Newspaper of The New York Herald, July 9, 1855, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated July 9, 1855 Page 4
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NEW YORK HERALD. JAMKS OOKDOI BEN H ETT, PKJl'RlKr<JK AND EDITOR. jmca R. w. oownm op Nassau and pclton m. TERMS entk in r?. THE DAI L \ HERALD 2 r?nl? per ?tw W p #r annum. TkLE H EEKL V HERALD evtry SaturXty it <enf? Car #opv Of N JW onaurn; the European e.lition U per .in mum, to any port 0/ Or tot Britain or |6 to any jkirl q/' tin Cv? tiuent. loth to iinlu.le pottige. ALL LETTERS t> y M iii /or Subtcriptionn or ttilk A l*cr tktemr utt to be pott paid, or the poiUayi will be deiiu. tc<l from fcr noney remitted JOB PRI.NTJWJ executed with rkeapnett, and Petvalch AD I ERT1SE31ENT8 renewe&overy day. V?lnm? XX So. 188 AMUSEMENTS T1IIS EVENING. ?EOADWAT THBATRB, hto?4wiy li* ro? La Bits ? K*ooi.i.icTioni or O'I'labiuuas the Ka&ie* ? kun Lion MO WERT THEATRE, Bowtrj? Bamlct-Katc Kcab ? ?V. NIBI.OS OARDRN, Broitwi;? Qvin or a Dav. BURTON'S THEATRE ChUDtar'i Last Lb*.?? f a?i> ?mi no Mi.tsTRBL Widow's Vutim? Nix ran Cabman. WOOD'S MINSTRELS Mwk.nlo. Hnll? 472 Bro?.lwAj. lew Torfc, Monday, July ?, 1HM. Tl*e Sews. The news from Central Amcrica, reoivsd by the Northern Light, is of a hi# ily interest *g and exciting character. Affairs still conti ntd in a diso derod stae. Clonal Walker aai his party from San Francisco landed at Itaalfjo some weeks since; after an Interview with the oemmaader of the Caste lion forcoa, who ad ed ?wo hundred men to his force, it is stated that ?b the morsisg of the 28th alt. he assaulted m4 took Rivas, and that on ttie following night h> took Ban Joan del tsur without resistance. Oae of Mr correspondents at Virgin Bay, in a postscript to his letter, wys that Cel. Walker had been de feated, oat a gentleman who came passenger in the Northern Light states taat the report is premature, sad that no iote lligence of Col. WaUftr'a defeat had heen received when the Northern Light sailed. The British ai ip-oi-war Buzzard was at Ban Jaan or Grey town. protecting the Mosquito flag. Toe Hon. J. H. Wheeler, U. S. Minister to Xiia mgua, came passenger in the s eamship Northern Likht. He is raid to be the bearer of t vo important tiea'ies between thss country and Nicaragua. The steamship Northern Light arrived last evan. tog, bringirg ns the der<ails of the news from C ili tornia, which was annoaaced by telegraph yestar 4ay morning. We give t lie pi tars of the con flagration in Auburn, wh'.oi his nearly 8*9 jt away that enterprising and prosaerous town of tha mines. The entire loss is estimat-.d at a quarter of a millioa of dohara. A fire had also occurred in Saa Fran cisco, which destroyed property to the value of flarty five thousand dollars; but as It burned oat a portion of the city which is represented as the re sort of thieves and assaastas. Bad the narjsrlea and workshops of c ime, the loss is not much regretted. The Northern Light has brought eigit Hundred and ?wet ty- nine thousand dollars in gold dust, whish is eoosiierab'e of an increase ever the previous ship ments by that line. Tae mines are represented as yielding plenty of go' I to the digger* in every part ?f the State, and all classes of miners are doing bet ter than they have ever before done in any penolln California. If this be true, we may swa ?xpoit wary large shipments. Business was far from being tofek or prosperous; but in conssqaeice of the Mfbrted prosperity of the mtnes, ? better fee'ing prevailed among the merohantB. The most impor tant news Is the confirmation by the Board of United States Land Commissioners of the claim of Jamse B. Bolton, which embraces thirteen thousand five CoBorcdaciea of land in the most eligible part of Baa Francisco, which is estimated to be worth forty millions of dollars. Messrs. Palmer, Cook <fc Co ?wa the greatest pait ot the claim. From Oregon, we learn that Gen. Joseph Line has been re-elected delegate to Congress over Gen. (i aires, bis whig competitor. By the Northern Light we have dates from tbe Sandwich Islands to the 17th May. The French frigate La Forte, and the English frigate Amphytrite antveckbt Honolulu on the 10th of May, tn route tor the j' b'tf r settlements in Kamschatka. Tfce Le gists Me ot Hawaii was in session, and had passed a new t srifi act ,theuseIuliesflof whi h, the .Veic Era aajs, is marred by the chaotic distribution of its details. Theatricals in Honolulu appear to be in a ?cnrjwting condition. A correspondent in Cuba, writing on Jane 27th, tort w j- cot bTno important suggestions to the gov ernment and people on tbe subject of the Ut? ok tempt of the Fpanlsh authorities to reduce our Con f b h m that isltsd to the positiou o' nctra nommc rclal ?geots. It is shown that this act is t? direct viola tion of treaty, and if carried out will oflcct the in terests tf Americans most injuwoui-lj. The leu^r dererves attention. From the Belize (Hondn-as), under date of Jane 2ut, we learn that the local tride still dill, hut t>iat large shipments of indigo and cochineal had taken place, and that the reports from tbe interior were satisfactory. The public school ?yp*tm waft working well, and some new povrrnmsct LuiViig* were being put np. Buna executive ofli'ial changes, aud a new appointment in the minitt.'y of tho established cfcaroh, had taken plaae. The approach to a pro-It jMi?n sentiment in tiw United States had evoked a little foiling on the ?Cher side. The "spoilt* system'' was at work in < tbe Legislator*. The weather was wet and stormy. A report prevailed to the effect that tbe yellow Imr had appeared, but it was eat confi-med. .Advices from Bro?wvillo, (Texas) tfiUed on 2tth Jnne, confirm the report that th" revolution against Santa Area had becom* truly formidib'e, and it ?m confidently emitted thet nia resources could >ot loner uphold him against the patriot! j offjrts lor liberation which wwa commenced in Monterey The government troops stationed in Vier and Gutnen had abandoned bjth places to General Caruvsjal, who had "roamed over from Texas and wak followed by General Garza and other leaders. Major Potior, commanding at Fo.t Brown, had made an unsuccessful ell >rt to capture some of the insurgents. Two toousand men had been left to garrison Monterey, and a detachment waa sent oat to occupy the mountain posses and attack Any of the government troops they ould find near. Curdena, one of Suita Anna's commanders, had hreken his parole, ard associated himself with the Seminole chief "'Wild C*t." G< neral Woll still reik'ed atMatomoros. It waa rumored that Tampi on had rtTjlted against the dictator. Tbe United States Lnstrict Coart was ia session In Brownsville, which city was improvicg. Trade waa dull, but the rtffr tarlgation was exce lent. By the malls from I tab Territory we learn that ferae* hoppers were doing great damage to the crops ?t the Saints, and in some Instances had destroyed whole fields of grain. Brigham Young, attended by several of the faithful, had gone on a tour to tbe southern settlements, taking with hin an Indian interpreter, for tbe purpose of holding "talks ' with the Indians on the route. We pnblish a number of interesting letters from popular watering places in to day 's paper. The hat Weather last week gave a great impetus to summer travtl, and railroads, steamboat, lie , have bsen doing an lmmecae business during the past ten days. Tbe Chevalier Wikoff had an interview with Mr Secretory Marcy on Saturday tast. An interesting account of the Interview will be found in our spe cial despatch from Wasbingtsu this morning. Buckingham Smith. Se:retary of l.fgetlou at M* eVtd, In place of Ur. Perry, will leave this city in Ihe Baluc on Wednesday. A *iapb c ac ount of tko tronb'e in the Know Not ir-g* Stoto C-nncll of Pennsylvania, re eertty 1>M '? Heading, from a corre?pon der,t at the* r^c*. wUl be fonnd among our j^i^n'^aaoe to-day. A ^respondent it Phi ale>ph!a gifts the munee of the ganttemen who seceded from the P oiqIthIi State Conncl when the resolution ca'ling a c^nveotioo at Cincin nati ob the 8h ot January vw introduced. The ?bea haivesttn Ohio has bees progressing for a we>k under remark b'y favorable weather. T e crop ia said to be abundant beyoadexoe:Utlon, and be grain to be of a very superior quality. A beat fifty arree a were made in this c ty teeter day fot alleged violation* of the Prohibitory law. Ut>dt-r the new law there appears to be no diminu tion in the arrests for ezceuive drinking; and ai most of those arrested are unable or nnw 1 ing to pay the line Imposed, thfy are imprisoned for tea days, which, in a very abort time, mart fill oar p isons with this unfortunate class of offenders. A new yicht, named the Grace, sank ia tie N ar rows yesterday, precipitating a psrty of five per. sons into the water. Toreeof the men were droned, and the other two resmed. A fu l a -count of this melancho'y aflkit will be found elsewhere. The Fire Marshal's investigation, in another oo umn, shows a bold attempt of an iocendfary, on Saturday tight, to burn the premises Noe. 38 and 40 Rfeiide street. An Italian named Bartholomsw Castetlottl was arrested yesterday on suspicion of being guilty of the offence. In ttie First District Court in this city there have been tried during the past week one hualred and fifty civil actions, averaging 25 for each judicial day. Cotton BO.d on Saturday to the extent of about 600 bales, at a decline of about ?c. per lb. There wore said to be buyers at 10c. a 104 '?? while holders demanded lO^c. for roidJli^g uplands. Small lois were reported at lojo., while it was refujed for large lots. Common grades of flTur continued firm. Michigan white wheat sold at $2 42. Indian corn Bgbi.< closed eaeier, Western m xed sound at 91c. ar.d yciiow at 96c. Pork oontinned buoyant and closed at firmer rates. To Liverpool 2,000 bales ?f cotton , compressed, were engaged at 3-l6d., and 18,000 bnshels of corn at 3Jc. a 4?c., in tmlk and bags. Sonic'* Mission to Spain? His Splendid Pro lamine? American Balance of Power? Maicy'i Tieacheiy and f Pierce's Imbe cility. The forthcoming history, by Hon. Pierre Soul k, of his unfortunate mission to Spain, will, we have e> ry reason to believe, throw a flood cf light upon the mysteries of this enterprise, which neither our well informed European let ter writer*, nor our Washington reporters, nor the official correspondence communicated to Congress by Marcy, have satisfactorily cleared up. In the meantime, from our latest inform* tion upon the subject, it appears that Sould. as one of Mr. Pierce's European diplomats, had a far higher object in view than the simple acqui sition of the Island of Cuba; and this object, the reasons for It, and the causes of its defeat, a very few words will suffice to explain. First, Mr. Sonic considered himself the repre sentative of a new, positive and progressive democratic admit1 etration. He believed that President plerco had bid down in his inaugural addrcsB the exact outlines of both his foreign and domestic policy ? that these out'ines would be fTled up by such active measures, diploma tic, legislative and executive, as circumstances might demand; aud he also believed that this policy of the inaugural comprehended a new system ?f American dip'omacy in Europe, looking to that general recogni tion of the greatness and practical power of this republic on the Continent, which the royal courts of Europe have so perse veriugly ard consistently sought to deny this "popular monster of America.'' To attract the attention of these royal courts to the subject of American diplomacy, it was necessary, first, to create a sensation upon some definite object of universal interest; and, secondly, to shape out from the rival powers of the East such incidental diplo matic alliances as would secure an American balance of power in the West. Entertaining these ideas in connection with Mr. Pierce's inaugural, and from certain free and repeated official conversations with the Exe cutive, Mr. Soul? accepted, and prepared to fulfil his mission to Spain, under the new demo cratic programme. If he mistook the suily Bilence of Marcy upon the subject for his acquitscencc and consent, it must be admitu d that our ex- ambassador has paid the penalty of his folly, in being resisted by the Si ate Depart ment at every turn, and in being finally over thrown by the most smooth-faced double deal ing and duplicity. Contident, however, that all was right, that Mr. Pierce would stick to his text, and that Marcy was honest, Soule set out lor Spain in the summer of 1853. At that time there was no war between Russia and the Western Powers. There was a faint muttering of thunder along the distant horizon, but there w ere no serious apprehensions of ihe terrible ex plosion which has since concentrated the avail able forces and resources of the three greatest Powers ol' Europe, in a life and death struggle, in that barbaric peninsula of the Black Sea. But even at that time the policy of England aud Franco, touching their grand idea of "a balance of power" against these United Stites on this continent, had been pretty sharply defined. The tripartite correspondence upon Cuba with Mr. Fillmore's Secretary ol State, Mr. Everett, had disclosed this Anglo French policy with some distinctness; aLd the subsequent pro ceedings of English emissaries in Cuba, and the subsequent diplomacy between England and Louis Napoleon, left no doubt about it They had discovered that the transfer of Cuba to the United States would be a death blow to what ever schemes of naval power, commercial su4 primacy, or colonisation in the West indies and Central America, either England or France might entertain; and they had resolved, accord ingly, that Cuba should not be absorbed into the American Union. To this beginning, we apprehend, may be traced the present Anglo l'rtuch alliance against Russia. At all events, our Minister to Spain, in 18fi3, in his negotiations for Cuba, had resolved, before leaving Washington, that a diplomatic diversion on the Continent against the gra-ping maritime policy of England and France, was indispensable to the success of the American policy ol Mr. Pieroe'i inaugural. Our ambassador, therefore, pr* pared to actupou a comprehensive scale. Th?*e duels at Madrid were but the instruments of a bold and da-hing diplomacy, intended to dU covcr the exact whereabojts of the lrench and English upon the Cuban question at the Spanish capital. That discovery was thus fully made, and the j>rojrt of that diplomatic Ameri can conference atOrtcnd was speedily hit upon Up to this point, the duplicity and cro'h pur poses of Marcy, and the vacillations aad weak ness of Mr. Pierce, had been overcome. But her" the w hole scheme exploded, through the treachery of our faithle-s Premier, and the imbecility of our Ex-cutlve. The conferees at < Mend had no Idea that the ir preceding* or their manife-io would be blown to the wot hi until some cooperative action (re m the administrate m. which had brought them to thi* ultimatum, would at least Kim to juauI> lie tiMckwue. i umnui'g mat our Cabinet were acting in good faith, Soale bad intended to follow up <he Ostend meeting with a more comprehensive one, including oar ministers at St. Petersburg, Berlin, Vienna, and other German States; the object of tbl? larger conference being the original purpose of checkmating the American designs of the Western by some common diversion among tbe central Powers of Europe. To this end our minister to Spain had himself propo sed a trip to St. Petersburg. I', was part of his original plan; and, though somewhat em barrassed by tbe rupture between the Western Powers and Russia, there was jet a hope, from the peace movements ot tho belligerents, that Roesia, Austria, Prussia, und other central States, fiom tho great naval and commercial issues involved in an American "balance of power'- in the Gulf of Mexico, might be em ployed to the greatest advantage against the Amtricttn policy of Eogland a?d France. It was no part, as we are informed, of the programme of Soule to involve the United States in the war with the Western Powers. Be believed that the American policy of Mr. Pierce's inaugural might be peacefully accom plished. He believed that oar supplies of cot tun and Gdli for uia gold to Euglaul and France bud bound them over, and would hold them bound, to keep the peace with us at almost any sacrifice. His purpose was to detach them from their foolish protectorate over Cuba, and Spiin from her slavish submission to the British Cabi net aod Louis Napoleon. Possibly, with re gard to the Emperor of the French, the pro gramme of Soull may have comprehend ed a republican revolution of some sort, or the restoration of the Bourbons. It is certain there was no love lost batween our minister and Napoleon the Third, from and tf ter those tbreaisat Madrid, and that the French Emperor was an efficient ally of Marcy in work ing out the total defeat of this extraordinary mission to Spain. The programme of Soul 6 was broad and com prehensive; but resting upon the slippery foun dation cf tbe inaugural of Mr. Pierce, and upon his imbecility and the deliberate malice and treachery of Marcy, and being confronted by the suspicions of Spain, the hostflity of Louis Napoleon, and tbe diplomacy of England, his failure was inevitable. Had there been no war with Russia, bis mission might have been more successful in attracting a larger degree of the attention of the Continental Powers; had there been no treachery in our Cabinet it would cer tainly have ended less disastrously to Soul6, American diplomacy and American interests abroad. The forthcoming history of this remarkabla mission "and its consequences" will doubtless be one of tbe most instructive and interesting books ever printed, to all aspiring diplomats and politicians. Let Dudley Mann supply an ap pendix, and the European '.diplomacy of Mr. Pierce will be completely disclosed. Native Americans not Intolerant. ? It appears that several State Councils of the Know Nothing Order in the South have ex punged from their platform everything which savored of intolerance or hostility to the Ro man Gal holies? the State Council of Louisiana repudiating the Catholic test at a meeting on the 5th instant. C -arles S. Morehead, of Ken tucky, a prominent member of the Order and the proximate Governor of the State, distinctly disavows on the part of the section with which he is acting any desire either to interfere with the religious belief of any class of citizens, or to erect any profession of faith into a test of qualification for office. We are persuaded that much injustice has been done to members of the Order by giving them credit for a far more bitter sectarian spirit than they ever evinced; now, at all events, these calumnies can be refut ed. He who still charges the Southern Know No thingH with intolerance to the Roman Catholics will do so in defiance of open fact, aud at the sacrifice of his character. Nor has the reform been confined to the South. Tolerancc has penetrated even New England, and the State Council of Connecticut have come forward to declaru their readiness to admit Catholics to the rewards ot office and the full rights of citizenship. Here, unfor tunately, there can be no question hut the ori ginal Know Nothings displayed a sectarian and fanatical spirit. There is intolerance in the air of Connecticut, and a whole century of enlight enment has not been able to dispel It. They were just the men to seize upon the most odious aud narrow of the principles of the new party, and to give it prominence in their version of the platform. Yet, so strongly has public opinion in the present day set towards freedom of con science, so repulsive is everything that resem bles proscription on the ground of religious differences, that even the Connecticut Know Nothings have boldly cast off their sectarian character, and proclaim " the protection of all persons in the legal and proper exercise of their religious and civil rights? the unrestrained en joyment of alt religious opinions and worship.'' True, the Connecticut Council ad/ocates the exclusion from office ot all who " owe alle giance, civil or ecclesiastical, directly or indi rectly, to any foreign Power but herein, we apprehend, they advise no more than the law dirccts and immemorial usage hut* established. The law declares that before any man shall ex ercise the rights of citizenship in this couatry he shall renounce the allegiance ho owed to his former sovereign, and to all othe> foreign po tentates ; and custom has not admitted to office any who have omitted 10 make this renuncia tion. The Know Nothings of Cjanecticut.u re ly recommended therefore that matters should remain >n statu quo. We are aw ire that a few microscopic minds have contended that Roman Catholics owe allegiance to the Pope as the head of the Cburcb. But this is a mere quibble of words. So far as the Catholic laity is concerned, the P ipe is a m?re aV stractioo to whom or to whioh it is a? im possible to owe allegiance as it would b? *0 Income the subject of a great philosopher, or the citizen of a new school in physics; and BHfir the Romish clergy, whatever the m rits of their ease may be, it is elcar that tlmy are beht occupied in attending to the spiritual wants of tbt ir flock. Massachusetts woald be ail the better of a ru'e which disqualified pir. sons from holding office un lcr tba com Don wealth. and it dor* not appear lik :ly tYit the Union would --uffor if Horn an Catholic priests were excluded from political 'tattoos. We are glad to see these signs of returning srn> e nnd liberality on the part of tli? Know Nothings. Tliey may depend up ,n it, a in nei th< r Decenary nor w - f, nor manly, no* hon Me for the twen'y three or lonr mtlii w of Protestaots who inhabit this repuhi c to hunt down the one or t *0 millions of ( Vholios who tiliate urn coui*ujr with litem. The Trlb mm ud the TuUT. When the mppty of ronaway negroes slack ens, and tbe editors of the New York Tribune are at a loss for wherewithal to fill their vacant space. they teem to be ia the habit of granting to some venerable acquaintance a carte blanche to stultify the paper with a column or so of rampant nonsense about protection and trie trade. It is not likely that tbe senile effu pioDi of this unfortunate gentleman are ever read ; for we notice that he in variably concludes with a doleful com plaint that no one will answer him. Tbere goes at large in this city an unhappy though harmless lunatic who is under the impression that he hes composed a quantity of poetry of the very first order, and that he is only Hinder ed firm taking rank with Tennyson *ud La mertiue ?>y tbe perversity of publishers wh > will not read bis manuscripts. Believing, as we honestly do, that this poor crazy gentleman is not the writer of the pruteotioaist article in the Tribune, tbe melancholy (ate of the oue hn alarmed us for the other, and wfe have been moved by charity to notice the Tribune writer thus publicly , lest persevering neglect on the part of an unthinking press should ultimately rob him of the sural r< mnant of his wits. Ilis bent, as we paid, is not poetical but pro saic, aud economical He gives us in his last effusion, a financial history ot tbe United States for the last fifty j ears, which, regarded as a jtu d'tupnt, is certainly far fetched, and viewei in any other light, is marked by the mast in credible stupidity, the grossest ignorance, and the most deplorable dishonesty. Let ua take him to pieces. lie asks : ? Did rot <h? war of 1812 afford ample protection to tha Miner in bis ellortu to bring tbe artiaan to tat* &nd*wan tbeie not, in coaseq uenc?, a gooi demand for labor ind its product*? Did doi th? country oome out from tbe war in a bigbly prosperous condition)1 No. It did not. Tne farmer and artisan had protection, but the country was not prosperous On the contrary it was nearly ruined by tae war. The fact is so notorious that evidence may seem superfluous. We may refer, however, to Mr. Madison's message of 20th February* 1815, in which he induces the hope that " the peace will introduce activity into all the means of domestic enterprise and labor," and similar hopes in the annual message of that year; also to tbe la e Mr. Williams' Book of the Presidents, (and Mr. Williams be it remembered was a whig,) in which we read : " The immediate effect of the war was disastrous to the in crests of the great body of the people, causing much pecuniary and other distress, and retarding the national prosperity." Did not the prosperity continue durfng the yo?rs 1818, '17 and '18, while protectlcn tu jet continued? No. It did not. The cessation of war and the re-opening of American ports certainly invigo rated trade and industry; bat Mr. Madison, in December, 1816, regrets that "a depression is Mfierienced by particular branches of oar manu fcciwes, and a portion of our navigation;" and all authorities concur in stating that immediate ly after the conclusion of peace, foreign goods were thrown upon the market in enormo>is quantities, and every branch of trade was so disordered that distress could not but follow. These foreign goods, coming by the ship load, certainly filled the treasury, an<i enabled the government to pay off part of ihe national debt; but, in the words of Mr. Wil liams, "the excessive importations prostrated numerous American manufacturers, and spread ruin and desolation among the industrious classes, including agriculturists as well as me chanics and manufacturers." The true secret was the deranged state of the currency; but of this the Tribune writer has no idea. From 1816 to 1819 the imports were more than double the exports, and the bink expan sion proportionate; whence it came abeut that in 1819 a financial crisis occurred, money became unreasonably dear, and half the mercantile houses in the cities failed. This event the un conscionable wooden-head who writes iu the Tribune descrines as follows: ? Did not >11 tbis chaage after the death of Protection o( IMS'.' [No'.e tliai wh it ho calls the dea'h of proteo tion wax nothing more than a redaction equivalent to 6 per cent In a tariff granting a protection eqaal, on the average, to 30 per cent.? Kd Hkkaui ] Did not commerce decline and the revenue diminish t<> eo greit an extent as to render nec?aaary the conduction of loan* for mM'ting the lorgniflj?ni expenditures of the government t Were not oar etrsets fll'ed with men, wi m*n and children anxious to fell their labar, and tinting b? ne to purchase it? Were not sheriffs' sales so great aa to cause a large proportion of the property of the co an trj to pass u oder the hammer, and were not the rich thus made richer, wni.e the poor were being ruined 1 No wonder people will not argue with him ! In 1823 and 1824, the country got over its depression, and b? gdn to revive, which fact of course this writer ascribes to the effeot of the tariff of 1824. He says : ? Did not all this change again after the passage of the protective tanff of IS24? Did not commerce revive and rpec'.e flow in, with steady tmprovsment in creatt and m the value of property 1 But we answer, if it was as you say, ho* came it that your friends the manufacturers ran to Congress, swore they wer? starving, and howled and screeched till that body, in pity for their sufferings, passed th^ monstrous tariff of 1*28? handing over the country, great ami small, bag and baggage, body and bones, to the manufacturers ? It is curious to sen ho? these protectionists differ. This writer speaks with unction of the monstrosity of 1828- calls it a " really protec tive tariir Mr. Williams, a far shrewder pub licist, though a member of the same party, ad mits its defects and supposes that the free traders purposely exaggerated its leading fee tures in order to disgust the public with the system. The Tribune writer says: ? , Did rot commerce grow under the really protective tariff of IKS, with a rapidity that was Incredible? No. It did not. The duties increased be cause ttiey were nearly doubled by law. But trade loll oil'. Head tbe official documents of the times. The manufacturers made m >ney; but the mechanics, farmers, and people gene rally were on the verge of rebellion. He adds : ? Was not the balance of trade no rreatly in oar favnr with tbe world, notwithstanding the tieivy drain up m the exports et the country to u.?*et this debt, as to cm -e tlie Inf ux of specie to an extent greater than had ever befcre I'con known y No: it was not. The figures are : ? 1*21 ? aperie Import $S,Ofrl.tOO 1-122 " 3, .???,<? 16 IKS " 6,<WT,t95 1H.'4 " t,M 0 IS.h " 0,150, 7M " ft S8>i,.Wrt Jo'jT ?' #,!?!, 130 IS- S " 7,4H? 741 IKK " 7,?o:,?ua i?t:<o ?? lvl '? .. i,3W,M? ll<< continues : ? J?ii' i?"t Wrl'Ish AW trifle inherit In IS.tft a p?*H ?ton) ct tbo nio- 1 wen .-rful vaiu?, ant did ?b? not in Un- -b( r -.face o< i*vany?nr?to u'Vrly wa?ta itt iat, r.y - J-J, t > cool try wa? Hlte.l with >j*d '-rrlnst "*?' ne w?n* ' Oo'y t*v?- me wort an-: male your n#o '^ron ' My Wife aa,l fsn.ily ba?e n<.:hiug t-> ?at !" and wn oot wf .( * invwy tbtia te estaMlaSed i? tfce toad ' W*sr>o. tbie |*r<? d wia-ked by tbe breaking of Sanaa nn I t' e ??at'Hi ii?v ol in tvl uiato so" hy ?ierUf?' tales, to m ? *t' n' eiceuinir 'hat of tbe Hrltlah free tf Mie perio 1 of ]f23f Were not frai- - driven to repodi* ion, and ?i< no . il e ratiotJ trea^ ?ry driven 'o itv- <? iuin -tion of Iran' i n<? In ce fault .>f its tbl ity to borrow mmey *m It not <er*-d into *^e use of an irr<-d??.iia^e y?i?*r juc?'| to tee gr?at dj/grar* i>( tbe coitnUy t A*4 kiuu It, ?ii net iS tkli a natural commiwm of tbe adop tion of BritUh free trade ? This is part falsehood and part nonsense. It is not true that the Bufferings which were pro longed as late an 1842, or the bankruptcies and sheriffs' sales, and financial difficulties of the period 1837-42, were caused by tbe tariff or had as; thing to do with it. They were the naturai consequence of tbe exorbitant expan sion of 1834-37; which itself was c?uscd by tbo rivalry of the United States and State banks for pubi c , favor. Every scuoolboy kaows this. The rest of the paragraph ia the baldest tiath, without meaning of any kind The writer fitly sums up his grievances as follows: ? Have not eight year* elapsed, and h?re they not b?*n marled by tbo .-teaton of ft *??t forf-uto >lsbt, while he power to i>ay for cloth ?od iron h*' be'n In a et*s?iy eouriio of diminution V Hare wo not ia t*i* sans two witiie?f?") a great destruction of credit, and Hits m tot mn tloutsn's ana buadri" i of thousands of at' n an In 1KU8 vnd 1 H42 irtad?riog in s?treh o' employ ten' *do enable to lini? it y tlmvo not tbe f?rm<M, by hflp ot British free tracer*, clo.ed up a domsstic trude that would ba?e futni'h<d an ?itra miUtoo of cuO'iu mere, end have they not r- eel red In exchange a foreign trade tb?t doe* not plvo *Bem eyen 15", two co Humors ?o supply V Have they not proved their erieeliiuf folly in not a 'oep'ing the good old democratic au?i ? of Jef f?rran, MaillAcn and Jackson, to, bring trie ooonutoex to tbo side ot tbe prodnosr '/ And is not Uritinb five trade now shout to c it). Way UK Whiod be- a state of thing* similar to what she left in 1824 and 1"42 1 And we pay: Are there not sixty minutes in every hour, and therefore is nut the country going to the dogs? Did not a boy die of diar rhea yesterday, and therefore ought uot the Mayor to be put in jail? Hath not a m m been seen wa'king up Broadway, with a Pa ia na hat on, and therefore should we not look for the end of tbe world? Have we not proved our exceed ing folly by not attending to tbe good old maxim of the Turkish poet: Wben thou art an hungered, eat and fill thyself? And are not railroads about to go out of fashion, aid a new stage coach to run from hence to Albany? For really, this is the only ansver which such stuff as the above extracts from the Tribune de serve. To treat suoh folly seriously la to en courage it. Ii in so difficult for men to be clear sighted agafntt their interest that It Is extremely doubt ful whether the manufacturers of this country will ever see the folly of ranting and roaring about tariffs and protection. At all events so trie years must elapse before we caa hope to witness their universal quiet under the decree of fate. Till then there will always be some sanguine Individuals among them who will be lieve that it will pay to have a man write non sense for them in the Tribune; and a large number, if not a majority, of the body will reso lutely set their faces against fact and reason, and, with the true desperation of moaomamacs, will insist on compiling a history of American finance without any allusion to the currency ? a new play of Hamlet, with the royal Dane left out ! Telegraphs in Europe ? We have recently seen and examined a chart of Europe, exhibit ing the lines of electric telegraph in actual operation or in course of construction through out that continent. The map w*s prep ired and poblifched under the direction of Viscount dc Voncy, Director General of the administration of telegraphic lines in the French empire, and extent's up to tho past year. It does not, of course, embrace the several new lined of tele graph which the exigencies of the Eastern war have caused to be established or projec ed ; but yet it is one of the most deeply interesting and high); suggestive publications that can well be magined. It. marks a wonderful epoch in the progress of humanity , when time and space are, as it were, annihilated, and when the distant regions of the earth are brought into immediate propinquity. And while it dots so, it also 'orms an almost unerring criterion by which to judge of the physical, intellectual and commer. cial condition of the various couutr<es of the Old World. So, for instance, the ompire of France appears upon the map a? cover d with a closely wrought network of linos which ra diate from its great, Paris'and extend to all the seaports, frontier towns and cities owning the tway of Napoleon tho Third. This network beppeoka not only the intellectual, but the material and industrial position which i rarco occupies in the van of European na tion*. Next to it in the cloro ramifications of tbe telegraph wire, and connected with it by a submarine line ocoss tho Straits of Dover, is its neighbor and ally, England. And it is in teresting to mark how meagrely the commer cial and industrial advantages, signalized by this symbol of prosperity, are shared by the two sister kingdoms of Ireland and Scotland. Though they are both connected with the me tropolis, they have cach but an inconsiderable portion of their territory and only a few of their principal cities bound together by tele graphic connection". Th>' proposition holds good too, with regard to Holland and Belgium, and Switzerland, whoso commercial and industrial position is exhibit d in a favorable light by the propor tionally large extern, of thi-ir telegraphic lin< p. The kingdoms of Sweden and Denmark ate indifferently well Intersected with them, a large proportion of their lines being subma rine, cros.>-ing the Sound from Chnstianstadt to Copenhagen, then stretching westward among* tbe island* across the Belt, and down BOuth through the Schlcswig-Iiolstein provincee There does not seem to be a single line to serve the necessities? if they have any snch? of the Norwegians. Pross a contains but a few lines, but these extend across the kingdom to the Russian boundary on the north and to Cracow on tbe south. From this latter city a line extends to Warsaw, thence to Moscow and on to St. Pe tersburg. It was by means of this connection that the death of the Emperor Nicholas was known in Vienna. London and Paris within a few hours after its having taken place. The most important cities of Germany alone have the advantage of the telegraph, the minor tow ns and cities being for the most part un provided for in that respect. While London, Paris, and the other great western cities, are thus connected on the north witli the Ru-sion empire, they are also In tele graphic communion with the southern and southeastern limits of Europe? with Rotno, with Naples, with Constantinople? and with the northern region* of Africa. France will soon communicate at an> Instant with her distant Algerian colony by tm-atisofa line extending from Pails to Genera, thence to Turin, thence by Mibm nine line acrt?s the Gulf of Genoa to the island of Corsica, the bi.'thplace of the great Napokoo; ugain over tbe Strait of 15 mifocio to he island of Sardinia, and from tho south, irlj point thereof across the Mediterranean sea to A gtrii, the iikcd of Gblita living placed in . wny w it. were a stepping stone to facili ty e tin eroding. Asia is also to be bound to Euw pe l>y a submarine line across the straits of tlirt Sirfanelki. While thus even the Papal S'ates and the < it jilt el the Cicscixt Lave not been able en tircly to exclude the light of this great alracla of science, Spain, Ilk- Norway, does not, when this chart was prepared, appear to enjoy tho faintest glimmer of it. We believe, however, that since that time Man rid has been brought into connection with 'he Freuch frontier. The Grcciaa Archipelago was also in a like state of seclusion. It is surprising to coutemplate the rapidity with which, in the l*st few years, magnetic te legraph lines have extended over Europe. For' instance, we see it *tated that whereas France* at the cloee of 1852, jtossessed lines covering only 1,200 miles, (?be will have, at tho close* of the present year, over 8,000 miles in opera, tion. Europe contains home 35,090 miles of to. legraph, the United States 42,000 miles. But the triumphs of the pa*t few years in that resr pect app ar small n' d contemptible, in con* trast with those which are reserved for the re maiodr r of this deca if. We need only indicate the gigantic work* that are projected, and which a few j ear" will see reiliz d, to cadt into the i hade the fabulous exploit# of tbe gods and giants uf antiquity. First, there is the contem plated enterprise of oouneoting London with Canton, or one of the other commercial ports ot' China. Then there U Hie other project of er tablishing a similar tel- graphic connection with Australia. Itwo>.ld hardly be believed at the first blush that neither <>i hose undertakings would necessitate the layiug of more than four hundred miles of subtn rine cable in any one continuous stretch; bu t a careful examination of the globe will remove ail scepticism on that point. The Architect of the Universe has, it would almost seem for tnin very purpose, placed islands in the oceau at such intervals as to serve as stepping pto'wt and halting places I lor the telegraph. There iB no doubt whatever as to the feasibility of laying down four hundred miles ot nrtmarine cable in one stretch, as it has been already tested to the ex tent of 350 miles in the inn across the Black Sea from Varna to Bit Uk lava. Then, again, there is that other gin?ntic enterprise in con templation, of connecting the American and European continents by a submarine telegraph extending from St. John's, Newfoundland, to Cork, in Ireland, a distance of over sixteen hundred miles. And e ve o the magnitude of that undertaking is eclipsed by another proposition: to stretch a line around .tie world, commencing say, at St. Petersburg, stretching through Siberia to the confine* of Kalian America, and traversing the whole bread &h of North America to its most easterly limit, and th?n crossing the Atlantic, either by an independent line or by connection with that which we have just menr tfoncd, and which is to lie in operation in Janu ary, 1858, a little more than two years hcnce. By the same time we iniy hive Saa Francis :o bound to New York. What a glorious monument to tho intellect and well-directed indu- try of man is there here! In comparison with it, the pyramid* of Egypt are but molehills, and tn* fabled work of the giants in piling Pellou upon Ossa iB mere chil dren's play. We live in an ago of practical miracles, and the miracle ot the telegraph Is the mobt wonderful of all. TfiK LAT?4T NEWS, BY MAGNETIC AND WNTING TELEGRAPHS. From WHhln|ton. i he cuetaliik wuorr AMD secretary mabct. Wahhmotos, July 8, 1815. Tbe Chevalier WlkofT iminl In town on Friday last, mil had, 1 understand, a long interview wi h Secretary Marcy, on Saturday, at the State Department. He (are, t >? said, to Marcy a lull account of hia diplomatic ca reer in Europe, in connection with the British govern mml and lord Palmerston, and alio of bit diplomat!) and personal relation* with 1 oui* Napoleon. HI* dee cription of hi* political movement* In linden, Pari** and elsewheie, and of various passages in hi* intimaclae with certain iiiustriou" p>r senate*, am need Marcy very much, and will probably i<lv? him some new ideas. W(. kofl i* ui<l to posies* rare lal-nt a? a raconteur, and tha guHto with which the Secretary muat hare listened to ami chuckled over bin narrative, would, no doubt, hare been highly gratify ioR to l.ord ralmerxtou ami the^'rench Em pete, could tbe; lav* bten witneue* of the aeone, 1 liie in'erview hat, I understand, irsl**d WikofT greatly in the estimation of tbe heeretary. He thick* h'.oa an exceed iiig'y el"ver ptrfou, and believes lhat he would make a u u<b better ^iiiMant Secretary than Dudlty Maun, or, in fact, an; other man that be ha* ever conversed with. He found Wilof etrongly opposed to the ted r- publicans, which p!eaw<l him Tcry much, ar.d to donbt contributed to. open tbe way to his gcod graoes. Wikotf fare Mm a pathetic account cf what be call* the outrage commit ted upon bin; at G< im tor tbe flight, and by no mean* very uncommcn, otlenee cf endeavoring to seeura the hnud of an beireat, and oi the sever* suffering* W which, be *ai subjected through the interference of the BritUb govemmeut and tue UritnL Ccneul ? that Dogberry of official aell- importance. ?liom he ha* intmnriallzsd 'n hi* book ? Mr. Timothy Brown. Ha pT***?d upon the Secretary the necessity of vindicating the right* of Ame rican citirtn* abroad, whhh he contended had be*u grosely violated in his perri.n In the Gamble Affair. Ha also pare blm, 1 undent: ni a most amuatng account of tbe effort* made by I/ord IVmerston to !n<lu?* him to repudiate lii* nationality, and to beomo a British snhject, which he refused to do 1 have not been able to lesra. whether Mart y will iater'ere in WlkofT* Uju ble*; lint whatever he < <??*, o* this I Net certain, thai he will dupe tbe Cbevebar, as he In* duped every one else from K< ?; la do?n to '.-ouie. WAanisnroo, Jnly R, 1866. RucJiogham .Jmitb. S^cretnry of Legation at Madrid, inpla.eo: Mr. Perry, leave* here on Moaday for Nea York, and *til* in tho n.ntlc on Wednc*day. Hi* wife accompanies him. Judge Walker, editor of the New Orleans Pella, and Hen. Joan F. King, of Lou'tlaoa, arrival Ust evening, and ate (topping at the National DOtt. 1 he Know RuthliiK* of Blnghamtoii. Bim b*mto5, N, Y. , Inly 7, 1805. A turge and enthusiastic meeting of American* wan held in thu" place hast evening, and wa* addressed by 8. ?<|tiires, del' gate to the I'bl adelphla Convent'on. At the speila) election, bald to day, for President of the village, Mr i'nrk, the American candiiate. wa* elected. LuulavllU Mayoralty. IjOi 1KHI.IJ, Jnly T, 1S56. The Court cf Appeals nave decided that Barb** i* the legacy ebofen Mnyor of this e!1y. Kioiu Boat on. Boirro*, July T, 1IB6. Tbe folowlng 1* asta'eirent of tbe value ot thei-nport* of foieign good* to tbl* port, for the pa*t week : ? ^ ^ Dry gone ?.Vi,6trt Hngar I Ih,i 'ft Coffee -,0,7? l.lnseed Hi, 070 Bemp 79,tfU4 ? BdlkO 1?,3'.IH Hire* 30 0; J! Other uriitle* 186, Ai? Tola S-'>?5,r. 10 Crop Proapwrta In the West Barren, Ohio, July 7, HM, The harvest in the Miami Valley t* now fairly un<ler *ay. Tii* wheat harvest baa been progr??*,nf for a **?k nti'er remarkably fnvwrahla weather. Tnerrop > abun art, e*rae <ltng all expectation, and the grain la <f a superior niiallty. a heavy crop of oa'?, lUt and I ariey is anticipated. Markets. 1'noviPHWfT, July 7. IVft. OnrrnMrn market Is <t"H, tt?a sale* ' tue ??ek 1 a?e In en si'iali, an<! pr ce? unsettled. Wool . rue have been raiber Kght, inting to .11 .<?*) lua, the ?trek of poll?d i* wnile tb* bijh price* p*jing let fleer* n thecoontiy ba* s'lfl. n? I tbe market price. tor a'J traJes. Prlntlrg cJciii un^L? a?!i* j? O* ?esk , 8?, TOO jdtcii

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