Newspaper of The New York Herald, April 19, 1851, Page 6

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated April 19, 1851 Page 6
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a ? onrBBEsrao cowlmpowdewcil IlfflTAIT FKOV SOITH CAROLINA. PROGRESS OF SECESSION. Ctmipwdrncr. C'iusixstom, ?. t'., April 12. lfOI. South Ituotmu PoitHc-?The of Secession Tl* Potuy of ti'osng 11 Alone?Approach to the Crt*r? of the Gome?Kjfect of Rftrnl Event in th* JSuftk upmi Southern Opinion?77k Danger of SmwliMii to the Safety of the Union. I mm now here, and I find that the fint great movement in favor of KW'fiua will be made in this city. 1 understand a general meeting of all the Mate Light A so-.-notions taken place here early in May. Here ia the first step. Judge butler's only objection to sece*rion n)w is, that the federal government will net go to war. If they would tfco h'otith would .ems to the rescue. if the government does not. South Carolina may be ?tar?cd rato submission. That is what he fears. Vou may. however, vary safety put on the steam. Secession i? pretty hot yet in South Carolina, and alia ia bourn] to do something. Will South Carolina secede ? Will Hie, against the dect-ice action of Georgia, the resolutions of V irgitua, und the acquiescence of all the other Southern -Mates in the late < omprorai.se measures; will she. .-ingle handed and alone, withdraw, or de liberately attempt to withdraw, from the I'nion ; and set up, or attempt to set up, a foreign govern ment to the rest of the confederacy, almost w ithin the heart of the l.'nited State-? At this juncture, this i? th - .-ingle abm rbing issue pending in South Carolina, anil by all means, and for all purposes, in evsjy Con, the mort important to the I'nion, and toeiery Mate of the I nion; and of paramount tuo ment to the l>c?t interest ; of mankind the wide world over. Reduced to its ultimate conse quence.-, this single issue jK-nding in a single Mate, of recession or submission, involves the breaking up of our whole federal system, and the de.-ecraUon of every thing sacred in government, religion, and society, to a system of civil war, mili tary de.qx.ts, miiita.y . lections and such a history of military butcheries as arc but faintly illustrated in the dissolution of the Status of C recce, or in the breaki.-g up <>f the empire of Koine, lntruth.it is easy p. imagine that, in the dissolution of this I oiou. a .-'.ate of war and anarchy would almost inevitably follow, more nearly approaching the horrible atrocities of the French Revolution. Have we not among us in the North, (thank Cod there a.e none in the South.) watching their oppor tunity, toe levellers, the ngiarians, the .socialities I ourieritea, red republicans, as good as the best Parisian ! From these spluttering destructives, and (fi>oi the abolitionists and free negroes, where would be the peace, or the hope ot peace, if once the Strang, conservative, law enforcing, and iwace j.iv-eri ing bonds of this Union are broke u . There would be no peace, no law no order. Jh.. >.JU'h would, of necessity, eoin into a .Southcri -onfei'erauy; the North would necesenri.y lore all it- present commercial advanta ges with the M-utheru Mates; and it i-ne\t toint possib.c to conceive how the boundaries eonld be -ettlesl between the sections, or the rights of both ?am.aiued, without a cout.nuouj state of war Mtii we -hal huv. five or si* confederacies, euch undet a military l'ro-idenr, till ou?t*d by the baro net under some other military leader aspiring to rwdeniul honors. Iti-union look- to th- o things ; the secession of a -tngk- Mate will be di-nniou; and yet the question, the .iiigjle, solitary, a'r-orbing question now pend ing tu to -Mate of Math < arolina, is the question ***?"oq. VV ill she accede ? To accede is to go out; aad to go out, now, i-to "go it alone." Will ?he go iHit, and go it alone ! If -o, why so? and if **'? w">y all thi- preparaliou, whv all these threat* an t warning., the*, uivil and military or gaiusatioas. these frequent speeches to the people ' and wd?y the election of th* Mate Convention, which is to decide the que-tion, and which i- ten to one t<N" -*c?*sion ! The-e arc important interrogatories, and for th lien, lit id the Northern readers of the Herald w - propo,- to givey. ! from the spot, and from the best information oi hand, a series of letters on the general question, ar i upon the numerous and in terestug incidental i-e. - involved in the general cent rove; -y. In d ng this, we propose i" show (hat ih.-ie i.- -till danger to the l.uion; that there is "pt'i. " rrruaikiiMe and alarming uuanimitv of the people of >outh' arolina in favor of secession; have very plxui&ible rea^oiw for acting iqwsi it?reason- . i .Jefenc., of interest, of Mats prid-, anJ sectional ale y. ?It'kJ'Ctt, lurther to be able to prove, that to WnLa.-n II. >eward. Tburlow W*e<U and Horace * .reel ?) A ( o., ot' Si vv York. and to their detesta ble, di.-otgani/ing, at J ruinou jwiiH ij.les, if South Cari na does secede, we -hall, for that result, '?e mo-r la.gely inihl.Vd. In the eyes of the world, ilia; ft?ttcring ti s'iwonial of (hi ability mid stabilit v of republican Confederu.-i?, Will In- -*t down to the abolitionists of all the various stripes, and to the arrh ag 'stor- of N< w ^ ork. who have led them on. If Fon.j Carolina secedes, she will justify her-elf on the g'uund tba: if cbolitintiisw is a " higher law" a the North '.ban the constitution, sclf-prc servat.-otl. or at least, defei.ee, even if -lie is to be de.stsisj .'<!, bs i < raer ot nee. ity a " higher law'in the South. Wh'lo in the Union, she abide- by the i on-titai on; but if it is superseded by Seward's " higher law ," she secedes, come what inay. And tho que.-tion-lie is -out) in form to determine, is not ?ecfMiun or absolute -ul.uu -.-ion; not resolutions of defiance and indela-ii '.elii e, or resolutions a* incvk and milky n- the ' irginia rc-ulutiuns. No; -he i m decide whetliei -q,. will -ccedo now, or wait till ftirthcr aggre??ioua of Reward's "higher law" -hall c- nija-l other Mi' thorn Mate- to range thetn ^olvc. by bcr -ide. South < arolina may scceila. 'lb" face of things jn tho rilate ha- a de cided look of seoesrioo. .^Le may secede; but in any ev -sit he wnl adopt ? me sv-tem ofretalin lioo agaia-t the abolilionst*. and the abolition ."Into* of the North. In 'he linion, she will cor tamly g.-t the eon j. ratiirn of the other M.athern ?wale.-, . .] ecially oi 'he co'fon region?out of it. -hqmay vouinwiid their syi.ipalhy and ??- -tante, as le ti did ?gan?s! .Hexie .. We were informed lateiy hy a me . hant of g *1 information, that during th. tirst two weeks of March, the city of Ball mer, g.lined from thi- port of t harie-to.i an a dd. i ii?.i to h< r tiailo of -.*1*^ if Hi, deducted froiu the port of New \oik; for, i otw tk-taiwhrig the sound I ail.< w ? imeotol'bt i -ppiro t ity. the S-ward i'iii of tho Umpire ,""a'c i held in the deej.? st a y ho.rei In ocr ne*i we -had e more extended and par iindar. Ji Igi butler's spes h. at Kdgefidd, .n ..lamia; last, will give y u mum idea of what aeoes aion means in Muith < ..n.liim; and Mr. Khett, the ??tii*r I.in. d "talis "i ii.vtoi of this Mate, on the ?am" day, was ftul nnw? explicit in .-ome remarks dehvei.-at at a raveling n tr.,? eity. The tone of the ii w i .ij .-r pre-?, v.pi. h generally follows in th? wok# of put.Iii* opinion, imlicates see""-ion I i be is loi-goi,.* . ?. i, l"-i.*n. Within n hurt time we ?* pevt the i. 'e to be sirtu ally -mi d Ui-c uuiiig ai...tl* In ;hat i ' nt tHir \\ i?hliiH<uii (?i rripoiiilciwr, A-iifv. t >N, April l.i, 141, T'f Pl'i/atl' f'i t ,m HrV .. f jh i;v Mi 'iil'i'H'i 7*i.n m?k'untm/.o ('?*, 4-r. 4* < hie of il?e wont ini|f ??- it queitinoi wbirh will try tha upaiity of tin cabinet of Mr. Fillmore, and t"i-i l.ifir pairiu ioln, i.i the o*>" of TlkaMtfftfi ?n nbfeh iiiio li iatere* depend . md wbieh ia dr*t ried ta affec t-o many chargi-? in the eiriliaed Wild. It ii hi own hero that Mexico hat riot jet arted on the treaty which w* ratified *y the y-nato of tbo I hi ted -tate? at it.* Ift*t -acini, t.fiati o of lh? added -? tiou guarantying tin- enn tmct of 'iaray, who dicpo-'-d of it to Ameri.'.m-. Natwfciirtaadteg the -n I experience of Meliro, -bo ?i.U lea on la hnglui d, aad ?!? ?irc* that Kngland ?hail h-i? ? tlo lion'r -haie af the henefita to tie th? d '.'oti the conti inplali ?! railrond. The I aited Male?, however. canaat intrn to any audi arrangc ia"ot. U> hare ratified the treaty, and cannot be eiper'ed to enter into tie heal prejndicei of the Meiwaae. If -lie ha n.-doin, ehe will *how iana eyldejjie of good taith. aid lot cqdle-.-e with Kug land, aaen gr< ater amaBtag." would crime to her Hy a mora iniiniaie n-Ur oaeh>p with the tailed .-ta <???. gtee-ly a? w. ?,?. A ff? -tray pamphlet* arei ireolating in thicritv; M?ia at tin in ar? mpic? of the det<>uc? of \|r l.cW't, Ctdlattaf ot the port of lMnlvlelph a, aad athrit (be reply oft barb- ' lthb< iMioth? argument | if l?av.d I'aul Bionn, with an appendix containing tha atati ment of the lion. Jaatect nop. r. in an.w. r to the aarmliro of Win. i>. t, w. All tbi< about tbo loarii" ami ti-h"- in the ltnladidph a ' na Th? l're<i<lent may think proper to tnm Jlou-e The I'rr-ident in - jr think prop cat off 'He h>ad?of the priaeipal iueuinh -nt-, and rj4r? thew pla *? to Kin known frionAi J be froeta oo whieh tiovnruor tjba>y and hi* copiT.'iw ktl rettlcJ, in lfW? v, hy f*|nt*t, to b? withhold from public salsfuntil the close of the tinrt session of the ensuing Congee**. Br that time, it i* thought, Congress will douate the mod* to the Hungarian wittier*. A fortnight ago, Major Tochman, attorney and counsel for the heir* of iJoueral Kosciusko, wished to take up, in the I'nited States Circuit Court for this district, and trj before a iury a certain issue re lating to a paper purporting to be a well by which Kosciusko is said to have bequeathed a few thou sand dollars to a Mr. Armstrong, of New York. Meters. Feudal! and Bradley interposed, and said that they also represented, a* counsel, some of the boirs, and were not ready fur trial. To this Major Tochman replied that, originally, he had the power of attorney from all the heirs of Kosciusko, and as sociated with himself Messrs. Kendall and Bradley, iu order to hare their legal assistance; that after Meiers. Kendall and Bradley entered with him, as associates, their names en the docket, they ehose to accept ofa proposition from M. de Bodiseo, to ob tain for them a new power of attorney directly in their name; that this circumstance resulted in'the dissolution of the association with Messr*. Kendall and Bradley, and that consequently, th? last men tioned gentlemen obtained tnrough the agency of Hodisce a power of attorney from some of Major Tochman'* client*, which superseded his original authority. But the-ame persons subsequently re roked the power of attorney so obtained trom them by Messrs. Feudal ami Bradley, and re-engaged ! Major Tochman'* legal service*." He had caused to i be served on these gentlemen his new power of at ! torncy, and never expecting them aguiu to interfere | with the case*, he allowed tneni, through courtesy, to stand <>n the docket. But his motive for this being misunderstood and not appreciated, he moved that their name- b-' -tricken off. This gave rise to an argument on both sides, which consumed several days, and on Ssaturduv the court decided in favor of Major Tochman. Thu* ended the controversy which has occupied the press and the halls of Con gress during four years, a* to who has the right to represent the heir- of Kosciusko as their counsel. Next week, probably, the issue which gave ocoa -ion to that motion will be taken up for trial, which is expected to be very interesting, a* the object will be. as we learn, to establish tbo legal domicil <>t ticuerul Kosciusko at the time of his death, which will throw light on the political history of the illus trious deceased. Several natives of Poland, who i tigured in high stations during the revolutions of that ill fated country, will be examined a- witnet ??es. The Hon. Revcrdy Johnson and Major Toch man, will ap|>eai n- counsel for the heirs; Richard S. C'oxe, Esq., lor Mr. Armstrong, claiming to be a legatee; and Mr. Morffit, for the administrator of the estate (Lewis Johnson). I'.vrn.vi.. Washimotos, April 1(>, 1S51. Tlie toadied Republic of Costa Rica?Biiluer's 1 Ait est Importation-. 1 The affairs of Central America are assuming a I very singular, complicated, and interesting aspect, particularly in their relations to the I uitcd states. One year ago, it would have been easy to have driven Englund from the territories, which, under one shallow pretext and another, she had usurped I ?easy to have quilted the internal disturbances of Central America, fomented by British in ! 1 rigues?easy to have secured a new and perma nent federation of the States, and to have given sound American influence an enduring useendaney in the country. Had the cabinet of General Tay lor firmly seconded the policy of that good old man, had Mr. ( layton possessed sufficient decision and fearlcs?ne-s of character to carry out the suirgc - tlons of his own be ter judgment, this whole mat ter would have been -atisfactorily and permanently disposed of. The A merican .Minister in that couu trv, acting up to the -pirit of his instructions, the spirit of the age. an the temper of the American people, pursued a line of conduct which only needed the hearty co-operation of the government ut \V .uh ington, to have brought affairs to a favorable Issue. W hen the United Mates had really arou-cd her. self, England, almost for the first time in her history, receded from her positions. She had seized the magnificent Gulf of Fonseca, the inevitable western terminus "f the iuter-oeeanic canal, when ever that w irk shall be built, and commanding not only all the States of Central America, but the whole Pacific coast, and she surrendered it the instant lie discovered a detei mined and active di-i*>otion on the part of the Unit States. And the London Timet, in common with nearly all the leading presses of England, alarmed at the course of events, at once called for the abandonment of the -Mosquito ,-hore, and all other obnoxious pretensions in " et? tral America, as the only inode of avoiding a collision. That was the favorable moment for ac tion. The public sentiment in the I uitcd Mate-wa. undiv ided, and the cabinet of England wavering. But at that moment, unfortunately for the honor of the United states, deplorably for Central Ann; riea. Sir Uenrt Bulwer, the most adroit agent oi Palmerston, w as sent as minister to Washington. The sound is known, lie affected the saint to wards Sir. Clavton, talked of a community of in tercets between the United States and Great Bri tain ; was g,,dly ami lachrymose,?yes, " umble. v, rv limbic,"?aud ( laytm, whose habits were not calculated to sharpen his wits, really thought lie hail got hold of a man - green, but h .nest and when Uriah talked of a treaty, and mutual guaran tees, and the LonJ only knows what other now- n-e. chuckled inwardly and made a treaty ? and -ueh a treaty ' A dexterovs equivocation on terms, a paper puaile, a convention id con st uictious, wile h Mr. Clayton realty suppli ed lurried England neck ami heels out oft en tral America, but which Bulwer and Palmer -ton aflirm, makes the United State* a party with them in the grand national felony which th-y have ] erjwt rated on the Mosquito store, m Halite, and the island of lloatan. , . .. Mow long Clayton might hav remained in this han-v -elf-dclu'ioii, no one knows ; but he ha l the acaks removed from his eyes one cool morning, by reading in the HeotM an intercepted letter front I riah to his confederate Chattield. in which be wa , very distinctly writteu down an a.-, if not in terms, at least by implication, lie was " w ak ; the whole governmeir. in fact, was pronounced weak in 1 riah's judgment, and really, I riah, alter his diplomat ic suet ess, had a right to think so Vrom that moment there was no more salittlycon fsn nee* between Mr Henry and Mr. < luytui. 1 h" latter called for an explanation,?the loriuer eqiii vo ated, denied the letter at fir-t. then remembered having written something like it?In -hort. blun dered awfully, and left the firm conviction on Mr. ClaV.on's Wind that be had written the letter. ,.?( have the b. -t means of knowing ho did. 1 ho policy was now to get rid of I riah. and layton smothered hi-wrath, a waiting the opportunity to give him the CM'/.. 1 In IW.n. Mr .Henry wrote -ome letters Iiboiit the tariff, wh.eh the Seer - ary hastily sent to Congress, under tue Impre- ion that in the' -moke which th<-y would ' ? ' ->? I '' pose of the diplomatist, and pay off the in ult. Hi at, however, did not amount to much ; but. bad Mr. Clavton remained in office h-would, no doubt, have found means of getting r.;l of nab. and on ?his account en y arc we sorry he didn t remain. But VT. lire getting off from our porpose. was. not to give n history of these event", but ? notice the latest movements of sir llcnry n a1 recently brought a new confederate into "ehem new , awn, to play off on the political rke'.f board-in th. p" ."on of a very shrewd and adroit g< nt leman, who ha- been vibrating for ? number of years pad. between Hown-ng treet acd the Eoropea* capitals. u.i l. r onie kind of a roving commission from ( o-ta Ilka, or a little dictator-hipin < -ntrn \tn" ri. a. facetiously railed a republic. I 111" g at. ? man is now i.. Washington, o-t -n-ihly enmt.ng tin i irt of -Minister Plenipotentiary, Lnv<?y r.a traonliusry, |?itieular. ordinary," and the lord know, what not more. fr?m t o-ta Km ' tin* I i.ited states, but rcn'ly playing into ?(I MCIT bands. The advantage o. h'CT. .1 ennf'drrate In tb1-' era rM A merican matter, i- ol, ion-. W e ha ? e some of the fust-fruits of hi- labor- in a "-ri". of aitiel. ? in the .Vufwwu/ Imtdhpmtr, t* paper, '? th?* w ay, which never yet took th American -ide of any question) and in a letter from Philadelphia, publi-hidin th- Ho old, and whieh w- i.ive rea-on fo believe wa* written by a member >f one of the u i-fli-etnt niarqui-oti faiuili.-s of t eiitral Amerira, r w a refugee from that country in the I nit -4 Mai, - '1 lie design of these letter- i- to weaken the deep -v input by which is felt for NI aragua. -an Salvador and Honduras, (the ouly State- in t . mral Aiin ri. u which |rtos*rve even -o lunucb a - a form of r. piitiln ani.-m,) by the people of this eouutry. and by repr. enting th'tn us hostile to a republican union, to aid in keeping tip tbe-e civil ii-tr'n tion - from whieh England and her enii-?aries hayc cv TV thing to gain. For, If Central America is firmly united, the rhane. - of -ueces-fhl nggre-don- ujon the State" of I londuit", Sao Salv a.lor, ami Nicara gua, the only ones which,fiom their g 'Ographirh p >? -ition, are of mm h ini|s>rtunee, are very in ith li mini-b. d, if not < ntircly d.-tmyed Theft wiitei- are particularly Indignant upon a correspondent of this p*|>er. nh ertOing hriu ? II I " Panama," for styling' o-ta lliea a " Briti-h colo ny." Our eorresfsrtnl-nt is competent to take rare of him-.'If. '1 he pretence that it wa- lii? intsntiin to convey the idea that Cost* Hiea i* a Briti b ? r.y in the acceptation than Jamaica i-. i< -beer affectation, mid will declare nobody. VI' the go r.vp'f.di d on that point, therefore, amount" t, i ?th jj'jf, ( o-ta Kiea luis now a popnlotkwiofabn-it I at.OtJO, ...metbiiig less than that of the rity ot Br .oklyn. I ntil ? fi * years ago. it was a* im.igniff.-uot In tion of ( eut.al America. Blfh -ogh B hod tb" tig nity of a Mate umlor the old federrv*' >o In s ' >r '?mate boor tho ewltirntionof coffee w.i" in'r???In -d, ar<l with g I -access. Since fh. a it lias aeqaired ?om. trade, and a eer'ain degree ot prosp. rit? Politically, it is a mere dieta'orsbip, ftil d b ? met belonging to the old sefvle. 0' *T'*tKfstio facLwn, which both hot* and in OuaUaoU are tn English pay. Dunlap, an Englishman, in a book recently published in London, ban very correctly ' indicated the political condition of the State* of Central America. He eays, p. AVI:?"The St a tee of San Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua possess popular governments, legally elected; and Guate mala and Casta Rica absolute and self elected go vernments." It was in Costa Rica that Mirazan, the last Presi dent of the old republic, the best and ablest man which Central America ever produced, and the last yillur of the confederation, was shot in a cowardly and cruel manuer. And subsequently, when Eng land seised Sau Juan, Costa Rica, under English instigation, acknowledged the Mosquito savage as a sovereign-^and in a drunken revel with Mr. Chris ty, British I omul, its dictator Castro, publicly re gretted that he had not a daughter whose hand he might bestow upon this breecbless sambo. This same Castro was raised to power by the soldiers of the ljuartel < ieneral, corrupted with money, in op position to the wishes of the people of the country, audin open and flagrant violation of the constitu tion. lie was sustained by Flores, absconding President of Ecuador, and notoriously a stipendiary of Palmer-ton. It was this man who sent Mr. Molina, the pre sent "minister" to this country, to England, to ne gotiate for British protection, a la Mo-x/uito. Our government, learning the fact, instructed Mr. Ban croft to inquire into the plan, aud, if possible, to defeat it. He saw Molina, who denied any such intention; yet, at that instant, a project to that effect was before the foreign office ; Mr. Advlington, Under Secretary of State, officially informed Mr. Cartillon, Minister of Nicaragua, of the fact, aud told him that any attack on Costa Rica, by Nicara gua. would call for English interference, "because the former State was under the protection of the British crown." The interference of the United States, and the turn of affairs in Central America, promoted the consummation of this plan. Mr. Molina, however, in part compensated for this failure, by negotiating whole batch of con tracts with parties iu England, for loans, colonisa tions, and finally for a canal. The last he had the audacity to grunt, in its entire extent, through Nicaragua; an impudent claim to a large slice of its territories having been previously set up! This claim has ju.-t about as much foundation, as if it had beon made to Long Island. He is now here, in pursuance of the same ob jects; and to accomplish them, assaults, open und direct, arc made upon Nicaragua, aud the other States of Central America, really devoted to repub ledged lican institutions. It is allcdged that they arc the opponents of a confederation?that they are the omMn to prog rem. This ?lander b best dis proved by the fact that they have already united, and have invited the other States to join thorn on terms of perfect equality?which, however, they have evinced -no disposition to do, but have co-operated with Chatficld and his serviles in their effort- to break down the union. The in tercepted letters of Flores, of Puvon, and others, the direct and constant attacks upon the very principles of confederation, in the official papers of both Costa Rica and Cuatemula, are conclusive upon this point. Any professions to republicanism by the murderers of Momr.an, or their representatives, are hypocritical and audacious. The feeling of nationality in Central America is strong; it pervades the people with scarce an ex ception, and is opposed only by the old monar chists, the Anglo-serviles?a miserable minority, who could not exist for a day without the open aid of Great Britain. Our Canadian CorTftpondniM. ToEovro, April 9, 1851. George Thompson?Hu Abuse of the United States? General Intelligence?Isifontauu's Retirement, 4r. 1 have already supplied you with an outline of the principal points advanced by Georgo Thomp son, at the commencement of his campaign in this city, <>u yesterday sc'nnight. Since then we have nightly had a "demonstration" on the same sub ject, and arc to have the grnnd linale to-night. At the outset, only three meetings were contemplated, to each of which a York ..billing was charged for admission. 'The exhibitions took wonderfully. The capacious St. I.*wreuce Ilall was crowded by sim pletons, male and female, who paid with alacrity to hcor their own righteousness extolled, aud that of their neighbors most unrighteously abused. The receipt <>f 1,000 Yorkers per night was a temptation not to be resisted by gentlemen " who-e kingdom is m*t of this world, and an extended programme a as accordingly pr epared to bring more fi-h I* the net. Lven pious avarice may overreach itself, and so George 1 hompson and his Confreres hoc a by this tinui learned. On Monday night there was* a terrible falling off; and last ni"ht the wordv representative of Tower Hamlets discoursed most sweetly to a beggarly accouut of empty benches. lu nis speech on Munday, 1 hompson counselled and vindicated direct interference by the Canadians, in the question of slavery, lie referred to Daniel Webster's eorre.pondence with the Austrian gov ernment. to show that America claims the right to interfere with other countries; and he maintained that if the civilised world were to deal out the measures to the United Slates which .Mr. Cass re commended towards Austria, the State, would just ly be rut off from all international intercourse, ex cept with barbarian?. , t 1 ai^ht, Thompson out'Jid hin funnor of forts, in tne wav of utilising the clergymen and poli tician- of America, lie averred that in your coun trv sla ?ery ha? converted < htistuvuity into an ab-o lu'te curse*, which cannot be too soon annihilated. 'The woist enemy of freedom, (lie said,) is the min ister of religion, who declare* that the institution was originnliv ordained by God. lie went on to "ii v?"All this is sheer hypocriry. I do not believe there i? one minister in the I nited Mates who be lieve* what lie says. 1 know enough ol ministers in that country to believe that they preaih. de rigui'dlv and wilfully, what they know to be false. '1 nc.-e tuen deliberately go to their clo-ele, and, for purelv political and pro-slavery pun*'-""-, write ser mon- for the Sabbath dav, which they nil the while know to be palpably and dainnabl* nntin*. Ac cording to Thompson's shtwing, there arc but two reallv christian ministers in the 1 nitod Mate*; on* ..I these i- the did tie Theodore Parker, from whom he quoted approvingly n passage likening a \ iinkee to Judas 1 ?.?mint, th" only iliflcreitee between ihein l-eing, that the latter required 30 piece* of silver ere he been me a murderer, while the former requires but ten. . , .. He branded the Aineriean confederacy as the foulest despotism that lift- etcr existed, and declar ed that ever ince the declaration of independence, the poliev and governmental tendency ?f the coun try has been downward. New ) ork he considers , is worse than Sodom and < lomorrah; its merchants, ministets, and jolitieinns, being the nioei iulainou* j on the face of the earth. In such a place, an angel , would be tarred and feathered, if he hie * an anti- , slavery trumpet. The only holy spot in America, in his opinion, is the Mate of \ ermout; and the | only boU piece of legislation in the Union is the Vermont Nullification law' Danid Webster, once , godlike, was reprccnted to have fallen lower than i T.ncifer. . , . . ? ? old ronntrvmen" in America came in for tli ir ( chare of abn?e* The Irish, he said, nnifv rmly rash to the polls for slavery} the fvofh, bang.ng be twevn prudence and piety, sell their souls for oot tn , and eschew abolitionism; while the l.ngli-n iftn-'e to participate in agitation on tin- subject. I', r these bnck-liding-. the judgment! <d heave! were invoked ag vinst them. \ our rrndere will stand agha tat tbisbalderda-n, t'uis b'a pheruoiis Impiety, this miserable d_-in ? gr.gue'.ein. U is Mr. Geo. Thompson's, not mine. I ouglasf has not Wen here this week. He*. >? .1 Muv, of ."-yrnense, preached ul> lit >u sermon* on .-'uiiviav, and on Monday gloried in h- fact that he !? triv'in- to brenk the Apvrican I ijiv'.t- J.' vcrv !v etsefil'isl Is Ike niainiefttftce of live I nion. the I nion should, in his opinion, b? destroyed foith As far a* I ran judge of the effect- of all thc-e gathering*.1 ?hnuld -ay that they are di-carded I, 'St out of every IKI of the ritixen. of 'To onto. 1 he tit. U continues to he the only paper wrhicli h"tu?ll/ advocates the movement, tfher and more iufhicn tialjonrrailsts roprobnte Thompson's violence, aud di-countcnance nay attempt to inlerfcve with \nt r ran Institutions. The t'hrftun ti 'dim, the organ of the Weilryaii Methodist., i- down up-.n 1 hoiapson for hi-abvi-e of \m> ri, n \ religion, nod the Itoman Catholto Mirrvi w*> b. wpec' 1 to follow on tbv nine tack. General Intelligence i* scanty. Ii i- now nil but certain thai the lVovineial l'ailiam< nt willre-s em hie on the 'JKth of May, for a Wis t but 'ornir pe riod. At the commencement of la?t -< ion. ? b it' ll of rejecters crossed the line*, but ill- y W"ie ha idly of the r'ght sort, and were, moreover, rnewhit filiate. 11 nod men va ill again h.wc a "hsnee, if <>o the ground early. 'I h?* rumor of l-afonlfine's retirement from the nrnisliy md lionr parliament, st the endnf the *r.*inn. ?s revived, if this event occur, an import ant change will in all prohshility follow, with re gard to h re neb Canadian iivltivnee, andth Sr-enll id liberal party. ... , , The official tuizrtti tontam-' a noti-a of int??nded ? {'plication to the legi-latuis for an a-1 to in "irio ratc erwtain per one as the l.ake Sup-r or and I'a riftr Kailrond Company- a sort of rival to Whit ney's project. A.vjf.o- Vvicr.i' vv. Maria* Affairs. Mr McMoy has ?? the storha at Ka*i M"?:oo i *hlpto Is rtlli 4 Ik* ArarfiriS I'alM *h? i? fret tona "n I . S fl '? t* ct tw< ad! h of ts-',m . J3', f> ?( '1 p'h of liol t ? c ,|>aclty -J <nft tons ab* will Is* ? tlsr??? decker. I.*v w nro M M'-wgort. <>? tva- day in wnlnir from Ii* iria raid ?<? Vov '? framlwH. K-| . s (ln? sr h *,n?T if ?ie vi' ?< ei-nif tonw. eells'l th" Jsm- f h* will li?il ( .n ?T- ?? Hy, sod run r.-goUrly l?'tw,"n f*w, ii?ock ?n0 Srudf'S* wr??f<-r r'.r?'n?n1 "fl'aplani Halt fftf 'rs by kc S1H the c-rmmsnl r?i h?r atef -afe* THE HEXICAH CLAIMS. Award* made by (be Board ?rCommUetonem. Ol'E WASHI.NO TON CORKKSPONDK.NCi:. Wssiiinuios. April 14. li.il. Tho Board met thU morning. and made the following order:? Ordered. Thwt interest at the rate of fire per cent per annua be computed on all elaiaa which hare been al lowed for property lost, or contracts unfilled (uuleee a different rate of interest waa stipulated in such contract), from the origin of the claim to the 10th of April. lS-il, when the commission will expire. The Board then proceeded to make the following awards, upon all of which the said fire per cent Is in cluded, in compliance with the abore order Joseph Adams, ass'ee Wm. B. Grant $1,040 '21 Heury Ashley 1,002 .'>0 HarrisonC. Allensworth 050 00 Atlantic Insurance Compauy 4,020 12 Lucius C. Armstrong A James Jackson 0.402 88 Joseph Andrews . 1 72o t o Christian Alby 3.397 70 James K. Byrain. ass'ee Win. 1). Grant 1.348 74 John A. Hradstrrot 2,097 47 John ltelden 6,342 87 Same 100,431 00 John Baldwin 71.400 00 Ambrose II. Burrows, ex'r George Haley 200 63 Nathan Barkley 800 00

Same, admr. of Moses Nolan 426 00 Desha Bunton 4.543 64 John W. Bunton 2.809 72 Henry P. Bates, admr. John U. Alford 1,470 90 Henry Breeic 1.250 90 Jesse C.Brown 2.100 00 John F. Bullock, admr Edward Hill 37.020 SO Jesse K Brown, admr Wm. J. ltus-ell 2.100 00 John Itrouwer, rec'r Pelicunln-uraurc Co.N. Y. 1.033 00 Benjamin Burn 2 078 60 Joseph Bosque 11.750 00 John Bonte 7.175 00 Andrew J. ilrame 1,042 40 Jonanfe Boll a* 2.821 25 Frederick Uange and Albert Southiuayd 3.58!' 97 John Curtis, admr. Abiier Curtis 1,421 93 Wm. W. Corcoran, ass'ee B. II Williams and Joseph H. Lord 16,051 00 t'hauucey Child 4. Kbonexer Child 8.986 66 Hiram Coaeh 660 60 (and Collin* 660 oo Pierre Chouteau, Jr., admr. de bonis non., Ac. 81.772 00 James Cochraui' 750 90 llenry Cheatham 6'H) 00 Thomas It Cottrell 340 00 James II. Clay 2.816 00 Jidiu Clairborne, adinr. Thuiua., Hassam 3.500 00 Jose Maria Caballero 3.009 00 Charles H. Cooper '2.472 00 Ferdinand Clark 86.780 29 Franklin Chase 33.573 00 IV IV Corcoran, ass'eo George A Gardiner... 107,187 60 Franklin Cooper, ass'ee Wm. Barton 1.357 25 John Christian 1.374 50 Ann B Cox. ex'trix Nathaniel Cox 110,353 33 Daniel Collins 6,434 37 Kieliard 8. Coxe. trustee of Union Laud Co. .. 58,879 10 Same, tru-trc of Trinity Land Co 63.5.59 24 l.jman Dudley 263 62 James C. Dinah admr. Z. M. P. Duval 800 00 Daniel Davis 500 00 Charles Danforth. survg. partner Godwin, Clark A Co 24 702 S3 George N. Downs and George 8. Owen 941 70 Francis Del lioyo, admr. Francis Arenas 19.000 00 Michael Dougherty 10,125 00 Geo. Dougla.-s and Kdwd. S. Van Winkle, ass'ees Win. 8. Parrott 88 000 90 David Douglass 2.450 00 Lewis M. Dreyrr 845 18 Anthony Dry. Win II. Sumner and Geo. Cur tis, trustees of Galveston Bay and Texas Land Compauy 50.000 00 George East 6 000 00 Joseph R Fa too 3.033 20 George B Fish 5,447 92 Jonathan Farnham 1.421 1*3 Wm li Freeman, adinr Fdiuuud B. Frceuiau. 921 40 Asa Fish 1,062 50 Simeon Fish 1.062 50 Same, executor Samuel Gallup 1.062 50 Stewart Foster 840 00 Joachim Fox 625 00 Frederic Freeman 750 00 Nathan C. Folgcv. aaa'nee ' barbs Guenet 2,015 60 James M. Gate wood 600 00 John Usltwaith. ass'aee Francis H. Webster.. 480 00 Henry Uisner 625 00 John F. Gary, adaar. I-ooU P. Cook 2.816 0?J George A. Gardiner. ....................... 321.560 00 Isaac Graham. 38.125 00 Franklin C. Gray 3,736 45 Benjamin llotbrook 887 60 Patrick Hayes 6,192 56 William lloman .*... 187 73 David Hull 500 00 Roderick T. lligginbotbam 4.405 00 Richard Harding 243 IS) John Hartshorn 1.458 00 Mary Hughes, admlrx George Hughe* 2P.OOO <si ho ward Hoffman 1.031 25 Margaret P. Ilallett. admlrx John llaUett... 4.103 50 William II Hatch 317 55 Joseph W llenry 1.HO0 00 I.ouls 8. Hargous... 72000 00 8 no- 530.682 29 Jsmi s Johnston, ailiur J. 1'. Wallao* 6.811 87 Philo B Johnson 750 00 Insurance Co. Mercantile of N. V 3T..U36 70 Insurance Co. Atlautiu of l'hila 4.<rju 12 John I' Jones 4 961 97 Jainoel Jobeon,... 5.>08 76 Silas M Knight , 750 00 James J. Kendall 2110 03 Jam.s Kelly 1000 00 Aanforth Kidder 1.875 00 Same 160 26 Anny Kelly, admx Win H La*' 3.076 mi Peter Kerr 1-294 66 Calvin J Keith, admr Samuel LIkin- 129 282 97 Wm Ufb 1,421 93 Abner Lane 1.521 94 Augii-tu.> Leflwii-ha-- ee ("lia* It Kennedy . 2174 04 James L"Ve. adinr Pallas Love 660 00 '1 taWtO. Lsrkin.. 16.474 21 Seme and Talbot U. Green 4 >i08 52 Jonas 1' Levy 9 075 ini Theophilus Labi'ne re 3.797 49 Aaron l.ggett Ml.296 00 George Lsffler and Peter Laffler, -urv'g part ner* of Wally and Laltlcr 51 125 '*i Same, in their own right 1.67 5 00 W in I> McCaity. a-- *e John Wooisey 2657 HI Margaret Meade, ajuix BtchMStW Meade. . 5.791 06 Charies Msliocy 1.062 .50 Stephen Morgan 1 i?>2 50 II. iekiah D Mauleby. admr Ge" O. Alford.. 1 issi isi Ma In on Sandeman k ('? 1.416 46 llenry May. admr Ann P U<>uldin 41.22166 George 8 Miller 1,240 18) W m 8 Mess. |-vey 6.0181 00 Mm Murphy.., 12 6 Mia) An 11 Weal* 166.125 00 Isnae D Mark* ............................. 8.750 iH) Andrew Meyer and Ja- Meyer *x rs An drew Meyer 2.141 50 libudaMcHar 11.380 9) NiwOrlenn* Canal and Daubing Co 4,379 70 J ? mea u'Flaherty 8 221 116 4' Iney Oatrander 6M <hj Dm nut Ann I'ltimer admx Hubert Pluim r 5 217 28 Rol.l C I'atler-on 650 00 Lewis || Polo, h ; 4.494 66 John PowcB. a-? ee Tbo* Powell 19.922 UO John Parrott ... 63.641 (81 Mm 8 Parrott 38 750 ia) James Need 11.348 50 Same aas'ee Andrew Moore 11,4*7 18 Fame nea'ee Frnleriek A Sawyer 621 35 Same. aea'ce IU nie tt A Sharp 1AM6 57 Fame, aas'ee Rraudon. McKenna k Wright... 0 459 22 Wm. 11 Roger* 1.454 84 Simeon N. nuT 1*350 0 1 J. lin A Robin ? 16 I*'1 *4 Wll mm Kicbard?Ni J 801 66 It. iij.iinin T It.* d 8.038 64 I'rv.h rlc F. lis,IrliH admr. Augustu* Radclitf lflli .56 James L. Kud"i| h 1.359 00 Lli-hs Bigg- 13.230 00 Jonah IDtier- admr Augu-tu- lingers 6.4M 09 Fdward M Ruhlnw.n. ex r Juscph Firming.. . 1.663 90 Nichols* Kicardi 6*57 50 John N ssai'V 1 421 95 J.-bn Smith 14oo no -eudford Stark, tx r J?--e Craig 55125 Noin.sn 8h? rno.*! 1 999 00 Rani. I black ami tlcrgt W Hathaway (<>n. nioh tjr to each) 1 *29 J1 Richmond Ihi nwd. adm r Wan SherwnsO 19.971 16 John W Fimont.-n and Johu A. Ilenth 3.9*0 49 John P Achat tell 4,250 00 Mm $111. m an ..dm r/ mil' ."no nes.. . a|| Adol| h. Au/> n> ..il MS 00 French Strut lo p l.tSd 99 lilihti D Smith I 125 09 An hfbaM ."trven-.ni 17 400 i barb* Clllluisn ... 4.642 5o II. my St* ven? J .250 00 1'aui. I F Smith 5.57 > 00 -mint. I *t John 5 499 00 4.11, ha II ,-aulnlei 14 944 0) .-i n.u. I Tl.ur-tnn s.liai Ihnry Nvdrr 6,790 44 liufiis K Tnrnage 2.404 96 Ajpbfu* II Tbetnp-on H.OdO 57 J?mes S Thayer, adni r Jam. " Treat 1*D el Jeremiah C Terry aud Jane * W Angu* kiw W John M Fop no 4 112 .50 W illlam J I mlerhill *94 00 Hannah blink i 1*1 63 ? tdmjr IT4S?I1 i iflO'w Cornelias P 4*u Ne?? and lian. i \ D.' kin* 120 'SI J. hn W. Van stavorm Jul.) no ?*?me 9.04 5 24 J. I.n W flhins, ei'i -mu*I Lewd, n 14.057 66 (,e? rge V Wether. .| 3.125 00 Nalt.l >1 W'hit more adm'r Annua Krad-trvet 2.4M7 47 George Wolf 1*62 59 Vndr.wWylle.Jr s.lm'r -amu.-l Ruldwln ... 75*66 69 Mnrxaret Ward, adm x h lllot Ward 1 *?9 (K) |lr? . r W at?on 750 HO Jam. * W Za> bane a*- ee iraacisi heti 8.975 00 -erne. ass'ee A. C. Br. dull 10.009 09 Total amount nf awsrds t-1293*66 00 Amount appropriated by t'ongre** 16.256 009 on Airoi-rwi sis av mi (iona.so*?Rt nnd with the al* ?Ve and cnn-enlnf the Aena'e?Daniel M ftt John, of Albany. Superintendent of the Itsnking Rep?rim?ni Will ?m II M. rrv aud Fluni* I L i.lawsuu. of Ki.-h* uvoad. Trvtee* if the Seamen * Fund and He I real Daniel t'nrtl* Jf . of 14 Vi*k Director of (he Phenii Rank II. nrv R lay. of Albany, As-letant Physician <>f the Msfii e llo.pdsl. W illinm K Strong, of New York Dire, tor in th" R.nk of America Notsri, a Fflbpp?George P N. |*cn, Joseph A \-?*e I" r, J. hn New Iliac, and Klis. line, ul.i.ry New York ? ity, Ue. rge W hite, Niehminwl, Chs? F. i,' Jv*''*. ? ?'? Pci> t $. I?a Bergen i(ne.,p THE MEXICAN REPUBLIC. Owr Mexican Correspondence. Cirv of Mkvico, March Jl, 1H5I. Free Trade in Mexico?Commercial Treat}) fith the United Slain. This id my third letter of to-day. It is, you will notice, chiefly suggestions in relation to the fiscal and commercial policy of Mexico; and though veu informed me you preferred I should in my corres pondence give "news" and "facts," rather than essays and speculations 1 venture to depart from your "instructions" in this instance. You will find facts mixed up with arguments in this. Congress is yet in session, but it adjourns on the 31st of this month, until the 1st of Ootober next. 1 believe that no new elections are held in the interim, and that the same members compose the Congress at next session, but 1 am not certain. 1 will ascer tain, and advise you in a future letter; and also of the features of the new elections, if any. President Arista has been engaged in an inves tigation of the difficult and perplexing question of the "protective tariff." As in the United States so in Mexico, the manufacturers of cotton fabrics, and some other articles, insist that it is the judicious policy, and the duty of the government, to protect them from foreign competition, by imposing protec tive or prohibitory import duties on fabrics of for eign manufacture. The chief cotton factories here are at Pcubla, at Orizaba, at Qucretaro, and at Guadalajara. It is estimated there are from ten to fifteen millions of capital invested in manufactures, in the republic of Mexico. Most of the owners are Mexicans, but there are some Englishmen and other foreigners concerned in them. .Suflicient cotton is not, at this time, raised in the republic to supply them fully, and it sells very high, generally ueficli for 25 oenta per lb., and upwards. The deficiency is chiefly brought from New Orleans, under special permits from the government, the duty on which is about cents per pound. Mexico could, by the exertion of great enterprise, industiy, and cure, raise enough cotton for ner own consumption; and had they slave labor they could compete with our Southern States in some cotton markets. The States on the Pacific coa.-t, owing to their conti guitv to the Western coast of South America and the Pacific islands, and the East India and Chinese markets being nearer to them, might dispose of their raw cotton there to profit, iiut Mexico can not expect to sustain her cotton manufactories at home, by any mere impost regulations till she grows enough of the raw material to supply them. For upwards of ten years past, in order to encour age and protect their manufactures, the ituportaj t ion of the finer cotton fabrics has been \ irtuully prohibited by the imposition of a duty of 13^ cents per square yard; uiui the coarser kiuds are prolii in terms and absolutely. The M bitcd in terms and absolutely. The Mexican fabrics are chiefly of the coarsest kinds of cotton ; and the protection chiefly affects the trade of the United States and England. It is well ascertained that it is impossible to pre vent the English and American coarse cottons from being smuggled into this country. The extensive and exposed sea coast of the republic on the Pacific, and in the Gulf, and the sparse population, (rather lawless, too, in their propensities) on the froutier of Unit two thousand miles between the United Sates and Mexico, the pejuliar adaptation of the country for facilities to illicit trade, the necessities of the peo ple for such foreign fabrics, and the unconquerable disregard of English and American traders of all foreign impost laws, have caused smuggling to be carried on to an enormous extent. The English are the chief smugglers on the sea and gulf coasts. It is supposed three-fourths of the cotrsc cotton goods consumed in this country, a re thus introduced. Con sequently, the argument in favor of the prohibition, thnt it was a just and necessary measure of pro tection to the Mexican manufactures, is of no force, and the government loses the revenue, which it would receive from a moderate and reasonable duty only being levied, besides, the practice of smug gling these goods leads to contraband trade in every thing else that can he smuggled, and all fair trade is thus interfered with and ruined. The honest and law ubiding merchant, who respects and obey'1 the laws, and pays the duties, cannot compete success fully with the smuggler, or those wno vend his smuggled goods for him. Hut, like our "cotton jennies" of "Eowoll" and "Full River," in the United States, the manufac turers of Pucblu, tie., iu Ibis country, do not, and will not, understand bow their true interests can be consistent with those of the whole republic, which demand the removal of the prohibitious 1 have men tioned, and others of a -iinilar character. It is no torious thut the manufactured cotton fabric* of Pucblu and other places in this republic are not as food as those of tue I nitcd States or of England, 'he appurel made from the coarse cotton fubricg of Mexico will not hut the poor uxan more than a month or six week1, while the imported article will wear several month-. The depression el'the manufactories, ami tho ir regularities and uncertainties in all commerce here. etutdby the prohibitions alluded l?, and the con ent utter dis sequent utter disregard of the iiM?x>e? laws, have oc casioned great dL-'cuntent throughout the republic. The abolition of the prohibitory duties, it is alleged by those who oppose it, Li unjust, as their capital invested la the manufactories, was so invested, under the implied pledge of protection. It is -aid U will encourage the manufactures of Lnglaud and of the I'nited States, instead of "Mexican industry," and this is quite a eaptivatiug argument with tbo*e who look only to the eurfhee of things. It is prcci.-ely the talk, of our protectionists, alio would sacrifice commerce, agriculture and every thing else to their own sclfi.-n interests. Mexico ma\ wisely enceurage.tbc raising of cotton, by levy ing a moderate duty on the importation of raw cot ton, uiid it would serve to promote the interests of tho-e Mexicans disposed to grow it, while it would not be detriiueutMl to the Nai'hern >tates of our country, insomuch a- without slave labor Mexico cannot rival tlieni in the Kurepeau market; hut if it was .different wc should huve no ground of com plaint. Haw cotton is an article not casi.y smug gled without detection. Hut the wisest pulley of Mexico a- to most luAmfbcturtd nrtii le* i. the tree trade poliev, <>r moderate <td twrrm duties. Hhr cannot, for half a century to cotne, mpet< with I.nglatid, with the I nited Mates, 1 ,u uci old countries in hut very few tuanu <..-tnr? -, ind especially in the manufacture of cotton and woollen goods, that require intelligent and cheap labor, mechanical and artlatical skill and experience, which cannot he acs|nircd for a long time. The export-of Mt xico art gold, -ilver, n? hincal, dye mauls and -tuff', indigo, hides, vanilla, and to thi -? might bo added, it her paeple would exert tbemaelvcs, tUtmem, sejgsra, sugar, marly all the tropical fruits, and e,en rice and wheat and Indian Corn, ami, if attention wa- paid to the cultivation of the gia|>e, ae could, in a few yrm?, make enough wines for her own con-iuuption, and ev en some for exportation, HI--scd with a luxuriant soil and a genial climate, Mexico has no superior and h w rtjual- oil the luce of the earth as an agri cultural country, .??he never can he a great nniim fuetnring <tr navigating nation. Her wealth is in her -oil, its inmernls, ami its piodinta, ami in the profitable dirpos tion of thtni to other nations. 1 have been thus diffuse on this subject, at it is tbc all-itn|M>rt?tit MctUon now |auuling here. Since ' otigre-- has been in -c.-ion, the nianafaeturer* 'I J uted to attend it are Me--i Mujii a, furlong & I 'en i, three worthy and Intelligent gent lemon of I'cubla. and indeed leading eiti/en- of the repub lie. of high character and greai wraith. These gen tlemen have pp ic-it'l ?gain-t the aholition of the 11ohibitory duties. Their remonstrances hart *? , weight, ami fXeecdin.tly embarrass ynrtt Tttj "*? ;jj|g J ft tutl (hf quired fclly to un dertake the task of reform boldly and rigorously. hut they will beat the next tension. It ha- been suggested iltat a law giving liberal "bonnth - 'out <T the public treasury to the growers of cotton, and to the manufacturer-, may compcn -ate them f?>r their sacrifices fhr tho general good, and encourage them to More inerea ed cultivation and manufacture. I'ttltWv thi- i? the fairest, most o|>en, ami above hoard mode of giving en couragement and protection, and in our own coun try I should be rejoiced to see an express and un ?ini vocal cot)-titutinuul pi(diihitioti of all other jtindl vf trvttction, hy fedcial legislation. 1 should he willing to <eo tin'- xpiJ allowed, I , however: there would be little danger fro a it of partial, sectional, ami corrupt legislation, (even by the log rolling sys tem.) to anj very grunt extent,and ftva long time. The |ieo| le would not submit to it They would -ee, and feel, and understand, what they paid to monopolist*. They could not thti- he deceived by the -pecloos but dsluwivo repre-entation- of the prie tcctioni-t?, and the corrupt demagogue- they pay to aid thnn, a- to the. fleet, and operation of high or piotcctlvt dttiie-. They could not then oe wheedled and beguiled into the fanciful notion that ? he -ystetn w?? for their "nltimate benefit" and their "real intere-t-!" Heretofore many have been argued into the eonvic'ion, thai it ready takes no m< ncy nut of their pr* ket?, to he compelled hv law to pay a Yankee blood cloth mannfsctitrerf? per paid tor cloth, which, but lor ?uch law, they could get of the Kngli-h or French for f2 40; and they nave been mi-Ted al-o into the belief, that the f'J'iO went into the trea-ury, and not into the |?oeh ei? ol ,i c|ae? ?f non-worker., having little sympa thy with the ica-ses; as if in all e#?e? the lax payers do not bear the burthen. They would then not be del'iHuded by false pretence-. Bounties, of onrse, -hould not bo allowed retro. ?p< i lively, but -hould on Ily be paid on articles nro- ( (lured or manntaeiuresl alter the passage of the law ; giving them. We have paid millions of dollars for i Eountiee, in pa-t years, indirectly to the New I I Inglard mackerel and cod fishermen. The duties I on ill suit psest hy (hen ffil *,? l*?- I | am persuaded this was a fruitful source of frauds and imposition on the treasury, and wish you would nt leisure examine into the matter. I believe the law is yet in force. Why, I ask, should not tho wheat grower, or him who raises sugar or cotton, or who produces pork or beef, be rewarded out of the public treasury as well as the fisherman ! I would recognise, by express constitutional pro virion, the power of Congress to lay an embargo ; and also to prohibit, by direct law, the importation of any product or manufacture of any foreign country, when necessary to countervail restric tions upon the commerce of such country, or proper as a lucusure of national policy otherwise ; but 1 would never prostitute and pervert the revenue power for such purpose. The facts, stated in thisepistlo, as to the policy of the new administration here, must show to you the high importance of having in Mexico always, and expeciafly now, a representative of the first class a* to intellect, experience, attainments and statesman ship. Ho should be a practical business man, shrewd, and industrious, and vigilant. He should be acquainted with the commercial iuterests of the United States and of Mexico. He should be one who could enforce tho mutual advantages of a libe ral policy by both cogently. He should, in princi ple, be u free trade man. I shall say nothing against Mr. I,etcher. Ho is not here. I do uob know him. 1 think ho was regarded as a protec tionist in Kentucky; the State, 1 believe, he hails from. I presume tho preseut administration will not take aay great pains to effect a liberal commer cial treaty with Mexico. Mr. Webster, I think, bus avowed himself against all "reciprocity" trea ties squinting towards the free trade policv. If so, the British will get the start of lis again here, and we shall not be able to inako up our lee-way till a democratic administration comes into power. 1 would not commend to our public ministers tho sniffling, sycophantic, I riiih Ileep like civility of some I could name, us examples?making lovo speeches to flatter ami wheedle the populace; nor would 1 have an American minister practising obse quious genuflections to tickle any court or unv neo ple, for such things excite to the ridicule and (.not ion of the knave or ass that attempts thorn. In the United .States this fate has befallen every foreign minister that has attempted to follow such course, and it will overtake all others hereafter who are silly enough to suppose they can humbug the Yankee nation, though they may now and then fool a vain politician or a silly editor. But there are some things about British diplomatists that should be copied by ours. They are \ igilant, and as bold and tenacious in promoting Britisn "interests,"(whether "rights'* or not,) as they are sharp iii looking out with respect to them, (treat Britain may send men without modesty, and who cunnot oven affect it; but she neter sends sleepy heads nor leather pates, nor shallow jokt-is?nor ignorant uneducated men, nor mere ]>ednnts, nor pompous nothings, nor poli tical hacks without experience in diplomacy, on ini]>ortant missions. Such cattle are less danger ous at home. The United States should profit bv lier example. You must not suppose anything I have said, is meant to apply to our legation to thi* government. 1 find it as popular, if not more pop lar, than any representatives of the United State* here have been since Mr. Butler or Mr. Poinsett. In a future lotter 1 will give you soine account of the newspaper press in Mexico. Manuatta.n. Bunk Note Redemption Law \n Act to amend tlie several Acts relating to incorpora Ud ???, Banking Aviations and Individual 7C IVopfc ?f rte <fNt* yo k r*Prfirn"d Sf'*aJe nnj .4*ftmMv rfo Miafl aijvlleu-i :? ... Action 1. Section ouc of the act relatiug to U?e ro dcinption of Iwnk no tee, pa?cd May 4lh. 1A40. i* hereby amended no it* to read i?* follow* : u..i? ?' ?. c 1 Kvery moneyed incorporation in thw Htat? having banking power*. and issuing bill* or noteaofrir cuUUonT and every banking association and nd.eiduaj banker carry iDg ou baukiug business under tin act ^tlmrimVe hf.sines- of banking. except th~ <???> i.lace of bualnem ia in the citie* of New 4ork. Albiny, Brs.kiyn or Troy, ahall. on or before the fln,t jW Jul|,r uelt appoint an agent who shall keep an o?c' in the city of Itew Vork. Albany or Troy, for the rederaption of all circulating note* issued by *ald corporation, banking association, or individual banker, which eh?U be presented to ptioh for fMiymont or rrde^pw* Sec. 2 Section four of the said act U hereby amended ho uh to rcvil bh follows : ^ ?Sec 4 Iteballbe the dutl of every auch corporation, bankitg association. and indiyfdual banker out of the cltiea New 4 ork. Albany. Itrooklyn and Troy, to ?"<* nay on demand nil circulating note* Usued by such cor poration. banking aaaoeiatlon, or indlTidua Uinker ^re, ,,.nte.l tor redemption or payment at the offlce of their said agent, in the city of New York. Albany or Troy, at ? rate of discount not exceeding one-quarter of one per r> 3 Whenever an action ahall be brought against any incorporated bank, banking mwociatlomor indie'duol tanker for the reeoTery of the amount doe on any err" luting note or notea rcgUtcred in the O.mptn.U^ a omce I he ou anient of which ahall have la-en drummWd at th? KffffU-r "r 'or other f..n.lMiit if it shall appear oil the trial or oilier wise, to the court in which such suit U brought, that at the tiai - *wh demand of payment ??? mad" the de fendant offen d in payment the ovulating ?*? or Untied Wv any bank iMO(lAik)B <?* Vawkrr. oth'*r than th? defend^" which were at the time at par in .he city of New Yoek. A1 bury or Troy, or a draft ordrafHonany bank, aaaociation or banker In the city of New 4 ,rk, Al bany o. Troy, or either of the same for the in>uat of the <?irvulatiug note *o presented. wlUi an aflkkiv if re quired. that ouch draft ->r draft* i? or are available in their fall amount, to ineure the immediate P*yn?ejit thereof on presentation, or in rase any action sluall on commenced upon such note or note* bet we the ' tion of fifteen day* from the time of th* fir- demand thereof, a* above mntionrd : aud provided such bank, .station or individual banker shall la- ready ?"d Po part -I to redeem such note or note* In the lawful m*.-7 Of the Vnlted State* at the counter or ordinary pi me of basin.se of such bank association or banker, a I be x pirat ion af said lifts- n days from J ha time of the, first fp. mn ud thereof. with interest, than in either case. Ilu piain tiff such action shall not n-oorer auy costs, fee* onlU bur->in-lits whatever against the deb-u-lanU. an.l shall be entitled to rec?iver n-- more than seveu per csiil '?* lerest. in lieu of all damage* for the non-payment of the ? aid circulating note or note*; but no Interest -hull bo r- revered upon such note or note* in any action, unle-a the plaintiff or hold, r thereof shall have again presented Ike -sin-' for payment, at the hanking hou-e or ordinary pU. . <d business of such defendant, on or after llrn lift?- nth businrw day after -ueh lir-t deumnd and beforw I he twentieth day. aud the defendant shall have nrgb-ct ?d sud refused to pay the same with int. real t > that time, a* aforesaid An.1 if sueb b-nk. a-smUtim or banker. al the time of the tirst pres. nfalkin ->t sat 1 ctr culatirg ne?te ornotva, shall have offered to (my current bank notes or drafts, or Imth. or either in l lie manner above provided and -hull, at the time of Ihe second pec ulation. psy or tender Ihe amount of ?jieli ??*e or iiot- - thus demanded. iu the lawful money of the Slulcs. at their bunking liouae or ordinary place of bu*l nc- then sueh bank, asiawlatlon or banker ahull not b* d.s ini'd to have suspended or refused specie payment, within tbe Meaning of any statutes authorizing proceed ings for the dissolution of th-charter of such ls.uk oe a in h- ri*ing pro-e. ding* to restrain or enjoin the ordi Din tA mrli btnt or banker, nop shall siuk laink association or banker In ?nrh ca*e. b? liable to any other or greater duuia.- -for the non pay no lit of sin h circulating note ?r m-tca, than a? abova l>rovlded. any provU ou in the charter of any bank, or any other statute to the n-ntrarv notwtthsUnding bee 4 The fourth section of chapter two humld-l an I -ixlv of the laws ?>f eighteen hundred and thlrty-elgtaft as amended by the fir-t wetlon of chapter f irty_?i* o the laws id eighteen hundred and forty-one. la hereby further amended so that It "hall read as f-dlow* ?Incase the maker or maker, of any such circulating not- or no r*. rount?T/?ljCt??,?I bd<1 fMftrrrd b< ef-imwl, ?ball mv tlBH1 iKftiftrr ??n Uwful ?|rmnB?! ilwflof lh?? u-ml h- ur* of hii-iii-?* between the hour- ?* b-n and tliren O'clock at the pbicc where imhn -te.or untea i* or aru payslile. fall oi refuse to redeem anch note or notes In thn lawful m- ney -d the l ulled f?tates. the h-.lder ?f siieli note >* notr. making -uch ilcmaml. m.?y e anse tbe -ame to ?>e protested. In one package, for non-payment, t.y a t Idarv public und.r hi. seal of office In the u*ual no,nner unle.- the prertdent. cashier <w teller .d uch bank -hall offer to waive demand and notice of thn protest, and shall, in pursuance of such make, -lin and deliver to the party making sU..a dcnrml. an olini-sion in wilting stattoglhe tlm-; nf the il-man 1. tho amount demanded and the fact Cf thv non p.yin?nt fher / ,na the rompt'roil-r Alt Pec-Wing and . ? "si- ,. >. adnit'smn or protest togetlier with anch mdc or notea. -hall forthwith give notlc in writing to the maker or maker* of aileh uoly of uol''? -am", and If he or they .Vail omit to d<> to f->r Uft ? <* ?lay after such n?'-lec. th mptrdler ahall imm-diat - ly thereupon iuuI- s* h-' -hall fse fatl-ticd that there Is n gi aid and legal d- fence against ihe payment of such n-do or notes) giae notice in the Plate paper that all the clr i I ulattng not.*. Isaned by m h p? rs--n or awmcla'l-m will la- redi ? mc.l out ?d the trust fund* in his hand* for that. purps.e. ao-l the ftompfroller ihall Im re.tulred to apply Ihe aid tn,-l fund- brtoogng to Ihemaker .winay.r. o ? uch notes to the payment pre rafa of all th" cirrul ut nottl pot in cireulalion by the m.iker or ??km dishonor.-' uote. pursnant to the provisions of ??"*?'*. disnomir. ua for th. payment of aueb nvtc "tSVt'lir^Z r."-,Ue.s-Vre.- " "* M.1 ?I -U.T ''Ob" be* *s?le. SseJ-* thirty sight. Is hereby amended so ?* t" read a* M '"pcc Jff PUih aa-oclatlon IW indiridual banker shall bw liable t'o pay the holder of ever, bill or n.Ke put In cre,, laii-.n as money, tb-'payment of whleh shall hav< been demanded and refused, at the banking house oe usual place of business of .uch association ?r banker, damagev f.r non pa.meot tbcnofln Ik-u af intercut at and the rate of .-vco pr cent p.r aatiiim from the tlaae of such refusal nntll the payment or such evidence of debt, jsnil 11*urnK" ... . . s .r o Nothingroudnlned in the third fourth, end (Mth sections of this act. shall apply to case, where clrcuUtln; note* registered in th" c-.niptr?ller'a ofllcs ahall be Pfe_ -rntrd for payment to the agi-nt id any Incorporate 1 hank banking aspr^ iallon. or Indivldnal hanker, appovnt sd according to the provision* of chapter two humtee I and two of Jhe laws of eighteen hundred and lorty. em titlid. " An art relating totbe redemptkuiof hank wotea. nor to any hank, hanking aaaociation, or individual onnu er, for whom lh. re .hall not he at the time an agent duff appointed, a* prescribed In the aaid act ; nor to ban**, association-, or individual hanker*, whoa* P;*-'' u ne?? ia In either of tb* elllc* of New York, Albany Hrnog l;a. i* Troy N?* at IntctJIge.ice. The f n. -loop-of-war .?oh? A.Um* nt rived 'ailing order* fug Ui? Coast of Africa, ela Ha ilcira. ao.l will sail in a few day* K.a. ?v r?iw?a.M.s#.-hlnehulbHng? tncl i-lingiw. hotcla?Ibe Naaaawan and the American??wr ronoimak I ? OR Ok ^cdnea^ay oi|bt gad

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