Newspaper of The New York Herald, October 17, 1855, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated October 17, 1855 Page 2
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THE MBIT MOVEMENTS OF THE ALLIES. VIEWS OF THE ENGLISH PRESS. raiE&OP ill fflMOLUEFF. Description of the Same from the Travel* In Sent hern Kuw*l.ui on?t the Crimea, by the Co out Anaiole tie Denilduff. [From the London Time*, Sept. 26.] TUB CZAH's VISIT TO TUB CRIMEA. For the Bret time since Lie sudden accession the Cue I? bow traversing liui vast and silent empire to tho neigh borhood of his great reverses. He is about to enter .Viet legion of his dominions which nature lias most highly tavuied, aud wliii h is one of the granar ies of the world. Although he will not penetrate into the Crimea to gaze from alar on the battle Held* of the past month-, and the mint deity, which is now in the hands of his enemies, he will not the less become acquainted with the horrors <uf war. What is tho state el the rich provinces which his unce-tors have wrested front the Forte, of the cities which received the produce of the south, and accumu lated the wealth which has been so lavishly spent on ar mies and toi l reuses V Almost from the latitude of Moscow he will begin to perceive the desolation of the land. Empty stalls and unsown ile'.ds will mark even the circumference of the great urea which has been drained lor war. As he advances he will look on every side over boundless ulains. from which not only carts and oxen, oorn and forage have been swept, but where men arc scarce and the serfs abandoned fami ly is tolling on a patch of ground, w hile its head Is far ?A, driving his own wagon, laden with his own produce to supply the insatiable wauls of a vast army, i'hei'zar of Russia have never been indillercnt to the materia prosperity of their land, for they have seen in it the only basis of tuture conquest. In these days the peasant and the trader are ncresssry to ihj soldier's maintenance and the resistance of Febastopol Itself was only made pos sible by the devtdopement which .southern Russia, in spite of fiscal restrictions, had received by commerce during a long reign of peace. The Lmperor Alexander may then well look with diunay on the exhaustion which will weak en hia armies and hamper his policy lor many a year, and reflect that the greatest rum is not at Sebastopol. The desolation wUl deepen until tho iuipetiai oquipago is within trie ramparts of .Mcbobiieff; but vain and shallow must the sovereign be whom the sight if tho strongest ami best stored arsenal could console for withered pros peiity and a decimate.d people. The defence of his second naval stronghold in the south will probably nowreceivo tho Czar's full attention j and, indeed, its dunger is suiheieut to shut out all other thoughts. Uul, If he lias time to reflect on the past, he may learn much tram the teachings of the present war, made more forcible to him by the scenes through which he bus par-sec. it is now little more than two years since his father, in defiance of right, occupied a province of a despised opponent. Nicholas neither wished for nor ex po. .ed war. lie was, in one senie, unprepared for it, for though his armies were always numerous and Ills fortres ses filled with stores, he woul 1 never have entered on a struggle with united Europe without complete and spe cial preparation*. He had so long been an arbiter to sovereigns that he could not conceive an independent, opinion among them, much less aimed oppoiltion to his power. England lie thought too busy, France too uistiacted, for war; that they should unite as allies and enforce a common object was an idea that his tory seemed to buni h. The Autocrat thought to attain his end, as ho hod often succeeded before, by a haughty .lemons nation of power, supporting a dipl >maey by turns menacing and subtle. His ariogunce, buwcv *r, hadrou ed Europe more ihanhis acts themselves. He had before on tared the I'linci; aUties, but not before avowedly u ? a son quercr; and it was long -ince the world bird seen an inva sion without even the decency of a pretext. It was now necessary to withstand Europe in War: for, if he receded, 1 a Russia in Etiropo. The there wan no longer a Cxar and a Russia in Europe. The spell would be broken which enchained princes and peo ples along so many thousand miles of frontier. He took his course with boldness, relying on tho weakness of his nearest enemy, uud hoping to crush tho Ottoman armies before moic powerful antagonists could arrive. How this hope was frustrated is now written in imperishable re coiils. Il'en tho I uuulic and iu the Crimea the fortune of war has been agairst tire Czar, the cum; aigtt ? iu Asia can afford liim but little consolation, it in difficult to say wiiich must be the more mortifying, the magnitude of his disasters or the pettiness of his surceases. The great losses in men and the facilities for future warfare which are iuvi lied in his defeat by the allies must be made u.ore bitter by the prospect that the force which he seat to Asia to cocnterbalance by its victories the reverses of Europe has for mouths been engaged iu IncJective hosti lities against the remains of last year's beaten army, re inforced only by a few hasty levies, neglected by the Ministers ot the forte and almost forgotten by Knglaud and France. V.'c ate well aware of the obstinacy of the Russian cha racter, and that in the Imperial family there Is at least one member who has all tho ambition of rotor ur Ni cholas, combined with ull the passions that uaiuiu' t the ignorance of the priests and the fanaticism of the people, the Russians, too, may lie said to care tittle about defeat, which, from Its constant recurrence, they look upon as a necessary accompaniment of all thoir wats. But, while it seems likely that tho successor of Nicholas will continue the contest that his father began, Europe need not fear that his horeditary policy will pre ?ail through any blindness on our psrt. Russia's invo lunlary entrance into a tienjicrate conflict. anJ the calatni tics she has since suffered, are iu no small degree due to the late Tzar's impet feet conception of t he moral changes which had taken place iu Europe, lit thought ht hiul merely tu do v.ith st'UetiU'H, and ?f that had tarn !/>? cas he might hare hon tuovsJut; hat it prooat lh<i' tht pro pi on iAii great oeeatun was i'a own l't inte Minister, lie thought there must ever be two adverse I'owers in Western Europe, and two adverse parties iu the British Parliament, ilow such expectations have bettl deceived may be a lesson to his son not to trust a policy because H was Ruseessful in times from which our mvn differ so much. If he will now recede from a desperate contest Mu give guarantees to E urope, he may live to reign re spected and lead his empire into a new path of greatness. NIKOLAI EPF. Nikolaleff, to visit wiiich the Emperor Alexander II. left St. Petersburg, and where be probably now is, has, ?ince the spring, listen the heal' of a camp of reserve for Prince Gnrtcltakoff's army in the Crimea. In May ltst it wot commonly said that there were <10,000 troops there. For some lime litis camp has not boon much spoken of, hut the plat e has sgaiu lieen brOMght into notice by a Statement in which undue prominence but been given, and which could only have been penned iu the remote in terior of Central Germany, viz.: that tho Russian gov ernment had resolved to make Nlkoiaiaff replace He bus - topol. About two months ago, when the operations of the Allies lu the S-ea of Azodf were exciting expectations of furtler naval exploits in the East, tho well-known im portance of Nikolaleff?the cradle ot the Black Hoa navy ?pointed it out at once as a desirable object of attack. The cliitf question to be considered was. whether its arsenals anil dockyards were not effectually secured from naval aggression by the shallowness of the river in which they are situated, and which has so lit'le depth of water that the Russian ships built at Nikolaleff can only reach the sea by the aid of Hunting machines, This fact must be entirely overlooked When it is said that Nikolaleff is to become "a second Bebastopol;" a phrase which can mean nothing unless that port is to afford shelter to a Russian l'.eet. and serve as the b* is of naval operations in time of war. The suggested removal of the establish ment at Nikoisieif to amne point nearer to or within tho Umanof the Enioper, since it would briog them nearer to the enemy, would lie a measure in opposition to the principles by which the navtl authorities of Russia have governed their conduct throughout the war. [From tlio Illustrated I/)ndon News.] MORK WORK IN TIIE BLACK SEA. It will be soon fri.m tbc letter of our active and intelli gent correspondent In tli* Crlmon, who was the flret to communicate to the British public a detailed account of the gloriou* triumph of the 8th of Heptember, that he consoler* the great question of preponderance in tho Black See to have been finally and irrevocably derided by the capture of the MahiknfT, the evacuation of "telissto Cl, and the destruction ot tho Russian llnet. This oplu 1 is a very general otto, in Great Rritnin, in Franco, and throughout the Continent of Kurone: yet It doe* not aeem as If it were one in which the rittperor of Russia participated. Neither do the well informed diplomatists of Vienna consider the third point, which was the etumbllng bloek of the conference*, to have been cleared frtro the way by the destruction of the fleet In the harbor of Febantopol, or the work of the allies to be so uesr completion, a*, in the first outburst of entliusii'in, it woe proclaimed to be. And while we share to (be fullest extent the confident opinion of the European public, that the naval power of Russia in the Bla^k Sea I* vir tually destroyed bv the splendid victory of the 8th Instant, we ore no less thoroughly convinced that not one but many blow* have yet to be struck, before the great boa constrictor be "finally and irrevocably dls poeed of," and before the allies can say to themselves with a safe ronscience that their work is done. The first object to be accomplished, if Prtnca Gortecha koff do not surrender, will be the destruction or capture of the northern forte of Hobaetopol, and the defeat of the Russian army. now in strong position on the Mackenzie ridge and the heights of the Tche-naya. Prince (Inrtsrhokog will show himself to tie a man of real and high military genius If, without surrendering, he can manage to rescue his forces' in the Crimea from the tolls and snares that surround him. In every attack which he ha* ventured to mskt or receive he lias been defeated, i. Inkettnsn, Tchernaya. Bebsstopol, all tell the same -victory and glory for the allies, defeat and humilia tion for the Russian*. In the next battle, come when It will?and It* hour and place are in the dictation of Gene ral* I'eliseier ami t-'imneon?the result will be the same. The rewai d of the allies will be tm?*e.,,nu of the entire peninsula of the Crimea. No well-Informed person out of Russia? not even Prince GortscliokotT?can seriously doubt this consummation. and we believe that there are very few within Ite boundaite* who know anything o what is passing In the world's arena who are not of the name opinion. The Czar Alexander, the Grand Duke Con stentine Count Nesselrode. and all who surround the imperial person and contribute hy their advice to govern the actions and the policy of the Russian gore-nment. must know that the next great victory of the allies will eeal the doom of the Crimea. They mast also know enough, hy this lime, of the resources, the courage anl the genius of the Powers opposed to them, to indulge hut hint hopes o> being able to realise the once proud boas', of Menscliikolf, of driving them lgnoniiuiously into the eea. They most know. In fact, that, as regards the Crl snea. the great game is nearly played out, ami that D Is utterly luiposetole tint Russia can win It, except, Imlool, on the supposition that the allied General* should commit nome huge ami fatuous blundyr, of which Prince Gorts rhakoE might hav? sense and means to take advantage. Bat no one will do the allied r- mtnanders so gratuitous and malicious an injustice If their game to impatient sibasrver* in Great Britain and Prince has appeared slow, event* bare proved that It was sure. Every move zra* well calculated, every slight reverse wis turned to account, snd every victory wss made the prelude of a , Humph still greater. No It will Continue to be, till the whole Crimea is conquered, snd Prince GortsohakotTs a my is either annihilated or forced to capitulate. Rut will all thl' sit He the third point" and will not the preponderance of Rur'ia in the Black "V*. destroyed in tfbaslopol, be mired beyond the limits of the Cruataf It hu not NMMd the knowledge of the Western rowers ** ' ~ " etopoi we that Sebaatopol wee but one of the Russian wer harbors in the Kuxine?the meet formidable to the Independence and security of the Ottoman empire, because the nearest to the Bospnorus?but by no means the only port and citadel which the Czars might use for purposes of ag gression; to shelter new armaments; to inlllct. when op portunity offered, new surprises upon Turkey and on Europe, and new muidersand massacres, as treacherous and cowardly us that of hinope. At no great distance eastward from Odessa?which, had our Ministry for the time had their hearts in their work, they would hare or deied to be levelled with the ground?exist the towns of Kherson and Nikutuloff; the one upon the Ihiieper, the other upon the Hug, anu both huviugjeusy communication with ihe Black Ijea. When the third point was under di.-cu-sion in Vienna, it was icpre-ented to the Ministers of (i'ie?t Britain and F.ance that it would be inadvisable to consent too Lustily to any pr< position for limiting the naval power ol Russia to the number of ships-ol-wur then actuuily afloat In the Black boa, inasmuch as the ve-scl.s then confined in the harbor of Sebastopol, uu<l supposed to be the whole naval force of Kufsia, might tuiu out to bo only a poition of her armament i, and that u fleet us large, or still larger, might be concealed in the huibotsoi Kherson or Kikoiulefl?two places of which the Western Powers knew absolutely nothing be Trend the mrre fact of their existence as sh wn by the map. It was also represented to them as a hint which might bo ol ser vice, that in Russian official licu inents thure appeared only two fortified places, which weTe walked ol' the lirctiuuk and strength, or in cuin mercial and mariliu.c phraseology, us A J; snd'hat the e were L'ronstudt and Kherson, and thai debastopol, strung as it was known to be, ranked us a fortified place ax'1 harbour of the second class only. We now learn that almost immediatolv after receiving in clligenee ol tho destruction ol Ids fleet In the harbor of Sebu .topol, tho t/.ar, who had previously resolved to visit Warsaw, altered his plans, and went to Moscow, and despatched his brother, tho f.'rund Puke Constantino, land High Admiial of 1he Russian navy, to N'ikolateU. It is owing to the energy of this prince that Croustadt has been so greatly stieng hened, anil that it has become, if not actually impregnable, the most formidiblo fortress iu tho world. It is thus evident that Nikoluieff is con sidered in danger. The ablo correspondent of the Tiroes at Vienna stutes that it is not doubted in that capital "that a considerable part ol the Russian fleet is tafe and sound in the Bug, which is cxttemcly broad and without islands at Its emhouchure. lire lugul falls into the Rug at Niknlaielf, and tho last-mentioned river is so deep that men-of-war esn be moored close to tho admiralty." The same writer also states that "40,000 Russian militia men are asst mbled in the neighborhood of Mk jlaiell and Kherson, and that an Odessa correspondent observes that the Russian government showed its wisdom when, twenty-seven years ago. It made NTcolaieff the principal depot and dockyard for the Russian fleet." Russia will uot, wo may be sure, relinquish her naval supiemaey in tho Kuxine?the dearest dioani of her am bition for more than a century?without a far wore de.i perate struggle than tbat which approaches its close in tho Ciimea. It may, therefore, he con iderod certain that our magnificent fleet in the Kuxine has plenty of wink before it. 'Ilio Czar will not, he says, sue fi.r peace ' * - - - of the a upon a single defeat, ft is tho business of the allies to try what a second will accomplish; and it that should prove Inoperative in bringing him to the peaceful frauie of mind which would give p.ace to Europe, to try the effect ol a third. Had Odessa not been spared ft is probable tbat the task to be uccowplisbod at Nikolaii-IT and Kherson would have been etsier of aeccomplishmnut than it is now likely to he; but, easy or difficult, we are confident that the resources of tho allies are equal to un dertake it. If they do undertake it, we are equally con dent itat they wi'l add n new victory to their arms, and a new name to their banners. Tho gallant French?and we do not grudge it In them?have carried off all, or near ly all, the glory of the day at Febastopol. Let the Kng hsli outshine that glory, or at least equal it beloro Niko lai oil nufl hhcrsoh, and the naval power of Russia will receive its coup degr&ct. If the Czar will not yield upon pure compulsion, the only means left to tho allies is to. try whether he will yield from pure exhaustion. They have and can buve, no wish to carry on the war for pur pores of veiigennre. What they require fi. security in ihe first place, anil possibly indemnification In the second. If Ihe Tubing of Sebartopol will not work to peaceful ends, the taking of Nikolaielf and Kherson must be able to help it. 'ihe game of courtesy uuil forbearance lias been pluyed too long, and the Wester n Powers cannot consent to the same terms of peace at tho present moment whi -h they might liave.nccepted in April. For these, and a thou sand other reasons, we anticipate not only issue of buttle I el wren the opposing forces iu the field, In which English nun will expect their Generals to wipe off the discrodit which hcfi lour arms at the Pedum hut a naval attack en the principal Black .-e? depot of the enemy. [From Count Eemidoff ] , NIKOI.AIEFF. Odesaawaa noon out of sight, and we began to enter upon tho stcppea in real earnest. VVe do not lind here as in Eessarabia, those valloy*. looking like 1 mg waves of land; the rtcppe of Southern Kuasia ia level, smooth, free from Irregularities, stretching out, without anir visible vsnation, till Its Horlv.on is blended with that of the sea. A few long lines of khourgnus, those conical rite ' JTv!' wc have alreadJT spokeu, communi cate w ith each othor across thli dull and dreary waste In vain do you bono that, travelling so rapidly, ,?u' will soon see the end of the great disc which surrLunds you, the prospect la ever the same?bare, parched and desolate: the doners, which in the spring (doom over these uncultivated tracts, had long since disappear ed beneath the withering breath of a burning summer; and wc might have said with Ilubruiiuls, the traveller who crossed these plains in the 15th century?nulla ri, tj/lra, rnilluc mens, null tit la/ u?not a tree,'not a hill no even a stone. Kv.m these de orts, however, had oil ret united t he effects of the !? mpcror's arrival; the sands awaited his presence no less than the cities; iu some ? Sola* i'ud.,!,een levelled, and the ruts and hr llows bl.cd up. The post houses were rrsplondent I turf ?? ?f Iwhu,'w'"ih> "ud 1" "JP ab -anco of I 1' iIm'"1' rakc'' P?und in front of the doors cimq leted the holiday appearsuce. Add to this an im ? li'm n"'"ljfr "f h"rses dispersed over the plain in the neighborhood of esrh station, and you will have an idea | of the extraordinary animation pervading the steppes. 1? ween the stages posts are seen carefully erected at the end ot every verst. These posts are painted with the loloisol the empire, on ono side is inscribed the ni m.icr of veista from the last station; on the other the "- V0 e a"*4" No,h'"ff c"n 8've a better idua or the strange and mouott nous level ol the steppe than the tact that almost always, from our low carriage wc could see two of these posts in front of uh and two' be , f ..;.mM inK ia (or lour Te,rt?) as the diameter ot the circle dwceibed around us by this unchanging horizon. The slight car which we had lound tolerably ZTZV ? m' . <??"??? ut WaUachia, had becomj perlectly insupportable on this hard and parched wo's.HfTrrcH ^"rt?M th\* ,J\? "n*y infliction under which w< suffered; If you should happen to be tormented with thirst (and how avoid it with at least 28 degree* I!1*'""?"] "1 heat and clouds of dust f) the people In the villages have nothing to offer you but stinking hrt h?"?Tn pUtliid U,e very barrel ln wl'ich it is enn h V ,b,<>"VPn knows lrom *hat distance. Nothing few ^lW^L'in aPr?ear..n. e than the rli .T r? ,nct *1,h"lnng th <e roads. Hut of what advantage is It to these inhabitants to live In the midst of fertile lands when thoy are deprived of every nect srary of life y Without shelter against I S w th no other comfort than a tolerably solid houso, tliough lo*t in the mi<M of thin immense sp i^c, at the cost of how much toil and suffering must they procure the bread which they eat, .be pufrld w^rXy Srin? Sarm Hs?an j ,,I,aP'?nU "f K,ubW<! a,ld mud which lov. r ^ . . , , wln,er!' -A'mI to such as these life is Indeed hard I Hut Heaven, which has refused them ^ver^evi?Ntf, has given them the courage l? endure | About mid-day our route began to incline away from the sen. and we struck across the plain In a north wh'rhVatCn,rn' tOWfrrdl th<" grr,t city of fikolaleff ml Ufa J V V"i!? ,lm? a r,ort' and " justly renown... dil.Ti rcn,"' Toward? live o'clock we iame upon ot Uu Rn, T.?na.' by the united waters hL . K ,. tl?c Ingoul?these rivers joining on the oppose hank, a little above the spot wharf ? * Oisi. Vxactly at the continence of th-two s-rean* ?fill S une*l,,,aI. breadth, stands MkoUieff, which wail embark" ? m tho plllcc *he"> we intended to dis A number of carts drawn by oxen were waitinir Ihelr turn to bo enrriedjovor; and we were three-quarters of an hour crossing the limsuofthe Iking, hy means of a very primitive contrivance. A rone made fast to the bank, on either aide, continually dips in the water the "ZZ\gh T?, thf ron,T' ,h" the alow ^c'bf? advances. The bank ou which Nlkolaleff stands is on a higher level, and presented the prospect of a number of Jhe property of the crown, f.llcsl ureas oitOfc?' i if".? woro Panted for tho Kin. resolved til i cc Totnmk.lu, at the time she resolved to visit her new provinces. lh? landing place ?? 'Y a *ar ^hooner in perfect order. On ef wH f 1 m, u" WP f"u'"' 00melvas in the mi.lst of a cr- wd of soldiers, women, and Herman colonists recow The cTJ1*;? ,Y ,he'r ^ naturad- tra"'"uU' stsn.e i , n il i j! aHKPn,hlogo was no less a eircura rci ? I n . 'he landing Ol a cargo of pas tecs, the favorite retieshmcnt ot the people of this coun-ry. The Hermans id" aJtU"i' r"iUgh,t, "?V'ra! cart '?""h' "f them. We halt wi, at in ihe rani of nn inn of re<pfcUl>!e ai> ^oUU^. *iin*M tn ona of lh? Principal utroeti of iB,?hi^*r,m?.rM ,b,:,"n,T thing we conld appr-.ve of in thtff inn. While awaiting our nupt?er, which ?li.l n it act appear likely to make Its appearance^rv r? ,Sv we strolled ihrough the handsome and spacious town we had Just antered. At the first glance everything hUs m imposing and grand ?p|s arance. The streets, planned X'n. a? ?an'lC 1ca'';M ,n a" "usslan town,, Hrl W7 turniahwl with houses, but the grandeur of their Inthn t rr?mu'"'" ,mo? tllan u l?erforms; palaces without, they are hovels within. IV immense, width of the street, (a.silent strictuie, though exaggerate.1 on the cities of the Wwstl leaves the inhabitant too much expswed to the ?un, the wind, the du?t and the mad As for the public squares, on which a battle might be fought, no one would think of crossing them exeevt during the fine season. Notwithstanding thT pK "bio exaggeration in ihe site of its streets, Nikotaieff we reiwat, pre-ents a very majestic appearance, and is 'well worthy of its |xrtl(ion as a naval arsenal. The town Is n?t yet completely finished; in more than one quarter a nUn1!^..^ h"fM*s rather fndlonte than carry out the ;i v ;rk Th" p?pul?tion of tliia port amounts be sn., i boosR'.d inhabitants, and consists, as may wvE'M: cUilP '?""vlHu.f. connected vlith the ?are out* .'tT n2< *. "a, a' "hblkhmiiit, of wiiich wa Z\l I , J" jn'^ tr"m a very pretty prome "!ioul appears^* -verlmkiog the moutl, of ssr^SrS^^'W -y; limsn of thh lkiug by mean, br''"*ht ,n,? ,b" calkxl camels, first i'mr.-iuced w# be{ill? kU" tfsns. In the present day ThiM ,^'^?'. ^ ,U'" V"n even a-e Uunched froj tbe^k^, at vi^.'uw whence thqy proeee.1 to Sebnsp.p.l tJbr n.!(,, b',' any extraneous assistance whatever. without it is impossible to conceive . biiit.u?? . . . adapted for Its i urposes than this Is. Nikou'ew i. clenfly protected agalnt any attack hv Ita sftnattaB m far iufand. and at the extremity of a torf..o?! P ** 11taTvrtd as regards the supply M mnteo*u! Although the Boug, whose course is obstructed hj oatetania, is not suited to the floating of timber, Nico laieff reeetves timber, hemp end tar by the Dnieper, which flows, together with the Boug, into the deep bay called the Iiman of the Dnieper. This bay, sheltered from the waves of the open sea, if not from the winds, is navigable by the large rafts which peacefully descend the course of the Dnieper. In a word, the positisn of Xikolsisff does honor to the krnn glance of l'otemkln, the institator of so man^r great things in this empire, of which he understood the capabilities. It was impossible, in truth, to And a more suitable spot tor the establishment of a building yard, or one bo favorably situated in connection with the docks of b'ebaatopol. These two ports, formed by the hand of nature, perfected by human skill, and bound to gether by community of interests, must have been em braced In the plains of the groat Empress, who felt the importance of a powerful navy upon the Black r'ea. We were informed lb at I he hidden enemy of the shipping in the hay of s'etastopol. the devouriug worm whirh cats into nil timber beneath the suifaco of the waves, was not less destructive to vessels built and launched at Niko laicir. We do not a-seit this, liowover, as a fact, our in foimant not being a pretestional man; but it is light to observe Unit ibis unfavorable character given to the port of Nicolaicil would seem to be borne out by certain ob servations formerly published relative to this interesting locality. J'c an while we were well plea-id to eke out the eve ning beneath the tin s of the long walk to which chance Lad led our steps: the moon had rlsi 11 calm and brilliant, and her magic light v.as spread over the great harbor, and illuiuiuutcd several fine ships ol war anchored close In shore, amlalmost at our very feet. PEREKOP. At the end of this monotonous route, of which, for lack of sleep, we had to onduro all the touium, we ar rived, on the 14th of i-'eptenber, In the town, or rather large village, which is the portal of the Crimea, and is culled l'erekop. Before Taurldu became a Russian pro vince, this village bore a name replete with Eastern grandiloquence, Or-Gapy?the Royal Gate. It was thus thut the tartars designated the sufficiently insignificant entrance to an entrenchment dividing the isthmus and uniting the two sens. After crossing a bridge over the deep but much di la pi dated ditch, which is still in exist inee, the traveller Is in l'erekop. It consists of one sin gle street, which, from its breadth, might bo called a square. To the right and to the left may bo seen a tole tablc number ol houses, standing at wide distances from each other, ihe most salient of which consists of no more than a ground floor, coveied with a roofing of planks or reeks: ye*, notwithstanding its wretched ap pearance, the advantages of its position, give to this vil lage a special degree ot importance. Perekop i t the en trance gate to the government of Taut Ida, and tlic en trenchment, by which the peninrul ais closed and iso lated. Its present name, derived from a Russian word, signifying a trench between two seas, exactly describes its position in the geography of Tauridn. l'erekop is also a central customs station, where an active regula tive influence is exerted on the immense exportation of suit from the nefghboiing sens and the lakes of the peuinsuln. All there administrative functions, however, tend in no way to relieve the melancholy of the sur rounding .'all-impregnated steppe, which still retains the evidences of its submersion at some remote period. Herodotus, Strabo and Bliny have expressed the opinion thai in former ages Tnurida was separated I'rora the con tinent; and the character of the soil of the isthmus is not repugnant to this hypothesis. Its level is so low, that, tu rn the centre ot the passage aercss it, which is as much as seven vcrsts in lengih, one might fancy one's self hi low the level of the two cess, fhe: ivaclie threatens you on the erst and the Black Beaon the west. A glance at 1 he position of the peninsula on a map will suffice to perceive the-ti iking difference between the outlines of the sea and of tlio l.rke. The putrid lake, whose waves sink powerless upon a low beach, exhibits, in tlio out line of its shores, r thousand fantastic and varying con tort ions. The Pluck Sea, on the contrary, lying in a deeo bed. presents n Steady and more even one of Crerekop in iiihabiied chiefly by the sorvar.is of the government and by a great number ol Jews, wh"> almu Son tlie.n, elves with delight to all tl.e.r native uudeui lircss. We should be much astonished to be told ton IbiH was one of the most commendable -ituatiotis, tna sa nitary point o! view. The viscous sea lying so close to Uievlllaice. constantly heated to the very bottom o Its ,limy bed, gives f. rth. according to certain travellers, a miasma injurious to the quality of tlie surrounulng ut most here. In the estimable work of M. Montamlon, already onoted by ne, we find, however, a contrary opi nion (xpressed. 'this writer points out Pcrekop as a par ticulavly healthy f pot, In the teeth of all contrary pre judice. that which is certainly true, without entering into n discussion as to Its deleterious eltects, Is, that this nutiid sen is, for the whole of this country, a great source of trade and movement. On its shores, end on those < 1 the r.lghboring lakes, a considerable quantity of salt is gathered, constituting an impoitaot item of reve nue to the govei nmeut. This produce, which i? collect ed duiine the summer, ia oonveyed m every direction, even to the centre of the empire, by long caravans, of which we never paw a greater number or any mote plentifully laden and picturesque in appearance th n a the narrow Isthmus of l'erekop; they are tin r wheebd lleets of tie steppe. There la a custom p< r to the To'ors, which consists in harnessing their di ?"> dariesto their wagons. These animals are of an admi rable biccd and grow to a very large size; they appear, for the meat part, obedient to the voice ol their matte tome caiea. hi wevnr, aie rtdated, in which dromedfttws have her owe infuriated witli rage, and have almost do vouied their drivers. 'Ibis species oi team has an im niiipc apccaiance; tlie two powerful iiniiuals udvance at u plow and measured pace, drawing, without appa rent ?flort, the heavily laden mndgiars of the Tatar*. The vehicle so called is on four wheels; its sides are o solidly constructed hurdles, nud the whole is covered with a kind of thick lelt ntn-tc ot camels' hair. The au-t teie and primitive forms of this simple car would lend one lo conjecture that Its antiquity Is remote, and tb.it it may have been handed down from the nomadic Scythians, who lived in ruch vehicles?itinerant dwellings?oucrum j>lauftrn tupos rile trakunl dmiua, pays lli nice. In the present day tins Is practised by the Nogs is. who prefer, in their vagrant mode ofli.e, the covering ot the inadgiar to the permanent shelter of a l'erekop the route advances rapidly toward" the ?r nth, and almost on Marling a considerable town is met with. Atmianskoi-liazar, as ita name denotes, is a market held by Armenians. Every article of utility to the carrieis. Who come to obtain "tit, all appurtenances and neces-ailea of the wheelwiight ami ha.ness maker, are found collected together in this entrepot of industry, and tlie inevitable demand Tor them must render them a certain source of profit. 1'asplng till" S|ot the road continues over the steppe, and the traveller begins to inquire where in the world can bo that Taurida wli (0 plctuiesquo beauties It is Impossible to speak of, but -n allusion to rustic Helvetia and to fuir Italy will perfume creep into tlie lauentorv idirase. 'lhc tact is, that the portion of the peninsula tenowned for Its beautiful sceneiylies quite in a remote region, on cither aUpool its rich anil jlctuvesque border of mountains, 'lite noitliern slope, li-ing more gently than iho other, la replete with beautiful spots; but the southern declivity, of a nunc abrupt chaiacter, presents within a sP narrowly confit ed dy the sea, nil the beauties of the linost and most grncelul scenery. Without adopting the some what satirical view of the English traveller, who c. i parr s the t"iimea to a desk spread out. and its beautli il gardens in the south to a narrow border of lake, we will sav, thai though lhc pur'ion of her pplendora which nature bus allotted to it bo scanty, it is nevertheless cimplete. It Is as though she had placed at the ex tremity of these interminable plains this enchanting cbain of rocks and verdure In order to show to tho. e who lleck .hither from ntar, for once in their lives, fo rests, sparkling iptlngs, and aU the romantic beauty of mountain sceoery. Thus, then, as far as the environs of Simpheropol, e lor nearly two-thirds ot the breadth of the Crimea, fro .1 north to south, wc have the same extent of plain aa be fore, only, if possible, more level still, traversed bv en. less caravans, dotted with a few villages, and lined ovc to a greater extent than in any previous instance, 0, numerous khourgans, arranged in an order evidently denoting feme system of correspondence. For Instance ? .mc rows may be observod, comprising from four to seven of these tumuli forming line-, each taking a pecu liar direction. We are not aware whether the skilful engineer* who constructed the recent map of Russia, called the ordnance map?an excellent w<* and wor thy in all particulars the distinguished merits of that corps of officers?have takeu notice of all these khour gans, which must frequently have cotne into use in the coune of their surveying operations. A special map, shewing the situation and capricious arrangement of these innumerable elevations, which are found so close ly ranged together, from the plateaux of the lion to the revion* In the neighborhood of Taurida, and which branch olt thence, like distant sentinels, as far aa the banks of the l'anube, the confines of I'oiand, and the north of Russia. would undoubtedly present an ample Held for study and speculation. Whether these tumuli are simple tcmbs, or whether in the 1 emote time* from

which they are handed down, they served some now un- 1 known purpose, It is nevertheless a tact, that on the I steppe of the Crimea their utility is still recognized. The herds, when they have to call together tlie horses and dromedaries under their charge, statim themselves upon their summits to command a view of the surrounding 1 lain, and withlo a recent period, a line of telegraphic communication ha* been established across the peninsu la. taking advantage of these ancient observatories. Theatre* and Kxhlbltlone. BRosnwat TinutRB.?The same attractive bill which was gWen here lest evening la to be repea'ed to night. It emprises the tragedy of ? MeUmora, 'and theextrava ganta of the ' Wandering Minstrel," Mr. Forrest appear ing *a Metnmora. Nimo'b fisBt'SS?Rr is tow's popular opera of "Rip Van Winkle" will be repeated tonight, Mr. Hvirison, Mr. fcnetton and Miss I/rolea l'yne sustaining the principal roles. Bowmv Tmuv**.?The beautiful nlay of "The Wife" will be the commencing feature this evening, and th dmtna styled the "Miller'* Maid" Will elose all. Tin '"Bi'tnvoihr'Ttusriiv.?The comic musical piece of "John of T'arls" will be produced to night. The ce?t embracoi the name* or Miss Pur and, Mr. Burton, Mr. Holaran and Mr. l.ystcr. "Hill Water Runs Deep" will also tie played. WjHiaor'sThsatr*.?The comedies of A lady in Diffi culties" and a '-i'retty i'lece of B?*lnes?," are to lie play ed to-night, together with the farce of the "Secret." MBTnnroi its* Theatrk.? Mile. Rschel Is announced to appear as Adrlenne to night, in the popular piece entitled "Acrtenne laenuvreur." , ^ _ Wood's Mivwnnne?The farce of - tine Th"irsanl Mllll neis," t( gather eitli the usual negro |icrformances, com prise the Till for to night. BviKlJtv'sSWiR<At>?J'S.?The opera of the "Bohemian filrl" has made quite a hit. It will be repented this even rot. to RooVR.?To-night is positively th? last hit one of Mr*. Alex. tilths' eoter1aium?nt. as she is to com mence in Newark on Monday next. Ma- i'onivs. the popular lrrsh comedisn. snnotinees a very attractive programme lor this evening at Niblo's "rxuir. MrAti tt-irR continues at Mechanics' Mali. A good MR for to-night. A</towv Han ?The AINghsnivne will sing again tills evening In connection with the exhibition of the ?' Bat tle ot Bunker Hill." Su,th ? I'ajk fama or fiDASTort L iastlll on exliiblMon *t 1 Empire 11*11 Tk* ljew r*"* Um CtaiWtaWi tat Attorney G?a?nl of the SuU. MB. THUMB OFINION. N*w York, Oct. 3,1845. . , au tn In PEW JUNM, vut. <' vsti ?*n ?Your letter asking my opinion* as to the ......ted in thin state, and entitled "An act law recently i?t?mn?rance. Pauperism and s arasas - ^cvrr=^>a srssr which 1 tare t, largely occupy Am ?wL. ofthielwtor^ 7?f.rt largely occupy me auennun ui v"i? dc.ee, In fact, larg y pj ,on m rttat,ng 1nder tif,I ( 'rwMch have leeu expressed to ho many to you opinion* ? erfod a8 to protect me Ironi MlV hZ'lK the present exigency, J 7a ami for mo long a pertoa as to pruu?c?. ?u? i POINDS ?d for io long ^ the pie^nt exigency, Vwhfch accord Entirely with the rufc* for construing * and federative constitutions, the principles ot econ^iny, and the convictions' an to the proper 'ohcre of K' .vernment by which my political acUon ha* , a a-y a. ] e. ?]: ?? .fKaa.ayt^^'lS^ i cept lor man ? ? in(,ivl(iuais from obtain- ] S33. A?jr aj - SttaJB&fiP HttW-Je satis '?rt"vsifi,:'- ??--?? '-??*'? kx vs tenacious?should di i,'iini machinery. Intent on of a novel and exta r J,, b y w|jat it required, rn such an object, they natma v *atv wnat ? i ( Iter than what the Cc special criminal proce a nd incon'oiatcd intotni p enforcement dore, in which they obelouriy rcliea i >r n o h cf , .prohibition. iVa'tU* and e* minting in V" ';uu' common law procedure senlial ^lenient* of the <*??nbai) tecln imrae nmi^V;FactUU.thm^.ale ? fiuid .ixpoundod and upheld, hy an. of Qur shter^atVai'ol ihe f^eral 80'-ern'",:nt^?<||?r^^' 0<^4j ana bus been lor ugv? " ? _ ?!* tnuu,lvl\ of innocence BTfi.TY'iew5S2,S^lr^*-?.v. It declares a rt. livery to vpnt , of an unlawful wiSffissSSSarSf sfjws atfisr; psus him guilty nnlea he .^'itiibuttair to add I hat the | bottle oi wine or a gta** ? ?'? Ior'^n, a<lieg sentence fi canons ot private VroP^v. ?reol?ciy gnch legislation It i*. in my Judgment,^ Mtprem ty^ 8;n as till* that our . tote i n0 persoffshftll " be every citizen, when H dee a without due pro deprived otH ?.?bertyo p pe ^y ^ cady legalpara cess of law. 1 , ,.t ;he land." to charta, phrase of the woida la an,dher provision of which arc also adopted frmn liiinio an ? were our tta e constitution, lhe reatraim j ()ur orlgtoelly mipoieil. . h ,r 0, the common law, originally impoied on the "^it oV the common ?w, anr-^^s-SkXrss' gsj '& oihttrary acta of the aovereign, R.mUtir to thttt arbitrary acta of <^^Xprocfiaes" to that I attanpta to'ntr?1u? ?., borrowed from the same source. Bought w'th^cowtry with Ameri^n ! pt itseif uaurpii ? ju-SHal power overjife, U V'y ?r r,0,,,'HV 'm i- .' t riXa iv ,'i h Aimlil substan Ihe HK uic ? * .m.;',,. arc pr -dure of the com , ,, , arv pr "dure ot mo cu.,, tia^: l'01 i-hv*\ con truction must have been J101. vl, \ lc;unc twyers who shared iu fam>' t of the ,, litution in the Con 4lii, i 11 *- > ? k 1 ' * - ? ? t. 1 .1 ?ArtAt trail vcid" ?? of It tSJSi by'thotbody! aw-ewsSiyjSSurft's gitlative agcuta nnd on '1,t.ohii)H?ry act, In fhe pro mcane oVnwhTcli it'rellcs to effect ita purpoae-? uncon pr^5OT^-MS??a: a?s&^fi^^srjwsrs -iV S2S,. I Jg-w "ZXSSH assR F??ce ofgovcroment evenlm the ^best V/r fX ^sfor arf more efficient agencies. Drroied'1 to the r^U of ?w J*** si^VSiMSyria 0>'th<i>><c naturel laws t"nrsh-K' oi ^verythtog that^ b-jtovdjed beforehand. Claiming a g discarded a lationa^ BKSiJ5??5H^s?i: S?Hntfis^?S1sS ing the freedom ot Toluntary SSs?rHSA-^S n:ul s a stSbeckward toward, that barbarian ago when Mde;ioftK,r'wm. &VSV. poTemment w.C.rIto- the "general1 ^ur? ofthe demd S Arty on Aei forme? .s-casions I entirely coucur. With gicat respect, gentlemen, To Hon. Joiim Tatl'iR and Avuki.w Kirk, Kfl<i. mb. Sutherland's opinion. So. 280 Broadway, New York Cttt, \ Mosday, Oct. 8, 1886. J R. Frgscit, Esq., Chairman, Ac.:? Sir?On my return lent Saturday night from the Court of Appeal* at Albany, where I had been for irano day*, I found your letter, wil hunt date, requesting annwer* to tne following interrogatories:? First?Ate you in favor of or opposed to the enactment of a Prohibitory liquor law? Second?Ai e you iu lavor of or opposed to the enact ment of any coercive or oppressive Liquor law whatever t 11ilrd?Are you in favor of or oppo.-ed to an enactment of a law wlticu would require more than ten dollar# for a license to sell spliltuous or other liquors f Fourth?If elected, would you use your Influence iu fa vor oi or opposed to the enactment of the laws alluded to in the foregoing interrogate ties t i answer with pleasure as follows:? Flrit?I out opposed to the Prohibitory IJquor law lately passed by the legislature of this State, as notli Im l?lltlc and unconstitutional, and I am opposed to the en actment of any prohibitory law. as Impolitic if not un constitutional. I am opposed to this kind or class of le gislative enactmenta hs " repugnant to the freedom and qbr rly of freemen," and a* Inconsistent with the theory and operation of t ar political institutions. My views on this subject are not of very recent origin. In a speech which I nutde in the House of Representatives on the "Homestead bill," In April, 1862, after stating my objection* to the conditions In restraint of alienation, Ac., upon which that bill proposed to give the land to the settler, I said as follows:? I object, Ifr. chairman, lo all *:tempt* by tsgls'silon to con troi the citizen in the management or disposlUon of his proper ty, or Id 'he management or regulation of Id* moral conduct, unless cslled lor by the most Imperious consideration* of pub lie policy, whether they come In the lorm or the conditions of this Homestead btli, or nt ibe Maine liquor law, or at snro'her rnodrrn, popular, legislative moral reform measure, Mfcuge It Is that tni te who are eternally talking about 'be Intelligence of 'be people, should thus openly repudiate that Intelligence end ptoclolm lo the whole world that a free American ctiueu Is not to be trusted with his own aflalrs; that a man worth loss than Ave bundled dollars, or having no load, .leesnot know enough to take care of one hundred and slity acres of land: doe* not know when It It best tor htm to sell, or whether it Is best tor hint to borrow money or not; or wnen, and what, and how much jt Is best for him to drink; that the same man who I* trusted with a vote which may rul* the destinies of twenty Ave millions or people, Is not to be trusted with one hundred and slily seres of unimproved land, or a bo*tls ot wine. Hi range, thai estreme demonr?e> has s tendency 'bus to run Into e?. ireme tyranny; that'his government, by Inserting condition* ai d rrslrlt tint'* In H* gran's of Isnd. should ?ubstanUslly claim the snelent preiogstlTr.* of the King of hngiand a* the great Inrd or proprietor, tinder the feudal *y*'.-m, of all the Ism * In the kingdom?f' r dues not the government, hy those c<.ndtiH.ns Slid restriction t, my lo Ihesettler, you shall sell, you sbs l act lease your farm lor more than six months at any cms tiBio. you shall not mortgage |t, yon shall not ta'ttr n debt without tuir rermlsston-. end what I* this nut a repuMosn Iml tatl'-nof the line for sllenstlon. sbo|t*hed by the atamta of 12 Ct.arlrall sad ef Other* of the worst feature* of the feudal system! I believe the people know best bow to manage 'heir own nSstrs Seenad. I am opposed to tbe enactment of any oppres sive liqun- law but s? all constitutional law* are Wecoa rarll/ coercive, 1 cOBfivt say Umi 1 am opposed to any constitutional law upon the ground alone that it ia or would be coercive. Third. In my opinion, lave requiring the payment of any sum ot money whatever for a license to sell spiri tuoue or other liquor*, if justiflablo at all, are justifiable only aa nteesserv police regulation*, and cot a* revenue law*. If the public peace and the prevention of crime call for the reatraint upon the public sale of spirituous liquor*, implied in license laws, I would not undertake to Zecifv the precise numlwr ot dollars which such laws oula require for a license to sell. I certainly should be oppored to the enactment of a law requiring so large a sum to be paid for a license to sell spiritnous liquors as to operate as ft prohibition of their sale, or as reasonably to lead to the inference that tho law wo* intended so to operate. Fourth. Whether elected or not elected, my influence, so far as it can be legitimately and properly used, will bo us# d in accordance with foregoing answers. Respectfully your obedient servant. .IOSIAH SITHEIU.AN'I). Three thousand six hundred and twenty land warranto were issued from tbe Pension Office at Washington dar ing last week. FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL. MOIIT HABKBT, Ti:*)Day, Oct. 10?0 1'. U. At the opening this morning there was an active de mand for stocks, and prices generally show an improve ment. At the first board Virginia 6's advanced % per cent; Missouri 6's, 1; Illinois Central bonds, %; Michigan Central Railroad, %; Illinois Central Railroad, %; Galena and Chicago, 1; Chicago and Rock Island, %. State stocks sold largely, at better prices. There appears to bo a demand for this class of securities, for banking par poses. Illinois Central bonds were quite active, and ad vanced from opening prices. Cumberland remains firm. Reading Railroad was offered to-day more freely than wo have noticed for some time. All the Western railroad stocks were steady at the close, at our quotations. Ga leua and Chicago is the favorite for permanent invest ment. Any improvement in market value fails to bring out more than a few shares of stock. After the adjournment of the board, the following sales of bonds and stocks were made at auction by Simeon Dru' per:? 11,000 Kentucky fl's, 1879 100 500 Indiaua Canal stock principal per cent. 6 160 do. do. Interest do. 0 150 Preferred stock Wabash and Erie Canal 3d 80 0 per cent loan do. do. 76 ?I OOo Cumberland Coal Co. 6's, 1864 Int. added. 83 6 000 Little Miami Railroad, 1st mort.... do. 83% 6.000 Columbus, Viona & Indiana UK-, 1st in. do. 73 70 shares Butchers' and Drovers' Bank 125 20 <lo. Dank of New York 110 120 do. Bowery Insurance Company..... 183 a 181 60 do. New Jersey Railroad ,.126a 126% 218 do. Broadway Bank 121 a 122 60 do. Mechanics' Fir? Insurance Co 70 20 do. 1'ark Fire Insurance Co 83% a 82% 20 do. Commonwealth Insurance Co..89% a 98 At the c. or,d board the market generally was lower. Illinois Central bonds, Cumberland, Nicaragua and Erie were a fraction lower. Missouri 0's advanced % pe - cent; Galena and Chicago, %. There was not much doing this aft' rnoon. There appears to be no speculation going on in the different faucies. Tin daily transactions amount to about the same, and the advance one day appears to be lost the next, and week after week closes without any material alteration in prites. The steamship Crescent City, at this port from Aspln. wall, brings $1,366,843 in gold dust. This, with the re ceipts by the Northern Light, makes the aggregate semi monthly remittance flrom California $1,860,843. The steamer from Boston to Liverpool to-morrow?Wednes day?will not carry out much specie, the closing rates for exchange to-day were as follows'.?London, 8% a 9 per cent premium ; Purls, 6f. 16% a 5f. 16 ; Amsterdam, 40% a 41% ; Bremen, 78% a 79 ; Hamburg, 30 a 36%. The Assistant Treasurer reports to-day as follows Paid on Treasury account $115,935 84 Received do. 68,208 88 Balance do. 7,059,509 23 l aid for Assay office 57,262 30 l aid on disbursing checks 23,382 05 The payments to-day include $60,000 of California drafts. As lowss anthracite coal now is, compared with last year's pi ices, there is every prospect that it will bo J iwer next year. New mlAes are opening, and the facili ties for bringing the produce to market are daily in ct easing. Among the many recent dcvelopements" we hear most flattering accounts ot those of the Ms' hanoy region. The supply of coal is large, and the quality said to be at least equal to the best coming to tliis market. The Governor of Pennsylvania invites bids from capi t .lists for the purchase of the public works of that Stale vis.: the whole Main Line, including, 1st. The Philadel phia and Columbia Railroad. 2d. The canal from Colum bia to the junction at Duncan's Island. 3d. The Juniata Oinal, from thence to llollidaysburg. 4lh. The Allegany Pottage Railroad, (including the new road to avoid the inclined plane,) and 6th, the canal from Johnstown to Pittsburg. Bids will be received until 24th December next. It appears that the navigation of the Gulf of Mexico is about to receive a startling impetus by the cheap ening of coal at the Gulf coaling ports. Hitherto the current prices of coal have been, at Mobile, $6; at Montgomery, $10; and at the Gulf ports aad the West India ports, $11, $12, and $18 per ton. lest fall tbe Alabama and Tennessee Railroad was com pleted to within from two to four miles of the extensive coal bed which has long been known to exist in Shelby county, Alabama. The coal had for some years been worked by Individuals for local consumption, but no one thought of deveveloping it on an extended scale, in con sequence of the cost of transportation to a market. On the completion of the railroad, a company called tbe Ala bama Coal Mining Company, was formod, to work tbe beds, and has, It seems, met with very marked success. It can lay coal down at Selraa at from $2 60 to $3per ton; at Montgomery and Mobile, at from $3 to $3 60; and at tho West India ports, such as Havana, at from $6 to $6 per ton. The coal is said to be of the best quality. One consequence of the developement of this new interest will be to supersede the sailing vessels of the Gulf by pro;oilers, and in some measure to revolutionize the whole navigation ot that part of the coast. The com pany is a Southern one, and the stock is, we believe held entirely at the South. the <. bii igo uemocrat of the-turn mst. says:? Recent geological explorations In the southern counties of Illinois confirm the fact that the coal deposits there are most abuiOaut ami rich, tome of the coal Is of the finest cannot variety. Ihls Is particularly the ease in the strata in William ton anrl Jackson counties, lying near to the Central Railroad. In Williamson the strata are Tery numerous, and, taken together, constitute a total thick ness of seventy-five loot of solid coal, the largest seam being nine fret thick. In Jackson there are seams <>f neatly c<iual thickness. These deposits are now being worked to a considerable extent, Cairo affording an ex cellent market for all that is raised down there. The gross earnings of the Michigan Central Railroad Company for the first week in October this year, wore $63,b83 72, against $40,478 60 for the same time last year, showing an increase of 816,006 03. At the meeting of stockholders of the Nicaragua Tran sit Ct mpnny, referred to yesterday, the Secretary made a brief report of the company's linances, from which it appears that the total indebtedness up to to the 6th inst., (a part of wbteh is for current expenses) is $260,854. and the inventory of property belonging to the compeny, exclusive of the franchise, is $2,740,684, including cash assets of over $300,000. The inventory includes the fol lowing steamers, all ef which are constantly engaged In the transportation of passengers, specie and goods, viz:? On the Atlantic coast?the Northern (light, .star of the West, Daniel Webster, and Prometheus. On the Pacific coast?the Brother Jonathan, Cor tee, Pacific, and Uncle Sam. lake steamers?1st Vlrgen, Ran Carlos, Director, and Central America. Kiver steamers?Sir Henry Rul wer, J. L. White, H. 1.. Kouth, E. I.. Hunt, C. Morgan, J. Of den, J. N. Scott, Col. Wheeler, J. M. Clayton, and (?rsnada. In addition to the above, the company owns a number of lighters, scows, &e-, estimated to be wort i at least $30,000. The annexed statement exhibits the gross earning" o the Catena and Chicago Railroad Company in each of the first nine months oi the present and past three years:? Umtsa Ann Chicago I'mow Kaii.road. 1862. 1863. 1864. 1866. January $16,264 $32,672 $64,432 $06,807 February 10,718 25,700 70,636 73,887 Muicb 21,761 28,227 75,066 126,731 April 10,041 36,632 75,737 176,55 . * << a net lift 14$ OA > flA Msv 31.728 46.188 110.166 203,730 .luue 43,226 40,014 120,880 225,930 July 34,065 44,874 03.641 182 131 AunuM . .. 40,150 48,963 106 l>66 206 841 B ." * >na,,n at:..ri U.A AAA OUl 414 September 66,032 88,264 160,000 260,646 Total $282,868 $300,624 $876,411 $1,648,862 lhe above returns commence with the calendar year, which differs from the company's fiscal year. Thn fiscal year commences on the 1st of May. In the returns fur 1865, the receipts for January and February were qui:# small, and do not show that increase compaied with the same months the previous years, which other months do. Ibis was owing to the immense snow sturmsof that period. For days trains were embedded in snow drifts, and for days travel on the line was entlrrly arrested. But for that Interruption, the gross earnings for the nine month* this year would have been considerably larger. The total gross earnings for the fiscal year ending May 1. 1660, art rstiiu$t$d at two jnilhtBS six bundled thou an ' dollars. For the last fiscal jeer they amounted to $1,600,710. Last year the company's dividends amounted to seventeen per cent. This year, the capita1 is about the same, and the increase in earnings, thus fkr, has been abont eighty per cent. At the olose of the last fiscal year, the company's surplus amounted to twelve and a half per cent of its entire funded debt. A few weeks since we made an estimate of the probable operations of this company for the present fiscal year. As the official returns of another month's earnings hare since been re ceived, we re-publish ihe table for the purpose of showing that our calculations are within.proper limits:? Gaiena mi Chicago IUiiroad. May 1, 1865, surplus on hand $815.7(1 Gross earnings for M y, 1855 214,10P Gross earnings for June, 1866 226,000 Gross earnings for July, 1866 185,925 Gross earnings for August, 1865 205,881 Gross earnings for September, 1865, estimated.. 240 000 Gross earnings for October, 1855, estimated 200,000 Total $1,640,Odd Operating expenses? May, June und July (official) $220,646 August, September and October, esti mated 4 250,000 Total $470,646 Ux months' Interest on bonds 66,895 536,041 Applicable to dividends for first half of present fls. ul year $1,109,725 rom which the company declared and paid a dividend, in August, of live per cent 275,000 Probable surplus, November 1, 1855, $884,726 The earnings of the second half of the year will doubt ess exceed the first half by a considerable sum. Calling it, however, the same, we have the following result:? Gross earnings for six months ending May, 1856.$1,880,91Z Surplus on November 1, 1865 884,725 Total , $2,216,631 Operating expenses, say $479,546 Interest on debt 66,395 $636,941 Balance applicable to dividends $1,678,606 It will be seen that we estimated the September receipts at $240,000. The official returns show the actual re ceipts to have been $259,040. We have no doubt the October earnings will be full as far in advance of our os timate. The capital s'ock of this company is only four and a half million of dollars. The following is a comparative statement of receipts from passengers and freight on the New York Central Railroad during the month of September, 1864 and 1865: New York Cb.vthal Railroad. >'otrengert. Freight. Thiol. 1865 $890,429 40 $831,983 09 $722,362 65 1854 382,992 84 263,844 20 640,836 54 $7,437 12 $68,088 89 $76,526 01 The annual meriting of the stockholders of the Chicago, St. Paul and Fond du lac Railroad look place at Chicago on the 2d inst., when the following directors were elected for the ensuing year :?William B. Ogden, Nelson K. lVhecler, John B. Chapin, and Henry Smith, of Chicago; Joel B. Johnson, Woodstock; Wm. Jar;is, Middletown, Ct.; Joseph A. Wood and John J. R. Pease, of Janesville, Wis.; Paniel Jones, Watertown; Mason C. Barling and A. G. Butler, of Fond du lac; Charles Butler and William C. I.angley, of New York; Jame- H. Hlckok and John Brad ley, of Burlington, Vt. Wm. B. Ogden, Esq., of Chica go, bas been elected President, and J. W. Currier, ofNew York, Secretary. The earnings of the first division of the road from Chicago to Woodstock (now in operation) f <r Septembe r, were $11,084. Stock Exchange. Tuesday. Oct. 16, 1856. $11000 lnd State 5'e.. 82 150 shs Erie JtR.... 66 3000 Ohio ti's '60.. 105)4 1090 Tenn 8's '90.. 96 1000 do 96 % 1000 Virginia 6's... 97 250 do c 66)4 10000 do blO 97)4 400 do 66)4 1900 do sJ 97)5 " " 6000 Missouri 6's. s3 89 6900 do s3 89)4 1C00O do 80)4 1C900 do 80)4 6000 <?? 89 % 560 do 100 do ... 100 do... 250 do... 400 do .. 100 do .. 100 do .. ...blO 400 do .. ...060 100 do .. 60 do .. 200 do .. 10O do .. ...slO 8G00 Erie Con lis '71 80 50 Harlem 1U1... slO 26), 1000 do '02 83 600 Reading RR 96 2000 Erie Bds of '76 88 . 200 do 060 06 >? 3000 NYANH Bs '66 83 100 do b60 96),' 2000 H R 1st Mte Bs 100)4 600 do bGO 9614 2000 do lOOtf 200 do b.tO 96 10000 111 Cen RR Be. e 81 % 100 do bl5 96 6600 do s60 81)4 300 do s30 94)4 26600 do 080 82 600 do 03 94),' 26600 do 1*0 82)4 200 do 94)4 5COO do b!6 82)4 200 do 94)4 3COOO 81)4 100 do b30 96 2000 H R 2d Mte Bs 92 50 Hud Itiv RR..s30 37)4 2000 do s3 92)4 #0 do c 87)4 600 N Y Cen 7's.. 102)4 100 do WO 37)4 300 shs Card (.old.030 1 60 Mich fen RR.. b3 98 200 do 1)3 % 77 do 98)4 5 Metropolitan Ilk. 109 40 do b3 98)4 60 Pel A Hud Cnl Co 126 100 Illinois CenRR.s30 95 100 Nic Trans Co..?3 18)4 200 do s'J 95)4 300 do 18)4 100 do s30 96)4 300 do 010 18)4 25 do s3 96)4 50 Venn Coal Co.... 100)4 103 Galena A ChlcRR. 123 100 Cumb Coal Co.st 0 27), 765 Clev A Toledo RR. 88 260 do 1.10 27)4 400 do b60 84 260 do btw 27)4 100 do sl5 83 200 do s3 27)4 20 Chic A R Is RR.. 94)4 400 do c 27), 100 do s3 94)4 BKCOND BOARD. $2000 Virginia 6's.... 97)4 100 shs CumCoal.twk 27 4500 lnd State 5's.s3 82 100 Clcv A fol KK.s80 83 10060 Missouri 6's.... 90 6 Panama RR 104 10000 do 89)4 6 do 104)4 25000 IUCenRKBs. 1,60 81)4 100 Erie R R btw 65)4 600 do 81)4 200 do b3 66)4 6(00 do....s30 81)4 200 do 55)4 6(10*1 do.... s30 81 100 do b3 66)4 60 ehsCantonCo-sCO 26)4 100 Reading RK..b30 96 176 Ntc Tran Co 18)4 660 do 94)4 200 do s60 18)4 6 Mich .8 A N la RR 99)4 200 Cum Coal Co... s3 27 5 Gal A Chic RR... 123)4 200 do bdO 27)4 200 Harlem RR 26}, 200 de s30 27 CITY TRADE REPORT. Tchspay, Oct. 18?9 P. M. Amies.?b'mall Mien continued to be made at old prices. BuFJuwrm*.?Klour?Common grades of State brands weie heavy, and fell off about 1 2H cents, while the higher grades weie without change of moment. The transaction)) embraced about 12,000 a 13,000, bbls. Includ ing some lota for export, with sales of common State and extra do., at 08 00 u $8 76; Western mixed, fancy and extra, at >8 otH a 68 76. Southern was In fhir demand, with sales of about 1,600 to 2,000 bbls., at prices, for all grades, ranging from 88 76 a 610 60. Canadian? ales of 600 a 400 barrels, at 88 AO a 60 76. Bye Hour?Sales were made at 88 60 a 87 26 for fine and superfine. Corn meal was quiet, at 84 76. Wheat? The market displaced Increased activity, and the ag gregate sales reached, on the spot and to arrive, about ;i0,0fi0 a 40.000 burn., Included in which were 12,000 bushels Canadian white, at 82 12 a 82 26; 8,000 a 10,000 bushels Western red, at 81 00 a $102. Red Southern sold at 61 00 a 61 08. Prime was scarce, and was worth 81. lair white Southern waa at 82 07 a 82 1214- Prime and handsome lots were scarce, and would bring higher figures. Corn.?The sales were moderate, and the mar ket was easier. The -ales embraced about 30,000 bushels, at 92c. a 04c., with some Inferior at 02c. Ilye.?Prlmo Northern waa soaicc and held above the Tiewa ot buyers. Ordinary to fair Southern waa plenty and lower, with sale* of about 12,000 bushels, at 81 26 a 81 80. ttats were scarcer and firmer. The sales ranged from 46c. a COc. for state and Chicago. C< snoc was dull, and the sales confined to jobbing lota of Rio, at about 11c. Cottox.?1 lie sale* embraced about 1,000 bales, without change in prices, the market closing steady. KuxKiDTs.? Rates veto more active to English porta, and engagements of about 30 OtO bushels of grain were taken for Liverpool, at lO.Hd. a lOLd., and lid. In bulk, included In which were 10.000 bushels of wheat, in bulk, at lid. About 7.' 00 bbls. flour were engaged at 4a., and about 600 a COO bales of cotton at H<1- To 1/ondoa, rates continued tiim. For oilcake. 50*. was demanded; 3.000 boxes cheese, not before reported, were engaged at 66e.; and 6 tons Ixeewax at H'l- per lb. To Havre, rates were stead)?81 for Hour, 1 cent per lb. for cotton, ami 26 eenta for grain. There was a fair demand for vessels to load for ibe South of Prance. To Bremeu, 600 bags plaaentn were engaged at is. Cd.; 200 bbls. lard at He., and 100 bales ot cotton at 1c. To California, rates were unchanged. A vessel for Constantinople was reported, at 82 80 per barrel. Hay.?The market continued finn for shipping, at 70c. a 7fc. per cwt., while for city use It was selling at 81. Hoxirr bales 16 tierces honev were made at 7?c. Ijvs.?Fair sales made, at 00c. far common and $1 20 for prime. Ijun.?Salea of 200 pigs (ialena were made at 7c. cash, nd 17 tons English at fi;,e. I.koricx Paste.?120 boxes, at 17He. a 10J4e. MoiAsen.?bales ot 460 hhls. Cuba museovado molanes were made at C6c. Naval brow*.?About 200 bbls. spirits were sold at 44c., in shipping order. Rosin was quiet. Provbooxs.?Pork?The market was dull and the sale* onfined to about 300 a 600 bbls., Including new mees in. mall lots st 823 a 623 12, though at the upening some ots were reported at 823 76. After Change, a small lot f 60 this, was reported at $22 60. The market Irregu ar. Prime was at $20 76 a 621. Beef waa la fair de mand. The stock of old was light, while the new had not commenced to arrive in any amount worthy of note. (V untry mesa and prime, as well as repacked easier*, ass unrhanged. The sales embraced about 164 pack ages. 1 ard was more active, and the sales embraces* about 6C0 a 600 bbls., chiefly at 12c., with tome lots not ?itictly prime at 11 Jic-a U/'tC. Kit a.?bales ?r 2.'0 bags I'atna were made at p. t., and 100 casks Carolina, psit tor export, at 6c. a 6He Snns.?Kates of too bags pimento were mule, in bond, at 0<ac.; ami 110 do., duty paid, at Mfce. bAt.t.?Fairs of 730 lags Marshall's, ex b#a lark, were ir.ade at $1 10. .toabs ?The maiket waa more active, with some in quiry on 'he pait of refiners. The sales embraced about too hlidr. Cuba mu?covado, at ?Hc- a 7,He., and 404 do. do. al 7c. a 7",e.; and 640 boxes were sold at 7'.??? Tobaccowsa in 'air request, and prices firmly main tair.ed. bsb s 70 hhds. Kentucky, st 7J4' ? HHe-i ?t suction 62 hhds.. at t\c- s 7\c. M bales Havana, at 21c a 36c., 60 bales (.auto at p. ?.. and 64 cases seed leaf, 7 Hr. a lie. WineaOT.?The market was stiff, wilh sales of 400 bbls. 01>leand ptUon reported at 41c. a 41 He