Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 24, 1855, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 24, 1855 Page 2
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RAILROADS OF N r W YORK. WttKSTING REPORT Drr THE STATE ENGINEER. 4 8t at? EKunn A?t> flunvrroR's Omcm, ) Albany, Jan. '43, 1844. J Within ? few years put the railway i ale rent lui be Hmn on* of the moy t important in thi* country, not ??* on account of the large pecuniary investment* which have been made therein, bat also oa laoount of the effect which its developeinunt has had in increasing the value and changing the relatione of property, trade, owmm, an 1 in modifying the Modal condition* of our people. H>eM varied intereata and the new olrcanitanceK which have been called into existence by the va it and m#id expanaion of the railway system, have required additional legal enactments, from time to time; but the mm supervision aud restraints of law which are con ?d?r*4 necessary to guard and protect other public in toccata, have not been imposed upon this one to an ex test ooeamen.4 urate with its increasing importance. Almost the entire passenger travel of1 the country and the mail service are now performed by railroads, while at the same time the advantages which they afford for the conveyance of some classes of freight, exclusively, and of others in part, have rendered them one of the last important element* lu our eooial progress, and have made it still more important to secure in their oon straciien and management all of the advantages to which the public are entitled by the surrender of a por tcn of their primary righte. The railroad corporation*, in which there is a larger Investment than in the banks, over which the law exer iii>es supervision, are permitted to control au immense amount of capital and interests of the greatest inagni. tode, with no other check than i* afforded by an annual statement of thiir affairs, notoriously incorrect, and in many cases made so systematically, for the purpose of concealing froui the stockhoiunrs aixl the public vula ttoos of law and waut of ti ielity to their trusts. The present appears to be the most titling lira* to in vestigate tl.e errors of the past, and to suggest remedies against their recurrence, for in the geueral depreciation of thi* interest, and in the doubt which now exists in man} mind* .n regard to their success, admonitions and suggestions will be considered wnich would have been wholly disregarded in more prosperous times. The existing laws have devolved upon no other depart ment of the government, except this one, any duty :on ?ected with our railroads, an1, therefore, 1 may Iks par Coned for extending my remarks and investi gbtioui to the subjects which do not strictly belong to my profes sion. One of thn best guaranties for tho faithful performauco ?f dnty that cun t>e given to the public au I tin st ick holder* by railiou t managers, is to render, at frequent intervals, lull and accurate statements of the results of the operations of the works, aud of the manner iu which th?n?e officers have discharged their trusts. It ia not (iiilicult to demonstrate thai the publication ?f such ample statements, in tbe long run, does not ia jore the interests o; any corporation, an 1 that it is the ?avst certain security against malversation in the admi nistration of its affairs. Under tho Oueral Kailroad act of 1850, oach of tbeje corporations is required to muse an annual report toths State Engineer and Surveyor in the foriu prescribed, showing its iin.incial condition and cut, its length, and other characteristics; the business done during tho year, and the expenso thtreo ; a statement of the receipts aud payments, aud a list of the accidents which have oc curred involving injnry to life or limb; aud th i officer is ??quired to orriDgc the information thus furnished, aud submit it, together w itu the reports, to tho Legis lature. , J the intfntioa of ,he Legislature, ia ro MT.T1,? submitted to the titatd Engi ,?i . V"? them ^ch examination ?s Zm hL?!?. ? D r y 10 ,iet?r'u'no w author they ^?h ul lT' ? ? conformil' "iu* <*", b?t al?o to fir w"h, 8uch Eductions theref *om as 7? ?n*t>Jed lo make fr.m bis more intimate an i uro leesionsl acquaintance with the suoj ?t. P w*n taT? ??o??pl?'neaof the evident anil inaccuracies which t:ose reports from tu? i ? corporations contain, and in "Uliinittinr Uio pee evttt leporta, I take this opportunity to oxpruss my conviction, derived from an examination ol them of those wUc i have b. eu heretofore submitted, of the re ports of railroads in other States, and troin ray own o< perience, that no reliance whatever can b, pUoMupoa any general conclusion* as to the coot or protlt of rail J lr*u'I'ortatloa .?? "bitted by those reports, while ^? to c?rt!e.s?n"?H'n *""? Wh'CU C*ua0t b0 aUrib^J P*""'' 1 sbliU blve occasion to point ?ui home ol tlii au errors. While the State has tliui left this class of corporati ins fteelrom the supervision and restraints which she has apposed upon other gr.atinterests, aud has only required from ihem annual etaieiuontH of certain portious of their ?iiPr^'M!MlJby V""ir "wa officers, it will l?) atea What this mui pie duty has been frequently omitted or re performed, and ha* often been CUUC<^ of exhibiting ttnnu*' r,,ix>rt from th s department it was .? tb*t several ol the corpora'.ious had not ma lo ? fee annual reports required by law. amongtliem w-re two upon which the inunt stupendous frauds have been " U'? Su?ttf Koffineer, or some other puti ...tlcer, had been authorized by law to com pel the aubtoiK-i'm of these reports, ajid ha 1 also been anthoriacd to iuvctigate thoir accuracy, it is very cr. lain that the trauU* would have !>?>.n disjoeere 1 at an ??flier day and it is not improbablo that the mere exist ence of such authority would liavo limited the extent of uese fraudr, wblle its exorcise would have preveutad abeir commission wholly or in part, and have thus sive,l toe innocent stockholders from immense loss, and ths monetary confidence of Uie community from a severe Mnch discussion lias been had on the classification of expenditures between the accounts for operating and constructing railioads, and it has been questioned whe J?er current expenses conUin a sufficient allowance for the renewal ot the depreciation of tho works. The establishment of every new line of road will con tinue to develope new sources of bullae <a from year to yaar for a considerable period after it has been open-d !wiC!l_W'i} ret|U"e an increased outlay for alditiouai ^rw ' <topot buildmgH, and equipment. construction' ,h*"e U*m" charjo against V*1 been found that an annual expenditure is wquired for several years after a new road has been opened, for the purpose of restoring the alop?s of tho So wl?is <?Dt* * dr*'ua> o{ perfecting buufin^th.-^ h*T* "J*?*1 embankments . y dth* waterways ope nod for some considerable period, the necessary slopes aud dimensions cannot la ?UeaiM bo determined, and hence .luring their censtruc -.1 ,r* U,tt"uy of the lea-t dimensions an 1 ? many places 7 ^ ea'arged, mo lilled and protect^!, It ha* been questioned whether the expense of th??e ??n? !? a propor charge to construction or to the cost ?i opfraiiutf. " "oui'' b0 observed tloit the Items of cost above ?jentioned have been spoken of as arising from incom vj0B' RIi M of *n,lu,kl occurrenie for onlv ? Mmited period, soy for three or lour years an 1th it W*J? u7 f/om e,p,n,? whlJh hr' objects, but which are dependeut utioa t le ?T of the works, or which ari? from the natura/d" -U Md 1 also from those which are of annual occur-mre without limit as to time. ur" ,uce Tho Utter are all evidently charges which belong to the cost of operating, while tho former may with strict ETtTr Cl'!r8r'1 caPiU!' ?QI> estimating tho 2^ j *0'' the anticipatevl revenue and dlvi oends, both of these classes of items must be provided It may be remarked, |n this eonnoction, that tlioie ?barges against construction arise mainly because rail ?U^'ted? for u"* t!)ey are properly cou W will be observed, that none of the re'.urns of tho <wrot,,r with ^e law ZtVZ? 5 tt,2?unt of ?l-PWlaUin of the works and ITttL in ? roturus of railroads of ilassachu r.... ,i .1 r f.***,* "how ? "mall allowance inada for uTf i' 1 i V r*ll"| engines and cars. wirks sn rUnn n y that If the work ? and rolling atock am k??pt in tlioro i*b rt?n*ir ^ ?0.^rw'er!I" COnl1U,1"? at the end of mcU rrfr,tht,r,: ," I . th* year, aud therefore ^ that there can be no depresiation. "*.* "'?cu'tjr lies in determining the fact whether the MMirs have been kept up in this taorough manner The expenses for repairs of Iron rails, arter allowing tor the value of the old material, is equal to the cost ?( ^ entire renew . ,o . ^ iJ?"L . ? f'nce n y??ara, for woxl?n hrdges once In ten years, and wooden stations onje in h?ll!t'r1iO"U0n m?y ^ represeute.1 i" another form by sUtmg it as equal to from two to four pfiT e?nt annually on tha irbolw coat of tha roa^l As viamination of the raporta for Aeror.il *aar? nmt lyalre^be^ f"T d*Pre?latlon COilH "? b**u ?uclodod in tho expense of maintenance of ih w*y and works of our railroa-ls, and as all of oar road S?Iil ,lP . frn9lr,,"lt,on kccounU ?p-n, It Is not un likely that a portion or the expenses of depreciatl.m ha fo*.d its way lot ? this account. An allowasee of on per cent per annum on the whole cost of the roali t this State would, in ray opinion, be required to mat ?p the omissions in the reports or the proper allowsnc for depreciation. [An instance of the casuistry of th argnmeata sometimes used for the elassiflaatlon ofth expenditures between the accounts of construction an the running expenses, was exhibited by the char-re t construction for the valne of a cow killed by a freirh train, and the damage done to the train and roa 1 b?caue 1?7 "PO" the track in eonsequenc* of the fence net being built, and henc? It was argand that as the ac cident arose in con?e.|nence of incomplete constrii'.-tl in the damage done should be charged to that aceojnt 1 ' Railroads are subject to one item of expense which I ~V*. , " r ***a directly stato.1. vis : the neceisary substitution of Improvements in the way and works be lore the original ones have been worn out bv use. In manufactories many substitutes for the machines ?Md in labor saving processes mist be made to enable lae manufacturers to compete successfully with their rivals using such improved forms of machinery, ^?observe that on o?r rivers and lakes companies are Mnpelled almost every year to Uy as, Is a steam*r that Maiidered a Amu* palaee a few years before, and build a new one, still more magnilkent, to eoable It to ?ompete successfully siith its rivals. The railroad, considered as a machine, Is of recent in wention: Its power, capacity, and enduran* have not ?rea yet been fu?y ascertained. As the two former are 4evek?p?d, the substitution of Improved forms of i? creasing Its efficiency either in capacity, speed, or e.-o norny, become* necessary, and these substitutions are More extensive than they are In other machines ?f older dste and uee. A brief etateacot of eone of the moet prominent of tbMvaatortitnltoMmay b? alluied loMonu apiniti ia nfrewtd of ffc? 4U*wance nejauary to tM made to the ?|MN?r rulmtdi under this head. Dm niparatrKttn of torn* of the earlier of tha rrodern railroad a waa made by placipg a th'a flat bar of iron on longitudinal timtivrs, whiih rented oa stou* block*, pwtwlid from displacement by fro* by fitting tbe trenches below them with small broken stone. Ia some case* the iron bar waa placed <m continuous stone ?ills. Tbe first change made waa the eubrfMutlon of bar* of greater thickness; then succeeded tbe 11 rail of nearly tbe present form, weighing titty pounds per lineal yard, resting on longitudinal sill*; nubseqaontty, the weight ?f tbe iron rail was successively increased t> sixty, seven 'y and seventy-five pounds: cross tie* were used, wbicb w-re placed oa tooKitudinai ettls, and finally these sills were removed, and gravel ballasting substituted. Tbe brst cars used were coach bodies of tbe ordinary form placed oa four-wheeled framed ; afterwards the bodies were enlarged and tbe form changed, and finally the bodies were *4a<rted to oontaia sixty passewgers, pliicf d on two separate trueks, attached lwitely to the bodies so ah to permit tliem separately to adapt the ni ne Ives to the curve* a?d inequalities of the track. The motive power at first was horses, and en steep Inclinations stationery steam power. The tir.stN>eonKrt?v*ongint? used weighed but six tons, and these bWve been successively increased to ten, six teen, twenty and twenty six tous, while oa some of the freighting roads engines of forty ton* weight (including the tenners) haw) been introluced. Tiie foregoing list of changes shows how imperfect a machine the railroad was when mauy of them in this country were first commenced, and how many radical changes have been necessary in the 00 instruction of their wars snd works. I'lie pre-ent state of perfection in tbe machine ren ders it probable that new substitution of it* important snd expensive part* will annually become rare, but yet it may be sa ely assumed that some expenses of this character will continue to accrue, and must be provided for iu estimating the cost of our railroads or their value as an investment. The experience of some of tbe older riilroafa for a considerable period proves that the su '.stitutioo of the ?character mentioned have cost a sum equal to from one to two per cent per annum on the original cost of the road. The interests which call for the protection of the gov ernment are : ? First That of the public at large in the safe construc tion and management of railroa.il-, and in tlieir adapta tion to convenient and economical use for travel aud trade. tccond. That of the stock and bondholders iu thefiitb ful application of their investments and the management of their property. Much injury lias been caused to both of these inter ests by tbe detective construction and pre nature open log ot many of our railroads. The rao-t serous acci dents, involving the destruction of both life and pro perty have been caused by opening thecn for pu'ilic travel before tney have been fully coin |ile ted or when they have been imperfectly built. The public have no means of usct r:aiiilng the condition of those works, and are compelled to jeopard their lives and pro'perty upon th?m without any assurance that their safety has been provided for by secure structures and vehicles, sutH dent rules and precautions, and judicious and experienced malingers ami employe*. lielore any road is used by tbe public it should besub jcctec in all its parts to the careful examination of some respcn?ible public officer, who should also detcrm ne whether proper provisions and regulations had been established to prevent accidents. Under the second heAd the same power of supervision ami examination by publ'c officers should be given as those w hich are bow extended over other corporations, and authority to compel the publication of full aud authentic statement" of their condition tod operations. '1 be present depreciation in the railway int-reit may be chiefly attributed to the diminished rates of fares and tbe increased expenditures for operating and enlarg ing the wonts. The charges tor transportation bave boen reduce ! to tbe pretent low rates from a mistaken opinion that it was necessary to show to the pubLi : Ur;o receipts, to accomplish which it was necessary to enter int.) a com petition with rival roads and water lines, which was earned to&n injurious extent in consequence of the fal lacious statements of tbe expense* of transportation wbich U>e published reports exhibited. Those reports, by exaggerating tin net proiits of the busiieps, have prevented the managers, even wuen they di-covere<: the error, from increasing their charges to compensating rates by the fear of public opinion and lepixlative interference. l'p< n any given line of railroad there is a certiin amount ol travel aud freight which would, in any event, be trauspor'.ed by it in preference to the water liuos. In almost ev?ry case the capacity of a well equipped single track road, provided with frequent passing places ami a telegraph lor its exclusive use, wo ild bo suilloieut for tlie periormance of this legitimate bullae**, which, if e loiidiuickliy conducted, would yeld the miximum piolit which could be earned, and would, in most, cases, he ample to assure eitliT an Immediate or an early pro fitable return for tne investment. To divert from other roads any of this class of busi ness requires a reduction in the charges, which must necessarily be extended further than merely to that por t on which is diverted, and a* tbe rate of eoit of doi'ig the business cannot be materially diminished, this re duction in the charges, is taken directly from tue net profits, and it, therefore, requires a tart," increase o' bu sines* to yield tbe . ame amount of protit as was afford ed before any reduction in the charge was made. This redaction is sometimes continue'! until no proQt whatever is realized. The rival road irotn which the business is thus divert ed, will soon reduce it* charges for the purpose of re claiming its business, and feelings of rivalry will thus be engendered, which will contiuuo tbe competition un til the rates become so evidently unreoiunuraMve that conventions must be held to terminate the controversy and establish equitable prices and conditions; each com pauy will then only be restored to its original position, with the disadvantage of having, in the meantime, per suaded the public that the lowest prices were sufficient y remunerative. The alleged necessity of showing Urge receipts iitlD exists, and the attempt to maintain the business divert ed from rival roads being abandoned, a compotiUau with tlii> water linen in commenc e ! for the transportation of the heavy anil cheap articles of freight, wbie.h can only be maiiitaiiied by rates nearly or quite as low as those charged upon the luke i, rivers ami canals, and too low, aR will presently be shown, to give a fair remuneration to tl>e railroads. If the cost of railroad transportation could be deter mined with tolerable accuracy by soino disinterested and ofllcial authority it would be a great step taken to wards the correction of some of the most serious ovils to which allusion has been made. The sophistry of the argument that it is evor the true interest of th? stockholders to increaso receipts by car rying any portion of the businoss under cost, is too palpable to merit discussion. The public will always look with distrust upon the management which main tains so fallacious a doctrino. The returns of the rallmid corporations show con tinued large aduitious every year to the construction account of even our oldest and best built roads. The re ported Increase of cost during the past year is chiefly in consequence of an extension of the douolo track, a larger equipment and station facilities for the accommodation of the Increated freight traflic. The increase of the eost of the road on the New York and Erie has been twenty per cent during the last two years, aud on the Central ft has been more than twenty live per cent during the same period. Hie reported earnings and net earnings of these roads have increased by a much larger per centage than the coat of the roads as above stated, while the reported ex penses of operating have increased br about the tame per centage as the earnings. The freight earnings have increase! more than the pasfenger earnings, but the average receipts per ton per mile have be?n less this yuar tliua tUe preoejing one, es pecially on the Central road, although the rates of charge have Wu Increased on both roads. The average tveeiois per ton per mle for the last year were two and one Half cents on the Krie, aud a little more than three cents on the Central, while the average the prece ling yetr on the tatter was nearly three and one half cents. The freight tariff has been nearly aliie on each of these roads for the last two rears, it is therefore evident that the business of the Erio road embraces a larger portion than that of the Central of those articles which pay the least rates, and that the latter road has been perfo.-ining a much larger proportion of its bus.nens at low rates this year ti.Hn formerly. (in comparing the reportet receipts, expenses and bu siness of our three principal freighting roa Is, it will be seen taat the passenger business on the Brie is reported as ginng a net profit of forty-seven per cent, with an average charge of one and seven-tenths cents p *r passen ger per mile, on the Central, a net prollt ot forty-four l* r cent, and a charge of one and nine-tenths cents; and on the Northern Railroad, a cet profit of two per cent, with an average charge of three aud seven tenths rents per pastenger p>rinile,(?) aud that the freight business on the tlrst is reported as giving a net prollt of fifty one per cent, with an average charge of two and six tenths cents per ton per inile, on the second, a net profit of fortyeylit per cent, with an average charge of three sod pevrn tenths reut" ; an 1 on the third, a net profit of thirty four per cent, with an average chargs of two and one fourth cents per toa per mile. The character of the business, the gra les an I other circumstances of these several roads, do not furuish any sufficient reasons for these discrepancies. Tr.e actual cost of transportation upon railrovls will probably never In* accurately determined Irom thoir re ports until 'hey havo t.een run a few years with the con traction account closed, aud no in >aey borrowed. The ? xjienses of operating the rood, as stated in the reports, sre n'.out one and a quart-r cents per ton' psr mile, on the Erin, and one and <U tenths cents on the Centra!; but, as before sut?d, tbese reports do not show accurately the cost of this service. More reliable testimony on tins subject is afforded by the recen . ac tion of the Railroad Convention At the one held at New York, embracing the officer* of the four great lines bet ween the Atlantic and the West, Pa joint re |>ort was submittal by the Huperintendeots of the se veral roa>, in which they state that "experience has proved tl.at the lowest rates at which ordinary freights carried In freight trains at a speed of ten or twelve miles per hour, and in large quantities, can be carried to pay interest and expenses, will average about ttro cents per ton per mile for heavy agricultural products; three cents for groceries, and four ceu?s for dry goods. At a suosequent convention of the railroad companies of Ohio and Indiana similar rate* were adopted. T he above charges applied to the business of our two great lines woald yield an avorago of a little less than three Celts per ton per mile, and would serve to show that some of the business dene on eacH nf these roads does not even pay ' interest and expenses '? P ifflclent Information has been'ellclted from the rail roads of this and other States, from the actions of the conventions and from other sources of information, to warrant the belief that a considerable portion of the freighting business now done by our railroads yield uo profit at the present rates, when due allowance is malo for the laerea?e of capital which it requires for the in creased wear and depreciation of the works, an l tor the occupation of the track to the injury ef the other business. The reports nf the preeent year show an increised ex pens* tn operating the nm Is over that of the pre^odinr 1 year, an examination of the reports of a number of rail 1 oa Is io New England anl elsewhere, shows for tiM last I flva year* m ai nual increase in thWr cost of from two to five per cent per mcum ? aa Increase la their receipts of frwm twelve to twenty per cent and nn increase la ttxtr expenses of from twenty to forty per cent per aa Mm. The increased expense of railroad transportation i? owing in part to the advancing ratee of labor aad mate rials, the increased rate of speed, tbo high rated of late Teat paid to carry the large Mating debts which modern railway financiers have introduced aa a part of their system, and finally to the extravagant management which baa grown up among the general characteristics of the times, increased by the apparently highly pros Crous eotdltion of the railroads, the facility for borrow g money, the necessity of employing inexperienced and incompetent oflioers and workmen in oonseqaenee of the great and sudden demand for thia specie* of lab*r, and in Home caaea by the abuae of po ver oa the part of railroad managers in using their position and the worka under their charge to their personal advantage, an ex ample certain to be followed by the -subordinates. During the plethora of moaey, lines of railroad were projected by adventurers to benefit Ileal interests, mo ney was promised by apeculatora on deficient securities, and its expenditure wa< entrusted to areata with loose notions of beneficial trusts. The construction was con ducted by engineers of little experieaoe or j idgment, and the management was setred upon by adventurers aad speculators, who were determined that every item of expenditure should be arranged ao aa to inure to their personal profit. The ultimate fate of roads so contracted or managed is no longer c onjectural, and while their stock and aecu lities have been s wallowed up in the diaaaters of the times, those, which have been judiciously located, and are free from the most serious of the above recited charges, will scon regain their place in the public confi dence. A radical charge for the better has already taken place in the manugoment of most of our railroads, and if the reforms which have now been commenced, and thoroughly carried out, tbo main lines will take prece dence as an investment over any other securities of ag gregated cspitnl. Labor and materials have fallen in price, the speed of trains has been reduced, _nd the want of money bus compelled a more economical use of it, while the suspen sion of dividends and temporary embarrassments havo led stockholders to inquire more critically into the ma nagement of their interests. The misfortunes of the present time are, therefore, quite likely loresult in great permanent advantages. At least three-fourths of the money which has been ex pended upon railroads in this country has been furnlsned by our own citiious, and the remainder (chiefly for bonds) has been obtained from foreign Investments. The prosperous condition of all iuterasta for the last ten j i urs has yielded large surplus profits, which have, to a considerable extent, been invested in this class of secuiities, because they afforded a prospect for larger returns than any other investments. The success of many of the roads now ballt, and the extension of others, wliich are n-'cessary to meet the ra pid d? velopenieut of the interior, will depenl upo'i t ic establishment of a correct basis for ths security of the sti ck and bondholders. The recommendations which are herein made will, it is believed, meet the present exigencies of tho case, so far us the stockholders ari concerned, unt!l the expe rience of State supervision suggest such further guards aod checks as may then be found necessary. The question of the security of railroad bon Is having been rulmd in e.onsequence of the frauds which havj been committed, and in somo cases by the excessive issue of bonds in proportion to the stock, it has becoms neces sary to g>ve further assunnoes to foreign capitali.it? of the seci. r ty of their investmont before thoy can be per suaded to make further advanuo* . lhif must be done by legislation, and the question should be promptly and frankly met by the r.vilroid in terests in this country, by asking for such iegi-latlon as will most effectually accomplish this object, without in flicting burthens too onerous on the stockholders. The establishment by law uf a staking fund for the re payment 01 the funded debt, placed beyond the control of the corporation, will at once give such security to the bonds of our railroads, as to render the n still more favo rite sources of foreign investment. It should ulso be understood that no bond should be issued until at lea?t one half the probabli cost of the work has been actually pa<d in cash aud expended. Such guarantees would relieve preseut embarrassment, and secure the prosecution of all of the roads th.it the immediate necessities of the country require I would respectfully suggest that a Railroad Com mission sboulil ie established by law, c insisting of the Comptroller, the State Eneintor ind Surveyor, and a person to be elected by a voto of Che stock and bond holders of the different railroad corporations in this State. Tliat the accounts of the corporation 4 should be open to the inspection of this Commission, and that they should be required to examine into the financial coatM lion annually, utdnt any other time wh->n complaints of traud, properly authenticated, are laid before tnem. 'Ihst no road should tie opened lor public travel un'.il a certificate lias been obtained from the Commission that it has been examined by them, and has been properly constructed aud equipped, and tbat the necessary regu lations have been established to prevent injui-y to life or property. That the Commission should have the authority to in quire into ths causes of all accidents which have in jured life orliml, and that they should submit annual re ports to the Legislature of all of their proceedings un Cer this author ty and ?t?*> full anil ample reports of the financial condition of the several corporations, and of the business oporatlons and rece pt? and expenses, as now provided by law, with such a Id: t onal informa tion us they deem nucesiary to lay before the I<egi.il 1 ture or the stockh; lders. JOHN T. CLARK, State Engineer and ?Surveyor. i The New fro ton ltcnervolr. TO T11H BIMTOK OP TUB IHCRAI.D. My attention has yen drawn to an article in jour issue of to day, signed " Laicus," refloating on the commissioner* lor acquiring the ground for the new reservoir, for their unnecessary delay in transacting the business, an<l as I happen to be a personal friend of ono o( the gentlemen in quostion, I :annot permit the article to pass unnoticed. Laicu* remarks that "appointments on these various commissions are based, cot upon Qtness or capacity, but upon party and political affinities," and fuituer, ?' that in a large majority ol cases, they are professional politicians ? uien want* ac'.itity and trickery at the polls, anil political committees, and conventions, are too frequently their sole recommendation." Tue gentleman to whom I alluded, Mr. Abram furnura, n neither* '? professional politician," nor has he anything to do with "political committees or conventions," but la a man of acknowledged purity of character, and ia respected 1 y all who know BiB for his uniform frank ness and honesty. Laicus ia perhaps not aware of the nature of a commission such as the above, and that the voice of one nf the members comprising it ha* no affect in furthering the objects of the commission, uulisa he be seconded in bis elfjrts by one or more of the others, and have a majority of tbe board. Had Mr. Turour* the sole conduct or the buaiaes*. I guarantee it would have been concluded ere this, aod it has been a source of ext renie annoyance and mortitlcation to him that it has been delay el so loug. Mr. lurnure is a man who ii independent of such em ploy met t as this, and would not have accepted it had he been aware at the outaet it would have consumed so much time: but beiug a man of leisure, aud thoroughly competent to perforin tbe servi:e, he accepted it, and ha < devoted his whole time to It from the beginning. January 21, 1866. JUStlCE. Theatres and Exhibition*. Broadway hkathk ?The grand fairy and ?peratlo spectacle of "Cinderella" will be performed again this evening. The new farce of "Bona Fidn Travellers" will conclude the amusement*. Mr. Davidge, Mr. Seymour, and Mis* J. Gougeuheim play the leading characters. Bowkhy Thkatkk. ? The benefit of the assistant trea surer, Mr. Miles, will come off to night. Five piece* will be perfumed on the occasion, namely, "Sixteen String Ja:k,'' "Kiss in the Dark," "l'addy Miles' Boy," "No," and "El Hyder." Bi'rtox'h Tiikatri ? M >rris TUrnt tt's new American comcdy of "Our Set," tha cast of which embraces the name of Messrs. llurton, Jordan, Johnston, Miss Ray muni and Mrs. llughea, will be pla)?d tUis evening. "Mid Adam" will also be performed. Wallack'h TititATRr. ? Mr. Brougham's adaptation of Bulwer'* "Night and Morning" Is announced for this evening, together with the favorite farce of "A Lady and Gentleman in a Peculiarly Perplexing Predicament," in which Mr. F. A. Vincent plays tbe chief part. MkTRorouTiK Thkatkp.? The new play, entitled the "Virgin of the Sun," wttli Mr. Eddy as Itoll*. will be played sp-ain to night. "The Oor*ican Brothers" will terminate the amusement*. Amkkicaj* Mt'BSCa. ? The afternoon and evening p?r formances consist of the dome* tis drama of "Michael trio" and the comedy of "The Voung Widow." Wood'h Minhthki.1*.? A good Ethiopia performance, with the "Mnuimy," will be given to night. Biokmcyh' Skkknajikhs ? "Lucy of Uinmnrraoor," with new icenery, decorations, and a powerful cast, is the grand feature of attraction here. Do*At.Dno*'8 Opkka Uot .iK ? An attractive programme la announced for this eveniug. 1'aul Jul. en's farewell concert will take plao* on Sa turday evening next, previous to his departure for the booth. DkOTRI CTIVB FlRK IN CUAHI.B-ITON, 9,C.? Abont hall past I - o clock this morning, the wli ??iwright shop on the south side of (.'banners str<>et, mi Iwiiy between Church *nd State streets, occupied by C. C. l'liouies, was discovered to b'; on lire, and owing to the combus tible character of tbe buihling ami its content*, was ?non enveloped in flames. It soon extended to a stable I in tlie rear of a three story brick dwelling bouse to the j west, o:cupled by Charles Farley, who was compelled to ' remove hi* fnrnituie, hut the house was little injured. ' The** bulk ings belonged to Mr. Morehead. The rear of the extensive livery stables fronting on Chalmers street, and owned by Col. George H. Brown, next took fir*, and rapidly burned its entire length, and with It was con sumed about three hundred bales of hay, b-donging to Mr King. Here, by the energetic ? Hurts of the firemen, the progress of the Dames wes arretted in tiiw direc tion On Chalmers street, next east to the bull Hog, we* ? blacksmith shop, also beloug ng to Mr. M ireheal, which was rapidly consumed. The large three story livery stab'e and storehouse nest eastward, belonging to Col. Geo H Brawn, next took fire, and wa* entirely con sumed, together with a quantity of Uay owned by Mr. Riley. The fire next seired a large two story frame house, owned bv Mr. P. McBride, which wes entirely de stroyed. The ire here crossed to the north ride of ( haunrrs street, and consumed a two story and a half frame building owned by Mr Kyan, and a blacksmith shi p owned by Mr. Twing. A number of back build. n^s belonging to houses fronting on Broad street and State street, were also consumed. We regret to state that, by the falling of the brick wall of Co:. Crown's bull-ling on Chalmers street, a highly es lmible g?ntl?man, Mr. Allen Speneer, was seriously if not fatally injured. One of hi* tfg* waa dreadfully shatter '! just below the knee, while the other was broken, aud it is feared his epine ie injured. From the lateness of tbe hour, our description I# necessarily imperfect in its details, the los?, we suppose cannot be le?* than sixty or leventy thousand dollar*.? '.'KarU-Uvn Jfarcury, Van. 19. The IMMtto In tk? SpaiiWi Cort* on Cab*. An important dlacasalon took place 1b the session of

the late Spaniah constituent Qortes of the 18th or Decem ber last. Don Luis do Marlatagul, >n influential ui wealthy capitalist, representative of San Sebastian, made an inquiry of the government oa the subject ef tbe relation* between the court of 8paln anl our own gov ernment. The Minister of State answered la a?hort epeech, of which the substance is that the Pptaish gov ernment would never eonsent to the sala of Cuba, con sidering it as a sale of the national honor. The debate was closed by the unanimous adoption ol the prepomtloa ol Mr. Oloiaga, who moved that the representatives had heard with satisfaction the declaration of the Minister of Slate. As this is the first time so important a question baa betii treated in the Spanish Cortes, ws deem it interest ing to translate for our readers the speech of Mr. Maria tegul: ? M . liARlATKJCl? The great importance et the subject which 1 now offer to your consideratioa could alone in duce me to oscupy the attention of this assembly, so inteutly engaged in other Important discussion*. I do not know bat my imagination exaggerates the magni tude of this question, and I must coafess 1 long hesi tated before taking up the matter. Seeing that one day after another elapsed and none of the representatives reminded us of the interesting questions which have arisen in reference to our maritime dominions ? .iominions whose loss would causa us to descend in the scale of nation*; seeing, also, that tbe subject of our diplo matic rtlations wt'.h the government of Washington lay as if entirely forgotten. I have decided to call your at tion to these points. I shall be. gentlemen, extremely l.rief ; but even thus I feel the necessity of begging your indulgence. I kn?w tae inconvenience of publicly dia cussing the diploma tia affairs of tha country; but if there are Inconveniences in such discussions, they have at the same time great advantages ; and, in my opinion, tbe latter are, as to the prereot subject, far more con siderable than the former. If I am mistaken, my re spectable frient, the Minister of State, may confine him self within the limits of a diplomatic reserve. I hop*, nevertheless, that he will be willing to give such as eurances a" are sufficient to allay tbe aatiety of the commercial interests both in Kurnpe and Am irioa. Although the majority of tha reprs<?ntativ<H in this assembly are bow beginning their political career, they are all, I feel sure of it, conversant witu the statu of our colonial politics, and know whit are the d inners that threaten our maritmo possessions. especially tiie islaol of ?'uba. Those dangers coma not from the (lnonteot of the Cuban population, thou (b ?i must agrne that they bave a right to ask for soini political as well as ad ministrative and economical reforms ; those dangers grow from the existence elsewhere of an ambitious 'le mociacy, proud of its absolute sovereignty. A demo cracy, when it has attained such a height, is dS.seu-ially tyrannical, imagining that there can be no obstacles to the accomplishment of its ambitious schemes. I cauuot accuse as being the cause of tha existence of those tendencies the immortal Washington and his il lustrious companions, tha founders of ths greatest of republics. Neither do I accuse their worthy successors. I only accuse that European dem tcracy, which, conscious that its hour has not yet coinu, nor perhaps will ever <come, on this continent, seeks, (like Kossuth, a refuge there, and throwing asray the legacy of the great Wash ington, preaches culy war and devastation. What were the elements which entered in the organi zation of those expeditions which in 1S50 aud 'il left the Americau shores to invade the island of Cuba? Only B1 buhters and other similar characters, led by an uufor tunate Spanish general, who, abusing the confidence of his superiors, was honored with a commission in Cuba, and afterwards dishonored him*elf in the Spanish uni form. These expeditions have, nevertheless, had a most important result ? that of showing tha elements of re sistance we have in Cuba, and impressing the conviction tl.at it cannjt be conquered so easily as were tbe Mexi can territories. The punishment which followed those expeditions was indeed terrible, though not unjust; and the energy of the Ciptain Gensral Can ilia preserved un impaired our rich Cuban empire, rendering, at the same tium, more easy for his successor the defonce of the inland. but now, I ask, have those dangers disappeared? On the contrary, gentlemen, perhaps they are now nearer than before. The States In the South cf the Union, and also tho-" in the North, covet tho annexation of Cuba, each for different purposes, and they take up every sub ject which is likely to occasioo any misun ierstaniling between our own and tbe American governments. The question of tho Hluck Warrior cliims is present to your minds, and affords a sufficient proof of the truth of these assertions. The cause of thsir difference was a vory insignificant one, and still its consequences have been such as to make the world believe that the mo sent had arrived for a terrible conflict between Spa n aud the United States. The government of Washington, as soon as the news of ttc supponed outrago reached them, sent a commit siomr to Cuba; a small squadron was ordered to cruise in the Cuban seas. Mr. Soule received instructions to make I Know not what claims for indemnity, though, if what 1 have heard be true, they implied the removal of all the Cubun authorities who directly or indirectly had meddled in tho affair. Sometime afterwards tha Presi dent sent a message to (Jongrens asking for an appro priation of ten millions of dollars in or>.er to provide for the expense* of the iApen.liag war. Bu'- the commercial Cities of tbe Union, convinced that the real iinportaucq of the Mack Warrior affair -vas greatly exaggerated, vera not at ull alarmed, and tbe wisest staWsmin at Wash ington, imitating their example, resolved to postpone the matter for more mature consider Uion. Tlic report of tho commissioner on the Black Warrior affair was at laat made known. It utau.-J thai the mia trrof Ihe ?e?sel wan alone in faalt, and it prayed the Spaninh government to remit the mulct of hi* thou -and dollars, which favor lier Majesty willingly grau'.ed. But, ban thin generous conduct on our part been enough to satiify tho exacting dispositions or tho American gov ernment? Has the American Minister ceased to urge his claim*? if we are to believe whit firoign nesrspv p?rs nay, exactly the contrary in the truth. I under stand tbut n?w claims are made, all founded in olfeuce* entirely imaginary, and for damages which never have been caused. One of the ohjesti of those claim* is the losses that have accrued to American commerce, by the fact that tbe Cuban authorities, ra 1844, declared free of duty certain imported articles of consumption, and after wards, by a decree of the government in MaUri 1, the dutus were re established But no claim can be fairly made on this ground, because the measure adopted by tbe Cubun authorities was subject to the superior revi sion of tbe central government, and above all, because a nation alwajs has a right to modify its tariff whenever it deems it proper. One instance identical with this may be found in the cotemporary history of the United States. During the financial troubles prevailing in that republic in 1S4'2, the government of the country, in order vo augment its revenues, caused an augmentation in the duties on arti cles of importation to be made; and such was the speed with which a committee on the matter was appointed, and the vote passed in Congress, that the morchants of Cuba, Porto It'co ana toe Philippine Islands experienced considerable leases. Now, gentlemen, 1 will say a few words concerning some statements which 1 have read in foreign news papers, but of whose exactness I have nowhere found a proof. It is stated tbe American government, in adopting the courte they have incessantly pursued since the begin ning of this affair, had only in view the acquisition of Cuba, unwilling to lose the opportunity of the two go vernments of > ranee and KngUnd being engaged in a gigantic struggle which would render them unable to render any assistance to us. It was agreed that the American government should send an energetie note to Madrid, stating that, owing to certaiu political and geo graphical considerations, the possession of Cuba had be come necessary to the security of tnst republic, aud their duty made it necessary for them to propose to us a friendly transfer of our right of sovereignty over Ca bi, or to ask such guaranties as to prevent in future the renewal of these disagreeable differences. Perhaps those rumors are not known liy some of the representatives, and I must add that if they are tru*. the eagerness of tbe annexation party in the United States will not be less disappointed in these new at tempts than it has been already in the failure of the filibustering expeditions. In respect to the intervention of foreign governments in this i|uesticn, I must acknowledge with pleasure the Cisition assumed by the Bmperor of the French when, m spring, he sent one of his admirals to co-operate with our own naval forces in repelling any attacks npou Cuba; though I know perfectly well that we were then far from being In danger of losing that colony. I am, besidos, firmly convinced thai Prance will nsver be able to induce Knglaud to declare war agaiast the United .States, neither during the contest in tue Kast nor after the termination of tbe present war. Kngland has lost all prestige in America since the battle of New Orleans, when General Jackson said -"For you, industrial na tions, we need neither power nor bullets; commer-e is enough." Some time afterwards the question of Texas and Mexico, and a good mauy others, came to confirm that truth. But if the United States possess strong meins ef In juring a commercial nation, we vino possess the sane, and to Corunna, Perrol, Parages, San'ander, the Philip pine Islands, &c., we must look for the elements of the defence o' Cuba. We are not like Russians, shut up by two straits, and we must declare that we are dis posed to avail ourselves of all our means of defense against any dsngers. 1 should advise our government to use towarls the go vernment of the United States a poliqg firm and amicablo at the same time, in order to promote and em-ourage o ir relations with that prosperous country, anltoierive from tlKse relations the import ?t and mutual benedts which the chairman of an American committee, appoint ed in 1844. has so ably set firth. [The orator reals.] I hope that the magnitude of the subjest under cna slderation will be a sufficient excuse for having kept the attention of the assembly from other Important business. And 1 would pray the Miuiater of Foreign Affairs to let us kuow what is the state of our reUtions with the Ame rican government, and what hw been the result of the note sent by the American Minister in Madrid to the ' ministry ol the court of San Luis. Tin Jap ANKfF. Prkkknts. -We n a dent and that sundry packages of the presents sent to the President by the Kmperor ef Japan in return for thoss forwarded from hen.-e by the hands of Commodore Perry, have rear lied Washington, with thea being sundry packages of preseuts for officers of the expedition, which, un ler the law, must be deposited, at least temporarily, in the Hate Iiepartment? that Is, until Congress uiay give them leave to accept them. The contents of tae pack ages are said to be silks, swords, writing tables, delicate and fragile ornaments, vases, bowls or glass ml other miterials, umbrellas, mats, bells, jars, cabinets, flower la x, lances Japan matting, stone from Japan, stona from Ixtn Choo, agricultural implements, Japan shine (marked from Sin Ida) her metrically sealed, satiples of sugar cane, sevi n d"gs, two birds, seed wh*at from the Cape of Good Hope, Ac. We hear that the dogs ar- of a breed which none bat the aristocracy of the empire keep, as they ar* very costly. In the time of Charles II. a sim lar Imperial present of dogs was sent to fOnne by the Kmperor of Japan, from which the celebrated Km "ivan breed of King Charles spaniels sprang Tbo?e sent tm tbe Presi lent ty Commodore Perry are much like the King Charles bf?ed of the present day, though goMidsrat!/ Ur< ?*?? n .iaUind, J**. 'U, NMmI Intelligence. urn* rmaa ukry wn.aoN, candidate for DMTIO BTATn UMATOft flOM MASSACHUSETTS ? bu rLATroan. Mr. WUson, u will be Men by a telegraph despatch has Putin, hM received the rote of the Massachusetts Heme* of Representatives for United State* Menater. He having been eddreaeed In regard to certain extracts from speeches which he made in the Constltutiona1 Convention, and which hare been freely copied in a number of journals, ha* published the following reply in explanation, and further laying down hi* principle* ami platform :? Natick, January 20, 1869. Box. Robot B. Ball. Sin ? Your not* of the 18th inat. !* before me. and I ?very cheerfully answer your inquiries concerning my view* upon the questions involved in the American movement. While I am ready frankly to avow my sentiments and opinions to aB men, 1 am constrained to declare that I pen this letter to you with no little reluctance. I am cvnsoious that letters written by a candidate pending hit election always subject him to misrepreseotat on, i.nd to the suspicion of insincerity in the opinion* he avow*. As you suggest, the reference in my speech in the Constitutional Convention to the organization of mili tary companies composed of men of foreign birth, was made simply a* an iilustrition. Idid not then approve, 1 do not now approve, and I never can approve, ef the organization ot military companies composed of men of foreign birth. As to the allusions in my speeches to the distinctions on account of color or race, I have to say that if I clear ly comprehend the ideas and principles of the American movement, it does not ignore or deoy the sublime creed lhat "all men aie created equal" ? the great central d?a upon which our American institutions are based: nd still more, if I ilearly comprehend its genius and ' pirit, its aims and purposes, it does no*, propose to withdraw from men born in other lands the protection of just and equal law*. Summoned into action by the evils and abuse* which have grown out of the annual immigration into Ameri:a of hundred* of thousands of men reared under the in fluence* ot tooial, religious and political in .titut ons dlf leiing lroji, or anlagouistle t" >>ur own, the Americun ?ovemeiit propost h to cfrr*ct tnese evils and abuse* by ?i*e and hama- n le?;i lation to pn,t?ct ourselves i'r^m th j orgtaoizti system in tbfOid W irl 1 which subjects m to thu Huj.p' it ot' for* in pauper* ard th-> depredations of ali-n criminals; to thorou^ ily leviso the naturalisa tion la* s; to ile-try that political element of foreign 1 influence heretofore to |.oiont in pubils aifilr , to counteract the lusid.oa* and uali^U tiulc112.es ot' '.hat I sectarian power that instinctively r;yintathiz*s .vitli op pression in the Old World and in the Nee, and to ptua tLo government of Ame- in the Bands of Am-tr icani who are imbued with the spirit of her dornjcrutl; institution.- . liu:4ed in its action by love to all men and hatred to none, embracing in its affection* the ch lit country and the people of the who'e country, maiaU'n ing the nationality and unity of fie republic, and the democratic doctrine of Statu r/jjbts, the American move ment cannot fall to reeeivc tiie sanction of the America i people to its IdeaB and principle.-. Concurring entirely with you ui the opiuioa th.it r.h ? ??highest interetts of freedom are iden'ilied wau the su premacy of the ideas which underlie this popular rnovu raent," I shall cheerfully labor, in public or in jirivat1 life, for their advancement. In so doing I -tin. I only bj acting in accordance with the sentiments I in .<* Ion;; en tertained? sentiments which have been deepened ttn<l j strengthened by recent events in our own an.l other i States, especially by the tone of those politlco-secturia > organs, which avow sentiments and doctrines hostile to the genius and spirit of American init tutionr. Y.i irs truly, HENRY WILSON. OBDKH ?r UNITKI) AMERICAN MECHANICS? STATE COUNCIL Of PENNSYLVANIA. At a regular annual session of the State Council, being one repreienbitive from each subordinate Council of said order, held at Harrisburg, on Wednesday, January 17th, 1865, the following preamble and resolutions were unani mously adopted: ? Whereas, the leading objects of this order are, to pro- I tect the rights, elevate the character, ami necure th-? | happiness of American mechanics anil workinginttii; aul fetiinif the necessity of prompt action by the people's legislators io favor of decisive measures calculated to shield American laborers against foreign combinations in our midst, and also against the .importation ot criin. nahi and paupers, it is hereby Renolvod, i'hat this State Council, respectiully bat firnes-tly petitions Congress for the speedy pissa^e of a law, levying nuch a capitation *ax upon foreigners land ing on our shares as may be unco unary to prevent the importation of criminals and piupersin future. Resolved, That our State Legislature is respectfully but earnestly petitioned for the passage of a law pre venting fresh arrivals of foreign paupers and criminals from entering the territory of Pennsylvania. Resolved, That tlieis proceedings (mj signed by the offi cers and published in all newspaper* friendly to tne cause of American mechanics and workiuginen aul copies forwarded to the President of the United States and Pennsylvania members ot Congress, and also to the Governor of Pennsylvania, and each member of our gene ral State Asheiubly. K. H. RAUCH, State Councillor, Itethlehnm, Pa. Gio. S. Baix, 8. C. Secretary, Lancaster Oity, Pa. KNOW NOTHING UGKTINO IN MIS8I.S8HTI. A meeting of the eitiiens of Noxubee county, Missis sippi, was held on the 6th Init., ostensibly for the pur pofe of expr?ssing sentiments favorable to the course of Hen. Stephen Atiams in the United States Senate, and to approve of that gentleman's b II 'n relation to the natu ralization laws. A series of rcolutiona wire pused, among which were the following: ? Resolved, That we, citizens of Noxubee county, irre spective of old party divisions do hereby approve of and fully endorse the course of Mr. Adams in ttie Unite! States Senate on the subject of tho naturalization la*vs. Resolved, That the great increase of foreign popula tion admonishes us that we should adopt the language of the Father of our Country, and "put none but Ame ricans on guard;" and, tLerefore, w? condemn the prac tice of filllug our foreign appointments with foreiguers, and condemn the policy that causes us to be represented at Madrid by a Frenchmen, at Lisbon by an Irishman, at the Hague by a German Jew, and at Naples by an Kog lialiman. IOWA UNTOD STATES SENATOR. The reported election of Jas. Harlan to the United States Senate, by the Iowa legislature, is, according to tne account given by the Chicago Journal, an absolute fraud. By this statement we learn that, on the 10th inat., after balloting three times in convention of the two bouses, without any shoice, a motion was carried te postpone further balloting for that ofllce, and to proceed to the election of Supreme Court Judges. Hon. G. O. Wright was declared elected Chief Judge, and Hon. W. G. Woodward first Associate, and then the convention of the two houses adjourned. On returning to their own chamber, the Senate ad journed lor the day. At this moment a committee of the House appeared and Informed the Senate that the House was again ready to meet the Senate in conven tion. The fusionist Senators complied with the Invite* tioo, and went into the chamber where that body was sitting, and Mr. Harlan was declared on the first ballot to be elected United States Senator. It is prolwble that the election will he set aside, as on the 16th the Iowa Senate passed the following preamble and resolutions by a vote of 17 to 14:? Whereas, it is reported that the journal of the House of Representatives, as read this morning In the presence of the House, alleges that a joint convention of the Gtn eral Assembly of this State was held ia the hall of the House on Saturday, the 6th inst. ; and whereas it is al leged in said journal that the said joint convention pro ceeded to elect one Norman W. Isbell as an associate Judge of the Supreme Court of this State, and one Jaiues Harlan as Senator of the United States for the term of sil years from the 4th day of March next, therefore, Resolved, That inasmuch as the Senate has no know ledge of any such joint convention, and did not parti cipate in the proceedings thereof, it hereby protests against the action of the said so called joint convention, and declares the same to be void and of no elfect. Resolved, That a copy of this preamble and resolution, signed by the President and certiHed to by the Secretary ot the Senate, be presented to the Governor of the State, and alio a copy forwarded to tbe presiding officer of the Senate of the United States, with a request to lay the same before that body. The Albany Journal tells the story in its own way ; but leaves the facts substantially as 1hey are recorded above. I It rays Previous to Friday, the 6th inst , both houses had re | solved to meet in joint convention on that day, to elect a Uniteil States Senator and tire Judges, -oou after us sembling on the 6th, tne Senate sent a eonmittee to tne i House to iuform that body that the Senate was ready to | meet it in convention for the purposes named. 1'be House immediately informed tue Senate of its readings to receive that body in the Assembly chamber. At li> o'clock the joint convention was organized ; and, after eeveral ballotings lor senator, without a result, tue con vention adjourned to meet Main at '1 o clock P. M. At ^o'clock, the Senators were again formally received by the House, had several unsuccessful ftaiiotings (or H'Bitor, And also for JmifM, and the Convention lid- | journed to meet again at 10 o'clocs next morning? \ Saturday, the 6th. On the 6th, each House met in Its own chamber. lu the Senate, immediately after the rea t.ng of the jour- | nal. a motion to adjourn was cairied, 10 to 15. On the fame morning the House met at tt o'clock; and sewn after ten a -omniitto* was appointed to iniorm the i Sena'e that the House was ready to go into joint con vention. W lieu the committee reached the Sena'.e that I body had just adjourned. Tee minority of the Senate, however, proceeded to the , Assembly Chamber to meet in Convention, according to i the adjournment of the ptevious evening ? the President of the Senate ( who is, also, ex officio President of the I joint meeting of the two houses) having the day before ? decided that it waa entirely competent for the joint i convention to adjourn from day to day. He, however, did not appear at this adjourned meeting, and the Speaker of the House presided until a President pro tem. waschos- n. His power to do so, as also the very existence of the ce>n ventlon, was denied by the minority of the lleuse. But they were met by a record of adjournment, the decision of the President of ths Senate, the presence of a full q u or um, and the acquiescence of four of the minority. And, after the election of a President pro tem., and the withdrawal of the minority of the House, the joint con vention proceeded to elect a United States Senator, with the following result: HarUn, fi'J; 'Iraot. 1 Henn, J; Mc Kay, 1. Jmlges were also elected, when the convention adjourned tine die. INDIANA 1*VIT1I> STATKS SKNATOIl. The Iafayett* Journal thinks the election of a U. S. Senator by the legislature of Indiana a matter of great uncertainty. It will probably be delayed for eeime time to come, and It may be poetponed in .eflnttelv. It ad Is " The contest is narroweJ down to two aspirant*, Ortlw of this cty, and Marshall, of Madison, wtth the present chanee#, uhruft caa ascertain them, decidedly la ln?r of tht former. The friend* of Mr. Marshall are Tin active, and wiH spare bo exertion to sec*re bis ejection." SQfOtrUB OOKBMrOHSSNCB. The defeated Candida tea at the recent municipal elec tion in Atalanta, Ga. . hare written a letUr to the suc ceeiful onea, stating that they are prepared to prove that their election was obtained by the introduction of fraudulent and foreign votes, and recomsatndiag tb* officers elect to content to a new trial, wbteh the latter Terjr politely decline, preferring rather to hold on than to truat their fortune* again in the eanvaaa. Tba Know Nothings will consequently be compelled to watt another year. Startling Expoiwe of Momenlim ? Llttar ftaea one of President Yoking** Wives. We take the following letter from the Boston Times, which states that it came to them from a responsible source. The ladies mentioned have been the victim* of Mormoni-m, and are prepared to expjse the mystisriea of the creed in a light which will doubtless startle the en tire community:? Cbicaoo, Tuesday, Ja?. 16, 1865. Allow me to trouble you with these Tew Maes, which V wish yon to insert in your Daily Timet. My object ifl his: ? I have been for the last ten years a firm believer n the doctrine of the Latter Day Saints, or father, Mor manism. My parent* became followers of the oelebrated< Joe Smith in an early day, and emigrated to Nauvoo. After the death of Smith and his brother we were driven> rom thence. The society split; there wtre two who wi?hed to take their leader's place, and ttaad at the bead of the church, bnt could not agree; therefore they separated. Col. White and his followers, that i?, such' as believed in him, went to Texas, and are living in peace and prosperity. Col. White ia a worthy man compared with our great, or rather notorious. Brigham Young,, notwithstanding he has been for the last three years my lawful husband, that ia, according to their own laws ami rules. But for the last twelve months I have seen enough to satsi'y me ; for what 1 don't know about Morinouism is not worth knowing. They bave secret plots and objects that they mean to accomplish. They centum the government for not protecting them n all their hellish works. For all this they mean to have xatiafaction My object in writing this is to warn my female friends to beware ot the false prophets who are daily sent out from the Great Salt Lake City to deceive the people. It is <ny intention to travel through the United States, and visit ail the principal <ities, snd lecture oa thin great and important subject, to caution all young p<ople who should be so unfor tutiatf as to he led into tse in godly trap. Beware I In Eoston I shall deliver my first lecture, a* that is my cative city. 1 have one young lady in company who also left the Mormons with me. She has renounced the doctrine*, ai.d will U lp me in my lectures We shall I both be pretent, and show Mormonism in its true colors, which you never have had in your enlightened State. | Had it :<een represented in its true light, and its object I t<dd, l here would not have been a follower left sweet I Nc? k.-Klano to join such a set of impostors, for I can I '-ail tbem nothing else, Knowing th?m to be such. If there should be any elders or followers of Mormonism, I l>op<> tliey will come <o the lectures, and dispute what wo have to -ay if they can. We have and shall fetch ' documents to prove our assertions. We shall be there in a few weeks. We ore at present staying with friends, and as soon as we are refreshed from the journey we ?.ball start tor Bostou. It is near two month* since we leU the ;-nlt l ake City. You shall bear from me again, with more particulars. But no more at present from your humble servants MRS. SARAH YOUNG, MISS ELIZA WILLI A IIS. News from T ?m. [From the New Oilcana Picayune, Jan. 10.] Ibl steam* blp M>* too, Capt. J. Y. Lawless, antved from Icdianola anil Galveston thin morning, bringing date* thence to the 1 Itii Inst. The following items arc from the Gtlvoiton Timet of the 14th Inst. A memorial to Congress, praying for the formation of a new federal district in tills State, it now circulating at Austin. It in proposed, ?sj h the Austin Tinifj, that tha district embrace "all tbat port'oc of the State that, un der the present organization, pr-isecu'.e their suit < in the United states f'ourts at Tyler and Austin ; while the old district will be composed of all the counties in tn? lower portion of the State that now bring tbeir suite in the federal court at Galvvston and Brownsville." The names of Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, for President, and Thomas J. Rusk, of Texas, for Vie* Pr* ?Kent, in 1S66, appear at the head of the San Aatouio Tar an. The Prairie Blade, we learn from the Austin Oate"e, has the n&me of James H. Raymond at the head of its columns as a candi-iate for (iovernor. At a meeting of t'je fr ends of temperance, held In Austin rtcenllj, the UairVe says, 'Strong resolutions in favor of a prohibitory liquor law were adopted. " The Galveston Mm of tlio 13th has the following Items: ? It lias been understood that Col. Yoakum, of Hunts ville, has been engaged for some years on a. history of Texas, the first volume of which is said to be in press now. The Kan Antonio Ledger contradicts the statement mad" by the Tehran, that the Know Nothings carried the late city election. It <ays that both candidates for Mayor were opp'.s"d to the Know Nothings, and that three fourths of the voters of San Antonio are foreigners or Tatholi-s. ?Tl e Ixirjer issues an extra ? the regular Issue being enspended for want of paper. The Wettern leranbh? changed its title to t?an Antonio T j an , and present- a very handsome appearance in new type. The A'eux publishes a communication from C. O. For they, giving estimates of the expense of constructing the Kcesrary levee for <>alveston. They set it down at ?r.o,oco. Tl t I.ockhart W extern Clarion, of the 0th inst. , says: ? Sn;< the sleet snd snow sterm the weather was de lightful, until about ten o'clock last Wednesday, when we bad a severe norther. The health of the country Is uninterrupted. Immigrants are n'.ill flocking In, and the continued de mand iorcorn lias raised tbe price of that article from fifty to seventy five cents per bushel. Pork is also higher. There is plenty, however, to 'supply the de mand. Mews from tbe IUo Gramlr. Tbe editor of tbe Austin State Timet has been shown a letter from a gentleman residing on the Kio Grande, t > a frhnd at the city of Au?tin. That paper of the ftth inst. published the subjoined items, gleaned from the communication alluded to: ? T her tre no revolutionary mevements now on foot in Mexico. The store of Mr. Iledrick, of Rio Grande city, was sj tered at night, about the 16th of December, and robbed of one thousand dollars in goods, which were carried into Mexico ? the tbieves were, of course, of that nation. Fain Stewart, the HherilT of Star county, went to serve a writ on Charles Gallagher, for a violation of the license law; Gallagher drew a Derringer on Stewart. "The She nil saw that and weut five better" ? be fired at Gallagher with a sixsbr oter, and struck him in the abdossen. The wound, it is supposed, will proee mortal. The Hrowruville Flag, of the 23d ult., aays the county court ol Cameron county has been quit* active under its new organization. School districts have been organized for the establishment of public schools, under the recent' law, and overseers have been appointed, who are actively laboring for the construction of good roads in the dif ferent portions of the county. The Flag tays that many of the insurgents there arc taking advantage of tbe pardon offered to them by Santa Anna, and are returning to their homes. The same paper hat the following item : ? This year the experiment of sugar making in tbe Rio Grande Valley will have been fully and fairly tested. Mr. John Young, one cf our enterprising merchants anil citizens, among other praiseworthy experiments, has tested the practicability or the production of sugar, and tbe result, as we are credibly assured, will be fifty bogs beads of sugar, besides tbe usual amount of molasses and a large quantity of prelfmciat, an artists of brown loaf sugar, pecnliar to the Mexican market. Mr. Young has alto a magnificent flock of sheep, which we are as sured are thriving as well as they could in any country, under the sun. Corn and cotton, with peas, beans, potatoes, melons, pumpkins, and all that class of products, with every variety of kitchen vegetables, have long since txwa. proved to be particularly fitted to our soil and climate. Mary varieties of tbe above grow through the entire year. Resides this, we produce all tbe varieties of tbe delicious tropical fruits snd flowers, with ? market second to none other for the ready disposition of all tha bounteous products of our generous soil. With such natural advantages as these, ordinary industry alone is required to cause our beautiful valley to bloom as a rose. How long must it be before we may have this industry applied 1 Key West Malt. A eorrespondsnt of tbe Savannah Kepubliean, writing 'roni Key West, says ? The season has heen, on the whole, a successful one for sslt; yet it would appear that this has be*n caused n.ore by the improvements put upon the works, than I mm tbe superior dryness of the pas; spring or summer. The amount of rain through tbe whole year has seen full ten inches more than tn? average for the past twen ty years, snd every month of the salt sea>on, (from Feb ruary to August Inclusive,) except March and Hay, had ninth above that average of rain in each In June and August there was couble the average quantity. This shows conclusively tbat salt can be ma le profita bly on tbe islands of this reef. The reasos of this -n: cess on tbe islam's is to be found in tbe great area of the evaporating reservoirs, which are so arrtoged that th? "pickle" is driven from one to another, for the <! Istance ol more than five miles, before It arrive* at the one from wbence it is pumped into tbe "crystalixing pans," ani by which time it Is usually up to the strength of satura tion. The superior parity of the salt made here la, too, in a great measure, owing to tbe distance tbat tha "pickle" flows tlowly before it is pumped into the nans for crystalization. It begins to deposit lime in Urge ? loantities alter it it up to the strength of six degrees, Hraume't hydrometer, and to ctntlnues to do, especially where It moves slowly, till it gets to tbe strength of eighteen or twenty degrees. Weaker pickle than this last Is never pumped into the erystalizing pans, whieti accounts for the purity of Key West salt. Tbe proprietor was informed by our Senator, the TInn Mr. Mallorv, that the assayer in the employ of the gov ernment found this salt fuur percent pjrer than tli* best imported. There was a rapid sale of the whole crop of the islan !, at the highest rates for packing salt, while the supply lssted. The crop of the past season amnun'ed to netr 70,000 bushels, all of which is dtspieed of except soma 3,000 to 4,000 bushels retained by the proprietor for flSh ? rmen. snd tn give 'tallast t? vessels when they need it. The price through the season has been ih to :?) c-nts p?f> bushel, delivered alongside vessels in b-i k. It is, how ever. usually celivere-l te vessels In gonny hags, the pur chaser of tne salt paying extra for the ba^s and for pot ting up. The proprietor Is new engsged In extending Ms Im provements. and he hones the cniaing season to morn than double the crop of last year. He has room *n<l other facilities for increasing his crop at least twenty fcld when the necessary improvements are mad*.