r that bud pt rvii(i?d hia bownii, and sustained l .m through life: "I am roi alrud to die," said Ifcti \iiru"T patriot, "I hivt- m.Wvored to do my fluty ' (Mr Clayton wna bere so overcome with emotion that he |Mtused for a uionv-nt, ari l teare rolled down his clureka Wip u* tbenn away, lie proceeded ] Thi.- was th<* feeling which bore htm iinu,|<alled through trie peril* ? f battle. Thia upheld hm through that long and dreary night of blood rtnd fire, when he won ihf hrat hrevet in the war of 1*12, by hia *nrce?-tul dr?e?cc of Kort llurtin n against more than fifty tunes h>s numl?ta. In Florida, ib- MiiahtwU and the scalping knife hod no terror* for the soldier who felt that he had always "end-avcred to 4r>hia duty." And the thunders of I'aln Alto an<T Itrsae* de la I'ulma, wh< n he broke the Mexican j t.wrr, ami gave thul cuilidrncr in his cuuatrymen which insured their vic'ory in all their auU Kuuer.t tomeaia?l"u blvodjt uned streets of Monterey, end in that tempest ol shot which waa poured up*n him and hia liale army oa the proud' en field of hia fame, at Burn* Vina?at the vera moment when hia garmetita were torn by the ba( Irta ol the enemy?the mr??? / up ut rrrii still roue serene, M*lf-po-#?H#.d ami iruiiivliutt through the terrora of (hut conilicl. H- fin to bed from hia country before an opportunity h d i^n allowed to dneltje hit whole system of civil policy, and oa the very eve of the ej-eti'ion of purpose* devised by hint for the pul>bc ?r?<>d, the knowledge ol which it.nat now forever sleep ?ith him m hia gnivc. iiiii iir 11*111 uu'ir f ii.jiikii tor iiuic; him while a ? ntiment ol KmtiHitlr oontiane* tu throti in an Anieriran (.ran, lumn m?rv will he cSrn?hrd a? of one of lb' few " who were nvt born to The Chnlrniiin then p?o:wilr?| with the toMt.* ? 4. The Btocij of W a-b oaten ai><t ik*t ptiitn1 bin J U ?agr? ai<1 biota tho i-hlncJ out InJepeui do ?bo l?.d the t ionJitlon of ibla great sa l mighty Kinpira. (Muakc l>?-al Marrn ) 6 The ?o?rreiinty of th* roo iltu'l >a an* liti of b? I'bit* J ftaiaa rr?r t\rrj <>tb?r h nun powar iMuile llatl i oluuibU ) A Our nlortuu* I olull r?lel-*d he too brrin an I wltt ?red the arm tt at vnul-l fli??eiah?r It. rhe? ra, pruptMrd I.) Mr CU>t? d, ao<l given wuh a will ] 7. Our fli-t>at^r? ao'l RerT?f? Q'aiir.-i In th? praaaat kallhial mtlnrln up >u th? raapana ol U> ( ciilliiiilon. Iloeorto whoiu honor ka <in?. (Muaic Star Vpaagled Banner.) (Hon John WVIn, U Sj. Senator, reapooded to tin 4 in an eloqnrni n**rrh in nrU-w.r of ihe late sHrnioiatrmion end the whtyaof th?- Union ] * The Qnalmpla Alltauee-The Pln>i(h the l.oom. ik and lb" Anvil, niu'oally anet mint and an| |.?.rtlr j\nch otlar IMnnc- ty ?i th-i I'lou^b 1 |Tte Army find >fa?jr 1 v Onr National G?r?inr?;hl-A* inaeh b)u:ii <n duty to protect the la*"t < I thr country a' to defend tha cr j against a foreign foe. (?l iele -Columbia tb?*<iovt tl.? or??n I 10 Tfca I>eB*rratt? Telea?op? Through which the Prad iru In ArH may !> ae? n tn-ide tbe 0?nat tatlna; ?ti4 our own Rltm, l.ahea and Wartime atetteoflt (lh?er*> My blah. i?4 I1 y?ta*a'i , 11. ThiramdraaM of lluinaa Klrhu and ll'iuaa three the ut the woilil. (Ureal olmriif i (Muile >l?r:.llle? llimn ] 12 The nhlg* ol I>ela*are beaten b?t not diam?fed DWclpllsrtl by D.i?foitu?-. ih- u??t .M.iUMt ?lli Dal lh< m i?nr# firm ?nd ut.l > <! ?l-tnrjr ill |h*? [?rrh npr.n thnrbanner (Lnui ch*l? I | Huiic Ko fin lli? How | 13 Th? lilr*'* Th# duP??W>? MT)lh?m. th? rhll|7?tlrn t th* WorM |Mum?~IIt? ? II Hllli to Mil UOO'I !.? ?? I A imm^f r ?if H'h* * then f"l|ow?.l, one of whii'h nn? ' J hr Wbm I'rrrp," which W4? irct ivt J * ith lend r h?er?. I/fti?r? wire ihrn re*d, rrqnttmn imhility to nttind, from 11? n U. n ?I \Vnm? r "*ecret?r|r of StMte; Hrnator .1 II. Cinrfce, It. I, Hun Tottph K liiprrtoll. h R ChiaitVr. *n>l Win. *4. M< n nub, rf I'hil idel|tiii; *- > i or Pr im, of M i11 Idixi; * ? *!? ? itD'1 .S iiinn, W ithi iif oo; S^nn'nr# W'lMhn-p, i llilltf, N. J } i ,4t mi, V?.j N. K Hull, PiMnus'.r Ui n> r.l. \c. Ar? j in whonv. f? irpliirw ni?r? K ?-tB were mveq b> the committee,. ii <4 hailed with i hrt-rs Mobt'in McMinuru E i, wu lulled f?r, nnf mftrfe hi<nn reus tprrh, n winfli h' nude the *\ ifiimwii* |Mnn*e, fur l>rUw.ire, nrver to t?e "In kfd" Ilr mud. ih?i wiih WmlieM r*?oM, for l'r? fiilfiit, in 1<V2, th?? wh'g* i?f D'Uwtre and he I >a, would h trimiii ^ irit H? cill'1! on Mr < 11);on to say eoui*-hing mi the lifr ol Srott. Mr. r> ?to* te?pond?d in n gl iwina eulnf\ on ;>?n tMott'* nrnr from < in** m-o ?u in ih* tilf t Mnicn, ptriiciihrli n iirint tn* l? *l?l ?t*?d rlien in difrace of the Iruh Mtldiem ulirii from he Ani?Ti?nn *rm? ne ini>n r* in MI3. ScottV i in e rereivi d with laud eln? re. 'I fie fe?ii?itl?? Wftf roniinnrd till * lite ho?T. .v?i)lhin|! w?nt rf) wi II, reflecting tM hitfheel 'rrdil tipin thr Wlmn nf the m?l<- mi l th'-ir lll:??rii o? ?nt?t H<?n John Wale#, John K. L i'MW*r. i I d Cornell. Thorn** N Hu <n<*y, I. O. Hart o?, /tttnl II \y?\'n, "IUrr>' (j<urut, I

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