Newspaper of The New York Herald, September 16, 1855, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated September 16, 1855 Page 2
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AFFAIRS in EUROPE. Otu Pari* Correspondence. I'.iKis, August, 31, 18od, I PhtivHipkitiiiy on tin Lc ? h-giU Pa/jta n ' ? filan/x at ifuun Victoria's AiUr aO n'-: ? Wc.r $/>tcultUiout ? Dra'h tj Mt jor tirni ml Tui-ii^and hit Intcrmmt al Pure la VtiaiM. W e are -lowly. some of us. perhaps, unwillingly sub ?Mting -nio the ordinary jog trot ol" social life. With mt?b.i omct as the Queen of England's v:-it making its ?ceeuiric course across our more sober planetary system, ?e may be forgiven if our heads should continue mmti i ?cme time after the meteor has pa-sod a it ay, hat the ?tern realities of life and its exigenciee are hourly apply *g their gentle screw and redu -ing us to a proper routine. Hie last remnant of the line triumphal arch with its eagles, its golden bees and its banners at the Hue be Battier, has dissolved into its elements. Its Dowers withered and 'lead; it* faded canvass, its painted polei, and all other appurtenances, have been shovelled away, Ukr -eme slovenly unhandsome corse, and Richard? I ?tean Paris. is herself again. On the whole, it is eminently a fact, that the great 1ft and pageant has left no sting behind. The shadow s which ch-H'iii ? .! at the l"-g.nmn^ have had no rivtirren e; on ttie contrary were followed by one gleam of sunshine ?pon another, each brighter than its predecessor. Th" Pencil have had a real Queen among them of the divine r*ht school albeit 1*588 might have something to *>iy I again.; it, and they have soon beside her the Em piess of 'heir own making. I don't think they would eh.u,g< but the ivvi lutminti ft rotxe fir mince, which have sprung up with an upstart court, are evidently greatly pleased to have played the courtier in an un doubted presence. The Qu-en, too, seems to have been perfectly affible and good tempered with every one. 1 never could trace that her Maje-ty ever, at any time ?tnce her birth, gave the --lightest indication of talent; and the most amiable trait in her character is herdevoted attachment to her hu-haud and children. Out ot this elicle 'he i'.ees not appear to have exhibited sympathies ?f any character, and her countenance gives not the slightest indication of their possession. Ou the contrary. Ihe lines of waywardness, of obstinate sell will and stub bornness. are plainly marked on her features, evon while It in clearly her wish to be amiable. Excitements, such ?w her visit to I aris. instead of being, as one would sup pose, the very plagues of her position, are known to ghe ber (n eat pleasure, and, in fact, to be necessary to her existerce. Their occasional intorlniles, with an addition ' ?o her family almost annually, keep her Majesty in that state of negative virtue which prevents her falling Into ill odor with nny party. Prince Albert, though not King fonsoi't, is so iiy tacit Admission, and beyond the signa ture of ber hand, and the occasional formality of her presence, she hns little or nothing to do with kingcraft. U?e only instance in which she seemed ever to lay claim to any degree ol it. unfortunately made her very ridiculous. When Pr. Wiseman, and other IVhotlc bishops, assumed aright to be called after certain ancient sees, such as Arrhtuphop ? ! W estn.instor. Hi-hop of Burmingham, and l ord Ji hn w rote his letter about Catholic mummeries. Ihe Kccle-iasti, al titles bill, nnd-so-forth, Dr. Jalph, Presi dent ot the l.ondou I niversity, somewhat elec'rilied the popular rar hy saying, that Ihe whole of yesterday Ihe Quern had been walking up and down the terrace of Wind- I sor Cattle, declaring that she v,as and would be Queen of England.'' Before her marriage there was great difficulty in keep ng her within bounds ; her mother, the Duchess of Kent, was forbidden to intrude u pop her privacy without, ex press permission, and poor laiiy Flora Hastings, one of her maids ol honor, alllictel with a mesenteric a fleet ion whi< h caused a protuberance of the alidomen, was pro nounced by the innocent young Queen, some eighteen or nineteen yea; s old. to he rncinit ? a circumstance which gr< atly hastened the fatal termination of l.ady Flora's initially, tin the whole, therefore, it is a matter of con gratulate n that no iimlrrltitijtf has occurred at this event Inl vi-it. .-he has darn ed and w.iltzed with the Emperor, unit r>< en never tired ot fa\ ing ten Icr farewells uo to the moment when, across the truckles, deep, stie began to ?|ie?N. her way to her seu nirt hoine in the Isle of Wight The tone Ol lee', ing in regard to the termination '' tl,c was never of a more hopeful char acter than at present. The intimation which has l>een given by the Emperor that he had p.ivan reasons tor knowing that the horrorf ot hist winter could not be rep atod; tlie viclory or Traktir, the imi.orUnae id which Feem? more and more to develope itself, and the affair at Mvenborg, have given a sanguine bias to ihe I'arijiau mind I have not . ten the like ot since the battle ?l Alma. I do not say however, that I observe any great change n the sentiments of a certain class or staid inuu who have access to diplomatic society, and who hue ,|o c mred from the first that the fall of Sebastopol would change not) ing in the aspect of the v/ai in regard to pence. though it mitrht augment it? arwi. Ancient o?*curi ed on Monday, nnhourbefote the Queen of England's departuie, which was, perhaps, a more touching instance of (he ./?',?? v my, li.il, than even Me Maje.'y s iis.t. Sir Arthur Wcllesley Tori-ens, K. C. II. ,Vil11"" Tori ens, and ;i go. I son of the Hake ?.r Wellington, having been present at the tliree . 'Hi ",f 'VI,"ttv "'^"^'awt, ""d Inkcrmami, received at the last o| these engagements a musket hall in Jus chest, which, passing close to the re/ion of the heart, perforated under the left shoulder, To the supine Sif his medical attend tnts, hi recovery was apparently f," ' ' "'Ijete a, it was speedy. II.- made a Knight of The Kith, 11 major general presi nteil hy the IJi with an Arabian charger, the docility of whose temper and pace im^hi '<-,1(1 to nutigato the fatigue ol horse , xerc^e and maoe Miliiarj Envoy to the Court of the Tuilel ries. On Saturday, ihe 18th, he rode down t> the Stri? buorg station to receive the Queen; the I ridav followin ne was a corpse. . A post mortem examination di-coverel that the ball in it* passage had stov. in one ol the ribs, whi-li i.n-ssod ?lion |<art of the lungs, thst the witol? organic ac'lon o the sy-tern was seriously interfered with, ami that this in fact wa? the cause, and the sole cs use, of hi- death! The Emperor accordingly decreed him the unpreee ionic 1 honor ot being escorteii to his grave by French nrim and all ihe pride and circumstance of military 1.0310! , Marriott, who was commanded by th" Bntisl, Emha-s.v to o?? Ute ,!et -rlhe< the scene ?< ui-m Muehing. The Boulevards wete gathering under arms fur ihe Queen's departure ; the banners, shields and emblazonments were nil on the houses ; the tri umphal ar.'h was still in its trlory. thousands and lens of thousands of spectators were assembled on the pave, when a sight such as was never nil nessed before in the streets of the metropolis, broke u,.on Uiem. A bund of drummers, rolling their mournful m. ti lled beat, preceded the coach of the minister, who, In I, is pnrpUce and banns ?n- -oon recognised bv the crowd ? . MMig English. Mounted dragoon-, snd a colonel of light Jnfctitrv, n?!e on either side of them. Then cam- the hear?e, by tlie -ide of which holding the rour corners of the pall, walked two Hiiiish and two French office s prtim'c trnii-. Ihe gray Arab charge, , his honours rcnerfil o\nr nnil nl-o his whole fierftun ilown to the vnv fcet. w'th a black net tell fol'ow, ,1. sorted on either aide by the 2d regiment of ligli i?nll, vith arm tersed A long co,je.-e o. tit, in,- c hes, private Mtrriages, among which was that of Marshal Vai'lunt " r'r.:' ' eutrusted hy the Em|ie,or with the command ol the obsequies, followed. The crowd atood bareheaded, high and low. priests as well a- tmuiile *?d thousands, instead of waiting for the arrival of th, ? JJneen . quitted their positions, and folio ? ed this novel fnnera cortege to Fere la Cha.-e. At il.at cemeti-rv tbc body was Utwcred to its final rosting pi c- in the presence of at least 10, (KK) permits. . bile the' drums kepi mp their dligeful rolling note and though it i- poodle mot one in a thousand comprehended him when the min iater commenced the service with '-Man that ii born cfa woman haih but a short time to live," &?. you mi 'iit tsvc beard a pin drop. At the conclusion, the Couat de Woe stepped forward and by order of the Emperor read a paper, ex.daining U. sll present his Majesty's motive for conferring this unprecedented honor on an English sub ject. H. .lid si., said thet ount, because of his itersonal e timatlen of the valor of the deees?ed on that tleld wh -rc Knelish and Irench were bi others inarms; liecause too I t! n 5 V"1, i".11'" I'^0' 'd his ?i?h to 1 em-nt tte kindly reeling existing iteiween the two armies; and because he wished that th^ footstep* of tho of bgland, now lingering in the French capital, should e eeive a fresh instance of the profound re. pec t and tfec bon which the Emperor and French people hail Ibr the, r most powerful ally. Fpon this, a cry smse of rl r!> f rUr! Firv Ui K.in* <i AnpM.rr* Ihe drum- once more woke the echoes of I'ere la Chai e. and the tieno: ?Is remains were covered in with the dust from whlh ?bey came. BRIDIE. Our Berlin CorrMp??<l?nrf. HnuN. Au*u?l !W. 1*56 ffftctilrrfumi on lh, \ iiit nf Utt Princ of /Vu-ii /? .v. rfl>u ryi ? T K? King' i Htalth ? M it'rrt in tht Crim'j? Th' S iivalnrii .Vfory. fine? tho return o! the Prince of l*ru**ia from "M. Peterabuif. there ha*e \.een variou* rumoi ? afloat rel? tire to the object of hi* Journey md i tn result. It wa* ?toted, indeed, it the time, thnt hit li<lt In Ike nflUl ?f the fur bad no conue lion with politic* an>1 wa* en tirely of a private nature hut .'Ten Rruatln* thin t? Ih> t'ti a impoaMble that at ao mnrn?tt?a< > cr)?l( ? weetinp between partie? ao <loo|>ljr lntere?te.| in the U?ur ehould have pa**ed orer without reference t.i the eventful ?trii(t(rle now i rojrrea-intr ami to the mean* ?>( teiminatint; it. The n<'W*pn|ter? have aported all *ort?nf e..nj<. ? .|t i>. ?no?t of them pal|>ably absurd for in?Jince. tha he Km jierdr Alexander had concluded upon the rc?t<> atbtn ?>f I'tiUnd a* a constitutional monafhy. and that the Prince .if l-ru-.la nui commiaKlomd to di?"Uad? hi* ?ephew from a ?tep fraunht with dnnffer to hi* neijj&li >r* Mid *>partnr r? in the spoil of Toland A -cor tine to Another verd'n the l'.ti**i.in government. **ein* their trade completely ruined by the blockade of their whole seaboard, have determined to abandon their ?y*!?m of commercial netriction, and to throw open ther land front i#r forth*- importation of every kind of m?.ekaitdi< but althojph tli ? i* far from being unlikely, to j i If* frtw 'cene j reliiti.mtry me??ure? taken by the early ?- la?* ?uirmer, I ?h<>u!d in .'irine tk?* h' IVio e #? frun , tbe!a?*i?. en who ? onMl* -fc >en ?? cat '!? ef t ? ' ( like selecting * Quaker to bc.tr a challenge, or a wild iiitiiitu to preside at a missionary met ling ; the :unteropt entertained by bin Royal Hitmen* for such plebeian oe ciipatlons an trade anil commerce, and hi* exclusive de votion to military matter* being sufficiently notorious. I ertain it is, however, that he stayed at St. Petersburg several days longer than wit intended, and thai imme diately after hi* arrival in Berlin he proceeded to Erdmannsdorf, where the King wan then reeling, with *h>m he ha'l several long conference*. The quid nuncs hint that the result of thin interview wasnut, satisfactory; at my rate he soon took hit lenv again, and ha- now gone to Oh tend for the benefit of sea lathing. A very ?hort time must show whether his Ku?ridn cxp.-dition has had any etfect upon the foreign policy of this coun try; for 'he present, politics it re at astund still, and there are no tymptoms "f Prussia's giving up her neutral posi tion either in favor of tile Allies or of the Muscovites, though her partiality lor ihe latter U undeniable. <>n the other h?nd. Austria is at her old 1 1 i.- k cow en deavoring to eaji.le the West... n po wers.no wtrylng ?o inveigle 1'russia into her toils ; Hut by this time -he is too well known to deceive any oue, and her overtures i re everywhere treated with civil contempt. n?,.. 1 he king's health has improved, and all immediate danger W pushed, but his constitution h.isev den ly sus tained * -ever., shock, from which it is thought he will never completely recover. <n hi- return from H lWa, ?he wn? so much better that he promised the inhabitants of Konig- berg to be present at the festiv ities by Wu 'h They intend to celebrate the MXth . entenn.al auniver^.-y of the foundation of their city, and all the prepare, ions for thi.- journey had been made, when they were obliged to be countermanded, ostensibly in consequence ot the cholera having broken out in Konigsh. rg. b it in rea.ity on account of a veto Interposed by the Kind's physicians, who were apprehensivo that excitement and latigue might bring on a relipse. Atilp to 'be ..luiie. whr-h was to have taken place this aut mnn, seems to have been given up as well, and the ofticial statement that li" *n? attend the grand manoeuvre* that are to come n" ab*nit the end of September at tttannsberg, in Last I riwia. is considered at least premature, ile certainly looks ill, and ha* aged very mueh oi late, although there is a grea difl'eience of opinion a ? to the real nature ot bis tli-e i-c. liis friends representing it as trilling, while those who hope to profit by a change of ruler ? shake their nends very oinlnoii.slv, und are beginning to smga / ? / rijfun.n that sounds uncommonly like a 'I> Dy ui. l'ortunaiely for the poor king, the Ixindon Timc< has tak-n upon it self to predict bis approaching end, an I as the propne e of the l'tutfn arc never fulfilled, ho may hope to li'.e a little longer. , , In the Crimea affairs -eem to be in much the am state as they were in November last. wh n tlie as a il upon Sebnstopol was checkmated by the buttle <>( Inker maun. It Is very plain that the Russian awa:k upon the lines ol the Tchernaya was occasioned by the saino eir i cumslances which led to that most sanguinary a nion. The allies had advanced so near to the tower of Mm tkot the key of the enemy's position ? that an assault was imminent, mid the only way for the Russians to prevent it was to threaten them in the flank and force thorn to draw off a considerable portion of their troops Irom tie fore .??? bustopol. To a certain degree, this plan appears to have succeeded, lor the storm ot the Mabik-it. win . 'i was to have ?ignnliie<l queen Victoria's visit to I'aiii, has been adjourned fi?> 'He, while the renew, '.i ?.ro bar.lnient, from which such great things were expect "! this time, has tailed so entirely iliat the . Mom "i, li.js thought proper t?> Ignore it altogether. Ibis can only be accounted for by the movements ot the allies being paralyzed by the presence of ft strong Russian t ivo on the Tcliernayft; but then the question an-es, why did not (Jen. 1 elissiei pursue the retreating enemy beyond that liver, and prevent them from again occupying their strong position at Mackenzie's Farm, from when e they c.in rauince upon his army at any moment they plc i.se. I nies. he was more severely mauled iu the last cn/.ige- i men i. than his hi lletins would lead one to imagine, his conduct is <| ulto inexplicable, parti ubrly as the excuse !'? r not pursuing the Russians after the hat il'i "1 Alnia, \i/?, th. want of ca\ah y, cannot be urged now. yhen ho lias lit least ten thousand horse, French Kugli-h arid 1 iednioutese at liis disposal, who ate eating their beads off ftt Komara and Kadikoi. From some hints thrown out l.y I lie Mtmi'rtr and oiber official organs, and a Jpa rently contirniei! l?y l.ouis Napoleon's epistle to I'elis-ier, one would almost suspect thai the allies had given up all idea of taking Subaswpol by force, and were calcu lating open reducing it by the less brilliant, but safer nioiOos of t larvaiiou. The itu-s ans, it is ss id, are in Mi. h want of provisions. ihai it will h> phy-i-ahy impos sible for th'-in to hold out through the winter, when 'he communication witli I'erekop is intercepted by ,-noiv aud ice, and they will either have to capitulate, <>r to l.low up th. fortifications und evaouate tic pl.ice. Thisinay Ik* correct, but it do^ not agree with the accounts we have here, which, however, are from l.ussian .sources, andean only be given fir what they are w^rth. Ac to these statements the measures of the Kussiau commissi! riat have beeu taken with so much judgment that the ditlicultics proceeding from the o cupu'lon of I the Fea of Azof by the at' .Cs have t-e< n completely oo viated nnd the lioops a.c abundantly supplied with all the nee. ;. mi' . m lite, a regular line of mugu ine, hiving been established between the Istbmu* and Seb.istopol. which aic coiit taually replenished from tl.e corn growing pioviuces of Southern Rus.-ia. It I- a fact tlrn' the I' ot Anhult. a petty Cernian Prince residing at about eighty miles fr< 111 this capital, who ha- large estato- in the Crimen, which sre mostly laid out In siiee.- w.iU?. and who. ever -inc. the war began, lias been trembling t i: his Iiocks. is in iccolpt of positive in'elilgence thai they have been It ft tu'ar: ? a p.-oof, at le.nt, that the Iti'FriMs ftic in no wunt of mutton, it will be remai'k ni foS; that the latest reports fremthe Fngli'h camp be t.oe .-el.HS.opi I mention the arrival oi immense It is'ian iTM. v i i the north fort which ha ! contin ie 1 for -eve u. 1 lays. . ml were probably dcslined for winter supp.ie'. Hie r/i m nl about ti e destruction of f-'weaborg eres*?d a go. <! .bi.l of merriment ill these parls. and |?0|.le are luther st.i p i-cd at the undiminished g illi'iili y di- pl'iy ...i hv .1. h i Bull, in spile of so mueh bitter exporience. It is'. ildeiit that there arc traitors in ihe Nor:h. as well as the South, and the many-headed ;.re as willlnz to "listen to the voice ot the charmer" ??< ever. A.l -on justly remarks, that the Knglish j ubilc -'ate prone in a most extraordinary .legiee to common delusions or phrensies. which almo-t amount to national insanity. Adniiia llun.las lia ? certainly dnne every hing h ? could with the limited means al hi commind. 1. 1'- f ? "learly Impracticable to i e.luce a Tortress situate,! likj S.y '.iborg without the assistance of a land army. If the a lie- li sent a hundred thousand men to the lUltic, instead ol wasting their meigir.s against ;-'eha topol. they luiglit have struck Ihe lt.is^:in empire a heavy anlde Mve blow at present, however, the he. - >n is too fur a.l vancerl foi an undertaking of that kind, nn.l the squad rons ot I ran e mvl Kngl.md will have to return again a the> lid lasi year, without having elected anything more serious than the shelling ot ne l!u ?im '.ort- lie binning of a msgizine or two. and the cspture of a tew coaster* tind fishing boats. A. B Oar Viciutu CorrcMpotiilcnre. Viiwa, Angnit 2.r>, 1 8 "?fi . J'n.j enr I', amis Jottph unl ??l'ouny Aiu/iia" ? !m final rial of O/jraliim ? Joseph II. th- beau ut'a' of I rnii if Jhti/ih ? ' i man i. a ion <>f Ihinjaiy, Cron'in and Srlaron in ? Anti-Rut. tan anil Aa'.i-Pi union I'o lic/t? Joint he ZoH~ Vrr*in, an' ?vi.'.v lo lit ? /in /? rial Threw of G riiianj f ? I'ah/ th- II of AcMH-t for Aw-lria, dr. Would you believe it ? The young Emperor, Fran cis Joseph, i? n revolutionist! If lie is not n revilu tionUt in the ,-on^e of Konflu'b, Muscrini or ^oule, he is, a' least an innovator, u refoi mer. h progressive ? Kmporo;-. lie > toe im|iersona' ion ol "Young Austria, '' for .'iiii'f Ueihrreich" is a term invented by thi? Sovereign liini-jlf, and officially bestowed by the members of the cabinet on all the pro? inces of the Austrian monarchy. '-Dlil Aus tiia." n?iy the official and officious |?n? of Austria, "saw Us last days In 18-48." The conglomerate of Statei ac ? (Uinsl by mat riage. and which wax the Austrian m ui arehy uniler the inauspicious auspices of Prince Metter oich, is dead and n young monarchy, with a new ?p?olflu life a totality of natioual impulses, a united tltrmin Austria. ha - taken its place. This chunge is not sa easily understood out of Austria, it is not evt-u sufficiently up predated in tlerinsny; but it is, nevertheless, one which mit?t lia*e it* influence on the solution of the Orentul question, and on the future condition of Europe. will tbeiefme explain in what the principal change, introduced by the pte?ent Kmperor of Austria consist. In the hrsi place, the F.mperor has given up Mr. Von Mett?rnlch's i lea that the art of governing his monarchy cunsl-ts In the skilful application of the old principle tUli ri'lr rt iiupera! That division which estranged Hungary from Austtia and liohemia, Austria proper from Hohrttia ami Huitgnty, Robemia from every other Austrian Province, and especially from the l.erman Province* of Au?tria, .-t.nia and the Tyrol, has proved Itself to be not only immeasurably expensive, but so weakening to the material and moral power of etch separate Prorint ? as to endanger the cohesion of them all. and to render Austiia as a Kuropean jioaer Inferior in some re?pe t? ?Ten to Pru-sta ? certainly to France, Eog'anl o.- Russia. Ihere was no possibility for Austria to act as a unt in any direction while the I'rorincial spirit, lusted of til ing cutbe?l by such a process, received that poire fill mo meat um which in 184* threatened the existence of the whole monarchy The system of Mr. Von Metterni.h. therefore, was wholly inadequate to prevent revolutions within, and so liinded the forces of Aust: in as to ren ler her influence in Germany and Europe almost in ijnill i ant, Ci mpaie>l with the extent of hei territory, the productiveness of her aoi\ and the wealth and resource of the country. Austria had become impoverished, her anuy had heen deniorallxed, her Provinces driven to re bellion. and her Kmperor w as a fugitive. |? w.i? then thai Emperor Francis Joseph was called to the throne. mid under his auspices it is now proposed to regenerate 'I" en (lie to render the different ports more bom geneons, ?ed thereby to ni rea.-e the governmental momentum anO the Influeni e ol Austiia as a Kuropean power. The ini|ei' ? ned by the i xainple of J84fl, and th" torrl ule retiallji n o Hungary b?s resolve! not to nail for the ? eccind ri v ni .o, hut to make It himar't before Ki.s ith -ha:; havean ?h. i chen ?< to raise tlie 'Undard of II . n gsrir a nati. niillty. irr this (?>! i pi.. -Ue young Kmperor has dr. 1 led hencefo th, to t:-.?t Hungary, Bohemia. Mnraeis? n hoc?. a., ii..". purely itii.n piovince* of his monarchy ea'ejt'ng 'he king n of \, n.?.? dv ant VenJje? a? p?rt? a In it rg*t? is ... -nc^n country, ah..' ah'tg -fce ' ? i"i a i Me (?!,?. t, j , < Auttria.) tut, at tft -unc time, revolting that ?U h*u obey the same '-eruian law, Ami shall in language, nun ners and usages be assimilated to '.he German people. The moral strength ol Austria lies iu her German States; and an these. with the exception of her Italian province*, are more civilised than the ^tates of Hungary, Transyl vania, Croatia, the Buckowina, Ac., she commits no crime against civilisation if she introduces German language and literature, Gorman laws and usages, Instiad ol th present -cmi barbarous languages and institutions ol those countries. A separate Bohemian nationality, a Magyar nationality ol less than live millions ol- Hunga rians, a Sclavonian nationality, could only be realUed under independent princes, who, soonsr or later, would again be subjects to a great European Power; while a system of government which ?hould uim at their Ger mani/ation would not only educate them, and thereby increase their physical and moral well-being. but secure to them the sympathy and, in case of dangor. the a 'tive co-operation of theiiernian States, from the Danube to the Rhine, and from the foot ol' the Alps to the North S''a. Austria, by Germanizing Hungary, Bohemia and Gahcia, is sure to increase her momentum in German proper? j perhaps, one day to recover the German crown. So ie.1 son the 1 inperor Francis Joseph and his two Ministers, taken from the people? v ix. : Mr. Von Bach and lis ron \ on Bi uck ? both paper nobles, of the Emperor's own making. '1 he problem Is capable of wlu'ion, i rovided moderation, skill, perseverance, patience and limine** are e ually employed to insure its success. If Russia has succeeded in introducing the Russian language into he.- German provinces on ihe Baltic, Austria ought to find B" ditn culty in introducing the superior German laagu :;je into her Hunguibin aud especially Sclavonian province I'ndev more energetic sovereigns, this would have been done long ago, and this would have rendered it lmpo -si ble for Rusioa to stimulate the fifteen millions of Austrian subjects of Sclavic extraction to demonstrations of loyalty to the Czarol tlie Sclavic races in contradistinction to the t.eiman soveriegn of Austria. The Gei mani/.ation o! th" Sclavic provinces ol' Austria is a conditio till' i/iut u for Austria; for, unless this is done, these province must, sootier or later, Increase the powor of Rut-'a by bt join ing integral parts of the Sclavic world empire. But how are the non-Geruian provinces of Austria t i be Germanised!1 you will ask. To this Messrs. Bach anil Bruck. the two Plebeian Ministers of Austria, answer: by connecting them w'th Germany by railroads and steam navigation; by iibolinbiug the line's of Custom House which formerly separated one Austrian province from another, by blinging all the different States ol A'lstria into the German J'aiilf league, (Zollverein) ; by abolishing the feudal system, so as to make every peasant hold his land in fe simple under the crown; by establishing Ger man schools aud universities in all the provinces ol Austria; by encouraging industry, an<l by makm? the Austrian monar:hy, through th? m?st enlarged system of internal improvements, the great road of German com merce with 1-astern Kurope and Asia, this Is con-i leru bl? of a programme ? worthy the most virtuous and Kir sighted statesmen, and when you reHo' t. that ll has bes?n laid down, pending a great war, in which Austria w.t forced to take an important part, its author- have evin e; no ordinary degree of enterprise and counge. A portion ol (be programme is certainly being realized. Railroads are nlr< ady connecting the principal cities ot the monarchy and new concessions are rapidly granted f> cover the whole country vith a net-work of railroads, comic 'ting tUe frontiers of Buvariu, l'russia ami Saxony, across the l>.i nublan Principalities, with the Black Sei rivers are made navigable on which formerly no steam had loan i u passage; canals are lie ng built to connect river- .m bayous, and the Isthmus of Suez Itsclli amide theBub.r ?' of negotiation with Kngland, France aud Turkey to alio i! the Austrian coastwise trade in the Adriatic and the le vant a passage to Indid. This is already an e\celleut be ginning; but Austria is doing more. She lus commence ! i and continues very successfully to free agriculture from the feudal Icnutcs uud charges which uestioy the energy with the reward of the husbandman, by paying unit rlaims to the nobles, iu li"U of which she now introduce ti mote reasonable and eijuable sys'eui ot taxation, sue has abolished the lln< of Custom Houses v.-hi li uv.d to tax every species ot Hungarian produce on its ,\ay t' Vienna or other German States, and thereby in:reA -cd t),c value ol a.1 i Hungarian estates, ami she is pre; a ring ? ho to niter her Vntem of customs as to be able wlibin twelvs years to join the German '/ollverein with all the Slate of the monarchy. If alio is successful in thai rc p? : i , (and theie 's no reason in the vorld to tear th.it sue wl'l tail.') she will have r.cc"ii plished more for the weha e of her sul jects than a dozen proviuclnl revolutions oubl have- neoted. and .-lie will have signalized lie.- Gonna-.n ?ti hi of Hungaiy, 11 ihemia and G ill ia, by introduci.i-' a higher civili/ailoii, a superior literature, an improved industir a great, active ai d transit trade and a sy tun ot'fiee agriculture ln-lead of foudal oppression into tlie-e states. The Sclavi: subjects of Austria instead ot tui ning theli cyCH to St. Petersburg, will feci that 'h"> belorg to a gieat confederation o!" Germans, numbering some sixty or seventy million.; of people ? , iweriul not only by their number, but by thoir progress in all to1, useful arts, in science and literature, and in id'"as. So lar the programme of '? Young Au-tria, as project e?l by fbe Vmperor and liU plcbian Mini-te.-. tot will admit that it is not unworthy of a young iimn ip.1i who, if he does not change his mind, may live 'o --ce lit- plin; executed, and 1.1 < dreams reallMO . lv 11 is not hil uu cie. I'lancls I, but hi- grand uncle, Joseph 11. vvao m th" youi'g Km| eror's model. Hewishe. to govt n in a du moernlie s-en e through r.ntocratic tneuns. Ihi? inv dves. of course, the fusion of Hungary Into Austria, u plan al ri ady entertained by Joseph II, whose eai ly death alone prevented its t xoeuiion. Jit is well known tr :t Jo6f|>u II. was never eiowned King of Hungary, us lie never wi-liod to pledge biio elf to maintain tl-e Hun^.'.iriau ? in sfitution with the fe idal rights of ihc nobles.) flu' then, wc must net foigei tin t out of.be ton millions < I inh. ? funis ol Hiti. gory, there ore certainly not more tbpn bve n lillii ns of Magyar s; the re t being eithei S'rlavouiatH and ( roiitions or Ceimans. The civilization of Ifungarv is : Itea ly Germ.ni : Kossuth him-elf is a tieru.r u s\ud? n and scl olar. Hnnvary. civilize I and culfivite-J ns the llbenish provinc s aie, could support .i population ot thirty millions, while Hungary a? an independent king' d-m would eifliei Ih absorbe<l by Russia, or maintain it it, dependence .inly by a mili'ary organiza i- n, which v.oi Id pre.li m a very gieal p og.es, iu the art-' of p. ?. At all events, the Magyars w-iuld first Ik: obliged to su> due the Cr. a's and Selavonian' before they coubi i stab Hull the frontiers of an indej>endent kingtom. Opposed to the Austrian programme, is far at le.ist a ils execution involves a chang^in tin- political and com lrercial oiganixation of Ceunany. i not only litis ;. i o.H moie e-peclallv 1 uissia. If Austria enters the /ollverein not < nly with her German Slates, but with Hunga y Trnn: vlvania. Calicia. Bohemia Moravia, the Burkowi ra and the military frontier, then it is clear that she. and not I'ru- iu. inuat b?.ome the hading jower of 'he \erein. and thi fhe more fO, as the road liv the way ot Austria to T.n - key slid Ana Minor woul.fbcan open road. Willie that by the way of Prussia leads to the hermetically closed fron tiers of Russia, which at thi inomeni remain as tnu -'i shut to Prussian subjects as before the breaking out oi Ihewar. But if Prussia loses the leadership of the /.oil Verein, she loses her pteslige in Germany. aiilPrui'la seems rather disposed to lose ('ermany than the pre dominance In her councils. Thus it i? that aim >st ovary proposition inace by Austria at the German Wet (D Hund), if opposed by Prussia, and thus it i-, too. that I Prussia, being by laniily lies conuected with Russia I Austria basnolhing to hope for in that ouarter. The politics of Austria, then, after what I have sai 1 i:i this letter and some ol my former ones, is om ol nene-si tv, not of choice. It might be carried ou' with more p .mil eneigy, and, prihaps viith more imuieliat success: but i* cannot be changed without dis'urbiojr he I i og< amine of iuteiii&l iniprovemeats, w.thout whi di Ansiiia csrnot much longer exist a1 a I'-urnpc.iti l'owe Austria tnu t Income (ierman or con-.* to eri , but with Austria as a German Power, her councils in Germany must eventually prevail. Austria is thus lorced e.thci to lac. tin antiibllated or a great l'o ver. 1 he war in the !'?st furnishes her vwth ,.n opportnni?y to be ime ? .ie o the other. You will now be able to judge whether there is any reasonable ground to Mippo-e li.ai Au?iria w ill join Rus sia in a demonstration against' lie West further than may be necessary to induce negotiations of peace, anl whether, in case Ausftui is suffered to remain neu trill, she will i|iitt the Principalities belore she i- made a pat ty to the I .eaty of peace ne>roti itel lie tneinthe Vestevu Powers and Russia. The fonn< o! government h?ve but Utile to do with national sv ,h|m ! tl.ies or lepnlsions tas weure jusl expei ieurlivg in the i'nited States), while most nations iiave a Tery exc lien' instinct ol i-ell prcM-rvation, which inclines them to see? the promotion of their material intereJta. In that spe . li s of computation, Kos?uth has not shown hinueit a ma'tor. and bis party in Hungary does not seem 'o an swer hi expectations. Kxiles, were they as great and as tiueas the immortal I'au'.c, are no very excellent judges of the country tl.ey have left snd which they only see and know as it was when they were obliged to quit i;. Their own feelings and sulTei ings are -eldom s inea ure for the feeling" and "tifffrincs of the gieat mass ol their compatriots left behind them. I have pur|>osely said nothing of the Italian provin es ol Austria, the possession of which wilt neve' add to lie' powei . Here Austria meets a higher cultivation than her own, and a literature which was . la?-ical before that ot Germany existed. Hie Venetian gondolier sings stan zas from la-so. to which bis oar- beat time, while the Austrian eoldier. who lords it over him, is comparatively s barbarian If it lie a Croat, a Sclavonian. or n Bolie miau, the chances ure that the rivilised Iuilian look u| oa bis gaoler- a- an hnglish prisoner would upon the liody guaid of the King of tl e Ashanteos. I he Austrian programme doe? not apply there. Milan ran never !..? but a conquered province ? ^ oung Italy " the heel of A-h1llc? for ? Y'oung Austria." Die Kinperor of the f'rench knows tint as well s" the Km|>eror of Austria. r. j. ii. American Kentrallty In the Eaatcrn War? Wo Contrnbnnd Cnrfori. [From the Pa-is Patiio ni fSth Atigmt ] Ft <mi llie commencement of tho Ka?t?.rn war, poMie <>f finion in the I'nlted Mat** ha? been strongly pro nounced in favor of the tiglits of ncutials, and from one o?d of the I nion to the other it ha* lieen insisted ou that tin axiom of the fl.ig cover* tho oar?" " should he recognized as a truth. ?**> far. nothing he'ter. an 1 al though tla* reclamation *?? not altogether dNInle e<tcl ami iictati d by tho exclusive love of Justice. tho g. Torn ment> ofl'ranie and England have mad ? no difficulty altout noooi'.tng to It, while re. c. ving to iherawlvo- ihi rlght to guard against tho enemy Iwing ontibl"d ?o re ceno tin i ? irh nouttal com morce. proTislons arm'. and m initl< n> o1 war. '>nly the American* who s|ie;tk so loudly a'mut tho rights i f neutral*, ought certainly to take iiieinurra so that nolio of thrmsolw* should forget 'ho dotics of neutrality. We do nut spenk of tho.se odious gympathie* whi h certain pretended American do moccrat* l are exhibited fur tho cause of the ?'in r , tho mnai'ostation of Mich sentiments d .ex inJnry to n> no but thoir an h r?. Tho ajlie 1 fleets In the llaltl. hnd HiacL and the army besieging He baat. p?l. probat 'y annoy thcm-rlve- very little n<to what l? tho ght ir nM of t).c auie wlifrb tkoy are defend np by ortain dl< visionaries if New Vork or Boston. B:it ;h' ? i? a sort of ?ympathy whi h is le?s to !>e treated ? t -dale? 1 *hat which i? in'e i>r"ted hy sendlry \o be ? u?my ? m? and munitiona of war. ot wh ii [.? i ir.c h D no I to pr< '? ng tl e ?trifb <vhi h b ? ? -V i i il .p. .B-t tV.st. m ' .n |>? Ant yet til* * V * ?."?!? ??'" ? -V* J?i-? ?t?D ] I .' .cr * J * ) large scale. The following circumstance has transpired quite recently : ? A merchant of Antwerp, oinmif^ ioned by an American house, sends to Warsaw 125 bales of cotton. At Aivln Chapellea "uperior custom-house officer, Mr. Werbrun, lia\fng the presentiment of some fraud, causes one of the bale- of cotton to be opened, ami finds in it, carefully lacked up and disguised, twenty-tour six-shooting re \olvers, twenty-four powder horns and nine copper bul let moulds. Fach of the 136 bales of cotton contained a similar iteposit. The shipper of this contraband cotton has been con detuned to a tine lit' 100.000 thaler" ? $76,000. We ate assured, besides, that a tew days previously, a similar cargo from the same house, ami for the same destination liad passed undetected through A'tx-1* t'hapello; thr Russian custom-house, depending upon the loyalty of the shippers, had not subjected it to ;i special examination. We cannot help praising the vigilance of the Prussian Custom House, llie fine imposed upon the authors of the fraud will have the effect, it is to be hoped, ?>f ma king them more circumspect in future. !<el us hope, also, that the government of the United Statei ami tlie local authorities of the American porta, warned by the discovery and publication of the tact, will take caie tint such a think be not repealed. It concerns the ho nor of the flag of the Union; and if the Americans hold that the belligerents should not avail themselves in their turn, of the right of search. which has al.tiys made part of the maritime code in time of war, they must, through the absolute loyalty observed in th 'tr ship ments, see that the marine of the I nittd States, like Caesar's wife, cannot even be suspected. Fraudulent Insurance Companies. REPORT ON THE CONDITION OK THE NATIONAL EX

CHANGE IN.-UJt ANoK COMPANY. New York Couptroluck's < i. r.n , ) At.HANY, Sept. 12, 1855. J To iiiE Konona of tiib Evisjxo Jot tc-Ai : William Harms, Esi|., was appoiute<l, on the 8:h ol August, to investigate the affairs of the 'N'ational iix c.hange Insurance Company" of the city of New York. He havii g reported to me that the as-ets of said company are Insufficient to justify its continuance in businrss. I deem it my duty to publish the report in aucordan 0 with the 24th section of chapter 4oti id the I juvn of 1853, and to place the same in the hands of the Attorney Oooeral for action thereon. You are roquwtad to publish the same. JA?. M. COOK, Comptroller. Hon. JAMS M. Cook, Comptroller of the State of New York : ? I herewith ( ubmit for your consideration the evidence taken by me, in pursuance of your appointment, relating to the capital, securities and assets of the National Ex chtngi insurance Company of the city of New York, and the manner of conducting its business. This company published the notice of their intention to form a corporation on the 20th day of September, 1851. On the 18th day of November, 1854, their charter was ap proved by the I'eputy Attorney General, and coinmU don ers were appointed to examine their capital on the 20th day of November of the same year. On the 10th day of Hay, 1855, the boa id of commissioners reported theii ca pital of $150,000, its paid in and possessed by the cntnpa ny, in cash, deposited in the American Exchange ilank in the city of Now Yo.'k; and the company commenced th" business of fiie and inland na\ igation insurance an a joint stock company, a' No. 74 Wall street, and hare Issued policies, the premiums un which amount to the sum ot about $10 (00. Losses have iH-en incurred amounting to the sum of $2,250, of which $1,000 are disputed by til" company. It will bo seen by the testimony of tieo-.-ge Coe, l'si... Cashier of the American Fxchange Dank, thai on the loth day of May, 1835, the date of the report of the Board of Commissioners, the sum of $150,000 was deposited to tie indit of the company in Aid bank, and that on the same day the sum of $?.0,000, and on the 21st day of ll iy the si. m of $ .0, 000, was drawn out. A copy of the Hcciuni ol the company with the bank is hereto annexed, markc 1 shedule H. '1 he facts of the transaction were that t li" Ocmjany made an arrangement with a broker in Wa 1 street, whote examination is herewith transmuted, by whieli he agreed to lend them $150,000, to be returned iu a day or two. for tho sum of *8.000; thai a certillod check or checks, under this agreement, were deposited In the Ameiicnn I xchsnge ]!unk, and the bank issued a ce. li,: cate, of which the following is a copy; ? Thi; ankmcaji Ex iiawois Hani,. ) N' w YoiIK, Ma> 10ih, 1853. i The National Exchange Fire Insurance Com-uny have on deposlte In this bank this day. and to th -ir e: \ll /oar book one hundred and fifty thotisaud dollar \ GEO. S. t "ashler. The m m of $120,000 was returned un the ,-arne day, being Saturday . and the balance ot $110,000 was re n-u ' I n Monday, the 21st day of May. The company, thcretoic, at the time of its organiza tion was n h possessed of u dollar of capital, but. on the contrary, was Indebted to the amnun' of $3,000. You will lind on file the affidavits of the I'residCnt and So. ? e tOlj", sworn to cn the 16th day of May. and presented to 1 he Board of Commissioners, stating thut the whole amount of the stock had Vai n subscribed and paid for in cash, LtnajU't anil that the same was possessed by the company and on deposits in -aid hank, and thit there was no intention or design to withdraw iho same -ir unv part thereof, except to lie invo-teil by the company in it corporate capacity, and tha* they knew nothing to j?o paiuise the capiial or any part thereof in any manner. The present capital of the company consists of the t d 1? wing Items:? mx bonds and mortgages, executed by Win. H. C! "1, t< the c< mpany, on three blocks on Columbia stria.:, i . the city of Brooklyn, each br ing about 440 f""t long an 1 100 tcet wide: two of said lots fronting on Columbia an 1 Otn go streets, and bounded on the sides, one i>y B y ant and fercival stroots, and the other by Sigiii rnej anil Pay st reets, and the third lot fronti"g?n < olumbin and H'cks streets, and bounded on the sides hy P#i- i Val and Hsllcek ftieets $52,200 lour horde am' m irtgoges, executed by Ferdinand I . Aadnws to the company, on atioiit sh aces of wo< dlund, in the town of Flatbush, on the '( love road, adjoloing the corporation limits ot Hi" klyn 22. 500 One Loud and mortgage, executed by Ihoruas S. Hi bhaid to I.owrey T>. Hart, on lots in New Yeik. between Seventh and liighth avenues and Ninety-third and Ninety-seventh streets 20.000 One bom! and mortgage, executed by Robert M. Jones and Moses M. Jones to Setli li. Butler, on '.'U acres of hind and i? plate mine iheieon, in the town ol Boostck, Rensselaer county 5,00i> One bond and mortgage, exe uttd by Honnre t.ou l*t to the company, on lot,, Nos. 128 and 125. ut Oreen point, town of Bushwick. Kings county... 3.030 Two mortgages, executed hy John K. Stinison and wife to the company, on four lots -ear Third ave nue, on I If ty- tit t li and 1'lfty-sixtli streets. New York, bond executed by Francis H. Campbell .. . 3,00 ? One mortgage, executed by J?hn h". Stimaon to '.he company, on a lot forty-three feet front, In the village of Cinajoharh Montgomery county, bond executed by Francis H. Campbell 000 One bond and mmtgage, executed by Ueni\> I!. I lersnn to Win. M Ilioinas, on a house and lot 19 'eel front on IJvingston street, Brooklyn I,rt0tl One bond and mortgage, executed by Joseph Tur ner to Win. M. rhomas, on a lot 2J feet i:out on lliird avenue, Brooklyn 200 One bond and mortgage executed by Win. Iksuly to Wm. M. Thomas, on a lot 22 feel front on Third avenue, hi ix'klyn 20 I One bond and mortgago. executed by llenj. Banks to Wm. M. Ihomar, on two lols 50 feet li out on Heventh street, Brooklyn 221 One lond and mortg t<iQ, executed by John R. Hurl but t> Winnlow L. Whiting, on a lot 25 feet front on Carlton avenue, Brooklyn ibo One bi n ! and mortgage, executed by Daniel 1). K?l lcy to Wluslm I,. VMiiting, on four lots fronting on I'niou i.nd Piesident streets. 50 feet front, Brooklyn 700 One t'ond and mmtgage. executed by l-idson < isborn and wife to the company, on four lots 100 feet tiont on Fifteenth street. Brooklyn 1200 One bond and mm tgage. executed by Samuel INire inu- to Kdson Osliorn, supposed to lie on property in Brooklyn l.tKKi ( ash on deposit v> i t h John fhoinpson 16.000 Total It appear* from 1 lie l'rwident'a testimony th.i theaum of Slti.tKO ha* born |wiil by. or advanced for, i?rt?iii person- ou account of stock to bo iaane I to thorn nod that llii- money hn? l>ecn deposited to tUo cro?lit of the nui puny with John Thompson. banker, and tint an atre< mcnt bud Ix-on made with Mr. Thompson to loan the monoy to the -tnrkholderM depositing tno ?anie. !i *uch wei o the facts. it would bo an ob?7oa* eiultn n the law; but according to Mr. Thompson's testimony, the transaction was simply a deposit by Mr. Whiting of hi* check a- 1'rcsidcnt. drawn on blank, lor $18, OW) in the following form:? No. May W, MM. fay o J i' men M. Thompson. or Ke^irer, Order, t:Lh <???? thousand dollar*, *18.0110. WIN SLOW 1,. WHITIXll, IV I or thi* cheek tho company receiTed a credit ?n tbo books of Mr. Thompson for $111,000. and the check wa held as an offset to the credit on the bonka, and Mr. Thompson denied all indebtedness to tho comj?ny. I 1hatef'>re consider and report that this it?m of $1A. POO it fictitious. and thai the company are not the owner* id any sum of money on dcpo-lt with John ThonipMin. the six William H. Clark mortgages for >.V2.'J00 are on lot? cu\eied with water. several feel in depth, neai Homp jie or H<?mpie? Hook. Brooklyn. The water at low tide. e*tond? a considerable distance north of the*o lo'a to ward* the city. Iljeir location with respect to high watei lino can lie found bv reference to a city map ol Itrooklyn. The searches accompanying these miingfroj ate not satisfactory evidence of title, or that there are no prior liena or encumbrances on the pmni<?. It ap peal* by the assessment roll of the Twelfth ward of 'tie city of Brooklyn. ?worn on the f'.ih day of Aug i?t, IRift, by hrra Haldwin and sotenteon otlier asse*sor< ol that city, that the w hole of the mortgages! premise* an- va lued by a majority of tho aaaewsor*, at the abrogate sum ol i nly tlflO. The as*e*-or? swear that they 'hnteos timated the ialu? of >aid real eiwte at tho tultii who )i the majoritv of the n**os*or* have decided to he the fail and true value thereof, and at which thoy wonld apprise (he ?ame in payment of a ju.it debt, due from a solvent debtor." These premises from thai rjocat ion have a <? m tingent and "iieculatire value for comntor ?- in 1 purpose*, but in my opinion are not worth at the present tiino over tho sum of >o 000. Tho tour mortgage* executed by Ferdinand f? Androw* Co?#r about six acre* ol woodland, partly cnt over, mi tiie 'CIoto ' road near the Penitentiary, and adjoining the division line ol the city of Brooklyn and the town of I latbii'h. It* aurfaee 1* irregular and 'inevon, bill the premifPtt command a very picture tie view of the stir rounding country. I have not examined all the docu ment* connected with thin title, but preaume that the title ii< gm?l and valid, the starch lor incumbrance* it not satisfactory I find that John Vamlerbilt and othoi*, Ataewora ol tiie town ol Fiath.ish. for the yaar 185.'> have /?ntimalod th" talue of one-half of the mortgaged pretnlvsH, assessed to Mr \ .i?>.crvoer, at tk*> ?nm of $7ft0 I '?.(Imati their talue at *ii00 per a<-t)?, ma mg ahuot $.1 000 11,e mortgage executed by Tliuwaa !*. H.blajd to: tCO.OOO iOV*r? thirty -aix lot? no?r the corner of Si?c?y ?evenlh stro. t and !*e> n;h avenue. New York, o? the aite of 'ho propo-ed pai k The \gltte of these pr< iune? a! 'he present 'im? 1 o.timaie at *"00 per lot. maknf ilu* acvr<>..t* about half the amount for which the m>itgge wa? o"o nr?. . Tho ,a? s. Hubbard tho uiortgjV< t ???iwj ? itlo to th' *e lot- 'rom <>1 rer WaKron ?h' t' ? an<ge ir'i-ei' r'i M>?o-- .r <t 'he premise ..t?u' < gb'y , ,r, f r I 1?1* it en he conveyed the same .to hi-i sod-Id -'aw, Euwai'd Byrne, through which, by several conveyances, the mortgagor attempts to trace his title. The abstract exhibited doe-, not show that the title ol Waldron ever became vested in the mortgager, or that it is clear of prior liens. The lots are now occupied by several Irish and tlerman !iiTC i - lies, living in .hantics, some of whom state that they have rented the premises of divert persons, an I othe s elaim ownership themselves. The mortgaged premise ? area portion .-f the lauds granted to the "freeholders and inhabitants of Ilarlem, alias Lancaster, upon the island of Manhattan," and their successors, by a- patent from Richard Nicolls, in May, 1600, and confirmed by a new patent from (iovernor Dong, in in ltlStl, and are known as the "Harlem Commons." tljr rliap. 115 of 'he laws of 18-0, (the preamble reciting that the freeholders of Harlem were entitled by the said patents to certain common lauds which were then lying waste and unpro ductive, and liable to bo sold under assessment- for open ing the avenr.es of New York,) {Jacobus Dyckintn and others were appointed trustees Tor the freeholders and inhabitants of Harlem, and declared to be aci/ed in fee simple of said common lands, with pmver to commence suits for obtaining possesion of said lands and to sell tho same at public or pri vate sale. The legal rights of any person then in posses sion of said common lands were not to be impaired or de stroyed by the act. 'in the JOth day jf April, 182.">, the said trustees conveyed the said Hur'.om Commons, or two hundred and ninety acres of the tame, to D. alloy Selilon. of New Yoik, excepting a piece in tho occupation Of Samuel and Oliver Waldron, but which doe-, not nppe ir to be the mortgaged premises. I tin I that Jacobus LHrcll man and others, trustees, Arc., for the freeholders of Har lem, about the year 18.5 commenced an action of eject ment against Oliver Waldion for premise; clalir ed by him orrthe Harlem Common:!, and that Waldron, in Con sideration ol'$17ft, on the 18th duy of August, 18-">, con reyed to the raid trustees all his right, title and interest to all and every piece or parcel Ot land situa ted within the limits of Harlem Commons. It would seem, tlieie foie, that Waldron. and not Byrne or his assigns, was in possession at this period. It appears by various dee Is ob record in the Register's ollicu at New York, that Dud ley f elden has conveyed the mortgaged ptcmisei to sev ? ral indit iduals. I'nder all these circumstances, I am of the opinion that Thomas S. Hubbard, the mortgagor, has no valid title to the premises mortgaged by hiui to Low rev D. Hart. 1 did not visit the land in the town of Hoosicl^juvered by the Jones mortgage; but 1 presume that xnevaluo thereof Is not over $1, 500. Mrs. Tampa Milliman Is the source of title, and the consideration of her conveyance to tlie mortgagors is $020. The abstract of title aOOOBI I anying the mortgage stales that the premises were as signed to Tampa Milliman in a partition suit, by which the e-tate of Thomas Milliman. her deceased husband, was divided among his heirs. On examination of those proceedings, it appears that the twenty-three acres em braced in this mortgage was not assigned to Tampa Milli man but were allotted to one of the sons, and also tli.it Mrs. Milllman's interest in the property was merely a dower right which was assigned to her out of other lands. The premises are also leased lands, subject to an antinal rent, and are encumbcred by two judgments, amounting to about $1,8A0. The balance of the mortgages, amounting to the ^uin ot $13,084. I ilid not deem it necessary (o examine in de tail. '1 lie l'ierson mortgage is on property encumbered by it prior mortgage ot $ .00. but the house and lot are worth mere than both encumbrances. Schedule C, hereto annexed, contains a list of all the mortgages ever held, or claimed to be held, by the company as capital. By schedule B you will notice that on the tils' day of June, ult., these mortgage! were re ceived by the company conditionally. A portion of these securities consisted of $50,000, Isaac O. Ilattietd's mort gages, of whose title a history is given in my report in tho case ol the Webster l ire insurance L'oinpirny. It appcurs that only $39,850 of the stock of the company has been issued, and tho persons making or assigning the mortgages have therefore beon paid only a part ol' the consociation of their transfers to the company, and might be regarded us still the equitable owners of a large portion of the stcui ities exhibited by the company as constituting its capital. Schedule A, ln-reto annexed, contains a list ol' the mortgages now claimed by the company as part of Itl capital, with a particular description ot the premises. 4c., tus. Schedule I) is an extinct troin the book of minutes, to whi. h I call your attention. Schedule E i a copy of the original list of subscribers to tho a to k of the company. Schedule Fit a list of the receipt- and disbur; emcnts of the company. Schedule <; is a lis' ol the ckliolder* of the company. Schedule I contains copies of several abstracts of title, affidavits of valn?, and other papers relating to the mortgages above-men tioned. The following is n summary statement of the condition of the com] any: ? Nominal c?| ital $150,000 <iu Probably Hood. 'llic twelve small bonds and mortgage- $l:t.0K4 0J The six Wm. 11. Clark mortgagee estimated at 0.003 Oil iho livi' Ferdinand L. Andrews mortgages, es timated at t ash on hand Office fixtures, maps, &c Isaac B, Wellington's note.... 1>. V. Freeman's note Balance due on Win. C. l.ynn'? note... Balance due from brokers Total ?ad. Six Wm. H. (lark mortpagi s 1 1\ e Ferdinand I.. Andrew* mortgages Thomas. S, Hubbard mortgage The Jines mortgage . Total I.ittlfl it i . Two loser disputed by the company. $1 000 00 Hem and lalniics, estimated ul I. two oft Unearned premiums, estimated at.. 7 000 00 ? $0,000 oa Stockholders 120.000 00 Total $138, 'too 00 Wm. H. Clark, Ferdinand Andrew* and Tboa. 8. Hub bard are liable to flic company on the bonds accompany ing their mortgage-, if the company issue stock to them for the full amount. The undersigned hereby reports that the assets of the National Exchange Insurance Company are insufficient to justify its c .ntinuance in business in 'he city of New York, and 'hat. in his opiniou, the public interests re quire the immediate dissolution of aid corporation WII.I.IAM HAK\'E-\ Commissioner, it -. Ai tw-T, Sept. 11. 1856. .1,0.10 00 , 8,267 -17 tiOO 00 500 00 :.oo oa 500 oo . 2,0tl0 00 $?.'8,0 )0 0 ) $17,-00 03 10,500 00 20,001 01 5 0 ?0 00 $*>1,70'J 0*1 Haion and Dixon's L>lnc. TO THB EDITOR OF THE Hi ll ALP. Although reference in constantly had to this lino, here are, perhaps, but few person" couipiiralively. acquainted with its locality, and le-- with it ?? history and ultimate adjustment. I Khali endeavor to give the readers of '.he iint.uji an insight Into both these matters. In tlie ' i>eci<lcatiou of limit* between the colonic of 1'ennsyhaiiia and Maryland, there was certainly plausi ble (round for contention, and the rival claims of tbe proprietaries formed a fruitful source of discontent to themselves aud atiuoynnce to the colonists. Whatever might have been the merit* of the case on either side. a long, vexatious, and bitter contest arose frcm the ftrat attempt to act upon the charter of Pennsylvania. After many ineffectual attempt* to adjust tbe summon limit* bc'ween the colonies. the matter* in dispute were re ferred to the I.ordsof the Committee of Trade and Plan tations; thee, after Ik a. ing both pai lien, made their 'port to King James II,, wbo, in November, 1086, by an order ol Council, determined the affair by ordering a dhision of the disputed territory, Hy the terms of this order, tbe tract Mng between t tie river and bsy of Iiela waie. ant a line from the latitude of Cape Henlopen to the fortieth degree of north latitude, was adjudge ! to he long to his Majesty. King James II, and the remainder of the disputed territory, (now a pa-t of the eastern shore ol Maryland i was assigned to lord Baltimore. Th order of Council wa-< not noted upon. In the meantime fre*h causes of contention aiore. which served n> complicate matters still more, tine of the original disputes wa . rrspecllng the fortieth de gree of north latin de, Maryland contending that theex piesrioulu itschaiter. -'to 'hi for lieth degn 1 . meant forty degree* complete' ? 'h Ajscmblr and proprietaries of Pennsylvania. on !heii part insisting that in the char ter ot I'enn-ylvania, the expression "to begin at the lie ginning ol the fortieili degree of north latitude ought to he construct to be where the thirty- ninth degree was completed." this dis lute involved a tract ol c iuntry nearly 6.000 s?l> ate mile> in extent: aud had It lieen assigned to l/mi Paltimoie. the superoces of Pennsylvania would have liet-n reduced neaily one-fourth. Thus matters weilt on until 17.'>2, when in August of that year a compromise was effected and commissioners appointed to 'determine, survey and mark the re?pec live boiudariea In controversy." The duty assigned to time commissioners wss to t rave the following lines: ? ? lb ginning at Cape Henlopcn. and thcnce due west to tbe ?e?tein Tie of the peninsula which lies upon Chesa peake bay, and as far westward as the exaet middle of that part of the peninsula where the said line is run,'' (hence north to the extriWM went part of a circle, twelve mile* .sdlus. Newcastle on the fVlaware tieing the cen tre. I rom thf tangent thus obtained a line due noiiii to the pawillcl 15 statute miles south ot Philadelphia, and thence by the extension of thi* parallel to tbe west i mi boundary of I'enn-ylvania. 'the commissioners met. but differing on some im port ant points, -cnaraled wlthont effecting anything. Difficulties created delays, whilst the inhabitants who In. I settled near the places where the lines weie -oppose 1 to run, were, in the meantime, -ubje -ted to vexatious de mands from both colonies, the ordinary process of Justice *as interrupted, snd the t'-nure of property rendered Insecure. In 17:r? the Penn family, de-irou- of closing the contro versy on the terms of the compromise of 17;W, instituted a suit in the Chnncerv of t.ieat Ilritain. In 17.f>0. the Lord Chancellor, Hardwick. de?ired that " the article, .f May 10, 1783, should be carried Into executb n, and That propei commi-- doners should lie appointed for that pur rose." The- e commlssionei s slso met, pursuant t'> ap pointment. November 16, 1780, l.ut dissgreod respecting the mide if extending the arc ot a circle around New castle, and like th< ir predecessors, separated without pei for ming snv part of their dirties. Twelve years again clap ed bi-fcre efficient attempts were made to close this tedious airalr. liuaily, in the respe-tive proprietaries agreed to employ Charles Mason and Jeremiah IHxon. two eminent mathematicians who forthwith trooe?.ed to the aeoonpUshmant of their tack of surveying and marking the MtixUrics between Pennsylvania, Maryland nnd I'elaware and thus ?losed a troubles* me colrnUJ lit jp. lion of eighty years. Although Mason and IMun determined tb? l>otinduries V?twoen the Mates just meadJone). it i- only Uj?t portion 01 the lin< whieh constitutes the sonthi astern boundary of Peno.syhania that is now so frequently referred to. Mason arid Hxon's line, proper, Mtttnds to a f ?oin* about forty mil'-e neat of the *'u-s]i>< hsuaa rive- .'n.( not to the wests. -n 1 ound* y rf 1 eausytvania. a* some imaglni^-thc V ? ugi.'o i of tba' t oiin("a'y ' <> on t the western <rrm ns'ien of Max n and IMxob's , i f, having be>n 1 , ??<' sewral ywr? ? U??ju?itly. II - FA VVHI. The Prohibitory Law. JUSTICE bTUART'8 DECISION IN TUB CASE OF JAMES WALLACE. COl'RT OK SPECIAL ssypioxs. 77, r r? i4< t?. Wallae*. ? The accused in Ikm .re this Court upon a complaint preferred at tlie ond IWs Hict I', lice. charging him with having -ol<l hall a. Biil <d rye whiskey in violation of the ' Act tor the prevention 01 Inti inperance, Pauperism and Crime." the case wan returned to the Special Sessions, In pun-iam- oi th? tol lowing section of the -Act to enlarge the jurisdiction of the Courts of General and Special Session* <h the I e.ice, in and for the city and county of New \..rk, the ac cused not having el-ted to be tried by the i^urtof ue ral Session*. at tho lime tixed tor him to do ?>: The Court ot General SeKBioiiH ol the 1 en ?? in ?inu i?> to city ?nd county of New York shall have power to I" deter mine unit iiuniall rdillg to HW, all COttip... lit" i -de m'anSi'. and "half ?sc ? Mcluslve juris. I . m m less Urn -aid Court ot Special Session# shall order auv ?'ieh complaint to be sent to t lie Court of Genet al s. -iui * ot Uio Peace; and unless lite accused. w hen nrresteil anil un. m. - tore the commuting maglsU'ate, sluill elect <1 1 ?? ni > ase lieard and determined by the Court of ??uner.il ? ??>ou ? '? Peace In anil for the city and county ol New York, anu it w hereby made the duty et' such magblrate, ui o.i -u " to inform the said accuscd oi the provisions ol tuts Be-' ion. When the case wus culled for trial the .ictt-ndeiis ap peared with counsel, Messrs. Tomllnson am' Taylor, and i einandeil to be tried by a jury of twelve rn?n. W hile the statute just read give- (with the exception t'o-.'e u imn.e) the Court of special Sessions of the Pen ??? '1 r ive ju risdiction of all misdemeanors? and any v". ihition ot the provisions of the Prohibitory Act, i >y ha' ?'-'t de clared to be si ? it confers 110 power to en panne! a in y ; and as there never has been any trials by i y in this Court, and clearly cannot 1m?. it is obv'n ti-ly tot ible that the accused can bo tried at this bar in the rrviui-.' he demands. In view of these facts, I am iisk. ?! to eier dsn the iliscretion conferted by the Act of A j ? i 1 I-., ..no end lie complaint to the Court of General << , ? r. a.nd thi* ?: rcotii.cd, first. for the teason that Wa'l??e mi *ook bin light's and the effect ot his elorl in when r ? jh' po lice justl'e; aud second, and mostly, upon ?ho v > ..ml hat, being charged with u criminal offence, he I r-'it'i tional right to be tried by a common am ja-y of the country? such a* tho General Sessions and '?> ? and Ter miner only have the right to empannel;am. :'urthm-, that he an avail him -ell of that light at any tl no? -v n up to the moment the liist wltncs for the |.e? > i sworn, any act of the Logi-la' ure tu t he contrary. no: wr.ti-'and.ng. Mr. Capron, of counsel for the proMCU ion. deninl my pow er to item) the case into the General Sessions, am. disputed the right of thedefcndunlto ujury, he having ..tiled tinMer the law in the case provided to secure tliat vign: ui the man ner prescribed. The-* questions having i u argued at length by counsel on 'lie one side and the o:he ..nil being both before a no nov. without nny iloub's in the matter, 1 will determine them in as bilef a manner a-> i< nble:? Hue the accused, boing charged with the perp"tr<tion ol a, misdemeanor, a constitutional right to u* tried by u juiy? even although the Legislature ha- ..therwi-e de clared? except upon certain conditions, wuliiii the de fendant failed to ob. ci ve, and which, th- .e o-e, do not now avail hltnV Art. 1, sec. 'Z of the coti- i-u' on of thU State provides thai "The right of tnai by jury in all cases in which It has heretofore been u-ml shall remain inviolate forever." The simple and only ones-ion then : in what cases has it heretofore been i>c. ? That it has ever been used in all cases ot felony ' certain. Is it i-oually true in leapect to misdemeanors ' IUs r upon principle and by force of law and usage ever oe-n re garded hs tho settled policy of the Stale in the adminis tration of Its ciiininal justice, that mUdomca-i i's as well as felonies should be subjects ot trial by jttiie ? all prac tice by speciui or local courts to the con' .uy I cing ex ceptions to the rule ? By reference from on. present to the next preceding constitution (1821 1 it w.' louna that section 2d of article 7th i- the same a- 'h< section I have read from the present organic law.' ol :ue Mate. The ad, however, entitled "Of the right- oi ;ie. itaenij and inhabitants of this State," known as the ' Hill of Hlghts," passed in lb?7. declaratory ol ce^'aiu lunla men'.al principles of liberty and Justi -e, and ot federal and State constitutional p.-ovuions? t.eng a compilation from these and frMB an ana luoous act of the tx-gisbituro in 17KT Conoem-1 in'g the rights of the citizens of thi <jt*te, not only u provision the same a- oar J WWt and! P'l ceding constitutions, hut still anolhe i t on, touch- ? fog the light of trial by jury, which is in the fellowing! language: ? In all criminal nrosecutioM the aoeased h.t.-tM i I ight to a speed v and piiblik' trial by an ini a 'i..! jury. '? (see. 14.) The argument thut this bill i f . gl ?- .- bul attl a ?? of the Legialatare, and tnay be ifecte I #j ny ribw*l ouent act, is admitted, bui answered by tho ic. tlnit inl Hi bBB4 rt , MM D< ? an '. Spirit, it is infini:- y D e Im] o-B ?an', -acred and end u ilng. than any othi r act, l ? ng th?B ct.lrinn recogniUon by tho LcrisUturc ? i ' truths and pnnclples ihat are the foiindat: i. ? !' ' ght notH only, bat wueh underlie the framework our goyero-B nunt. r.issing to the lir-t coustitution of oe Ute,B (1777,) we find the forty-Orst section to be i:l th?s<w woids --And this convention doth farther dnin, at. J lha; tii.ll ti^ jury ill all ca-e.- ill which i' k - he.' rofurM been naed In thla eolony of New Yerk aball reouln invio^B late tester. " By lefereuce to colonial !og.s.a.'ion upou ? the subject it will be found that in 1744 M act ?a<l ,.ah-ed entitled An A.-t tor the speedy puno-liinf.- ateH releasing such peisons Iiom iniprisoninei.t ai hnl com^B mil any criminal otic:. ce In the city and COOnty ot .\enfl York under the decree of gland larceny." rhl*Mt au-H thorized the trial of pel ty ollenders when in prison, hyH the Mayor, Hecorder and Aldermen, e. d may, wt'M the ouallllcation. perhaps, that a mea ure Ot this -Riiie powors were conferred in the cn?irter, by authority of .lames II., in the yen- H>88 be J iigarded as the oiyanlnation ol the pre sen ? irtB ot^ Special Sessions in this city. It wa< in ?iuile.? and has ever since tMseii MWWad, out ol a, ne? > c--ity to give speedy trials atiil a " jai o it m.e ? lo the great number of petty offenders h detent lo* te indictment, and the HOWWWd* ? U by jury J would so crowd tie prisons M that MUDfWml neei* to be discharged v?lthout any trial whav ret It i? her* t?? be remarked tliat this Act? an<l let if l?e oVi-erved^B too that alt Subsequent Acts for the j. ?: pettjH offender* without Jnrv? waa, and hav alwan tn-en, foM i he tiial of those who weie found in pnton, nnwil J lir.g or unable to give hall, and Mt . he pettjM offenders who ware out of prison on bail, -ubj".;!, tob* tried as time and circumstances would penatt ? "t'he^B in the Speciui Sessions if it wa- their b e e, and mfl Otherwise or in (ieneral essions, nccordUK to th<H course of the ommon law , where they u'.d be com J polled to api^ar and answer. Never, bejorc the *>'? ot April last, has the legislature made It ol igati j. >.nB dei any circumstances, tor persons upon hall to l.e t . ie? without a Jury at the ( ourt of stiec'al Set ions, and >? is now required while the recogni/Jiuce into wh h 'h-M enter is for their ujipearance at the General '? '>? U ? ii v, er any ImIiiIh) that mav lie pNMrrlM andaal them in Ihat Coiiit. Wallace gaye ball !?"? fore the Police .lu-tice, In the sum of I'lOO, tha' hB would appear and anawer to any Mldnnl upoa thiH charge atthet'ooit ol Ceneral talMlol the l'e.ic?H ii^ indeed theic i- no law authori/Jng the ouiinit unB magistrate t? let to ball te appearance to ensWei >? anv other Court. How it he refuses, cm the aoeu ' ? ba teeed to answer at the Special -onions ' I'bH question, more especially challenged by the '.eter. -e, i? whether from any euuse ? in prison OT | On ImiiI-M an Mtlfl d party can be tried by u sing!' ? g' not witli^B standing he. at the time he Is reiiulre.l to go upon hiH trial, pint eats again-t the tX'-reise of ?u h a ithor1?y anB demands that his guilt or Innocence shall he fo mil by H jury I do not think he can, but may at any time lmB to be tried by a jury and if refuel and is tried by thH Cowl agaitot Wa Will, lie can appeal from a judgment iH guilty to the Generul Sessions. Not only is this 'he Infl oi the land upon principle and con dilution.- 1 r'ghV liuB SO jealous lias the I^igl.-lature been of its adminiatratio H in tbis city that thev have secured it by statute. x-iM lions SiSth and 11 th ofarticle 2, title ."al, par' 4th. ""ouB vol Revised statutes provides, In treating - of Ocm ts iB > pi cial M' sion- in khe eity and county of New Yoi k H tint -lim pet tried and sentenced afcon inf to 'IB provisions of this article, without having demanded mcB trial, may appeal from such sentence to theComt '^l ( enetai session.- in the eity aud county oi New York. ? and further, thnl "such appeal must be made at the tin.H the -entence i? pronounce I; and thereupon such convr tion shall 1* void." I km-w vety well that ? ?iurt ? ol p-H cial Session- in counties of thi- state, other than '<B l itv and cou lit v of New Yoik. have the power to empnt ? nel juriee of six, but not of twelve person , bjt this ? not a " BMB lavi or constitutional jury, i r I a citin ? accused ot ctime. whether In tbis or any other county i H the Stale Is no more bound te be triert by a jury of an number less than twehe, than he is by three justices ? the peace or a single judge; he may ref.i?e all. >"? C?n at Ills will, lie MM by either. In a reeet ? opinion of .lodge Parker, at Albany In -he ca-e ? Kenreilv he. in the con-idcratlon of thi- Nbjeet, us H the folblwing language:? It Is declared by -he C.;n-titi ? Honor this Mate. tail. I, sec 2.) " The trial by jury ? all#?e." which it has l*tn heretofore n-ed. -bill r? ina ? inviolate ft?r ever." I he obvious meaning oft b- expre H fion - heretofore used is. ? hi use a> the fine of tl ? adoption Of the Constitution." What t- meant by tl ? expression, "trial l.y jury'' l'oe? it m> an te omm H law iury of twelve men, or s jury of sIt men. ?< provid. ? in a'tilal at Special So aions : I think the e .-.lo be i H doubt on this |?dat. If the la*i?lature mry reduce ? Jury In number to six they liave the ?anie right to i H daee the naniber to one and thus make ajwyol on- ? compliance with the requirement of the < onstitutmn ' ? this subject the Court . f Appeal- have recently e*nres? H an opinion. In Cruger vs. The Hudson Hiver hailro ? Company. iSKernan P.., l'.'k.t Johnson ? ttrm (a juiy) wl en spoken ol in connection -vltli trial ? jury, In the second section of the same article import* ? Iury of twelve men. whosi verdict is to le unsnimoi ? Such must lie it? acceptation to every one acquaint ? with the history of the ? ommon law. and aware ? ! H high estimation in which that institution, ?o conoUtnW ? ha ? for ?o long a period been held. ('??*'"" " I 44ti 7 State ve. <?x; fi Hmedes aad Marshall 1*4; 3 1 H ters It 44fi 7 4 Wheaton H., Wv!-3-4, 10 Uen. . Ii. 467 ? ? Kent's Coin 13). ?f then, this Court of -J~. iul S. ? Tious Is wilUt juii'dict on Mr the trial of #5 IU e. ? teason ot an inability to afford him -u h a jury ?. t ? constitution awards t>T tha trial of ell criminal "ffen. ? ? and hence the Hfth ?eelion of the act of April 1 ? for the enlargement of Its jurisdiction, and ie pi ? .Itance of which the complaint was hi. .ugh- nb. tl ? Coert, and by which Uie Police Juitice became deprh ? of the |H>wer conferred by the fourth section ?f the pi H blt'itoiy act. to h?.ld a Court of .-pecial -*?-bins lor t ? trial i f all rlolatlons of it? provisions, is. for practical ? pi i po-e?, lo thi- extent, inoperative? whe-e ?taall t ? ca?e go to be beard and determined, without en ount< H Ing danger or duM in respe. t to the legahty of trial' ? 1 nm right as to what i? nece.?ary to cout'itute a con* ? tutlona' jnrv (twelve men), which Walla<* daman ? and to whirh I think he Is entitled, he . lwirly oano - ? tried liy a single jiidgf . nor yel by the Special ->^i ? cieatoi by the a-t lor the suppression of ln*>mperan ? I aupei ism and crime; as those courts are to be 'On*li I ted. and to proceed the -ame in all res|s -t? a? ''ourta ? Special Sessions for the tiial of other nu?demean< ? throiiglionl the state, which of conrae would limit th H jmies in like manner to all peraons. Where, ti.en ?h I this ci mpl.iint be tiledr Clrarly In the Court of Gene H S? s? ions of Ihe Peace. In addition to th? rea?' n* ??>i, ? e<| for the direction this ca?e must take, is fie fact tl ? iftlie accused Is convicted of selling the quaatity ? liquor stated In the comiiUint, the Uw ?gains' whiei. I ? i? an offence al-o declares that in the convic Ian n ? lieside the penalty of Hue or imprlsonm?nt. all his Ml H liquor become* forfeited, and Is to be de?t royed. ? ?eenis to me. In view of both the law and the fain tl ? the accused ought not to be deprived of a trie! by a j ? of ihe co-intry. Thi- c,i?e will thereto'e be takaa Ii H the <peelal to the On' ral -Vssi. ns of the for ? I I, |ury t ?? .M I tl At r'ti wl! '' ?o'eie.l ? C Id er'j B