Newspaper of The New York Herald, October 21, 1855, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated October 21, 1855 Page 2
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inH upon. Th* re<ynt appointment of General Pelis wi to the rank of Marshal of France, a iait recompense tor hi* energetic bravery, will increaee the moral assen dency which he hat obtained. By hi* order* the Turkish army which wa* preparing to leave the Crimea, in order to follow Omer Pa*ha to Batoum, is to remain in the Psn inenln, and to form the reserve which i* in great msa* ure to guard the great camp of Sebastopol. Omer ra*ha had "JCtod uponem barking the Turk, immcd^tel^ and pleaded th* danger in which the army of ham was at present; but the Marsha) replied, with a great *how of reason, that the ikU of Sebastopol must necessarily to the retreat of General fioravieff, a* nothing would then prevent the allies from lMiUng between 20,000 and 30,000 men at any point of the Black Sea, whence they might, in a verv short time, cut off the whole Russian army between Kars ami Ixieroum. It i* reported that Count Ne*?elrode has received or der* from the Emperor, hi* master, to send a circular to the political agent* of Russia intimating the intention of that country to continue the war with the greatn*t deter mination and energy?that the Grand Duke Constantiae, at present at Nikolaieff, will remain behind for some time with the army and that Prince Gortschakoff is to be call ed to the post of Uimster of War, while the Armenian General Moravieff is to take the army of the Crimea, which is to be defended to the last extremity. The French booty at Sebastopol is said to be estimated at 7 OOO.OCO fir., and the losses of the Russian* some 80.000,000 fr. The line of the l'chernaya is now the posi tion or great importance, from the strategical operations of which it iB about to serve as the base. The general be lief ia that the Russians are endeavoring to effect their retreat, covering it by some specious movWBttit of troops. Their movements are narrowly watched bt^fclissier? It is remarked that the fat/a?originally ca&g^pf^a jHilton, afterward* the Oix de Itecembre. >JPHHPrn as the direct organ of the then President of the Republic? has suddenly broken out into a vioient attack on Lord Stratford de Redcliffa, Ambassador at Constantinople. Lord Stratford it is known always set him-self against Krensh influence, but he now seems to have incurred a tart reply from the Sultan, with whose prerogative be is said to have been interfering. It is curious, however, that so earnest a desire to got rid of him on the part or the French should be so exactly coeval with the capture of Sebastopol. In fact, there are manifest indications that Paris just now is the centre of some great political plot, if snch a term be adnoissable when applied to diplo matists. The Pau* makes an appeal to Germany. The CoMtitutionnel talks about the remains of tiie feudal edifice being buried under the ruins of Mnlakoff. The Duke of Saxe Coburg comes ami goes, nominally to witness the damnation of his opera, but really as the representa ither, Prince Albert; and Baron Pri tive of his brother, Prince Albert; and Baron Prokesch, the Austrian Commissioner, most in favor of Austria joining the Western alliance, is here. The King of Prus sia, allihe while, is being spoken of 'as responsible for the manifold sufferings entailed by a state of war." BERTIE. I'arj.h, Thursday, October 4, 1855. Approaehing Close of the Industrial Exhibition?Life Boat Experiments on the Seine?Grand European Fire Engine' Contest?The Terms which Russia will Get, if She is Compelled to Knock Under?A French Hero?Royal and Diplomatic Movements, dr., etc. The knell or the Great Exposition has at length been sounded from official authority. It was inaugurated on the 15th of May; it is to be closed on the 15th of October, when, in the presence of the Emperor and Empress, and amid all the pomp and ceremonial that can give to fa' to the occasion, the various medals will b^Vlistributed. A grand dinner was to hare been given to I'rince Napoleon on the 15th instant, as President of the Exhibition, bnt by his desire It is to be changed into a soiree held at the Louvre, whose new rooms are to be " hanselled" for the occasion, and the expocants, whether French or foreign, and the notabilities of the press, will be expected to a assist. As the days of this great national experiment become numbered, its sponsors do all in their power to extract from it some great practical benefit, an In stance of which was afforded a few days since in certain experiments with life boats, diving apparatus, and tire engines, which took place, on the Seine, in presence of I'rince Napoleon, and some thousands of spectators. Nothing indeed could be more stirring and animated than the scene which the Quay d'Orsay, the Bridge of Je na. and the banks of the Seine presented. The arrange ments were all made by M. Tre-ca and M. Trelat, the Im perial Commissioner and Civil Engineer. The life-boat experiments were excellent, as were also those of the divers who remained under the water with their strange dresses nearly an hour, picking up articles not larger than a five franc piece, thrown into the water from time to time by the mem bers of the jury, all of whom were there assembled in solemn conclave. But nothing seemed to excite such general interest as the contention of twenty-three fire engines, which, like a park of artillery, were drawn p In line against the wall cf the Quay d'Orsay. 1 sjpposc there is something in the bubbling, splashing and spu-t ing up of water, which is always pleasant, for certainly, among all the popular monuments of I'aris, none are so eagerly thronged as the fountains. In this Instance, however, all European nations seemed to have entered the lists to fight an aquarian tournament, which should prove the superiority of fire over water. Prussia, this time, was determined not to be behind hand, and deal >u strafed that if in the East she was unwi.ling to do bat tle, the Bridge of Jena was far too full of unhappy memo ries to allow her to be idle now; so in she went, (jumping against '.lie wall of flic Quay d'Orsay like some ancient Katabali'tft against old Syracuse, and with only this difference, that she never shot within five metres of it. Then came up the London fire brigade, represeuteJ by Messrs. Merry weather's engine, and another by Messrs. Taylor A Sja. Ye gods' the (lumping and splashing WAS x ruethicg awful, whi;e each, worked by twenty-four stout men-at-arms, this Ondine artillery lined away at the Parisian Sebastopol; but not a stone of the Quay did they touch? There w is racing and chasing o'er Connollv lee, But the lost bride of Xeiherby n'er did they see. Belgians. Austrians and Germans enter, Ka'abalist** now ru-hed in and took part la the melee, but atiil the goal remained untouched, when to the a 'tonlsbment of every one, a little toy of a thing from Canada, by Perry of Montreal. began to slow certain symptoms of being in labor. Twenty married wives attended her in the shape of firemen, though the comely matron is ordinarily ac<-us 1< med to he contented with sixteen, and to the aston ishment of the I'rince )'rc?ident, the International .lory and the delighted thousands who beheld It, dashed her Jet at once with such violence ugaiust the wall that it was obvious she could have thrown it, lint for this interposi tion, 10 metres farther. Die clapping of hands ami ge neral acclammations that hailed her auccess, was worthy ofa victory of historical Importance, thoughlt is reasona ble to suppose -that the enormous boon to humanity which so clever an invention affords in case of the awful perils of fire, was present to every one's mind. Be that ?sit may, the compliments which were paid to Mr. I'erry, the brother of the owner, who took the machine t? pieces, and explained the action of its vsiious parts with great clearness and practical knowledge to the I'rince. the va rious scientific men, and the firemen must have been very gratifying. Frenchmen have a kind of natural sym j-athy with Canada, and seemed to view her auccess in this instance without a particle ef envy. The follow ing article from the semi-official organ, the Oonsfitutie nii'l. gives an inkling of the term- likely to t-e conceded to Kuasia;? ?'Nevertheless," says M. Granier de Carsagnac. "in order to meet the solieitatioas of her own allies with a ? show of equity and moderation, Ku-sia hail recourse to ? principle recognised in diplomacy, requiring fax's n - c cm pi is to be the starling (joints of negotiation." " The fleet of Sebastopol still exists," said she; "reduce It If you can. but you eannot oblige us to destroy It with our own hands." Now, what are these fails accompli< : They are not the reduction but the destruction of the Busslan fleet?the destruction, in fact, of Sebastopol? the uncontested possesion of the Black See, the S?a of Axoff, with the certain and speedy capture of all the Crimea looming in the horizon. These are then bases upon which any new conferences, whether they be h- Id at Vienna or elsewhere, must rest. It was a corporal of the 1 st Znnazes who planted the first French standard on Malakoff. Ills name is Eugene l.ibrant, of Tarts. It was General MacMahon's standard of the 1st divslon, the hoisting of which was to be the signal for the attacks on the other (joints, lie gave it to librant with his own hands. l.ibrant. while springing into the trebches, was struck by a atone, but notwith standing the rain it caused him. scaled the narmpet in the midst of a ball storm of projectiles of every kind, and suc ceeded In planting the flag around which so many were to receive tneir death. It appears that eighteen women who remained In Sebastopol were made prisoners. At first It was supposed they bad been left behind In order to fire the mines, but this was s mistake, and they have been treated with every respect, l'rtvate letters state that the former life of the camp is no longer recognisable. " You cannot fiirm." says one ni them, "an idea of the Joys of the soldiers at the service of the trenches being at an end. Without detracting from their patriotism, it is cer tainly to them, the grandest result of the campaign. The poets of the several divi-inns ban- been already at work, and rongi are in circulation of the great victory of the 8th; but the invariable churns, and which it always the most popular part of the song, is?'Plusde tranchces," which Is vociferously repeated to the air " De* Letmpi ms." The Count -le Chartbourd is at present oa a visit to his mother, the Duchess de Berry, at the chateau of Bron??-e In Stytla. The King of the two Sicilies and the whole royal fkmily went to venerate the relics of St. Jaoisarius, at Naples, on the 19th ult. Ab-del-Kadir has just been paying a second visit to the Exposition, and for once his ?astern gravity and imperturbable muscles were quite upset. In the annexe (s the skeleton of a horse In caoutchouc, with all the veins, arterle?, ligaments, Ac., colored. It completely took the Emir by surprise, who loudly expressed Ids rapture* at the sight. Count Wa lewski. Minister of Foreign Affairs, gave him yesterday a farewell dinner, previous to his departure to Oamxscus? his new residence. Marshal Yaillant, the Marquis ant Marchioness de Villa Marina, Iord and l?dy I'ortarling ton, Trine* I'onlatowski and others were present. Count Bemstorff and Count HattfelI?Tru*>ian Ambassador* to the Courts of London and Ifcrie? have arrived at Co blentr, summoned, It Is suid by the King of Prussia, in order to inform him verbally of the actual s'ate of af fairs, and the present intentions of the Cabinets of i'sri? and londnn. It is rumored that the French and British Aiuba'sednrs and Ministers to foreign Courts have all re ceived from ihelr respective cabinets a circular respect log '.he present political position of the Alile*, as changed bj the capture of Sebastopol. The cholera seem* to be fearfuly on the increase In Spain. From a document recently published by the Minister of Commerce ma Agriculture, i n the statistic* of France, following ve-? i-urlims return la extract*!. It sp througboutth# whole empire there are 37, fit! 2 totally blind, and 76.0A.S blind of one eye. There are 2s ?o ?**f in,,ko?. s2.382 goitrous *4,n? humpbacked. #,077 who have lost one or both arms; 11, 01 who have lost one or both legs, and 22,641 per-on* wbo are clubfooted. In consequence of the extraordinary high price of meat in Pari*, the government hoe taken the affair in hand. The namber of butchers ie limited to 400?free competition not being permitted, the consequence is they eontpire to keep op a price inconsistent with the cattle market at Poissy. The government, therefore, after the l&th of October, has given notice that every two months it will take upon itself to regulate the tariff according to the Poissy market. The French seem to fan cy that free competition, aa in loadou and the other large cities, would expose the people to the supply of an unwholesome article, and therefore, in preference to throwing the trade open, adopt the present mode. That the censumer will be benefitted by it is very probable, but such a system is against every canon of political economy. BERTIE. Our Coblentm Correspondence. Corumtz, Oct. 2,1856. Prospect of Rtiiffioui Freedom in Europe ami Asia?Pro gress iij Protestantism in Italy and Spain?The War? Moscow and Sebastopol?So Parallel?Npanuk Treaty? Cula under French, and English Protrc'wn?Emancipa tion c/ yignts in the Dutch Wat Indies and in Cuba, tlx. One of the most remarkable coat-equeneea of the pre sent war is certainly the progress of religious liberty. No one can doubt but that religious toleration will henb?. forth be a cardinal principle of the Turkish government; no one oan for a moment suppose that peace can be es tablished without guaranteeing political equality to all subjects of the Sultan, be they Mahomedans, Jews, or Christians. Even now the Jews are preparing to rebuild and re-colonize the holy city of Jerusalem. The political privilege being once obtained from tbo Turks, who can doubt but that the Rothschilds alone can rebuild the Temple, and if they judge proper, salary the whola priest hood required to take care of It. No Atron's wand is required?a single stroke of the pen in London, in I'aris, or in Frankfort-on-the-Maiue, would be sufficient to work such a miracle. But it is not only the East which is thus promised lib erty of conscience and religious worship: the old States of Europe, too, are promised a share of the conquered freedom, and no small cue, either. While the German Protestants have just been celebrating the three hun dredth anniversary of the establishment of religious peace at Augsburg, Protestantism is making rapid pro gress in Spain, in Italy, aud in the Catholic Cautons of Switzerland. 1 know that this proposition will be denied by Catholics all over the world; but I nevertheless know that it is true. The controversy in which Spain is now engaged with the Holy See, inevitably leads to the tpreading of l'rotestant doctrines in that mo it an cient stronghold ol Catholicism, and llie same may be said of the troubles now existing between the Pope and Sardinia. The period of the French encyclopedists is passed, the scoffers of Christianity have fallen into dis credit, and the imaginative mind of Southern Europe Is not satisfied with the cold and naked materialism of the German metaphysical school. The decline of Catholicism in npain, Portugal, Italy and the Catholic Cantons of Swizerland, therefore, does not lead to materialism, but to a reformed religion?in a word, to Protestanti-m. If the same phenomena are not perceptible in the Catholic provinces of Germany, it is because these provinces are purely governed by Protestant princes, who are looked upon as political oppressors of their Catholic subjects, and because a vast portion of the self-styled "educated or enlightened Protestants" of Germany have no religion at all, professing loudly their disbelief in an individual God, the Creator and Preservor of the universe, the im mortality of the soql, and an existanceafter death conpled w ith rewards and punishments. It is this species of Ger man Protestantism which consists In the denial of a God head and of all responsibility after death, which serve-' as a wall defensive to the Catholic church of Germany. "Better" say all the friends of Christianity, "to believe In the church of Rome than to have no church at all?no religion?no moral guide?no belief in anything that can serve as a check on unbridled sensualism." In this manner the Catholics of the Rhenish provinces, in the kindom of Wurtemberg ami in Baden, have maintain ed their numbers and increased their influence; but wherever ITotestantisin exists as a confession, with a distinct cieed and practice, there it has made proselytes, not through ilic influence of noisy zealots, but by quietly spreading the gospel. More than fourteen thousand Bible have been distributed this year in Tuscany nnd other Italian spates, and more than 10 CflO New Testaments. In Calholfb Home itself 4.01)0 copies of the latter have been disposed of and read, and if It were not for the presence of Krenrh soldiers iu the Eternal City, the very residence of the Pope might be trar (formed into a Protestant propaganda. Whatever prolc-so* liberalism in Italy is opposed to the rule of the l ope, nnd it Is impossible to be liberal in Italy without being national. In this manner has Protestantism been connected wttli the regeneration of Italy?a thing pre. dieted by the much-abused nnd rudely mi-judged Macchl* avelli, when he stated it as his opinion that to regenerate Italy "anew faith was required," though he was not theologian enough to state wheiein that" new faith" was to differ from Catholicism. He. was only statesman enough to perceive that it required r new faith, aud there was no heli. for the State in the mere scoffing and his-inir down or all revealed religion. If the latter process could regenerate a people, the Germans would, at this m> mont. be not only the most enlightened but also llie most vigorous people on earth. They, how ever. in these times of politics! and religious excitement, v< ry sleepy, very quiet nnd very dreamy, being as lit le disposed to take an active / art in politic* as iu religion. Mneihmvelli was a greater state man than Professor Hegel. ihe elections for the second chamber have just taken rlnee in I rus-ia, but their result lias not yet been made nown. In the capital (Berlin) and other Urge cities of the kingdom, the friends of na'ional like ty and progress seem to have succeeded. In the country, where the influ ence of the officers of the army and of the goveinmen officials prevailed, the old Prussian party appears to have triumphed, (if the democratic party of 1818 nothing rc ni?ius but the remembrance of its socUligt tendencies and moral cowardice. This is sufficient to prejudice the cause of true democracy nnd mtioniil progress. Th" mRss of the people seem to have lost all faith in the po litieal integrity sud capacity of those who have hitherto only acted as solvents, not a- organizer*by sklllul combi nation; as destroyers of tbe old and decrepid social edifice of Europe, but not as architect* hr builders It is, how ever, significant for Prussia and for all Germany that there exists a patty under piesent circumstances, which ventures (ten upon calling itself the democratic party, it furnishes evidence of courage and of that nice spirit of disciinduation which distinguishes between the thing itself, and the abuses to which it is liable. There are strong reasons to lielieve that the reactionary movement in Prussia lias reached its culminating point, and tint, notwithstanding thj Rnsao-i'russian alliance (of familv) Prussia will soon again feed hor-eli os a German Stale. With ihe diminution of Muscovite influence ail over Ger many, it is impossible that Prussia alone should remain an historical fixture. The prospects of peace between Russia and the Western Power;' are as fir removed as ever; every reasonable per son (among win m your humble corre-pondent hope* to be classified,) presumes that the tall o' rebas'opol, like tin- fall of a buruiug house, will only serve to spread the conflagration. Both parties?the Russians and the allies?are now milking desperate efforts to em tlnue the war on a larger scale: to change the siege of a town into an open campaign. The difflenl'fes. how we.-, which the allies meet In the Crimea ate of no ordinary character, llie Rti sianv who appear to he determined to act on the defensive only, aie fortifying themselves in every direction, andmiy not easily !><? disturbed m their pre-tnt position, unless the allies are capalde ot cutting off their supplies at the 1-thmus of I'mekop. or to make a diversion from Eupatorin. The greata-t probability is that a blow will be aimed at the Russian |<o<ition- from Eupatorta, whither lour French division- have already Snne. and'lo which artillery?and especially cavalry? ave recently been ordered in considerable numbers. To ai'.Tunce on the Russian position* from Eupatoria, h iw ever, requires at h-asi 30,000 hur-es, independent of tho*e used by the cavaliy. The provisions of the advancing army will have to he car.iei in great part on horses' or mules' hack-, esc >rted by masses of cavalry, for the Rus sian* have laid waste Ihe while country ts-'ore tliera. and have a very large force of light cavalry?insufficient, i? he sure, to raise the siege of a fort re* * or to attack fortified position*?hut a imirnbly cilcuhite i to sie;-e sti !? denly nprn convoys, and to hang on the flank* of an ad vancing or retreating army. The horses require 1 ir.vy be procured in Turkey and the many countries tributary to tl.a .-'ultan; but time will be required for shipping them. Eight thousand cavalry aud ten thousand horses are pteparing to sail from Mar seille- and other cavalry troop* (hu**ar* and Isn er<) aie iea<ly to follow them The French and Knglf-h are hurting to meet the Kus-ians in the open Held, but the warfare of the Kus-ian* i* no' to tisk an open b*ttle, ha* rather to weary the enemy by resistsn ie b-hiud forti fication- and to retreat slowly toward the Interior. de? trsvicg everything they leave behind. The Empetor Alexander, of Russia, who !? now at Odessa., in a r.-eent rpeech all d-1 '?? th- c mtiag.a tion of Moscow, asei iblng that woiId-evOot to the heroism of Count Rostoptsehin, although tbe lattar. more desi rous r/the reputation of a General thin of a Scythian savage, a* far back a* lS'.Al. published a pamphlet In I'aria. in which he clearly proved that th* Russian go vrrnment had no intetest in burning its capital, (rhe history of the llu-stan camjaign of 1811-1.', by Admiral Tcbitsehsgoir. which will loon appear in public, will ? ,?d additional light on this often misrepresented suhjw ] Be this as it may, certain it is tha' the eonfi igra ion of Moscow bears no similarity to the burning o| Rahasto pol. ." eboatorol is at file vfii?<t extremity of the Rus >ian?mpire; Moscow is in its very centre. The great army of Napoler n was cut otf from its supplies, ha 1 no comtnunl-ation with the -ca. and experienced a winter which, since 1811, has not l>oen known in any pvrr of Europe. A'eive all thing*. Napoleon bad no otimr allies but th- se whom he had pressed into the -e;vice and were ready to leave him on the fir?t suitable occasion; while Mete is no danger now that England, the new ally of trance, who is worth all the allie* Nipol-.m could counoip^n at Moscow, will no* be wd ing to go wherever tiff Emperor Louis Napoleon will l?*d tb?m in ?hort. the e nfisgrati. n of Moscow, a- applle 1 t<> the allie*. Is no parallel ease at all. ft ts lnd'*l fir mo e *p. piicnble to the Ru?*iar* themselves who a'c n w . .. pyirg the northern f. -ts of vsehai' noL e-it otf fro n ?: core, mn meat km With 11 e ocean, and liable to b? cut ? from their upj'e- at ti c !??hlt s of I'erekon. 1' w.ll I Indeed require much re fitary *1 ?!| on 'fie it ? of I'.inc 1 Gerteehakoff to mw taim* ft ? >? hp <v ,-pove-e ! by the enemy and fr< m I-leg ?'a ve-i Th- frw small plafe. which HfivaV'wrf't Mw uv-y n the '.>!?: i -:C . not sufficient to furnish them with shelter during the viator, and the respective positions of the belligerents will be quite the rever?e of whet tbey were last winter. It it the allies who will he best provided, and who will occupy all the eligible points in the Crimea. The first act or the Spanish Cortes will be to vote the necessary sums for the contingent army of 80 000 men, which Spain is to furnish the allies. The treaty buB already been signed by the high contracting partiei, France, England and Spain, so that the Cortes will only have to ratify what, by the act ot ministers, is already a jaU accompli. Negotiations are also on foot with i'ortu pal for a similar object, and should Naples and ficily 1* revolutionized, ot which there seems to be much proba bility just now. a portion of the Neapolitan army, whose business heretofore has been to act against citizens, will find a more suitable employment. Hweilen and L'enmark in the north of Europe would long ago have joined the allies in good earnest, had a decisive blow been struck in the Baltic, which would have given the rfcand. navian powers the assurance that after the conclusion of peace they bad nothing to fear from Russian aggres sion. As France and England have now succeeded in arming pretty much the whole of South-western Europe against Russia, so will they undoubtedly succeed with the Scandinavian league, should there be another spring and summer campaign. The position of Spain is approaching that of utter de pendency on France and England, which protect not only her European possessions, but also her colonics Spain being now an allied power, France and Engl m i will show some empressement in fulfilling the duties of allies toward her. The island of Cuba may now be con sidered under French and English protection. The conse quences ot that new position of things you are better able to explain to the million ol readers of the Hehzld than my r elf. As a preliminary step tow vrds the tinal emancipation of all the negrois in the West India Islands, we must consider theeieech from the thrcre of the Ring of the Netherlands. He there expressed his hone that slavery w ould he made 1o disappear from all Dutch possessions and both Chamf ers, the fn?t an\ the second, in their reply to the King's speech in the shape of an address reiterated the views of the sovereign. Spain will n ron be the only European country which tolerates slavery in her possessions, and with the democratic tendencies of the zew government, and the force of public opinion in Europe, it is easy to for^ee that the days of slavery in Cuba are numbered. This is a matter of infinitely greater importance than that of Central America, which Mr. Buchanan proposes to settle in London. let him come home by all means, and all other diplomatic func tionaries of Mr. Pierce with him. They are all so cora I remitted by their past conduct that none of them can do any good to his country. F. J. 6. On* Munich Correspondence. Munich, Sept. '24,1855. Russia without an Ally?The War ef German yewspa pers?Continuation cf the Hud between Prussia and Aus tria? Germany Paralyzed?1 he Peculiar Condition oj Prussia since 1812?Mediation of German Princes?The Power and Vtes of the Germanic Confederation?A W arning to all Confederates?Military Organization a) Prussia?Influences of Prussia a European Poiver on the Wane?The Booty at Sebattopol?Spain, Cuba and the Alii'?J he Government and Petple of Xaptes. It would appear ?s if the Russians, Mace the fall of Se vastopol. had not a single ally in Germany. Even Prus sia, which, since 1812, has been a Russian handmaid, in now praising the neutrality of Germany, as the normal condition of the common Fatherland. I have already written you that, for the first time since 1818, the demo crats of Prussia have again reappeared as a party. The ministerial journals, especially those which represent the opinion of M. de ManteufTel, are satisfied with represent ing their antagonists as the " war " party, and the King of Prussia and his advisers as the party of "peace." The democrats, on the other hand, believe that it is time to put down the men who, par vx^tlU nee, represent Russian views in Germany, and especially in Prussia, for which | reason their organs call themselves fpecifically the ene f mies of the Kreut-Zeitung, the well known ultra Russian organ published at Berlin. As I "hall presently <|uit Ger many for France, Italy and, perhaps, Spain, 1 shall here take occasion to give you a summary of her political con figuration at this crisis. You will set from it that the Germanic confederation, at this moment, and for some time to come, is nothing but a cipher?that is, it lacks both courage and power to take a part in the present war. and that its weicht, even in th<- bare scale of diplomacy, is zero. Germany, collectively, might have had a vast influence od the solution of the Oriental problem, hut has thrown a way her chance, and is again reduced to the position ot a wailer on Providence. Austria and Prussia continue their feuds. Itls suffi cient for the people in Berlin to know what is popular iu Vienna, to pronounce it anti-Prussian and revolutionary; and it Is only necessary for the powers in Vienna to know what is deemed patriotic in Berlin, in order to denounce It us "Russian," "Old Prussian," or "auti-nationar." The Germnn governments are as much divided by the pre sent war as those of Italy. As a thing, every ' liberal in Germany is anti-Russian. an i tire same may be said of the Italians as a people. Austria, which has lost j 45,000 men by cholera, and two hundred and Gfiy mil lions of dollars in consequence of her Western alliance, and which is still expending large sums in the occupation of ine I anubian Principalities, has, through intrigue, been deprived of all active support from the l let. either in the shape ot men or m inry. She ran | nevertheless, count on the tacit -u/.p. r: of llav.iria , ony, w urtemburg and llanover. The smaller States of tfip Jyirth are more disposed to side with Prussia. These ( nivisiona mark the political Inefficiency?not to say im j beellify?-o| Ceimatiy. sufficiently to show thai without r revolution, either from above or below, the States of t. e Conledeiatii n will not be disturbed in their rtuuibe No German Power but Austria (as a European State) can ta?e a part either in the p;es< nt war or in the neg ?t;a ". r.s for ieac", without leading to war or conhisi ,n within. It is probable, however, that as the war has been conducted without consulting Prussia, and without ine king ot 1 russia having acted any other part than that of brrther-in law to the f'zar, peace (not imm -di atel.v, but perhaps towards 'he cb>se of 185S) wp! be ci ncluded without consulting either the pleasure or otherwise of I russia. Neither can it be t ut if any humiliation overtake Rugs a as a Euroia>an Po v er, 1 rusna should not share it with her. Russia ami Prussia have acted together for a seriei of years, the alliance having commenced with Frederic the Ureal and resulted generally in the creation of a separate ITusdan in.erest, foreign, or opposed to tlia- of Go many. Th. people of Prussia, especially in th" Rhenish province- of i rus.-ia, have always been opposed to the family puh.icg of their sovereign but the nobility, and a portion of the airny, have always been Russian in their flings a In nil their manifestations of life. It is fortunate for he Western lower* that Prus-ia N poor-thai, deta-^d trom ( ermany and from German sympathies, she is fur m , "8 a gieat IWr-tfiat nothing but miliu y organization lecures her position in the European Pen. tarchy. The stiengtl, of this mllita y organization, how ever, lies not in the regular army in the field, but in ' e tanelirehr, composed of citizens ? ho have served ?n the .Tiny, and may le summoned at any rime 10 defend tL r country. In a defensive war. for a good an I natrio'ic oausej which shall rouse the enthusiasm of the peop >, 1 ru??ia, through her Landrchr. c uld act us a Povve. .i the first rank, and so she could in conjunction with ot ? er Powers; but Prussia b.v herself.'not favored br a particular political constellation, pitted either agai ut J ranee. Austria or Euglau 1. would not be able tosuu .n the lelatlous of a power of the first rank. the military power of Prus-ia, in ardtcef the m-1 n eholy exam) lea of Jena and AuersUedt, lia-, ?iu-e i? i t een prodigiously overra ed, as was that of Russia, it wii-the figures which iiapo el on civilize 1 Europe, andlue enthusiasm with which tlie army was supposed to sustain the throne. 1h? year 1848, however, has destroyed that Il lusion. It is is n< w a notori >ns tact that the An who hr and the army differ very materially in tl.eir views about Rua sian diploma-y. and that a war for or with Russia, would not command tht resources of the country, or enable the 1' h" ,Wl*l*n a jreat nation. But even if "his people in arms.' as the Kplug was pleased to on russia n-. were t.. follow him to ? ,alinPin a war undeitaken solely for the interest ?f fij? faraj]_ hL, g . cear. even as apwinst the smaller Powers of (iermanv c. mbined ngsinsr him. would 1 e ? m.vter of doubt. Ill* ?tr"?le against Augfria ?s the latter p iwer Is n iw Wi i rU!l" would gain n.< laurels. Such a war wrulo h irg I ranee ar.d Rus-ia intoactl-.u. am perhaps lermlm t* ,he caroe-r of Prussia ?? a grea- I "wer. P ' tl] |P.V'f Uf?c<'ro1 7l'Vc "* a European power, -ince >? V'%} und.iubtedl/ <?ue to her nt! " ?nr. ? ? alu',ll< e ?r Pru?*ia, Au-trii an<! t mr 11^ p'fUto 7 10 h,r c'ow relationship to th* guard o t e ? t" "wf ,Tt,? upon as the van 'rr^i Mr?" V" p? .v ' '"'M ,h'' - '''Ul" Po peror XicUofivs, rather ban mount on hovsobick with his people in arms " iluoi!v''onsnP**i'< nl?!, U'V U ^ '? "? ? matter"of ?'h" bu.mliatiuns t' in ' Pf 0"ir,g and pu'tlagdown the lib.,.1 a^iritiom^ neimaQr. Tt< c\< un . which \> Lrifi !-??* l? i ? in 1M1.U ihf. wo. rspVlly oc ,,le,l' '.V, ,"7 and when, in 1852. the success ofthc conn"- levolaUon' l eoau e an eat*blt-he.! fact, Prussia .hired uo .mall nor" SSfS'.'S.r1" -5-SU5S tut leady to spd.giso for her cond^T-h'^J^ I Alhn.rgnr Jt is. fethaps, signif,rant that the French Ptpul*. Idlem calls a honth-ss job tra-ailUrpour la 7' de I ruf (working 'or the King of Prussia) Pro si. L.l the literary ally of Russia it defended the cau-e o'thi Crsr In U ? n?W'i nj^ra. It roz-nteracud th - A?.t, ,n I nth en e at the t f Frankfo t en i..r, ..i .i r fn.P!e-!r to takea 'a.-tin the Vi.nn., conferenre, S , G^,"Uf?eC rr" *n I ?""" -nition lS I I ' ' 1 n.lfc*.RU rirc?>unt. i ) (tgA Vf?ro substantial-eivlre., centlde Ing that the Chambers and thej-cople fisd t?ken side# agsin-t Rns-j*. and U ev we -e nndered wi bout the slightest prospect of reward Tbrv weat ened I russia in Germeny, au.l onened an . ...,.,,,.'1 turient. to le ae-tled at .mi Gi'u-e i ^'cou,l* k ranee If Ru-sia had come out unscathed from the present simggle .be, that w?. strong onouirh t?with :: u?1itvr*wtV^^ P'?^. -n an S naiity wf b I rnss%?ahe could only establish in re. ?Ui the ra'l. , '-he XT 2' l"'" ? ?B'1' ">M. Now .. . . !*, . '" ?rs (- (n the a.eend .. e 11 .v. t . c ,I-fitror: ,ge of Ru,,ia ... ' ,i. V't'. , russia and that she suf '. 1 I er i. ureI c- nijeiu3. r !.V"r."/''1 f,p ' ' "'"r exlsts l any f ;' , I r *'J ?? ? 'ween t' e p. . - 1 " ' P* P 1 ' fi "i? kM sslv ( wol. if sot absolutely inimical toward* her; while Austria h ts a care to wateb every opportunity to strike a blow on her hereditary rival. But the moat sensible loss if that which Prussia ha* sustained ia public opinion, She ia, ae I have laid above, a great rower only aa tar at) she represents the leading opinion of Germany, and when King and people act in unison, the army requires nothing but the word of it* conuutoil er to be put hi motion, the Lantl-w<Jir (similar to our militia, only trained and uaed to regular service.) are au educated class of men, who have them-elves too great a stake in the national weal to be indifferent as to the cause they are hghiing for. Taking all these things to gether, i take this to be an evil hour for Prussia, and it is opt altogether impossible that the present war may so far destroy her influence on European politics, as to ex

clude her permanently from the counc-ls of the great lowers. A# to the smaller States of Germany, they are already mediatized?that is, they exist no longer as sovereign powers, except so far as relates to the relation of the princes to their respective subjects. Th^ Germanic Con federation, which was to unite them into a great homo geneous whole, has shown its capacity to hinder any one of tho States composing the Confederation from taking a decisive part in a great political emergency. But it has not exhibited the slightest capability of stimulating them to joint action, nor has it created in the German miod those sentiments of union and power which alone could render such action successful. If Austria were to de clare war against Russia, or place an army of 150.000 men at the disposition of the Allies, she might, perhaps, secure a portion of the spoils, establish her power in the Prin ipalities, and become, irnot ma ter, nt least leader, of Geimany. In short, such is the position of the German .States now, that none of the German princes can play a con.-picuous part, and that Austria alone represents tie representative spirit of that magnificent garland of Kingdoms and Principalities which extends from the P.hine to the l.anube, and from the foot of the Alps to the Northern Ocean. What a lesson tils, to all confederations whose members sacrifice the national spti it and consideration, to local interests and sectional jealousies! Germany united, was strong enough to say to Russia, " you shall not cross thePruth." and to Pnglu nd a nd E i anco, '' your fleets w usl not pasg the Dar danelles." Instead of that, the question which agitated Getinany was whether Prussian or Austrian interest shall predominate with the members of the Diet, and the conse quence was that the time for action has past to return no more. The next step may be that Germany will be called upon to defend herself. The booty at tsebastoprl seems to be immense, as you will see by the telegraphic despatches of General Pelis Mer. It really seems as if Russia had there concentrated the materials for subjugating the world. Emperor Nicholas must have thought that while France was weakened by revolutionary struggles. England engaged in the manufacture of calico, and Germany sleeping or dreaming, the time bad arrived for accumulating those immense military stores and materials with which his countless legions were to re establish the Byzantine Em pire. Russia is now further removed from Constantinople than Catherine I. was, when ber lover PotemkiD con quered the Crimea. All that time Austria was conniving at the conquest?nay. Joseph I. tad himself a notion to acquire the Principalities, which are now occupied by Austrian troops. The policy of Austria has since been more timid: but she has had more luck. I doubt much whether England and France would gain their object by establishing independent governments in Walladiea and Bulgaria. As Austrian provinces these Principalities would be so much weight against Kusslt. Wall.ichi.i. Bulg.i furia, Bosnia and Servia, left to themselves, will always e hearths of Russian diplomatic intrigues; placed under Austrian protection, they wuuld hardly increase the Sower of that government, which in Italy and Germany as given sufficient hostages for its good conduct toward England and France. All I have written you about Spain has been verified. The v?ry first project of law which will be submitted to the Cortes at their next session will be the arming ot 30,000 men (at first only 25,000 men were demanded), a- auxiliaiy corps for the Western Powers. If Spain fur nishes such an army to the allies, it follows neeesarily that England and France must guarantee her the posses sion of her colonies and the integrity o! her territory. The fi rmer is the chief consideiation for the United .States. What still remains of the Cuban agitation in the United States, including the stump oratory of the redoubtable Jefferson Davis, is now what the French call aprel coup*. It is not even a coup ife lkia!re. The difficulties between Naples and France, as well as those between Naples and England, are settled for the present by the removal of two of the Neapolitan Minis ters. There i". however, nothing sincere or permanent in 1liis reconciliation. Naples?that is to say, the gov eminent of Naples?hates the allies and dieads them, while England and France have scarcely any measure lor their loathing of that lateral branch of the Bourbons. Sooner or later a blow will be struck. Certain It is, that neither England nor Fiance will prevent or put down a revolution in the Sicilies. F. J. G. , Our Vienna Correspondence. Vienna, Oct. 1, 1855. New Political Question in Germany?Proposed Change, in the Meratii* System?The Minion of M. ProWsch?The Russian Proelicities of Auttria Betrayed in the Conduct of her Government Towards th- Press? Vi'ttr Emanuel end th> Church Party in Sardinia?Curious Speculations Regarding the Untimely Deaths of his tbmily. I believe that I mentioned In my letter, last week, that German affairs are at present occupying the attention of tl.e Austrian government, and tYiat the Emperor's visit to his grand uncle ih Myria is believed to be connected with the new measures which it is proposed to adopt. Everything, indeed, tends at the present moment to the rise of u new great question in Germany. Your readers are aw are that i'rince Pchwarzenberg. while holding the reins of government in 1850, made a promise in the name of the Imperial C>urt tlmt he would set about measures for the purpose of reforming the organization of the Con ft derate Assembly, as arranged in the year 1814. Though this promise was made in accordance with the wishes of the German nation in general, the questior^has been for several years totally buried in oblivion, the Oriental question having engrosse 1 the attention of Ger many no less than that of the Western Powers. Ma'ters ere, however, now about to undergo a change. The king dem of Wurtemberg a short time since began to move in the German question, and Bavaria is at the pre-ent m > ment following her example. Hanover and other German Mate are expected alxcst immediately to follow in the course which has been thus commenced, and Austria being bound as she is by the pr, mi-e ma le in 1850, can not refuse with any degree of grace to bring the affair before the notice of the Bund. It is understoo I to be th w ishes of the German states that the exclusive repre sentation of the Courts should be done away, and that the stveral peoples should send representatives to tote at the Confedemle Assembly. It Is impossible to say to what this may lead. larious rumi ts of different descriptions have been afl< at here respecting the object ofM. l r> ketch's mission to I ails. It appears, indeed, certain that his journey was deeply connect' t with political cau-es, tin ugh I lime been informe i. 15 m the rno*t trustworthy sources, that he received no definite mission. However this may be. ft is perfectly sftie tlmt n. ne of his objects have met With success 'J he article which appeared a short time since in the columns of the (hn.'iifuff'mncl dispels all doubts as to the probability of peace being concluded at piesent and 1-ranee appears to Is* too busy to 1* inclined to mi* herself up in the intricate cump ligations of tier man affairs. The latlCcation of the treaty between Spain and ,e Western Powers, and the adhesion of a fifth party to .a cause of the allies, has in some deg roe taken aback t ;e Hus-ian inrty in this city. U is. however, in no way probable that Austria w ill be induced, by any advantages gained by the allied coalition over the aoldiers of the Czar, to nssmne an active part in the war. Austria feels no great amount of confidence in Prance, and has n > great de-Ire to see Kuglan-1 raised at the expense of Rus-la. If her policy has of late undergone any change it has rather turned in favor of lluscovy; in proof of which, I need only mention the (act that the IFaruGrer received a notice last w<ek threatening It with the severest penalties ifitdid not change its tone. Urn IYanderer. aayourroar ers doubtless know, is one of the two pnperswhich hare remained throughout favorable to the cause of the allies. The talent with which its articles are writ'en cau?es it to possess no ?inal! degree of influence, for the liberality of Its principles has long made It an object of dislike to the gf verr.ment here. It is somewhat remarkable, that on the veiy same day on which a written notice was sent to the Wanderer, the following sentence appealed in the Austiian Gn:rtte, a journal of a semi-official character :? '? Whoever is in the loa't acquainted with the ac'ual po sition of affairs, knows that the newspapers of Vienna are entirely uninfluenced by the authorities." Your readers will doubtless experience some difficulty in reconciling tliis statement with the fact recorded above, and will be led to form a somewhat Indifferent opinion with reepect to the straightforward conduct of the Austrian government. However thi? may be, Russian views ate at the present time advocated with an openness and freedom which seem to Indicate anything rather than increasing friend ship toward8 the allies. The health of Victor Emanuel, King of Sardinia, who .ha- been suffering severely for some time past, appears to have experienced a charge for the better, though. If we can mist the CMuatte, of Vienna, his Majesty has been much more seriously ill tLan has l*een general'y sup posed. Suspicions of the very gravest character are be ginning to l*e mooted here respecting the strung- mor tality which has visited the royal house of Sardinia witv in the last two years. Victor Emanuel has, within thU brlef | et iod, followed to the grave the corpse of his wife, his mother, his brother and two of Ids children, and is now himself lying stretched on abed of -ickness. i^e history of Italy is unhai pily too full of the fatal record* ? f ? monkish revenge ' to allow the suspicions which hive once been proved easily to be swept away. Men re. call to mind the tragical end of Henry tjl. of Luxem burg.who was poisoned at the very eteptof the altar, while km fling to drink the sacramental wine, and draw a parallel between the present and the past. Other instances are n< t wanting in which vindictive passions, larking beneath the (olds of the monastic oowf, have worked their eodi by iho knite of the assassin or the surer agency of a prisoned cup. Victor Kmannei ha? rendered himse'lt hos tile tw the more bigoted port In of the Romi'h priest hood by his liberal views, and Ids hold regulations, espe cially in rrgard t?> miniiteriel life, and there is t'?o much teason to fear that these suspicions which are gradual.y oozing out iu-fore the world have for a l??is. in his case at least, a foundation of justice. M. I eieirr h?? left Vienna fat t'aris, and it is generally understood that his negotiations have lad to no satisfac tory rcult. the proposals just made >y the house of Rothschild havmg been prefttrni by the Austrian go vet rment. the eitcttlar between Anstrta and the Porte has been ratified dniief the week. ami th*1 Holy -ee has expressed [<? n'ion ? ?!'conferring the cardinal's hat on \f. Kan A lent !?b< p of Vienna in token of Ha estimet! ?n of ??e valuable services of :ba* gentleman. Their etcel !? t ifs Ct unt Bool an t Bar* n Bach have returned to V ?t na, t uti 'he Court it expected In the middle of the Vrmrta, Sept. 30, I860. Ike Proposed Line of Steamers between Tried? ami yew Yirk? Opinions of the Austrian Press pro ami eon? /ntrretting J rticle on the Subject from the Pen <f Mr. Warren*, formerly American Consul at lrirste?TV Im mense National Aiivantafps <f fa Preyed to both Chan tries DemonstratedL?Important Qwstions of Citizenship between the United States and Austria?Necessity of Actien on the Part of the American Government. There appears to he a great variety of opinions enter tained in Austria upon the subject of the desirability of establishing a direct line of steamcommunication be tween Trieste and New York or other ports of the Unitel States. Some of our leading journals have taken an ex ceedingly active part in the discussion of this interesting topic. The Oetterreichische '?? ituing, of which journal Mr. Kdward Warrens is at once the proprietor and the ta lented chief editor, and who was formerly the American CYm-ul at Trieste, takes the lead In strongly recommend ing the speedy adoption of the cleverly digested plan of Chs. K. Loon y, Ksq., the Austrian Consul General at New York, and a very able correspondence from New York, which the 0>s errHchitche Z-itung publishes, sup porting this plan by arguments well worthy of the atten tion of enlightened national economists. It says, and says truly, that "The project in quest!jn would simultaneously render the most important services in promoting at once direct commercial relations be tween Italy, Spain, Turkey, the whole of the levant, Algiers, he., he., and the United State4 of America and the Austrian flag would, by this means, ac iuire a sig nificance on the Atlsn'ic ocean hitherto unknown." Mr. Warrens has published an exceedingly interesting article, in which he introduces the subject in question, by re ferring to the rapid and wonderful developement of the maritime intereets rf England and America, especially since the year 1844, proving, by statistical dita, that their commercial wealth and power at the present mo ment are chiefly attributable thereto. In treating of the project ol connecting New York and Trieste hp.a regular line of steam packets, which Charles F. I.oosey, Esq., has the full credit of having started, the writer says tt at the merchants and traders of Vienna gieutly approve of it, and deem its early realization of immense importance, if only considered as the most efficacious means of promot ing the commerce of Austria with America. But the plan itself is understood to be by fsr more comprehensive, and its general signifk-ancy is immensely enhanced by the fact that it comprises the idea of connecting, di lectly and Indirectly, by a regular communication, the ports of the Adriatic and the Mediterranean, and even thote on the other side of the Isthmus ot Suez an I the Dardanelles, with New York, and respectively with the whole of the northern continent with the west Indies and Cmtral America. By the realization of this com prehensive plan a mighty impulse would be given to the extension of the Austrian commercial navy, which would create a new epoch in the commercial history of this country. Many nations and territories would thus be brought into a rapid and regular intercourse with Aroeiica. The postal communication, also, would be im proved, and ceate to be burthened with the transit charges which now exist between Austria and Americ i, via 1 iverpool and the North of Europe. The numerous travellers from the United States to the Levant and the far East would reach their destination by a direct route more expeditiously and more conveniently, whilst the commerce in the rich industrial and natural products of the countries on the shores of the Mediterranean and the Levant would rapidly attain a degreo ofdeve opemint of which the world has but an inadequate concep tion at present. As it cannot be denied that the East is rapidly progressing towards a great commercial future, so also there can be no doubt that the same might and ought to be poweifully promoted and hastened on by the estab lishment ot the new liueof steam communication in ques tion. This article winds up by the assertion that Mr. horsey >* grand pioject has been exceedingly ap proved of by all sound political economists in America, and that its early realization is anxiously looked forward to on your side of the Atlantic. More or less in reply to this article inthe O-tlerrei^hiscke Ziitunp, the Wanderer, another extremely well con ducted Vienna paper haa come forward with a sober state ment of hatd matters of fact, by which it proves that how ever desirable the establishment of a regular line of steamers between Trh ste and New York may be, the pro j?ct in question would doubtless he a Ir.-ing aiiair. This writer contends that the shipping intcrc t and the gen eral commerce of Trieste have thsir I rgiLi mate and most advantageous gravitation in the cultivation of its intercourse with the levant and the East generally, and that it would be premature?nay. unwise?to attempt to force the developement of the Austrian maritime com merce into any oiher direction, at least ; for the present. The following da'a are alsoglveu t? prove that the under taking in question would be a losing concern to begin with, whilst on tlie other hand, the general commercial inter ests of Austria would be very little promoted thereby; the more so as the amount of the exports from Austria to America falls so infinitely short of the amount of 1he imports fiom then e, that the idea of being able to establish anything like a ' fair balance' of trade" between the two countries, however essential, must be regarded as altogether impracticable. As the totlowing statistical data, upon which these argument" are built, may be interesting to your readers, 1 here subjoin them: The exports.fmm all Aus- The imports front the United ttian ports to the United States at the Austrian States, amounted to in ports, amounted to In 1818 $385,813 7848 $1,701,495 1849 409,178 1849 942,489 185 0 4?7.?01 1850 1,179,893 185 1 7.s0.788 1811 2,206,573 1862 008.749 1862 2.403,530 1853 5.8,567 1853 2,002,484 The ssme writer also moots the question whether Ame rican produce may not often he more advantageously bought through the instrumentality of intermediate com mission houses, than at the very source of production; and so, tic versa, that Austrian manufactures may frequent y be had cheaper at the staple places out of Austria, than by direct purchases In Austria. This feature is explained by the fact that whilst at the places of production the commodity is not unfrc quently scarce and dear, at other places, where large stocks are almost always on hand, the muri-eta lor the same rormnoditie- are glutted, and from a temporary lack oi demand the prices are proportionally cheaper. finally, the Truster Z'i'nnii published an article this week, the pith of which is. that the idet of establishing a regular line of steamers from Trieste to New York may be very praiseworthy, and even excellent, in Its various bear ings, but that the rime for its advantageous realization hu'notjet come, and, according to the views of the writer, appears to lie tolerably distant. His arguments generally are similar to those contained in the Wanderer; but he adds that the notion ol calling upon the home g< vet nir.ent for a large sub-tdy in support of the under taking. with a special viewto the establishment of an im proved mode of postal communication between the two countries, is impracticable and cannot be entertained, betr.u-e lis result would always prove inadequate to the sacrifices demanded. From the foregoing you will observe that the much 1aiked-of plan ol e-iablishing a direct line of steamers between Trieste and New York has but lit le chance of a speedy realization, unless indeed the matter be taken in hand by the Arneileans themselves. I emit me now to call your attention to another sub ject of no less inteipnt to Americana by birth than to American .irizcz* by adoption. Of late years it has tre quently happened that Aus'rian subjects have emigrated to the United .-tateq and have there become legally pos sessed of the rights of American citizenship, without its l>eing deemed necessary by the laws of your country to inquire whether such Austrian subjects have a light, according to the laws of Austria, to ac n |>t the satne. The consequent is that many of these Austro-American citizens, it may be, partly in ignorance of the laws of their original country, have returned to Austria after a lapse of years, to settle some family affairs, or to visit their relations and friends In this country, not doubting for a moment that in their adopted character of American citizens, they would be able to return to the United States when they liked. Now, this is not the esse, and 1 presume you would be rendering the public on the other side of the Atlantic a great service by cautioning all ci-devant Austrians not to reluin to tbeirnalive country under any pretext whatso ever, as it is an indubitable fact that they dare not cal culate upon being allowed to leave the Austrian empire again, when once they have so returned. The Austrian g'-verr mcnt obstinately refuses to recognise ber subjects as Aireriran citizens unless the acceptance of such an acquired citizenship baa been previously sanctioned by the Austrian authorities. At this very time there is a case in point, of a very heartrending nature. A native of Dresliurg emigrated to America (with or without leave I know not.) manv years ago. In course ot time lieaettled in the United states, became a man of substance, and re ceived Ameriran citizenship. Some time ago he re solved to visit his aged parents and other relatives at Fresburg, where he na* been now detained upwards of five months, as the authorities will not recognise his claims upon American protection, and refused to return him his passport, although the American Minister here has done his utmost to enable this very respectable indi vidual to retur n to the United States, where he is carry ing on a large business, and has all his property invest ed. Of course, he is quite "at large," at f'resburg, but heTs not allowed to go out of the country again. With regard to another species of political offenders who claim foreign protection?I mean political criminal*? a case of considerable interest occurred here some time since. It appears that an American subject ha* been convicted by tlie Austrian police upon the charge of "high treason." The man is still in "durance vile,' and according to the Austrian laws his preparatory trial Is being carried on w th the greatest secrecy. The prisoner nay tie found ultimately guilty or innocent of the crime laia to his charge, but h<- is not allowed to communicate with any living being until his fkte has been derided. I have been given to understand that he claims the fpro tection of the American Minister here, at least In eo far that that gentleman may take such measures at he may deem neceaaary to insure a riblr trial," but Mr. Jackson, the American Minister resident nt Vienna, has till now teen unable to bring the influence of his interference to bear. t'ffcially he can only communicate with the Aus trian Foreign riftice, and the affair in question Is one that pertains to (he Ministry of Police; and in this eonntry, it must be clearly understood that each Ministry is per fectly Independent of the other, as each Minister Is only separately responsible for the acts of bis departmsnt to the Emperor. Thns, Count Buol is only the mouth-piece of Baron Kern;en in this instance, and the matter In ques ion is not treated as one of international right*.? All foreigners iu Austria are amenable to the laws of Aus tria snd the*e laws recognise no Interference In the in ternal administration of Justice on the part of a foreign Power, rin the other hand, the Austrian authorities always decline to interfere on behalf of Austrian suMects under adjudication for crime in other countries. These peculiarities in the absolute constitution of Austria, however are probably nut sufficiently known in the United Plates. 'l bsve therefore thought proper to allude to this ca-e which, It may be presumed, at present forms the snbjeet of an unpleasant correspondence b?tween the reepeetlvf governments, ami render* the p ditical rela tions t*tw*en the two countries anything but advan'a, Ow Madrid Correspondence. M.uiriu, Sept. 20, 1855. The (Met Corutituent?People Apprehehautive?A Revo tut ion at Hand?The "S] anith Lion" ami lit Editor? Alt Atrocious Calumny?Miscarriage of the Quern? Ihr Carlists?Defeat of a Body of Quern's Troopt?The Dtmotralt Awako?Jhc Arrests of Important Men? Tfo | Loan?The Phillipines?Tribunal Broken dp?Cuba, America and Mr. Dodge.. The day or the re-op.-., log of the sessions of the Con j stituenl Cortee la at hand. The deputies are already roust of them here, and the summons of the Chamber wa" Issued two days since. N body exists her^who has not Ids eyes Used on the day after to-morrow, for the situa tion of the cuuntry is slurming. and the conduct of minis tors is not at all satlsfacto.y. Everybody thinks it is very important that the Corte-t should come together, and that the labors of the nwm berlees committees charged with the druft of laws and preparation of measures should be laid before them. This political machine does not work, it is out of gear;. it iB broken in parts; it is clumsy, it lias been repaired unekillfully; nobody kuows U.isr to manage it; and many are at work to impede i's being managed at all. We ball see whet plans of salvation the Assembly will - adopt. 1 do not hope for niu.h from them. A part are worn out party hacks ami is.lilicians, and others are s.i completely green and Ignorant of everything pertaining to government, thai it Is pie'ly easy gum-sing that tliey will do about what they cid be.ore?uothing in psrti cular. Meanlime all the world is discontented. All prudent i persons are putting by thei. money and guarding against 4 a revolution which tbey believealieady must come soon. There Is a kind ot propueUc, tll-at-easo sort of feeling througout the couutiy?ihe undoubted precursor off some new and great change In political and social affairs. One of the grave questious which has arisen in the*** days is on accocnt of an article which appeared in the ??Spanish Lion," which stated in somany words that the Queen had misrariied in consequence of the violence sal' teed from her Cabinet by obliging; her to sign the de crees for the new arraugement, of the palace. Such an accusation, coming from a miserable lit Je newspaper, one of the organs of the modera.lo party, produced great alai m in all minds, and tho government, stepping over the ''law for printing," caused the oditor of the paper to be conducted to ptison to answer for such an atrocious calumny. J his editor is now under the grasp of the law, and the ministers sod all seusible peoplo are interested in the chastisement of one who could abuse thus one of the dearest privileges of liberty, vir.: tnat of free print ing. It is clear that this calumny was Invented by the moderados, and to prove that it was a calumny, it suffices to say that everybody believed the Queen to be In good health when it was priuted. Some days afterwards, it is true that the situation of her Majesty appeared to contirm the statement, and on the 25th instant the miscarriage was officially published. She is now getting on very well, although her return to Madrid has been suspended by prohibition of the physi cians for the present, and she remains at the Escuriaf. The Queen approved ano signed, spontaneously and sincerely, the reform ot her servants, convinc ed of tlie necessity she was in of separating from her side persons uot of the progresista party. At. least we ore told so by the iniiiisters and mem bers of the progresista party, and we ail try t? believe it. Hut her husband, that king in name, who to his absolutist tendencies and his Bourbon instincts adds the circumstance of being the influence of Uk. apostolical clergy, has been sadly displeased that the per sons whom he had in his immediate service shonld be. taken away from him. He, however, I am happy to say, has not miscarried, and as he is not of much importance any way, let bim bear the burden of the story, and one beloved Queen be saved from the imputation of having had any preferences of her own. The Carlists continue their incursions along the I'y rent'es, In spile of tho French police. The Carlist Club, in Paris, works hard and sends on considerable sums ot money to the chiefs. There is no denying that these partisans arc tenacious and valiant, and worthy to de fend a better cause than that of the self-styled lion Car los VI., and the Spanish clergy, as brutal and cor rupt as they are demoralized. It behoove, the govern ment to keep after this beginaing of a Carlist war with a. veiy sharp stick, and the troops must look wild and not fail into unibuscadcs as tbey did last week; because though the government lias not told the truth about it, it is certain that the Carlists have surprised a detach ment of troops and defeated them, killing many and mak ing many pifsoners. The d< mocrats are also wide awake. Tho socialist clubs are active, and some deputies to the Cortes arc known to have been present at some of them. The police have caught some of the distributors of fool ish proclamations: and the prisoners have made some revelations from which utber more important persons have been arrested and thrown into prison. The loan has been subscribed voluntarily to the amount of $0,000,000. $2,000,000 U, therefore, the amount to be levied by force. The foolish sort of government exercised by fieneral Creapo in the I'billipine Islands has made if. necessary to remove him. The g< vernment has taken possession of the archives and records of the Tribunal of the Rota and shut up the court. This was a tribunal of the l'ope's, concerning ecclesiastical ails Irs. Matters concerning Cuba and America are motionless. Nobody hears or sees anything concerning them. Mr. Hodge, the American Minister, has Just returned here from the FVcurial. We don't know whether that has any political signification, but we rather imagine not. That gentleman seems to pass pretty much unperceived. It may be something very deep is going on, but nobody seems to have uuy apprehensions. I am disposed to think this Minister is lesoived to live among us quietly, with his ainistile family, enjoy his pay und perquisites, ami leave all questions of a rtmih'ful nature on one side for the present. We shall certainly be grateful to him if he does. We are a people averse to having any trouble with anybody, and we like particularly not to hava anybody trouble us. EI, CID. The Revolutionists of Europe. MANIFESTO OF MAZZ1NI, K08SITTB, AND LIDKU ROLLIN TO THEIR BRETHREN IN FAITH. The town of Sebastopol baa fallen. The war between the Western governments ami the Caar is now irrevoca ble and prolonged indefinitely. Russia, after a defeat, cannct consent to conditions without descending to the rank of a lldrd-rate I'ower, and the Allied Towers, in face of the excited public opinion which sees in an incident of war a decided victory, cannot propose a peace without, onerous conditions. The fall of Sevastopol is then for us nothing hut the first period of a war, of which the last should belong to the peoples. For any one who looks beyond the surface of things, and does not assume his inspirations from the small events of the enemy's field, but in the general tendency of the war and from the duty of tho nations, who until now have been mute and mo tionless, nothing Is changed. It is In the name of this duty that we duw speak. A battle won?a town lost? for one or tlie other cannot change this duty. It seems to us that the moment has arrived for reconstituting the democracy of Kurope in a powerful unity, and displaying an act before the enemy, and we assume to say to our brethren of all countries?with the authority which is given to us, not of ourselves, but in the certitude that we express what is now living and raging in the heart of the people?on the knowledge of the present conditions, assumed from intelligence collected from all important points of Furope?on the conscience of many pledges given to tlie cause of European liberty, and in the firm determination, as we are, not to fail our biethrenfif ever they respond to our call. It Is indispensable for every extended enterprise to concen trate the initiative?a hand to raise the standard of the movement and a voice to cry the hour is come. We are that voice and that hand. If the majority of the party recognire their flag in that which we raise, if they think our word the expression of the truth, it U their duty to aid. Outposts of the revolution, we shall enter the rank* of our party on the first awakening of the people. But what sort of awakening will that be? The history of the last six years teaches us. It will never take plaee until unity shall be established in the field. This Is in the present day the supreme want; the circumstances gene rated by the war fought In the East make It urgent. That it why we speak. We speak to-day. and we have been silent until now because our language, opportune at this moment, would have lieeu incautious and immature a few months ago, at the beginning of the * ar. Many illusions have now vanished, and serious les sons, then foreseen by tow, have now been made evident to every one. The European question is only one la the sphere of principles?"liberty tor all; Fraternal associa tion for nil." These are the common rights and objects ol every one. but, in the practical sphere of the facts and the meane, the question assumes two different aspeets: that of the nationality of peoples, who like Italy, Han gs ry, and f'eland, are to vindicate their existence against foreign oppression, and that of the peoples, who, having already, like France, gained their nationality, intend only to prosecute its regular developement against the usurp ation, for the organisation of their nationality. For the first, the revolution Is war, immediate war. They want allies and favorable circumstances. For the others, it to only the matter of home work, and of being unanimous and willing. The present war seemed at firm to offar to the dismembered nationalities a chance of less Important sacrifices. Feme hoped that the Halo-Hungarian ques tion would be helped by the forced support of the west ern Towers, if ever the Identity of principles, tradition or leer should throw Austria openly Into the arms of the Czar; others thought the necessity of suoeess would drive the governments of England and Kranee toward* the only reelly vulnerable point ot Russia? Poland. We never entertained similar illusions. We knew that it was enough for Austria to maintain an appearance of neutrality to give every possible eld to Russia and we know that neither the man on the 2d of December, nor the Ministers who, after saei I (icing Rome end Perth, brought him the afflanee of Mnd, would ever dare to raise the winding sheen i rovers Poland; but in the first period of the war those ilhiah ns were tor the peoples a reality which time only could destroy. It was necessary to set the empire dragging the flag of Fraaee tor more than tea months la the mud of Austrian Chanceries; to bear from the lips of English Minister* those Impious words. "A Hungarian Insurrection would be e misfortune;" "|l 1* useless that Rome should be free;" "the action of Anstriaia necessary lor 1 laHaa progress,sad without it Roland eon not hope to begin a free lite;'' jo teach the people# that every hope founded on the war ot Chbtnets is a tolly; that te main tain the Holy oho Is the only ohteet of the Western gov ernments; thai betweW the field of liberty and that ef monarchy there is no possible contact exoept in straggle ; and that It fs only by the sweat of oar brows and the blood of our vein* we can conqnar our rights. Now we think that this teaching is undeniable, we shall meet n? more phantoms in our path; the hallucinations of the peoples have vanished, and there are still more. Through this Impotent wsr time ha* brought to light two greet fkcts. to which it 1* right to call attention. The first ia the force of the revolution, acknowledged by Its very enemies. In two years the greet French repub lic of 1792, attacked at home and abroad, unprovided with mean* and wtth Impoverished finances, repelM, with ti e f..rcc .>f the principles incarnated In it, the r,? teign enemy from Its territory, crushed rebellion, dlf fu?ed abroad the words ef liberty, transformed society, srtdfrnrded Iii*t|rg eivll Institutions In two yewrs .Wo pouein anu tveatiiuuoea* wvaaivuy ui aluanoe, strong