Newspaper of The New York Herald, July 18, 1851, Page 3

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated July 18, 1851 Page 3
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Tlu Dccrtu* or Iteo Population la Ireland. [from the I.ondon rimes J r In another column will 1m found * painful, but. wa beliere, an authentic communication uu iU? Irish census. That census 1* thin J ear the summing up of event* and change* such u* have rarely afflicted or disturbed m Klern civiliaation. Indeed, the tenor and sameness of buinaa flair* In thi-*e latter time*, have left the mind aim Mt unprepared for results no vast and so strange as those we have now to contemplate. It appears that the population of Ireland is at this moment very little more than six million* and a half. It Is absolutely lee* than it was in 1821. and moie than two millions stiort of the number that would have been reached in tne naturd order of thing*, but for the extraordinary occurrence* ot the la*t ten years. 80 startling a fact will, of course, become the subject of the closest inquiries; and it is only ms the first step iu a very long controversy, that the attention of our readers is directed t > some obvious c insid crations. The whole emigration from these isluuds during the last ten years, has boen 1 HOO.lXSl Of that number it is aseertained that at least 1.100 000 hare migrated from Ireland alone. There is, however, no doubt thatef theremaiuing 500.000, uiauy thousands were Irish, who have only Used England as a -tepping-st-ine to the new world; and it is also clear that the places of many English and hootch emigrants have I men supplied by Irish newcomer*. The population of this islauo. as retuned in the census, is more than enough to be accounted for by the natural rate of increase. Although we have hiul cholera, intluensa. dearth aud emigration, the increase for Great Britain, though a little below the rate of former periods, is still more than would arise : from the nstural growth of the population. Ilence for very Englishman that has fallen a victim to epidemic, or has left tills island, at least one native of Ireland has atepped into bis place In the coluuiu to which we re1 fer. attention is called to another 0 msideratioa. familiar to those who have watched the increase oi our own metropolitan and other civic populations The great staple of a large emigration is just the very class from whom the increase of popuiatibn it to be expected. The ([(eat inducement to a step in itself so perilous and no painful, is the wish to provide for a family coming on, or to settle aud marry with some prospect of comfort.? The very young, the aged, and invalid remain Thus me uecayeu una barren stocxs are leu Deuuei, ana in" prolific young shoots are taken away iu the fulnesa of tlieir bearing and growth. Hence the im iieuse increase which hue provoked such sanguine speculUtonx ax to the future of the United States. Ileuee the additional two millions found in this island, after the MMp of disease and the drain of emigration, ileuee also the euorinoua and increasing gap left iu Irelind. deserted, as it if, by the young, tne healthy, the ab e. and the industrious, and resigned to the orphan the widow, the ick, and the aged. Nor must we f irget that this fact is prospective The six and a half Mian remaining iu Ireland are not. as a whole, the prolific race that the -eight millions and two hundred thousand were iu 1411. There can. no doubt that some of the causes of this unparalleled reverse are mast obvious and painful. Unquestionably, several hundreds of thousands have perished prematurely by famine, by fever, by cho lera, by diarrhu-a. by slow hunger, by nakedaoss. by of fuel, by insufficient habitation, by want of medical aid. by neglect of neighbors, by desertion of friends by thlowest possible rate of existence, and by the uttermost prostration of spirits A quarter of a million poor creatures huddled at one time in workhouses or extempore additions to tbem, and even more than that numb -r of habitations swept from the earth, testify to the almost incredible straits to which the Irish population has lately been reduced. Health, strength, wealth hope, and life itself, have fled from these ill fate 1 shores leaving behind a miserable remnant, csat nually more incapable of providing for itself, or f ulfilling the many wffiens of a Christian community. It must needs fare ill with the orphan, the widow, the cripple, the aged, and all the - other feeble classes, when the healthier element has been filtered away, and tbey are left as the dregs behind lu. deed, it is due to those upon whom have devolved the duties of public cbaritv in Ireland, and who have discharged those duties hitherto with such indiffereul sucuves. to observe that their burden has been aggravated, as well as their hearts hardened, by the continual Might cf those who should have borne the burden in the first instance. These miseries and difficulties, too. have not been enually diffused over the whole isiaui. Their operation has been concentrated in certain districts, and rendered thereby more potent and disastrous. This will he shewn by the details of the oeusuv As to the exact proportion of the various causes contributing to the whole decrease of two millions, the ccuxu- will give us hut partial assistance. It will not tell us the premature deaths, or the deficiency of births, uor is there any registration in Ireland to supply these farts It will not tell us. except in the rough, the migrations to foreign c*untries or to this island, nor is it ea-y to see how we shall ever obtain exact information on these points One singular result conies out ou a comparison of the llrilish and Irish census. It Hppear.s that the aggregate population of these islands Is only about half n million more than it was ten years ago. and that instead of in creasing at the rate cf a thousand a day. as is generally unmoved, we have only increased at the rate of a thou .-and a week; nor i* there any immediate probability ol' the rate being considerably increased Foreign Music and (he Drama. Thalberg'* new opera ha* been produced in London, but. to far a* we can judge, it ha* failed to prove attractive. Mr. Anderson, the lessee of Drury Lane, lias retired from the management, and has been placed in financial difficulty by the speculation. Vaualiail Harden*, on the fonrth of July, had a grand entertainment, aud at' about sixteen thousand American* in London, a large number were eapectej to be present' a* Hernandez, baton Stone, and McColluui. American ?qu? .-triau*. were to appear. On the same day. there wa* a grand banquet, with mu.-ic and everything appropriate given by Mr. Peabody, the American hanker at Willis' Kooin* There were several hundred guest*. Soyer. with Mr Stile* at the head of the symposium, kept the day with music and feasting at tlore House. Ihimbolton ha* taken Ilrury l.aue Theatre for two months, from the 14th of July, and will open it with equestrian performance*, on a great scale lie has Car s. liue Loyo. the l/oi**et*. Katon 4toue. McColliim F Bmwer and wife, and several of Parisian reputation Katon Mone and MrColluni have been commanded to perform at the Koyal Hardens, Windsor A novel ring has been nrranged lor their exhibition before the royal family The lithograph of tbrin by Paroui aud Major, hi* been much admired by 1'riuce Albert, and i* said to have caused the royal command Anderson, the Wixard of the North, is to sail in the Atlantic on the *J"d instant and will give two entertain ment* on board ship after which he w ill appeal in New Yoik. The Hippodrome, in Hyde Park, holds 14,000 persons, and ha* been will attended. The Batrman Children will open their London engagement at the 1st J allies Theatre, about the middle of August Hnstavus Y. Brooke may be expected in the I'nited Mates in the autumn, together with Laura impassion d actress. Ileleo Faucit. and other* Mr J. W W altark ricently performed Claude delimit* with succe** at the Olympic, at Farrtu'* benefit, when Helen f'aurit i.erformed Pauline Catherine Hays* ha- entrusted the management of her American tour to Mr Wardwell, ot Itmadway. who U the uwly (tie empowered to art 111 her b< hull at present. ISlDllfTK)!* AM> SnCIIiK, yKAR CltrHIATI.? A gentleman, who resides in Millereek township, intormed us yesterday of an incident that was supI orcd to ha\e occurred on Saturday last near Millcreek House. At a pretty early hour in the morning, Mr Felsen war fishing in the creek, and he tound, under a sycamore tree on it& hank, about two hundred yards from the junction of the pike and the dirt roads leading to the city, a quantity of lady's apparel, consisting, in fact, of an entire sui', with the exception ol the garment nearest t he poison. Mr F , without diatuibing the clo'hes, went buck to the town aui procured the attendance of several persons, who went baek to the place with kitn. and tbey there male au examination of the articles The fioek was a nearly new mousliu de laine, the other garments white llatinel and white tr.uslin. On the white muslin |?t'icoat was marked, in indelible ink, America Ann Peacbaui. In the pocket was found a letter, without any superscription enclosing another addressed to Jonathan Hecklin. Cincinnati, which was sealed. "She requested that whoever should find her apparel would put the letter in the post office ^h< Hu n tSBl on to say that, in const quenceot being a victim of the seducer s aits, her shame, which she could conceal no longer, about to he exposed, she had left her home resolved on committing suicide, and iho-e drowning as the easiest mode Mie also requested that tbi letter containing this uccount might he sent to her father at I'oplar Plains, Ky. The | arty proposed a search lor the body, and a search was accordingly commenced, hut without success, aftet several hours spent in the occupation.?Cim innali In</., JuJi/ II. Mcru Imi-osition iton Emiurants.?An emigrant Englishman, named i>avid Welkins. with his family, arrived in this city yortcrd ty morning, on their way to Cleveland, < >hio, having through tickets in his possession, which be purchased in New York Upon inquiry he found that a most gross and villanous imposition had been practised upon hiui in the weighing of hffe luggage, and In the accommodations promised him in iNew York. Fy advice he presented his case to the Mayor, who, in conncctiou with the Chief of Police, investigated the matter, when it was found that tho ticket Was obtained in the eitv nl New Vurk. frnn ? notorious swindling concern in that city. The luggage wan overcharged 127 pound*, for which Mr. Watkin* paid some twenty dollar* to those robber* more than tbcv were entitled t> The charge lor pa**age on the lake froiu HutTalo to Clerolanl, ?i? al*o very extortionate for emigrants. The tua total wbith was |>ani, over the tegular faro, exceeded, on passengers and baggage, aome sixty dollar*. The Major, f'htel, and Mr. \Vatkio* proceeded to New York, in order to lav the faet* before the autlioritiea ot that citj ?AHuny (A, Y.) Alius, July 1 A. I'oMMKMt KMKNT Of .St, AIaK i H t OI.I KOK ?The aiil.ual cmniiieiicuinoiilof thia teueiahlc InititutloP took place at the < ollege building yesterday morning, in the pretence of a large audience of ladita and gentlemen. The degree of "A IS." was oonlertcd bj Piof. Jenkins, Treddent of the College, -on the following graduate*;?Kdward l> iland, Thtunaa Lourtne.v Jenkins, ,lr , Kosewell H. tiiavcr, Aubrey A. J one a, of Baltimore; ttedrgoT. 4 id line, of 1'itubuig; Joseph A bechback, and '"bn Samuel Foley. of haltimnte. The Yaledictniy a<ldic*s was delivered by John S. Foley, and the pn mi it in* distributed by Col. fharlet ( aproU. Ikr Son oiary degree of I.L I) , was also conferred an l.vtiovrrnor it lloman, of La , a graduate of the college ?Mulnmcft L'hj>/"r, July lb. MISCELLANEOUS LETTERS. Our OtMgo County Correspondence. Unadilla, Otsego Co., N. Y., I July 10, lMtl. \ The Route of the Albany and Su*<jueiuinnah Ruilrowl A corps of engineers engaged in surveying the route of the contemplated Albany and Susqueiannab Railroad, passe 1 through here lust week, aud are slowly progressing towards the termination of the line, at Great Bend, l'a. This route commences at Albany, runs in a south-westerly direction, passing through a gorge in tne Caiskilt Mountains, and strikes the Susquehannah river at Colliers villa* a point fourteen utiles from its source. Thenue it follows the course of the stream, frequently orosviitg and recrossing to suve distance, and traversing tne of the most beautiful but sequestered valleys iu the Union. The engineers, who are all strangers here, speak in terms of high praise of the fertility and beauty of the oountry they have passed through, and the intelligence, hospitality aud g >od feeling tnatiifesteu by the citizens along the route. This rtgion, hitherto so secluded, was one of the first settled portions of the State, and with regard to the intelligence and independence of its inhabitants, the salubrity of its atmosphere, and ths general diffusion of tbc means oi good living, will compare iuvorauiy w.ui any oiuor portion 01 inn ruial districts. The great staples produced by the ugiiculturul part of the people here are butter and cheeve, which, until the construction of the New Votk and Erie Kailroud, were oouveyed in wagons over the Catskill Mountains to market. A great quantity of these commodities are still carried to the North Itiver by the same means. Give these farmers the facilities tor conveying their produce to market oheaply and expeditiously, and this valley will soon become one of the most wealthy portions of the Sta'.e. Even n > v, notwithstanding the many disadvantages with which the inhabitant: have ever bud to contend, the traveller wilt, in 11 section of the State, meet with fewer evidences o poverty, or witness a greater exhibitio.i of uoutness, taste and good order, than in passing through the lovely valley ofthe tiusquehauuah, from Biiigbuuiton to Cooperstovvn. The banks of this noble stream were once the favorite dwelling places of the Indians, mid the plough frequently turns up spocimen* of their weapons and utensils. Stono hatchets, arrow heads, spears, mortars, &c., are in the possession of almost every family. About throe miles below this village stands a stone monument erected by the Indians, in honor of the virtues of one of their most illustrious chieftains. There are many interesting localities in this vicinity, some of which are associated with the memory of heroic deeds of the revolution, but time and space will not permit me to describe them now. The denizens of tne eity would find themselves amply paid by a ramble through this region. Harvard College Commencement. OUR CAMBRIDGE CORKKspo.HliKNCK. Cambkidoe, (Mast.) July 16, 1851. 1 suppose you will not be unwilling to receive some aecount of the "doings" at this seat of learning at this, the most interesting season of the year, ' To-day is commencement day at the Harvard luiversity. To-morrow the Phi Beta Kappa cele brato their anniversary; and yesterday the Sto y Association h ad their first celebration. This aseoci ation is formed of the law studentg connected with the University, under the immediate instruction of Ex-Chief Justice Parker, of New Hampshire, and Professor Parsons. Judge Kent of your city, is the President of the society. At twelve o'clock a procession, consisting of the Story Association, the college officers and studeuts, and sundry diftinguishsd guests, was formed on the college grounds, and headed by a band of music, marched to the church. Tne edifice was crowded in every part ?the galleries were exclusively occupied by ladies?and President tiparks. Hon, Edward Everett, Chief Justice Shaw, Judge Bigelow, Judge Edmonds, of New York, Hou Thomas Carpenter, ot Khode Island, and several other distinguished persons were seated ?n the platform. After nraver by Kev Dr. Walker. and music by the bund, Hon. Win. Kent, of New York, President of the Association, introduced the orator of the occasion, Hon. liufus Ornate, who spoke about an hour aDd twenty minutes, in a high strain ot eloquence. His subject was the present condition of the country?the masked moral treason which exasperated the public mini, and threatens the destruction of the nation?and be urged that it was the peculiar duty ot I he profession of the law to wiu back the virtues of tno people to the service of the couutry. The doctrines of transcendentalists and buinani- I tarians?who sip from the teachings of antil.'nionists, who reject law bejause it conlicts with some one interior sentiment, who try law by hoardei nnger?were scattered to the four winds, uot by rhetorical skill alone, but by arguments supported by a standarl of ethn-s as souud and imoult ml*, as the word of Cod. Mr. Choate said tue in j. t startling idea in the seeming progress of our day was the endeavor to try to solve, to ameliorate, and to explain everything at once by thestundard of our own human judgments?according t> the darkness of our inward thoughts. No regard was paid to the philosophic teachings of I,ocke, Jeremy Tay lor, huike, mid other erudite and profound masters ot the old time, whose wisdom mid learning illumed and guided u former generation, and whose maxims contront and iguote the lessons of the modern conscience advocates. Constitution and law? are denounced as things of hell, and one man puts his own judgment against the opinions of tho ( immunity. It was under these influences that unrertiaincd treason walked abroad t> day at the No th end at the f'outh. " <'ouscienca," glo my and sullen at the North?proud and heated at the South ?dictates the stupendous heresy o( nullification which is now nreached o|?enly in both extremes of tl.e country. These new moralists tret us to a banquet of emotions, but they do nothing at all to tiuoh us how to demcun and act out the duties of civil life. '1 he struggle at present in 8outh Carolina, to enlist the moral eouvietions of tho countiy against the government, wn-< noticed and deplored by the orator, ui d the agitations in our own vicinity were aim lamented. Mr ('hoate's exhortation to ilicrard local passionr?to collect the scattered -tars? to make all men feel and surrender their e uu uon aflcctions to tho country?to avoid platforms of wood, and the sending forth of rocket abstraction*? to refrain from gnpitigs over the hedge of Southern slavery, and certainly not to enter it?to cure the morality which countenances a dissolution of the I'rdin?to discard all arrogant and self righteous or sees?to shun poetic sentimentalists end alt artificial virtues?was an uppcal *ucb as is seldom hea'd The oration was listened to with marked a.tenlion. and at the conclusion the following original ode, written by lion (Wotgc hunt, was sung to the air "Auld l.arg Sync,"'the band accompany ing:? ln.calh litese shsdis. whoso hallowed tuns Such generous thought* revere ' H i * on these hails . it utany a aauie To hope and memory dear ; 1. I,. ... ?? Miiuiliht. hi url. anil h,n.l. i'ii? lr?-?h? r iwinini. Hnoim ??< ml Imrulug'n gathered haul-, "lo mingle mitnl with mini Th* >agt'ii lot tlj lamp might rhitiiv At<i in it* light upin: Aim burning ? rii K thought lit .m\ Vibht i*i ?li iii tli -ir tir-- , rut < .n.^ht iron kit II ug miul to ?oul, Tlir lu im ? i tfrlgi-i t *pn a I. A I U Clfp iu OBI .IIIUITUI ?l|i>|i' Tin' l.? g am. the ilrail. Thi te 1 Totaling carve. ihat round u.t r Ant lib-. fniiiloonuul <o toil*, Catvli Im.l a grtrv friU m 'al li-a. A till lino III g! nlal rn'llaa , Atnl ?Lllt Vi iMfiini ufl* hi r brow, Kik-H wmiJ ?ilii Hu*ir) ?' tt'm. 11 im glwiu.ii mr apiiH'n pun.t glow? 11 ? r aiililml purgoev brwlhoi. IV I'l ill tin- Imm.ui ? Wrint hrine Immortal vl-i. ? ? alwp, l.ik gvnn that light the mi 11 en mine. t?r pi rrlli I hut utrt* llir ileop ; Hut li urlml to llf. by kln.lrid alt, The burning aoi-i tiU roll? ro. oiu? hihi mum n-**i ? man, Ami trnlloD* tin m til! After the ecmcc* in the church, the aanneiatinn, w ill gueate, rtpaircu to Harvard 11*11 a,id partook i of .lirncr. I'erc speeches were made hy several get,:Ituien:?Hy Judge Kent, by t'hief Justice Shaw and Itiuge NV tide, of the -upicma ('our' of 1 Mns*achuuits; bf Chief Justice l.dmouds, of Mew J York; by Chief Jnitice Ilcustis, of Lcnisjana; by Judge Fennel, of the Supreme f'ourt of Vcfmon*; by LieBeril ( erpenter, <>l Hhode I?im.h I ; by Professors I'aiker nud Persons. ami other*, ai.d nt a latt hour the assemblage broke up, much gratiiicd with tti proceeding* ol the day. MSWal'ArKR AC< ?! /ITU. fFmni the DimIhn Tr*rell r. Jnl? 16.) The Coiiimenctiiient at Ilaivard I 'nivardty w?i to-dey celebrated with the usual appropiiaic > errim * in '.he First Church, at Cniubritig <. Ilia I' xccliencj (iovrruor Houtwoll, and other member* > of ih* ritil government, were escorted to ' ie-iohtidgc from iloxton by the National laawri. the ctfti go arriving at the place of meeting, the eburch, some minutes b< fore ten o'clock. The plat form in the church was as usual occupied i by t'e (Unrnor and Council, and Senators of j Finecathoreltf, the Fatuity and officer* of the ( ollc^e, both in rivil, professional and ecclcsiastii al lift, ard Plosidcnt Spaiks, who piesidtd on the occasion. At tm o'clock tbe exercise* commenced with a i.atiii Oration, Salutatory, be VVm W. linndwin, of l'l)i*ooth, tno delivery of which *?< excellent, and from the countenance* of those on the platform I ud of the students, we infer that it tu very acceptable. The exercises differed but slightly from the order as published iu our paper yesterday ; and they were, as a whole, a well written series of efforts. A poem, the only one given, entitled "The Prospect," byF. K. Felton, of Cambridge, was read by the author iu excellent style, and not only attracted deep attention, but gained great applause. "The l.ast Gladiatorial .Show at Rome," an Hoglish Oration, by Theodore Tebbeu, of Rochester, N. 11., taking it as a whole was, perhaps, as good a thing as was brought out on the occasion. It was not only vividly descriptive, but calculated to enlist the feelings. The oration by K 11 llall, ol Providence, II.!., was full of plain-spoken, energetic tiuth. 'The fact that critioisui, by its severe handling, prevents a simple and truthful mode of wi iting, although it promotes urire perfect artificial ertaiions of mind, was elucidated vith truthfulness. The dissertation hy J D H obinson, of Newburyport, on "The Sepulchres of litruria," was a flue held for thought, and although this gentlemau allowed some of his sentences to etid iu too low a tone to be audible, yet the iuiprussiveness of his periods aud the style of delivery wore worthy the subject. 'J sking it fcr all in all, the reputation of old Har. vard was fully maintained, and her ability still to give the country men of talent fully proved. Honorary degrees were conferred as follows: ? 1 Mm.tor of Livinity?ltev. Alouzo Hill, of Worcentl'p: Hpv. John AiIaiih Alhri. nf (VmK?i Hot. ilufus l'hinoas btebbius, of Meadviile, 1'ouu.; Rev. Stephen lligginson Tyng, of Now Vork Doctor oj Iji w>.?George So wall Boutwell, Governor of ttie Commonwealth; John J. Critteiiiien, Attorney General of tin United States; Benjamin Fane nil I >unkin. Chancellor of South Carolina; Sylvanus Thayer, Colonel of Kngiuoera in the United Statin Army; Alexander Dallas Hue he, Superinteudtut of the United States Count Survey; Joseph lletry, director of the SuiithBonian Institution, Washington; John Aiuory Lowell, of Boston. Mister of Arts.?Rev. Nathaniel ilall, of Dor Chester; Ormfby Me Knight Mitchell, Director o the Astronomical Observatory, Cincinnati, Ohio ; Simeon Borden, of Fall River; William Raynion I LeC, of Koibury; Jonathan Kirnb ill, of Lowell; lames Hhoades, of Philadelphia; John Daniel Runale, of Cambridge. Our Dunkirk Correspondence. Di'nkikk, June 16, 1851. Present Position of Dunkirk, ami its Prospects? Drawlaik to its Prosperity?New York Specula t>/rs, tyc. An elderly lady, living at the Blast, lately remuiktd to u friend of mine, that she had never heard of Dunkirk until this spring, but now, she c uld not take up a newspaper but the first thing she saw, was Dunkirk. There are good reasons why this is so?substantial tames why this place should bo so frequently mentioned. Is it not the extreme western terminus of tbe longest, widest, best managed, and most romantic railroad on the face of the earth 1 Beyond it.for a thousand miles, stretch the blue waters of our inland seas, washing the shores of States, territories ai.d provinces, inhabited by millions of industrious produceis; having tri-duily communication with New Vcrlc, at an expense of only $.8 in cash, and eighteen hours in time ; with a harbor open several weeks earlier, and closing several weeks later than trial of Ku'Ulo: with a surrounding country, as yet, it. is true, but imperfectly improved, surpassed by but few vicinities in the world?with these advantages, natural and artificial, Dunkirk ought soon to become a targe commercial place. Languishing for years, until its name was forgotten, it has, of late, assuui.d an importance in tho public ore which will continue to increase until it will take rank amongst frontier oities, with Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukie aud Chicago, if?that convenient if?but of this if hereafter. A few months since Dunkirk presented a sorry sight. Tb" ruins of the breakwater, built years r.go, disfigured its beautiful harbor; a dilapidated wharf, ami empty. decaying warehouses, told the ail trie that enterprise had fled; and the uupainted and scattered dwellings gave evidence of the abience of tarte and the departure of the spirit of energy am! activity. Since that time, what changes have taken place! Old stores are being refitted, ai d new ones built, the wharf has been repaired, houses painted and beautified, five or six steamers per day visit its piers, the railroad trains bring and take scores of passengers daily, the farmers with their teams throng the sticets, and life and activity have, in a measure, succeeded to stagnation and repose Hundreds of shanties cover the outskirts of the town, and several dwellings are being built. The directors of the New York and Krie ifailroal Coiupary, by their skilful management, judicious liberality and Xapoleou-likc boldness, have contributed much to these results. Already have they built a depot exceeding in sir.o any in the Unite I S-tates, bate nearly finished a car house and inaehine shop coveting acres of ground, have almost completed a splendid pier, eighty feet wide by six bm dred feet in iengbth. and have commenced tw spacious warehouses on the wharf. The number of men in the employ ot the coinpany, in aud near th town, is about 2,500. The company have had to contend with rival interests which threatened their success. In order to complete their arrangement# for the conveyance of passengers to the West, they were, ot course, obliged to charter boats, either owned in, 01 running from, Buffalo. The natural jealousy of the Butlaloniuna, at this Drobable diversion of a large portion of their trade and travel, ii.fcrtcd also the owners and captains of these sti rmers, so that they freifuently failed to stop at 1'unkirk, according to the stipulations of their ?onI tract. This cenduct has oo'asioncd much incon, ni. nee n travellers, anil nnemteil to the >li<a.ilveii I tape and detriment, both ot the town and the coin! I'Mr.j. An instance, lor example:?On Saturday | night last, aix or raven gentlemen, bound for CleveI Una, Cincinnati, lie..arrived here by express tram, j expecting to proceed iuiuiediatcly for tbo Wert; I but the tegular (learner Iroin Butlalo had not ar| mid, nnd these j-. rtier were compelled torrmain Leie uutil last night at twelve, when a steamer, which had been expressly sent for. tooktheinon their journey. It ir no fault of the management, or of their active and gentlemanly agent here, that those detention* ana disappointments occur. Mr. Coder, the indefatigable president of the roe I, an* here lart week, completing arrangement* for lie season. Herri.fter, tlnee regular ftnea of Bret clasasteamer will leave here direct lor Cleveland, ^undu.-ky and Hetroit. Thiy w ill pro teed to Buffalo, hut stait from ai.J arrive at Dunkirk. Most ot tbc lake boats rtop bore on their way up and down. There is also a daily line between here and Huflalo; and I hear it ia in ronteuiplation to put a fas' sto?uiT on the lino from bore to the Canada shore oj poritc. Tiic Ihitlalo and l>ur, kirk Kailroad is graded nearly the whole distance; and the I tunkirk and State hue load has commenced operation* westward. Yet, notwitiistuia ng all tbat ua* been done, and i* doing, stranger* and residents alike, are much disappointed at the ap|>earanca of the place. And there is good reason tor this, llunkirk should, at this date, hate been twice it* present size. It should have doubled its population, inert used its trade twenty fold, and greatly have iinp roved it*, si d added to its hotel accwinin tin or.* within twelve months past. And it would have done so but for one important cause. TLfe is but vise weighty obstacle in the puvth of its pi ogres- to rank and wealth, and if this is not removed, it will forever remain a mere gateway, tbiough wh'rh but n portion and th.vt a small one i nly, of the immense and ir creasing trade and | travel of the mighty Wist wiil p>a.?*. Keuiovo it, Initl it." tue< ess is ipetdy and oertuiu M.sst of the lai ' is ir the bunds ot ,\? w Yoik speculators, who I n'/' ' at iv !/ . . far I.eViiml ila t-u In.. Tli..w < n .. b '.rut i'm>) le luii-t mid will come Id re, and tint thoy run (irtMin ? *? cva/ant rat** for lh?ir proprrijr. lul ll.rj nrr driving the boor and liuow of tbe |jt 1 d nr. I ki.ow of dozen* who h?H virited In-it with the itttekiinn of milling?builder*, toe hmiiti, nrrrhatti, fcr , m?ii of moderate mean*, but lull ~jt itidutrv, intelligence and cuterpi i*e, the vi ry nu n t > liu Id up a Town like thin, but lhe/ Imc rctua'lv l>< en mil rn twi; by the exorbitant price* demanded lor lot*. What think /oil of $1110 ) ?r toot fur lota on < orlre and Front ?<rci?t?, near the lake, and trim ? ! *> to f "i 11 hi in/ naked for water front* ofSOfeet, ft**1 and |!OI for n building spot a qnerter ot a mile, at lca*t, from the binding' I* | nti a c j*rr*e a* thie calculated to induce men tv aetflr t It i? alike injurinu* to all |>artief. The ir Labiiaiu* are much ala.inrd at the ooiirae of the New \ ork prof*rty owner*. The/fear that the gmwth und pro-petty of Itankiik will be ?criou*l/ retarded if ih'? *?ate of thing* continnc* Anil the ir fear* will certain)/ be realised, for the hietory of th'world i* pie,~nant with Ike lac? that non-re*idrr.t landholder* are n curre to any ]<co|ile They bate no immediate ' mpathy with the inhabitant* ? no diitct u,urc*t ai *take. They buy for *peoulat"Oi'* rake aline. Ai.d yet bow blind! My the rouietlhey ate purruii g. the/ will ***urod1y block their own game mine rapitalift iutert a lew tbnneard dollar* in erecting a bioek of taatrl'ul and t uniod.ou* war hou*e*; another put up a row or twoofneat andeniVi rient cottage. ; another jell a f 'rtloii of Id* block ol fifty lot*, on condition that it ' rhHll be butit upon within n .'perilled tiuie ; another a-ri*t nn iiilu-triou; merchant of artixan in comuietit iiig irj*ine**; mid in a *hort time thi* far-otf ; to en wiuld be the wonder ot the Mate, and a cooroe <d iicii i o f pr< lit to the intererti d |>artie*. Then would land hnldc* rea'ire infinitely more than thev fa iribl/ can under prc*riit circum*tiince* Dunkirk wi" inm-iive, but it* enlargement will be *bjw until the capital, liberality, aid c?< rtion* of it* laud owt cr* ate I ronght 'nto active operation I *inofiel} bo|ie thai, the/ will give tni* matter their : rmrul attention, aid -ati*fy ih'tn*elvoi of the , tinih* 1 have liece relaicd, if f ?r no other reamn than thet tbeii |??k.U art dot ply interested iu the 1

ti*ult I Interesting front Tela*. I 01 R CORPUS CHKirri CORKISPONURtCR. I Corpus Christi, Tkkas. ) , May 30, 1851. $ J The Cuban Invasion?letter from the " Ex-Officer ^ of the United States At my who wears a IVhite Hut." h I have te-day seen your paper of the 2d May 81 last, in which is a letter from " Orpheus," dated the {[ I 4423d April, 1851, N. O." J hia writer states, in relu- w I ticii to tin *' Cuban invasion," supposed to be then 'e organizing?that the demonstrations Cast, were to ; conceal a grand movement which had been lately |M going ou, and concentrating, at dome point b? ( i u ecu (.'or pit J Chri.-ti and Hruzos island; that, J,1 1 lately, Gencial l.opez left for Tex ad; after- n waidr, a certain Texad t*tato Senator, deeply I, interested in the city of Kio Grande, up- *' peared suddenly in this city, and departed -j' again as speedily; and that an 44 ex-officer of the gi I'm ted Siatee aruiy, who is celebrated for his ec- 111 ceutricities and wearing a white hat, left here, souie weeks ago in u schooner heavily laden, it was said, for Coipus Chris ti or l'adre Island. It ie not to be denied that considerable ewigi&tion bus lately been settirginthat direction, and Padre Island, from it8 tb situation, would make a good point of rendesvous." th 1 have reason to believe that I am the 44 ex-offi- P* in cer ieferred to in that communication; but the m imputation cast upon me, by "Orpheus," is undo- ar served, and has no foundation in fact. I am an ^ " Ex-Officer of the United States Army;" am are- ^ sidentof Corpus Christi; was in New Orleans in (k March, up to the !'th ; I "wear a white hit," and se " < 'rphc-us " would have completed my pedigree, j pr had he aUded, 41 1 am of the second families of Vrir- se. giuia " Hut it is not true that I ever left New wi (>rleans " in a schooner heavily laden, for orpui gr Christi or I'adre Island." It is not true that 1 am re; now, or ever was, attached to any "Cuba invasion vi partypr Hut, while 1 deny any participation in these Cuba co invasions, permit me to say, my sympathies have rij always been with the Cubauuuis, as they are with in all people who (in my opinion) live uader M governments less calculated to benefit inatikiud than of our own united republic. Hut, as our lain inted do General 'l'aylor once remarked t > the Missouri of volunteers iu Florida. when he was told "they were tra gentlemen at home," replied, " With that I have Tt nothing to do." 1 only wish to correct any false An impressions rolating to me; General l,opcz ami the vet >cnutor ot Texas can answer for themselves, loon- iof fess 1 would like to have Cuba; 1 like the clim ite, the soil, and the location; and us your paper has the mi most extensive circulation probably in the world, doi do me the favor toannounce, for the benefit of those its who own it, that if they will lake a reasonable price tre for it, 1 will purchase it. 1 do not desire it fur uiy pri own private use or speculation, but will turn mc it over to the United States at cost If the United lit States have no use for it now, it will sh irtly want mi an asylum for broken down politicians; and from in| present appearance, tbat class of our community is jui on the increase to such an extent, they will soon fai require "government patronage " an The foundation of tniB aspersion again*', me by tin " Orpheus," I think originated from the following mi facts:?When in New Orleans, in February last. Mi seme of my friends did mo the honor to ask my wl ! opinion of the best mode of carrying on this ve | invasion of Cuba. 1 replied to them, " Were 1 dii determined to embark on a piratical expedition, tri 1 would do it up in a workmanlike stylo ac That were my object Cuba, 1 would make my ca first field of oporatiou* the Rio Grande country, pu east and north of the Sierra Madrc moun- su, tains, for which purpose the forces should be col- I gr looted on or near I'adre island, as there ore no gu government troojis there to interfere with my ar- 1 wt ruugcuici.ts. The Mexican valley of the Kio i : Grande is bound to Mexico by weak ties. They 1 wt are anxious to throw off the yoke of the home go- 1 ho ; veruuiout; and there are only two 'passes' tri I through the mountains by which an army can lei I reach the valley?a pass uear Monterey and one near Victoria, and five bundled men can bold these ha against all Mexico. As toon as the civil govern- set mi nt was in competent hands, 1 would select from Br the military a competent force, aud sail for Cuba. th This woulu give uie disciplined troops for Cuba, of which 1 consider indispensable for success there, wl ai d the want of which caused the defeat of General an Lopez's command." This I said would be my plan, flu it fwas disgust*d with the slow growth of republi- is i ean principles and desired to set up for myself. Hut | lai 1 am opposed to the acquisition of Cubit, except by j trt purchase. Any other course would be in violation, t by of national honor, and feed a vicious taste of inauy j pl< of our people, which, at this tuue, re<purea to b?s sb checked. In juatico to the gentlemen engaged in Hi this matter, 1 will nay, they believe the) ute iw- i an tuatcd by tho purest priueiplea of patriotlain. | in They are tried inen in the couusols of the nation tri and iu the held: and it ia uot potaible for use to Sj conceive they could risk life, fortune, and rcputa- te tion on any other principle*. Hut for me, it would, tb at least, be ungrateful to attempt to involve my bi country?by auy act of mine?iu an unjust war a:< with a foreign power, as 1 have been educated at w< the ez|>en?e of this Union, receiving my curly lea- i es sons ut West Point, near the once residence of "the < lei Father of bis Country1 was taught to raspeet the es constitution and laws of our country, and from the ! tb pulpit of our own little chapel there was preached ' ba icapect for the President of the United States, and M all regularly constituted authorities, oreated by tho sovereign people of Ibis Union. tb As you published the letter of " Orpheus," wtil jo you give a plitoe in your columns to this refutation, A in justice to fr< An Kx*OrricsR or the U. S. Army, and X Wiio w ear* a White Hat. v? Wl TEltRIRI.E OA1.K ON THE COAST?I.ONS Of TIIK eg STI.AMMIir .VAU1A III KT? QHEAT Loss or PRO- \\ Mil. tl, IKrtmthe New Orleans Picayune. July 9.] t|, Ky the arrival last evening, of the steamship r? l'auiptro, we have received papers from Oalveston to the -tth Hist. Hy this arrival we hate the uu- {, iiliusant inelligvnc id the I >ss of the steamship 1 31 Alar iu Hurt, which has for some tiiui been missing 'Ihis vessel left t iitlveston on the 21th ult. That i iglit a heavy gale I blowing, and the ,,| lit at day, about 10 A. M., the steamer out hick for Nibine Pass The leak continued, and the bands H mutinied and utused to work at the pumps, but rt wi re finally induced to work a little by the oiler of tin 1J1 llara I it hour by < .?|>t huiurson fSbe reach- | w'j cd J-11 bit* I'am at .r? 1'. M on the 2'irii, wneie sue In; till Hriday, tin* '-7th. when tlio captain, thinking | Lai the jtalv ba<l mOaided, Mailed again I'or N> w j (irltunaal two IV M I'he gale increased, a nl ho Wl again put back about twelve o'clock on >uiurday Ul li ght, and uiai e the Pass, striking on tbe bar in | about lour tei-t water about eight A. M. on >un- |ia d?y. 1 he M?ain>r kept on full sail, and w.ta forced ? | over into deeper water, when she continued linking. I t j. On Sunday, at fi I' M., Dr. t'utho, who left t >alios toti an a panaerger <>n the Maria Kurt, went ou ' p eh ore by the aid of a boat he had sent for Several H, ot the bands bad previously deserted tho vessel It ., ia the opinion ot Dr C. that the Maria Kurt in irrecoti rably tort, with all the eat .le ou boar i? ( about IU) head full grown and |5W ralrea. The r( Maria Hurt, wc itarn, waa not insured Value, |? about |lttM0 p, 1 he t>alvestoa A'iw? learai thai the mutinous ,j, conduct of her bands, the carpenter being the piin- ?, pal instigator of the mutiny, jeopaideu tho lives I p ot all on boaid i), ( apt. I.merson. of the Maria Hurt, had arrived ?( at lialvtsloii; ami a portion of the passe rige is aud |I( crew came up to thin city on the Paiaperu ,,t, '1 he same gale which wrecked the Maria Hurt j,,, taged With gnat along the wuole onto ut p Inn* '1 tie Ma'ngoida '/Vthw*t< of the :li'in ult ?|, says that Imlianola, rbiluna nod Port Cavallo suifer- t,( eu rcnsideiably At the former place etery wharl tltl whs carried away, and a number of ho iw? er?r? ii.| eitbor levelled to the caitb or blown from ttleti fuuu- ,,,, daboM. At .^aluria eotiatderable damage was done. Port Cat alio, however, escaped with lea* injury. The loss and injury sustained am > ig |f1 the shipping on the bay ha? been very great Tue (, j steamship Mexico waa driven ashore, oppn?ue or fp,, near Powder Horn Hsyou, and wa> lying ou tne tlaU fM in that vicinity '1 he depot or Ireignl learner roi Portland abated the autue late, togctner with .hi- ibi veral other smaller erali The aieauier William vf Ptt.u waa drtvin a-hore froa. her ancnu.age noar (,n "aluria, anil will probably be a total loss p, A letter reeeiveU by M'-aar? INwwell, Hill Ji ' ' , H ol ( alviatoti, from t aprain Talbot, dated uii I uia ,bi day, th-2inbult , siaiea thai tbe freight ot the Meklco bad been discharged before tbe heavy blow rame on The Mexico was then dropped astern id U?.l i i v .1. _. ..I I" .-U.K. ... .0.1 will nnvii'TB vnrii.n u<i. rat <? j o cluck, 1'. M , on Wediiemtay, (he Z'ltto ult , toe gale ibciraetd to great Twltiwc, and gew more 001 violent til] belt pad II, wh?n the I'ortluud broke adult mid went aahoia The Memcn bail riven get ati urn up, and waa working lull atroke with twenty it.< he* nt ateiiin, ai d two aiichom nut wuti *i*iy fathom* ot <'bnin, but all could tint twttl the via- 1W leti -e el the atorni About I o'clock the Mo moo e*1 bn kc her anchorage, ai d wan driven on .t hard hot- II, It tn with aix leet wuter. we ( ifUiti ha-boer aaya he tiecer before w* *o high hi. a tide in that hay. All of Captain Talbot'* hand* lot wen at wotk getting out coal, and every exertion ol war being made te get her off; but the Citptain nan ait very little h?|><a of *uaei?s until he can h ive the gl< aaiatar ce olthe Lnuiaiana Capt. Talbot add*? wf Captain Berhnar'e lighter it aahnrt; the William 'hi l'enti it atotal wrick; all the wharvea a', lndiaoola a I are gone, and ahum- few houvee proat rated The .1. gn fc'anth, although auiik ileek* under water, waadrivan di-l three quarter* of a mile, and ii pretty much all th? to till era 1 'I be /.owe Star apeak?In cere fa inrahle term * ot dir tic riccnt exerciars of thr atudenU at tka Baylor nJ? ,'aiveraitjr, in both the utile and female depat nenta. The large furniture ship and turning maehii lelonging to Mr. Hubby, of the town of ?*. ?, M -cnnau county, watt entirely destroyed by lire t be 11th ult. The cotton on board the steamer Billow, froi louston. took flro on Wednesday night, tho 21 ii 'ant, in Galveston bay, but the (lames were extii uished with but little ilainage. In tho aliru owever, a young man, a German, of lioustor ho had been sleeping upon the ootton, waked uj aped overboard, and wis lost. There were exported from Galveston during th ontb of June, oy Messrs. Hitchcock At Go , 21* ;el cattle and l.'Jtai calves. The /Vwhitgh-n Star has coiuo out iu support o siitiiin Lewis tor ('ow^ress-, and the opposition t< ul. I toward appears to be concentrating upontb aptaiu. The CiuUmn says that General Mc eod's orospei-ts npprar to be waning, uud lie ii lid to nave stwtained considerable damage from is collision with Gol Howard, at Huntsville, on the Ith nil Mr Potter it also in the tield for Conrets iu the Western district. Captain Lewis had adc a speech at Galveston. n?ltwr?hwkii tepee. \ lOLlENT l'KUV. ELDING* OF T1!E MEXICAN GOVERN MKNT. [From the New OrUmu* DelU, July ft J Gut city was somewhat excited, yesterday, by iu news trom Mexico, relative to tbe measures of ie Mexican Internment, to eject tho surveying irty of the Tchnautepee Company from tbe tsthus, uud the prompt, spirited, and decided moveent of the company here, to repel such violent id unjust proceedings. Tbe late Congro-n oi exico, under the influence of tho intriguer of the uropean ministers, and of the agents of rival forests, who have been at work at tho capital ol lis weak and crumbling republic, and in the abnee ot any representative of the I'nited States to otect tbe rights of our citiscus against the counI and opinion of tbe Mexican Executive and tbeii sest ministers, annulled a solemn and lawful ant, which they made some years ago, and buvu heatedly since confirmed, allowiuir to an iiual the right of way, with certain important ivilegcs, across the moat practicable route for a minunication between the two oceans. The fhts conferred by that contract have continued force ever since; and it is not, according to the exican constitution, nor agreeable 11 the usages civilized iiitioos, in the power of the legislative partnent to deprive those who possess this grunt the sauie, and forfeit, on a single caprice or arbi,ry impulse, all the udvantages secured by it le rights under that coutract have passed to aerican citizens, whom it is the duty of our gon incut to protect against tne wrong and injustice licted by foreign governments. I'he treaty making department of our gorornnt has fully investigated the subject, and cursed the validity of this claim ; it has pledged elf to maintain and enforce those rights. The aty which was approved by our government, liad ivioutly received the sanction of the ablest and >st experienced statesmen in Mexico. There is tie doubt that, but for the gross neglect or ressneas of the executive in Washington, in allow{ our Minister to be absent at this important icture, this treaty would have been placed iu a .orable train in that couutry, and, by a judicious d vigorous policy, would eventually have secured e approval of that government. But, for six >nlhs, we have been without a representative in exico. At this momentous peri id in her history, leu this unhappy republic appears to be in the ly crisis of its fate?tottering on the brink of ^solution?offering itself a prey to foreign ingut) ; when the principal nations of Europe are tively engaged in opposing, iu every way they n, the extcusion of American influence?our reblic is without a minister at that court. The reit was to be expected This consequence of the oss neglect of our government, adds to the oblition of our executive to prote -t the interests lich have thus been endangered. It is quite evident that Mexico, in this matter, is controlled by foreign intiueuccs, and by the pe of supplying the deplorable deficiency of her laeury, by another sale of the rights and privires conveyed to tiaray. t he opposition of European nations to this grant .* been made quite palpable. The principle, so Juiously and perseveringly pursued by cireat itain, a few degrees below, of interference again.' t is lepublic, in tbc affairs of the Southern Status thiscontinent, applies withe jua! fore* to Mexico, lose helpless condition invites so strongly the tud il protection of the United States That this ineuce has been exerted in this Tehuantepes atfair, well known. The despa'ch of I'ay no to Ungid, shortly af'.er the rejection of the Tehiiantspes aty, with authority to negotiate a loan on the poihecaliwu, or transfer of the privileges of ooin. ting the e >inuiunn-utmn across the Isthmus, ows that an attempt will he made to array the itisb g ivernment against our o ?n. in a manner uilar to that which produced the Clayton treaty, inference to Nicamgua. Chut field luay thus insfor bis labors and intrigues further North, pain, loo, ho ka with great jealousy upon any atuipt of the United Stales to eoloiiixe the Isthmus, in no doubt, that sueh arrangement will iug ?>ur people into a inure favorable position for ding the Cunana against their oppressor* Thus e have lately seen old Spain breaking through her tablished policy, and at this late day arknowJging the inde|K'iideiice of Nieuraguu, which was tablished more than thirty years ago. So, too, e organs ot thnt power, pulilishcditi this country, ive not hesitated to warn the goreriiiueit of txico, and to excite the passions of the people ;aiii*t the movement of our citizens to construct e important work* on the Isthmus A Mexican urnal now lying before us, the otgan of the antimoriean paity, (the I wtrtr.uU.) copies an article >in Iju i n Mini, the !*pani?h paper published in cw York, urging the Mexicans to drive our wurying part) troui '.he Isthmus Similar oounsol as (fivrn by /-a /'m at, a pousioucd press of the irrupt dynasty ol t uba, published iu this city, e noticed these traitorous recojnnendalion* at le time, and predicted that they would product ieir eflcet among the ignorant and prejudiced icea of Mexico. Siifh liuvs* i/nin# ??f thu <>n.\n.>iia z?f l.-ar, g our nqublie without a representative in .Moxio< : thi* important juncture It behoove* tin- governcut to repair the cjiiecquenoe* of thineglect by rouipt ulid energetic iucu?uroa. Mr. We baler edged the l.xicutivo to *u*fain our citizen* in the om cut ion ot their right* utnl r' .h-u> '* grunt. It u* under nuch guaranty t hut the company incurd ?ii cx|ien*e ol ut IrHat * Inn.iit*!, ami emu nciiced irrutioii*, in the pro#*eu ion mid coujpletlou of !ii< h, the whole civilized world i* Jooply liiterc'ted would he a great wiong if the company *hould be infilled to loae till it* targe outlay no account of e jcalnupy and bad faith ol the Mexican*, and the int of diligence and promptitude in our goverui lit We truat that th< rt will be node or he*ilion in our Kxecutire, in ending an adequate ival force to pmlect the large body of laborer*, hub will bv immediately d,-patched to the line ol ie nrono'id railroad 1 uc Mv xivan government ha* ordered a force ol K) roldirr* to the Hue to execute their wrongful d inhiapitable order of ejecting tbe aeirauflc vrtjoatbe lethiuli*; they have al-o directed that rtifii ation* ball be erected at the mouth of the uslaacoalco* |.y ailverticeuient in another dtimn, it will lie *eeti that tbe company have not ten fngbtc lad by thv*e beilicoee proceeding#, they vt ndvirt.M'd for -WO laborer*, and for twoamall altatcumi r* They will proceed with their w?rk, >u If interrupteJ, will cull upon our gove ntaent to oteit tin in Then will be no dilftculty in rai*ing e men required; they will, we d- ubt not, be quite vie to take care of them-elvc* Be ole.?, th'-y will we the *J inpai ay and g?*'d feeling of all the people i tbe inliuun whe have no auachiuent for a vein nit nt bieb, without extending to them any tectlon, interfile* only to prevent the progrcM d cultivation of their highly endowed, hut much pleetid, country. The native# of the Utbuiu* have ilntmly*t< d a kindly and ho*pitab e leult toward*the vurveying party, and dirplay a great i?re?t iu the pt<i*v utiou of the road I hey Will, doubt, aid fbc ctvuipany in any eoutli rt with tbe ntral government We tru#t that tho large inrewtr at *uke will not he ?aciificed hy a want of Uitio* on the pait of the company, or neglect of p government If we yield nnw. we *hall, in a iv month*, *er tbe advantage* ofcon*tructing and Dtroil'ig ihi* great wmb pa*t into tbv baud* of I'r ii-!i V ^ it.i lie gr it | voli-v owioaition to the vxten*ion of l.uro|ieati influence thi# continent, a* mint *oriou*ly involved in tbi* mi*ntepec nrgoliation, and therefore it become* matter of iirtneii*e national iiu|>ortaiice. We II return to the *ubject again. trrtMilitft tram the ?ril?aii Bawnrtaryr (nmmlMlnn. \ Proridence, (K. I.) paper of the 14th init itains the following correspondence: ? ll* ('AMP UN Tll? Klri ttBANDK, ) Near l>ona Ana, New Mexico, > Let J? ?? 22. April 2A, K?l > The Commissioner and suite lift Kl I'md m (hi Ih last. for thia l-laec, which we reached on the thing of the 20th bl Paso, a* we were liavinj| wore a more attractire appears nee than ever; it uM indeed he diffiralt to imagine more sudden d beautiful change* than hare passed over the dssspc within n few week*. 1 net remind one the grsduol blending of scenes which are pretltd T>j the "disiolrirg view*" The warm wing tint of the peach tree gave place to the lite of the apple and pear, and for several lays r vailey from a distance looked aa if dueled with ighf en >w this bus bven succeeded by the rioh ii of ilie fiuit trees, which, contrasted wuh the licate fresh folisgc of the cotton woods, gira to place a glory of rrrdure which 1 hars never n ei|Ualli d (>nr road after tearing Kl I'aao it ectly up the I'io tJrande, and tor the most part ng is button. Light nilcs above Vk? totru ti t- Frontera, or Whito*i ranche. where the agronomical observatory i* established, and a portion ae of the aatroDomical oorpe stationed. Leaving c- Frontera, with the exoeptum of two hoosei, them in is no settlement for forty miles- The land of the bottom is in many places of fine quality, and will a doubtless be under cultivation as soon as it is fait i. to be secure from Indian depredations. i. Las t ruces is a settlement of a population of i, about SIX), and is six miles below Dona Ana?tho it chief business of the people is agriculture, f1"* that i, confined chiefly to the raising of Indian eoffe. Thn great consumption of this product at the Military a posts along the frontier has induced many, hot! [j Americans and Mexicans, to engage In its culture. .So singblarly improvident are the Mexioans, tW. | f am informed by u dealer that he is now selling i there corn for planting, taking their obliga> thin to return six fanegns in the lall for each ona furnished now: and that this very corn which he if , nnw furnishing them was received in payment for i similar debt last year- The aspect of Dona Ana i has nothing about it to pdcase a stranger; the barracks and the principal building? are upon a slight I elevation, and though great improvements hava been made the place is very dusty and dirty Major Shepaid, lid infantry, is commandant of tho post, the military force of which consist:* of one company of infautry and one company of 1st regiment of dragoons, commanded by Cuptaiu Buford < btr camp is about three milei fiom town, and wtlhiu m short distance of the river. Yesterday, at 12 o'clock, the deteruehiattooef tba initial point of the boundary line by the astrnvsia'WW <>f both nations was ratified. About 12 o'clock ? large party assembled to witness the oereun-siy. The whole Mexioan Commission was prvseui, and as many of our own as were not upon duty at other points. The splendid corps of dragoons, commanded by their gallant captain, escorted the American [ ( omiiiissinu to tho spot, and people from I'll Faso, Ornas, Meshla, and Dona Ana, were prosent on tho > occasion. The spot where the monument is to bo erected i- a high blutl near th? west bank of tho * river, and commands a most charming view. Just here the river makes a bend, audexposes as > broad beautiful valley, through which the river iw seen islisteiiiiio?tnwnrila ?h.. ....... *u.. .a? :. -i . o O * v I?V V tuo V1C1T 19 by tho jagged and stern peaks of tlio Sierra, da low , Organos. The documents ratifying the decision of the astronomers being signed, Mr. Hartlett addressed the Uf.-t'liibhige : ? Gentlemen:?The event wo are about to ?elebrato is one whieb, though apparently of little in y rneut, is of deep and peculiar interest. It is una which may fill an important place in aur country'* history for ages to come. The boundaries of a great nation are intended to be permanent, and are defined aud marked for that purpose, though subsequent events may cuuse an alteration of the in Tha limits or boundaries of kingdoms, empires, and republics which flourished in ages past, though tho respective nations they were designed to separata have passed away, still have their places in tha world's history, and prove important landmark* to the historian. They guide us in tracing the extent of nations. They exhibit the greater or less power exerted by them. They show us tho extent of their migrations, thuir conquests, their union with adjoining tjtates. Again, these boundaries designate to future generations the geographical position of a nation under the several forms of government under which it may have existed, in tha various phases of its rise, its prosperity and its decline. They show us what a nat on has accomplished as an empire, as a kingdom, and as a republic. The boundariei of a country are important lines in other res|>ccts. They often mark the progress aud limit of a branch of the great human family 011 tho earth's surface, independent of its civil position. Language, manners, and customs, science, the arts, religion, end even civilization itself, are characterized by the boundaries of a country. This may be the case, notwiiLstaudiug the boundary referred to is constituted by an arbitrary or tnero imaginary line. Natural boundaries tend in a much greater degree to per|>eluate the characteristics of a nation; in fact, it may with truth be sa d that they invariably preserve thcin. The point we aro about to cstahlish aud mark as an important ouo to the United States, and the determining of it is not less so to Mexico. The commissioners who signed the treaty of peace between the two republics, stipulated that the boundary line between them, west of the Kio Grande or Hravo del Norte, should run from the point where the said river strikes tha | southern boundary of New Mexico, according to a i certain map which the commissioners had before them. It was agreed by the commissioners who have now i met here together, that the point referred to is ia latitude tt'2 North. To ascertain this ou tha earwi ? suriace, was n manor 01 great laDor, and only to be determined by the astronomers of tba I two commissions These gentlemen, St'nor ."VilaI gtta on the part of Mexico, and Lieut. A. W. Whipple on the part of the United State r, with their respective assistants, have made a large number at observations independent of oarh other, in order Us km ertum the true location of the pjiut in ijuee:ioa; and hare mutually agreed and determined it to ba at the spot whereon we now slaud. The eouiiuiasiopcr* and surveyors of the two renub lies being ratified with the results arrived at by the chiet astronomers, do therefore ratify their decision; and in eouforuiity theiewiih, do now establish this aa the iuitial point of '.hat portion of the boundary hrtweeutbe I nited States and the republic ot Mexico. which, at 32 22 north latitude. La to run thicv degrees westwardly along the whole southern boundary of New .Men jo. Aa a future evidence oft ha decision* made and agrccmeota entered into by the authorities repioaeutiug and acting in behalt of the two republica, they now deposit in tho ground, at the apot whereon the initial point utoouinent ia to be erected, a glass Vessel, oolitainiug a opy in Spanish aud Knglisb, of the following document, duty aigned, scaled and witnessed The lolloaiiigwas then rand in the two languagoa by the Secrrtariea:? Be it renumbered, that on the twenty fourth day of Apriti in the year of our Lord one thousand eight i hunUrcd and titty one, the Coiu.ui.viiouoib and .vurleyors, on behalf o( the United States and Mexico, named to run the boundary line between tho two i { republica, in conformity with the treaty of peace, I ; dated at the city ol i>audaiupe Hidalgo, on the second ol I'ebruaty, IMS. and exchanged at Lguere S taio, ou the thirteenth day of .May, of the saano i 1 year, being fully satisfied with the operations made, and the results obtained by the astronomer* ot thw two commissioner*, do establish this point on lha light bank of the rnor Liraio or tirando del Norte in (32 dvg 22 mm ) thirty two degree* twenty-two minutes north latitude, which, In ao uoruance nun inr provisions 01 I no ll I ill ilfli ! > of mid treaty, iii "tbe oniiit where it (tiio said ri ear Biavo, or (irandc del Norte,) striker the routh rn boundary of New Mexico. He it likewise reoieinhered, that the distance from Ibis pciiil to the centre of the bed, where now ictehII\ rune the riier, in the direclit n of the rauie parallel, is (till'tn I.) two hundred and niuctec* metre* and four tenth*, following tbc line eaatfrom raid point. , Koi the greater solemnity of thi* act, appear a* f wilnerren ou tin jaitof the I uited Stater, Brcvt. Captain Abraham Huford, of the I mt I'rrgonnr, f commanding Company II , (pre rent on the oooaI rion,) and t ol. Charier A 11 >ppin, aid-do-oawp to bic l.xcellctiey, .Inn er Calhoun, Governor of tho lertitory of New Mexico; and on the part of Mexico, M. B Juun, Jo*e Marches, Political Cb ef of tbe 1 anton of Bravor. in Ibe Mate of Chihuahua, ar liirt authority of that place. Written iu duplicate in linglish and Spanrh, and rigned and sealed al the point established, on the day ol the month and year aioreraid. (Signed) I'anao Gamma Cuaua, Coinr. Ji>mh R. Bxirtrrr, Un'r. Jo<n Sai.i'ois, Astronomer. A A. WMirei.n, Snrv'r and Artr'r. In prerence of Tbor H Webb, Secretary; traneirco Jiminer, Strio. Juan Jure ">auchi i, A. Buford, Breteiit Captain i'irst liragoonr. Charier A top pin. aid^ie-i-nmp to hi* l.xcelltacy the Ciovernor of tbe territory ol New Mexico. The bottle containing the documeuts and a list of tbe comiair*ion* war then buried, and tho ceremony cloreil hy the tiring of a national re lute by a party of soldiers Ita toneU in t he's alley, under command of Lieut V rtannoii In tbe evening, a hall war given by I aptain buford in honor ol the occasion. which war attended by tins tueuiWis of both c< ninn??toi ? 1 luring tbe evening a splendid supper wan give* , 'J be nfliccrs of lb is post baw eihibued tb? n*ii generous hospitality toward the I oiuioissioner ami | In* party, ano hare done everything in their power to add to tbeir comfort md la -ilitate tbrir progress. from thi* point the line i?tu be run wo<lwar<l { under the direction of l.ieut. Whipple, a difficult and arduou* task The |>orlion of oustryover which tbe line will run in barren and forbidding beyond description. Not onlj wil.' it be di(Bcult to rupply tbe party on tbe line wu-1 the mean* of sobsistenre. but even their water will have to be transported, it maybe, for Hi) or milea. Taw government and )?eople at liotne ran have no idea of tbe difiieulty and expense attending everym<>vom< nt of the survey?the tumano necessaries of life are hardly to be procurtd -'ven by paying tha exorbitant price* I have glvssi in a previous letter. { '1 o morrow. a portion of tbe Com nission loave for ^nta llita da Ljbre, froai which point the partiee destined for tha t itla tab- their departure. Atntiiam at tf? Wori.d'* Fair ?A letter from London, in tb? Boston Travrtlft , says there is a register kept in ibo (Mass l'alace, in which all of our country men who vieit tbe Kxhlbitioo are requested to inscribe their names. The Hon Ab'.iotfc Lawrenre's name heads the list. By this register there appears to have been fifteen hundred Americans, up to tbe 2*th of June, to visit the Fair. Dwsweetie Miscellany. Archibald Hsyes hss h?en arrested at Boston, ob sus pit-tot) of having murdered his wife Tbe friends of the Isle Hon. John C. Calhoun but prewnt" d his widow wttb a<b?*.-k lot 939^99.

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