Newspaper of The New York Herald, November 11, 1855, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated November 11, 1855 Page 2
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fl. II, and in 'heir modification* Vri'uy. Atkins and Mskieri. Tho principle of the of cut* the grain .* nearly the The principal wheel is drawn al?>g shi grr .ri?I try the h11'sC*. atcl communicatee its motion t. two ne t* of a heels m sueh a in anus r lliat, by * revolu non or the principa' sh'd, the -aw make* fr< in sixteun V twenty 'urns. A* ? " .ling' to the pace of the horses, we c*n suppose from seventy to a bundled yards a m.nufe, th'- raw would jpve froui live to six h ill Ired cut# in that time. Hie cutting of too g aio without clogging the ira,thin -, .le -'nils upon 'he t'nrra of the Inner groove where the .-aw glide . Cbo -rw can be lowered or :?a'sed by level - so in to cut nearer to or farther from the groan'. In Manny's mtiehine, th' Mriver, on hi' seat, whm I e ercounters any obstruction. can instantly give ? ukiv-nieot :o the lever which raise* the saw about a toot atone tl e ground. In the ru whiue of Ooumier, the **w w replaced oy k.i.ver, the effect. of which would re to Irs* ihi -talks less in cutting. The - until tpflj, whose funcliou is to incline the staUs towards the cutter, has generally only four wings. M. ciraudvuiaDtt blame- nim h.r having exchanged in id* mil! the wo den wing* fer linen stietched up.>n ro?ls of iron. ?This uoiiatructor," says he, "has uot understood the rtjsct of th- uiui, which shouM iiui'ate a liand pushing the slatls towards the cutter with a gentle motion. He makes hi- mill move too rapi-ly. which shakes the grain ?rent the vara." In the beat plana, the supports of the wing- ?n he b i g honed or ahortnued. to strike the stalks at-ni entilred height. In MoCormlck'* mill, the wings instead of being flat, na in the other, have an ingnnioua curve, resembling the form of a liaud, an t by which it ran Is introduced into tho g ain, ilrat on the right aud (hen on tie left, thus giving loss of a shock. lb-ay's machine (on the plan of Husney), ami that of Mazierc, have no mill, und yet cut the giain in a satisfactory manner, which might lead the superficial observer to sui' thin piece unit -ens-try. He' the service of the mill is replaced in th inach-ne !>y a man with a rake, wiie is obliged to overlook 'he spreading of the cut stalks. Ihi.- null inclines the stalks towards the cutter with his rjke and after they are cut spreads them upon the ground. If the men who w>rk these machines are ?kilfnl, ibey can Buoeeob, whilo on the oontrary, If they *:o negligent, the work will be spoiled. 1'he mill always performs In the same manner; it is a Woikman, who is never diverted or fatigued. In the ma chine.- wheie the cotter is at tho side, the cut stalks latl en a platform or apron behind the saw, and are there ga thered by the rake and spread on the ground by a man who walks bv the side, or sometimes sits on a pirt of the machine behind the principal wheel. They are placed In a long line of bundles to the right of the saw, on the path which the horses have traversed. In Dray's machine the sla ks tall on a mot log platform, which turns when the sulks have aci|uiied a certain weight. The man in ut'end ancc has hi- left loot plated in a stirrup in tront of this platform, ami the bundlo being cut, he has only to raise his foot lo throw it on the ground behind where ir, is picked op by . ne or two followers. This principle is goon, and in 1 hi i case the man wi'h the rake can take the plaeeof the null, but the handles should be iinmc liutely gathered, that the horses may have an open path for the atzt turt. In the propelling machine, where toe saw is m front ?l tb* moving wheel, the cut stalks fall Ujsm it platfoini ilaced behind it, on an inclined plane. The plat ft. in has a movement from left to light, and as it re ?ci ch t tie stalks places them itself in a line un the left of the pa h In the machine of Atkins the working of the platf irni is further see ired by the following ingenious mechanism. A large rake, articulated like a man's arm, and moving at regain iutei vals, aathers the stilus from the platform and presses ilium in bundles ogaiust another fixed rake tlwi teeth of which catch in those of the first,, the large rske then rc'ires and leaves the bundlei on the ground, tiue man only is required to work tills machine and to guide the two horses which are attached behind. The American who invented it. has gained 'he admiration of the whole public of Trappes, by the ease of its motions. The iuiichine cut well, but at times became cogged, vl. laurent guided his own machine, and three men behind the horses directed it by means of a large fixed bar adap'ed to the end of the tiller. It took him a long time to traverse a -mull extent oi land; his machine stoppel befiue a small obstruction. Mr. Croskil! withdrew his ma< bine from trial after havit g proceeded a few feet. Mr. Muddy, of Canada, did the same. Without ih<* machine of Atkins' the system of propulsion by harne-niog behind, would have been decidedly compro mised in the eyes of the French public; it mowed two fifths ol an acre, the assigned task in tweo'y tive minutes. The French machine of Cournler, with a horse, a driver, and a man to attend the platform, be came clegged, and stopped several times, hut it was no ticed for uot leaving lenind any uncut stalks, whi.-h ?am oi he said of all the others. The faults of its mdl ?nn be easily corrected. The French machine of Uazierc. with a horse a driver and an attendant, stopped several times; M. (irandvoinnet declared he had -eeri it wmk very well the year before at (lilgnan. The Dray machine, with two horses, a driver and an at'endant, is very small not complicated, and easily overcomes obstruc tioss; it cots well, and has, it is said, worked much bet ter under other circumstances. The M inny machine, with two horses, a driver and an attendant, appeared to wioie easily; itn mill moves ra-her too rapidly, but it is a fault ea-ily corrected. It accomplished the appointed rask quickly, and without stopping in twenty-'wo min utes. McCormivk's received the nio-t applause. The American has beaten the English. It requires two horses, a driver and un attendant placed astri leou a narrow seat liehind the principal wheel; it proceeded without a-cidcnt. * ml are mpli-hrd the tw<-filths of an acre in 17 minutes this velocity, which would give nearly two scrosiu an hour and twenty-five minutes, c?nuotbe scepted as an absolute fact. We must take into consideration the exhilaration ?f the driver and the temporary exciterneti of (hebursas. An acre an hour under ordinary circumstan"Os. gives us great lesults. With the machine we esn accomplish 'en aeres in ten working hours. I'he expense o( two h >r?e. sod the driver, eight francs; the a'.ten lint with h- rake, five france; four wo men to pick up the bundles, ?rancr?in all twenty-one francs. Hie -am" work cone i y the -cythe now costs in the onvitogi* of Fails, ninety-bye fiance. Adding whs we please for repair west and tear, the interest of the capi'ni for a unci, -e which the constructor can sell for seven hnn 'rod id fifty francs, nnd harvesting by it- aid, would still be a very go d operation. At the sec. nd trial at Trappes Vfotk" mick's machine leaiutainod Its rtiperijiity. The machine* of Coumier, Manny aud VT; gilt, wr.ii e-1 rosy well. After having cut grain it was concluded to try Un in with clove.-; the machine of Coumier wa? not adafted to this purpose; that of Manny was prepared fo; it in one minute; MoCormick's In a quarter of an hour. Wright rei|tiire?l twenty five minutes. The cutting of thtoe-tcnihs i f sn acre was to these machines a mere trills- they acrorapllfhe 1' in a ijuiirter of an hour. Here are facts to occupy the minds of economi-t*. Here i it>a"e. to fill volumes with deep and important couside ra'ions. AgrUultnrc la Rnglni-rf. Praucr, Ei-lglnm mill A mi'< Iru. . The following interesting article was supplied by the l'aris correspondent of the Manclirnter Guard ian. on Oct. 10:? Apropos to the useful portion of the exhibition, a vast effect has been made here, by an article written by M. de laivergne.and published a week ago by the Revue iUb Dear Mantlet (in its last number). In this little essay, he cn iminev everything which ha* any connection with agriculture, whether in Eng land, France, Belgium, or America, and gives the clearest possible notion of the position France really holds, agriculturally speaking, when compared to the rest of the world. In speaking of the tirst prin eiple of all. for instance, ho says that French culti vators are far too inattentive"to the quality of the grain they sow, and he gives a lamentable picture of "the halt rotten grain, mixed up with seeds of straggling sorts." which tile BO WW, in Fmnoe Hi" J into ill-tilled ground, and expects to sec rendered up to him in the shape of line, f ull-eared, healthy corn. He instances, as a proof of what good grain is, the example of M. Vandercohne, near Ibinkirk, who from some Australian corn reaped the value Of (16 hectolitres ncr hectare, or tea times the multiplica tion of cacfi grain, whilst ordinarily the yield in France is only six or seven hcct ditrcs per hectare, or three times the value of the grain. He mentions a kind of oats exposed by an English grower, which gives ho hectolitres per hectar:. M. de Eavergne is loud in hie praise of oar rye-grass, which, in France, is looked upon as a sort of ornamental, rather than a useful, production, and he exclaims: "Nothing hut hay, my readers will perhaps remark?nothing bid hay and forage 1 Even so ! hut let us think what is the meaning of it. All this hay. in its transforma tion, signifies meat, wool, milk, manure, corn, conse quently populous!,ess and power."' From our plain humble hay and corn he turns to the French agricultural produce, and finds, in all conscience, variety enough. Wools, silks, grains, oils, wines, vegetable*, fruit, plants, tinctorial, textile or sacch -rine- everything the imagination e?u dream of; and he adds: " Unfortunately all these apparent riches often hide, in fact, great poverty:" and he proves them to be but exceptions. In tlie Itas-cs Alpcs. he shows us the produce of Uq) model farm ol Pailh-rols:?By the side of wheat called lorntelle blanche,giving the very tinest hour yit known, there are oils, wines, silkworms, Ac., all of exceeding lieauty; yet the department whence eomes these wonders is the poorest and most miserable perhaps in France perhaps, indeed, oue of the poorest countries in all Europe. Except this m<sl?-i farm, there is nothing. Half the noil is uncultivated, ami the cul tivated part can barely feed a scanty population, which diminishes every day. Nevertheless, M. de lokvergnc recognizes thut gi-ncraily there Is a great improvement 111 the agricultural produce of France, but he says it is very far from what it should be. All his ?ysfcm (and 1 believe he is right as far as this country is concerned) re |ioses upon the necessity of making forage and corn the two p?-i-|>ctual l>u?-s of all culture, end reducing what he styles the " indus trial cultures," as ailks. sugar, dyes. Ac., to the con dition of mere exceptions. He savs, with iwrf- <-t tnilh, " The me reBlobjei t of all agiiculture and its indestructible basis Is, the production of ineat and bread."' of course, the article I allude to, of thirty-two pages of close print, is far too long for me to at tempt to analyse it; but it contains many thing* tar too curious for me not to allude to. \tter plucinc England at the head of all countries, as far as culti vation goes (the uselnl species of culture,) we are shown the varhma countries which approach the nearest to us. Belgium. Holland, Switzerland, Six onv. Lomlrardy, Bohemia, all go before prance, mnkir.g ti gr*f,"P about of in'ctar^ ne .rly npon our level as to production. The av er ago o'f the population i* almut IbO souls to 100 hec tares, whereas that of France is only W. "Iran e. M- Ivti\6ri(D6iu holdx only the third rank, and cornea after all these. In all Europe there are about 100.000,000 hec tares of land aetnally producing what they ought to produce, in the present advanced stele of agro-til turn' science. Of these. France ami Italy together (with the exception of Ismibardy.) furnish ah-wit 40 bOOODO of hc< tares. Speaking Austria, which yiMsme* from Hungary to North Italy, every varic ty of climate and soil, M. de Lavergnc *ay?, properly cultivated, she could teed 100,00<),000 iu babituits, He estimates that, with ordinary-eflbrta, Kuro; e may nourisii tive or six time* more in popu lation than now exit t. France, ho says, may double her population, when she shall have learned how to cultivate her soil; Spain, Portugal, Prussia, Poland, may triple theirs, and Turkey and Russia iucrcase theirs tenfold; and then he enters minutely into the details of the manifold errors which, in agriculture, prevent the soil from rendering all the riches man tins hu* '<> demand from it. Out of Euro|>e, M. de Lavurgne gives the highest praise to America, und occupies himself naturally enough with the present state of Algeria. Inst ai d 3 o((0,000 kilogramines of bread and biscuit tea dy made. " in itself," says the writer, " tiris may be little; but we must remember that, a few years ago. Algeria imported all her food.'' Another ad vantage, too, is that the Algerian harvests tike place early in June, thus coming beforehand with the mother country, should she need supplies. < Jot ton and silk, too, come remarkably line from this part oi Airita, but ttiere seem to lie doubts as to either of these products being made available in any important quantities for trade. Here, owing to cli mate and old-established customs, the laborer fails; and this colony, so easily rich in what touches pasto ral or agricultural weulih, will tind, probably, great difliculty in bringing to any degree of devolopemcnt what requires any manual labor. Corn, wood, oil, and cattle. these are what M. de faivergric looks upon as the gratid staple commodities of Algeria ; and he says, when the Arab shall have learned what the culture of grass means, and what the value of hay is, the Algeriun markets may furnish half Eu rope with batcher's meat. The last ten pages of the article I allude to are consecrated to the examination of machines for reaping,sowing, mowing, threshing, ploughing, <Vc.; and distinctly point out the inapplicability ?f certain snpcrexceUent processes adopted by our agricultur ists, to the culture of land so subdivided that often a full-sized patent ploughshare would be hardly ablo to turn round in the whole extent of u man's corn field. The benefits of irrigation and drainiug are counteracted in the same way, and rendered equally inapplicable in many instances. Besides this, the state of the soil itself requires immense improve ment before these are to be thought of ; " with land ill tilled and ill manured, as is laud in France, at least for a good three-quarters." says our author, " we should, from even the best draining system, get but comparatively insignificant results. The aim of M. de Lavergne is twoiold:?First, to infuse into his countrymen the desire of throwing their capital plentifully into the soil itself, and with the conviction that agriculture is the genuine, the indestructible wealth and power of a country; and next, to persuade agri :ulturists that two things alone are important?bread and meat, corn and hay. Corn in all its varieties, and forage, arc, as he repeats over and over again, the marrow and sinews of a people; they represent bread, meiit, population, health, strength?and, compared to them, what he calls the industrial cultures, are superfluities, objeta de fantatie. Alluding to the present alimentary crisis, he ends his article thus:?" Out of evil comes gi.od. 1 hope, for the luture, the folly will be felt of taking capital away from agriculture. Heaven send that the intensity of the evil bring a reaction. A vast place is open to agricultural enterprise: on one hand, corn and meat beyond all price, on the other hand, dirt cheap, and new processes of culture of a hundred, sorts ail found good in practi e. If one day capital returns to the soil, and its application be guided by the new discoveries of science, we shall then see this land, so stingy now, yield up treasures unsuspected; and, defying the variability of sea huh even, we shall assuredly repeat, which recalling the distress which provoked so late a return to the bene fits of agriculture, out of evil coines good. Prospects of n Maine Law in Kui(U)iil. [From the Isimlon .Sews, Oct. tj. 1 Are we to have u Maine Liquor law in England > 7 u>k t'"; question .lor the simple reason that the advocates ol -rcb a law are taking a position which will iorce the Legislature to enter, at Iea-t, into at examination of their claims. It may he very possi hle that there are in England ubsta.Ies inhere, t in our JWMI condition, which will interfere with o re" Mstible power to prevent theenftctmeutof such a law as that established in Maine, hut it is no le*- ti ne that the advocates of such an euacment are prepar ing, with no slight degree of (letenuiuation, to mukt light ol such obstacles. Sir Walter Trevelyan, who presided 011 \\ edne-day over a meeting at Manches ter oi the council 01 "tin- Uuideo Kingdom Alliance 101 the total and iuiniediate legislative suppression of the liqnor traffic," told his numerousauditors that tht movement had made cuusiilciahle progress doling the p?st yeu,.t ull.| that he coiignitu ..11 .f vu U,e rttlack^ made 011 them which had proved useful to them." The report of the spoke largely and rcontidently ,01 the adhesion ol person:, 01 Dote to their cause, and 0: the general persuasion amongst judicial authorities that legislative interference would be necessary to check the I curl ol consumption of spirits which led to the frequent commission of awful crime. Air Laurence ii'.VIi! V ? c?i:UM" of a -nbseqaent meeting i? , tie 1D evening, felt sure that the men ol heater would soon call upon the legislature to prohibit the sale of intoxicating drinks. Several pei-ons sent apologies for absence; amongst whom hj'h Mr. \\. J. i<o.\, of Oldham, who said that ? ii propi sed in Parliament, he should cheerfully -un. port u tair uml full inquiry into the Dera tion of the Maine law in' Mneri-v . ai-,. tnai Ot res'netive legislation in this country" We could give several other instances of the import ance w'hich the subject, is assuming in public estima tion. t\e mo willing to confess that there are eir < 11 Distances wh ch throw into s'rong light the ad vantages which would result from the total absti nence lioni int. xicatiug liquors, Therein more mo nev paid lor than is paid in taxe? It' a wietch is brought up for half murdering his wire, you mav be certain he is a drunkard. Drunkeunesg pauper ises a large portion 01 mir population, prevent the mo cess of the cfl'.irts of our philanthropists, e-nntic our schools, nod tills our prisons. It the Maine law Mere a synonym for a successful mode of preventing drunkenness, we might, although having much even then to urge against its enactment, reconcile sir selves to -re it become the law of the c mntry The sin cess of the law would, perhaps, co intorhalar, . some delects in It which seem to us to .-in ag.ilust the nrst prntciplctt moral imiepoutlence# Hut would it succeed? No argument run he dinwn from the small experience which we ha v. bad ot its effects in the government of Maine. No statistics . nil be_ lolni on which do not carry 11 through a period of some years. If we were to con fine our attention to the time of Father Math, w - mii.istr.itious in Ireland, in endeavoring to make >?., our minds as to the efficacy of the temperance nioveraent. we might i* to ascribe V. that movement an efficacy which subsequent exnerien ?? has in no degree confirmed. It will 1m mu'h more to the puriuwe it we examine what has been the effect of antecedent mens,ires which have had the same tendency as prohibitive laws and inquire how far they have oeen successful JVr bapa no example of this nature can lie'mare prrgnan ">an that of the operation ... the Irish distillery laws, as tbey existed some yeirs Mtek. 1 lte.-e laws were not enacted, indeed, for the purpose of cheeking drunkenness. They were in tend. .1 solely for the protection of the revenue Hut dsarei 'rVT ? n"' l>rtce of k'" "] *l)lrit? mani. ucd their acquisition more difficult the government, in order to facilitate the collection of he revenue, multiplied menus lor throwing tne tuile into me hands of the groat capitalists. For the purpose various statutory regulations were rnm.e, hiterlwring with the free actio,, of the manu tactute?. All th.s tended to increase the price ol spn its. and consequently encouraged the u-o of illicit proci sso- l he result v as that ?? Parliament whiskey" stunk in the nostrils of the Irish population. Here surely was an end which tectotalism will neveratUin. If tbe teetotalists could create in the mind-of drunk ards a disgust lor tbe liquor offered to them for sale by be only persons legally authorized to sell, surely thev might obtain their ends as effectually as by le gislative interference. It all tlie gin in all the public housee in England were to-morrow rained in price ? ctl n "ot this I* almost as effectual a* a legislative enactment against the fit' u ' he,P, thinking that it would, but lh? thing has hiippened in Ireland: and what was the effect? The drink waa bad, but tbe drunk,.r.L were not.gone, and as long as they remained there wnai, inmket for a good . heap And where there is a ileumnd there are sure to be producers to supply the demand. And,flfl tliew producers could not cany out their operations in pnblic, they were obliged to do so ,n private. As they could not brew their whiskey in the city, they went to the hill side Thcv honey. 0111 lied the hills with private stills. Tue trenches at Hehaatopol were as nothing in extent to the openings made and carefully cov. red in the hills of Irihuid for the purpose of Illicit distillation. Pro prietnrs gave evidence before the House of t o nQous J" ltlti, that stills were erected in the t ?wnlan<ls of ti nrovvn residences,without any danger of discovery >|ioitM.icn, when out shooting, used to tread iiimn ine top of stills, before they found ont their exist em e. 1 ruler the soil of the downs and hills of Ire mil", ,r'!i"lt"r'' ? ""Tied o? whicli a.| ^'Jl'.'i " 1' ;p craving, of the people whicli the gi '?'"n"l enactments tended to discournge. Kx the t-ol'ice^.ml v''T" mn,UP1?wl- The aid of fTnce Of the hlw t,,"* -v, wa" ^r.mrulo.I in de :as BH <?*',;, is 1 !o'K,,t r?r ,Mr uncit uh jor a tfirriwiH ( ?%rw-infl ti. - i ? tysn lire euthorttiea and the populioe m'rea-e^ dreakennctw was certainly not .liioini-hed mim is matter of hi.-tory. fl,e greater tv'difi .hv I thrown in the way of the lri-h r.MIII i,,,iJ y good whiikcy, the greater vro* the tflvrt tuade by him.elf and the nnngg'cre to ovcicorae j lbflfi ttDY KftHOU tO BUpp^BC thbt li hllDll^r ' , ill not LfTn in fegUff Ih it readable to suppose that the knowledgetliat tbote is ot rncu mad after liquor, will not give a treuiendou i imp uhe to an illegal trade if the legal tradebsuirce alolUed? And have the advocutw of t.1m Maine law < .deflated the effect of tine t nutead ol having rone, table men telling articles, which, howevci dt in their effects when taken ^ honestly concocted, we should have a nianufacturii. g poisonous spirits, and P*? "? . cfi at a high price on men who wodd hate tie U irMoturc for nutting them to extra expense, _ giving them extra trouble, and tor forcing them 5?n.?me ? dtagrwatito ssttrs ?2sa~>s fS-J5 Kj drunkards into rebels, and created a class 01 smug glers to take the place of peaceable publicans, rut Irish II. the Unltea SUi?0-Their P.O. ?*?t* wild tn?coa. ????"<?.11?. b'r.iiD the London News, Oct. 4.] When wc look at the condition of the Irish in the United Stales, as very recently revealed, we cannot f^nt regrel that Ai stralia anil the North Amoncau, and all our other colonies, had not offered the same tecilSs for the acquisition of. land as those which have drawn our emigrants to a place *tore,rt seems they aie not welcome nor happy. lM?x istiug pcsiti< n of the Irish in the United one which we ought not to disregard mciely because they have ceased to be our lellcw-subjeets; and the ,c( _ | ecau.e no inconsiderable number are coming back again" certainly does appear as ! it was iinoossihle to satisfy certain classes of Irishmen with the conditions of human existence any whore, ?ind it iB possible tliut proclamations and tlue t.-. and schemes of insurrection, might have appeared fn the newspapers of their locality, wherever they bad Mtttod It niight have been so; but we had rutlvcrin any case, that our brethren should piny the fooUn the lannly house than in a cousin s. I he nint which is now disfiguring the American jour re lis mid making even Yankee sympathisers stare, would baldly have been ho ludicroua and disg M in Australian or tanadiau newspapers as it ''^T^enty'yeius ago the Irish were finding their way SSsratf&wssSS h;,s? SSr.,; ??s .**?, '*sl'X< '?? citizens in the next generation. But the mnux, m readv too great before the famine ol ? ? Iwclkd into a deluge; and it appears now that a. . rsss????>?? iiiiiiili Pwhn !lms te c rafudly on the increase; and U crc arc mat y dUrht* in Ireland where rumors Sb KSf &*? 'S Sa^flPSSSKSS ago there was a native American p j laen X' .u-^,iiiUnune? (n?l ihote^w^ioi?"0"11* rbet'' some of iht large eager to sup ports aie Ctowdedwith wnges. away? g ? ) which they find in higl. prices, and social touha i_v ?eb ^ ^ the land they wcie so oi.rci to.tea_,h ie,alltc the Ughborbood of S lie"1.' JtewidouV tcport of the conclituin.d' UU coun 1? which thf.v mu-t?ri'lyff'1,*"''*7rv'ta.c .?Pi f. .. aie Wl Ich m Idly 'amgs on P ,-ti..eo , . ^ i w ?h" \"*m victim into no f . i/gta. , u'-IK? uL to the b.,ur the: they . o;?c L d ? i,? would ?mouth ih- ir "y>?K ' 1 l.n 'cc st a i*. J 1V,. ? |M>'ter absnce ? Win# U- tils countxy. ? 7 ^ of c mditg h?f? ^l^^^odPn v; n, the powe, of num. ..?? w?? -inn- '?^;^};r0p:\::..,b1i cVi.;;'wi.;' Iwxbg l., It '?1. , ^ y v'. tV.r ? -1" HH c.y t. write thl* line- would il l r ? .-j'vitual J?u keiq Vcf j ,ourlco,!e?ttc e; ferevc.y indivnua J coil 'natch a sOi.l front uell. Meantime the state of things at home in that which everyls ?ly stems to he aware of but the uin< grunts who mow the pity of Father Beat don. Tit schools aie tilling, ami the workhouses and )ait cinptvii.g. LuIhu era were last week standing oc. tor thiee -hillings a dry (wltii food) for ham* wages. instead of halt-iw rown. A multitude ot th \cung men wlio world hut lately have emigrate! i !iu\e ei.listtd, and arc gene to the Kast; and the), ianiiiieaaie well slnltciwa. led, and clothed hy tin labor of those who stay behind* Mr. Duliy fiuil everybody so practically immovable in the pre.-er st ate of nish in nils, that he tier lines further agin, tien, ai d is going nway: and nowhere in the Bnti-L Isles bus tiie rejoicings for the fall of Sebasto|*,. i ec i more fervent add univeraal than in the tin ,. Inland. Iu?t *t. this juncture appears a manifesto from the further -hoic of the Atlantis, whien proves that the Irish there htvenui improved in intelligence, any mora than in health, peace, and prosperity, at all la pru|iortion to tliosc they leit behind. We need only reter to the circular which ull the world has is>e:< laigbicg at or wondering over?the address from the Irish leaders in America to their party,proposing to Instigate immediately that insurrection against the British government which they suppose to u. vc he? ti only deterred to a lilting opportunity. T. n opportunity they inofess to discern in the sign >1 the present time. Where they lind them there is H saying; for it is clear that they do not read the ordi naiy newspapers. Somebody lias told them that tin allies aie defeated and distressed on all hands: am that the Kncli-h are poor and wretched and helpless and they, therefore, call on the Irish to rise-^foi what purpose they do not specify. The ubsurdi* o. this?Just when Young Ireland itself declares ic people to be immovably satisfied; when the Brie h people are thrusting iheii money upon ttiegovcu mt nt. and cheering their sovereign on to the con hi sion of her enterprise; when Sebagtopo) has fallen and the Knssians have been beaten in every field ? the absurdity of nil this is so < xtrerr.e that people t ast about for an ?xplunution. it seems highly pns bable. considering how Russian agents -Warm in tin United states, that some of them have Uken udviri tage of the weaknesses of our Buddies: and th i what soinc Americans licliove to lie the ease; while others suggest that the movement is a mere mask oi an organization directed ngainst the Know Nothing I wrty. There would be something dioll in su h spe ulatu ns on the last great Irish hull, it there were not something for their countrymen to be grieved at and ashamed of. If the Colonial (Mice iuid the -ilf governing colonies would but aet about facilitating at one* the acquisition of that commodity which Paddy loves above everything?land?there would be an end of grievances, and, we must hope, of turbo iciice. la the colonies, where no landlordism im pei.da, the Irish make as good cultivators as any body. We heartily w ish that a million of them were theie, sale under British law and order, instead ol Icing the cause of rows in Vmen n. and making themselves ridicnl- 11s by propo-lng to kick up H row at hone, where the rage lor faction fighting is so II mpl? tely over that even liotuiybrook fair i* abolish <d. at Irish suggestion, and by suWrlpti >n from lri-1) pui -e-. 1 lie pr<>i,o-ai corn- s the day after the fair, whctlier the bmitut ritig *plrit 1st the ( tart or that of lus k-stnees ii. uny other form. Tar Ct in., n KA< T* ASH IXCIBENT8 CO.NNEcrtn WITH ITS CAP Tt UK AMI Oft t"rATI'IN IIV TilK KCS.-IASS. jVintn the Lrndnt Oir nlsU, --pt. -iV.] A-tin quest ion of turther operations at this sca son ot the year in the Crime* naturally arises, it is woitl v ot note that, many of lite llnwhti sur? e.-es in tli. t quarter last century were obtained in the winti- wnson. It is recwded in "Nash's Historical IfeieaVehe?," that as late as Pec-ember, I7'is, Mar shal 1 s>ey an Irish 'Xile in tin- service, was detached with l'>,(><>?> men to the I'kraine; in Pc cenfer. I7?t?. the Knssians fought and gained a gust victory tn the Don; iu January following the battle of Render, where another of the Lacy family berved with eciui. In 17*7, Potemkin led his army 1 against the Turk* and Tartar* in the Crimea no late uh November, and gained several victories up to *a late an the 3d of December. Marshal Fraucin I-acy, of Austria, also led the Austrian armies to several victories on the Danube and its tributaries. 80 late as the 17th of December, < iczakoff was stormed by General Maurice de Lacy, another Irish warrior. In the mirpuigu of 1730, the several forts of Kenia. TuIhh. isaacbia and lachatel, on the Danube and l(la< k Sea were stormed and taken between Octo ber and the 1Kb of ^November. The threat Ismail, ?? the imptegiialdc," was invested ou the 1st of De. cember, the batteries opened on the 20th, and the fortress stormed on the 22d, by < lonerul Maurice Lacy,.who headed the first attacking party, and took it after four hours' carnage. During these operations the Turks were masters of the Black Sea, Sea of Azotl arid the Crimea. Tbo nephew of that general, Cornel Pierse, also served iu the war of Ts2s-9. The 'Memoirs of Marshal de lacy," by his grand niece, Mrs Nash, afford seveiai proofs of the daring which attended the operations of that period, as well as of the absence of scientific appliances. At Pact's siege ot Azoff, in 1736, the Russians had 11 > .-eating ladders, and bad to attack a high breast work; they did so by fixing pikes to the chevaux-iU fritze; and at a review after the capture, the Turk ish A pa, who was a prisoner, remarked, "I don't aee their wing?, without which I do not see how tliej

could mount bo steep a rampart." In the 1 cxt season, *ays the Prince de Lignc, 1737, it w as felt at the Knssiaft court that the oum puign must be opened with cc/tt/, and l-acy was se lected totiike the command, "an uxpedition to the irimea being quite the fashion at Court." Austriu united with Russia against Turkey; Munich took Oczakoff, in Bessarabia, but the Turks re-besieged it. "Ilie campaign in the Crimea began by Marshal Peter Lacy's intrepid march," says Tie Ligne,"aii(l his passage across the arm of the Sea of Azoff to near Arabut, paitly on casks and partly by fording and swimming?feats well knownundover recollect ed, as also his two briliidnt actions near Karabazan. and the passports he was willing to give his generals who hud represented to hint the dangers of the en terprise. I.ary, who had thus passed over an arm of the sea into the Crimea, ravaged the country, drove tire Tartars before him, repulsed the Turkish lieet iu the Black fc-ea, which made an attack upon him and llie Russiun flotilla." Lacy, at the end of this years oumpaign, " without knowing," says De Ligire. '? why lie had been sent into this country, quitted ii with greatglory tohimsell. very Little sickness tohi. anny, but, it must be added, with very little profit to the Empress." He evacuated it by Tchergoun, and did not go to Perekop at all, for he had entered bt Genitscn, cut through the Tongue of Arabat, and made a bridge over In 173s Marshal Munich commanded in Rcssu labia, and Marshal lacy had the command in tin Crimea. "To speak," says Prince de Iigne, "0 the address and activity of l.aiy during the cam puign of this yt-ur, 111 contrast to the conduct o, Munich, the lormer was charged with the opera Hons in the Crimea. 11c penetrated it without losing u man and it ei ght to be recollected how He hud remarked tliut the excessive heats dry up u part ol the Sea of Azoff, and that a wind at thai sen son from the west drives the waters so cirec tually back, that if advantage be taken of the in stunt, a passage maybe etlectcd almost dry too ted at one particular place. The murshal availed him sell 01 this to push to the south of the lines of Pert kop, instead of uttm king them on the north (01 Russian; side." On the 26th of June, O. 8 , he tumid l'erekop in reverse, blew up the fortifica tions, and levelled "those famous lines whic! were live miles loDg, defended by 40,000 Turks and Tartars, wider the Sultan Galza in person. li< two days he made himself master of that fortress the puitison surrendered prisoners of war; eighty brass cannon, and other munitions of war wen ukcu. By this exploit, Lc laid open the Crimea u new invasion. He inarched towards Kuil'a (on the southeast coast), then the only place ol strength lilt iu that country." He was, lmwe?er, met by 30,100 Spahis, who attacked the Ukraiu Cossacks ioiming part of Luiy's vanguard, with such fun thai tncy gave way, although supported by a rcgi mint of dragoons. Other regiireuts came up, and ultimately the Turks were defeated after an ubsti imtc lesistauce, and were pursued tor liiteen worsts. They had 3,000 killed, beside;! one of the Princes 0 Krim. The Russians less than 400. Marshal Pe Lucy was, however, frustrated in hi mini h to baiksi s< rai and Kaiki, owing to the di structich ol the Russian flotilla, with provisions, \. the blo< k Sea. He retired towards Russia, blew u, the lortificationB of Or, demolished the lines of Pe rt kop, m.d evacuated the country, ' which he flan | lav; ged aiid scourged, taking 1,000 head of cat le and other plunder," lie betook him. elf to vvinte qua. tins in the Uktaiir, " as it was then the custon tv do." In 173o Munich was entrusted with an army in Bessarabia. "He was to try uud pass" (says Lacy' Diary,) "the Dneitter, which last year was his iu most point." Lacy was "to make another exiied. tion into the Crimea, to endeavor to take K.itl'u which v. oulii pive him a firm footing in the Crlrn lie was to maintain hine-elt in a permanent position, and 11 til the land was ? nltivattd be was to lie sup oiled ft mi Azoff. He was to ;oi tify l'erekop and Lacks] Serai, the two principal places in thu opor districts? lie wits to interrupt tfle oommuuicatiout. ot the Tuitavs with Constuntinople, tint was hardly able to do so while the lurk- remained misters ol the I.imk Sia and Sea of Azoff. Oil Lacy's advance, the Khan of t rim laid the country waste for four teen leagues round Perck. p. which added muclr t< I bis difficulties. The Aiwtrians were defeated, and the Turks weic successful iu Bessarabia against Mu nith. Austria, became dishearteted, and pursued ii ren aikable policy. It entered privately and alow into a tieaty of p? arc with Turkey before Belgrad< in Septimbev. 1739, and this defection compelled Russia, who hud passed the I'rutti, to make peace lbe 1 even est on the side of Hungary overbalance; the si tress of l acy against tiie Crim Tartars. Russia war to retain Azoff, bat its fortifications am district were to be u desert. Russia was to have m vessels in lbe Black or Azoff seas. A medal wu struck recording these exploits--" Pare Kuropo jucnu tii, Tartaris viciii, 'J unci ti!>ru!e 1736." > ended tl.e liist gr< at war. [f rt m tti' L ndiui Cbrocic.'e, (let. 4.] Uc have ..lnudy recorded the extraordinary < un ruigns ot Matsbui l.acy in 1736, 17?' 17 and 173s, ji tl.e <'f,r,r?e ot which he* ri nsed the Sea of Azoff in . manner bef( :e i novmplod in the annals of war, an icpe.Redly c? nqucred the Criu ea. The traits of hi c 1 nquist wcie iis often Rostrated by the va>illatin, 101 ii'ict ol" tl.e Austrian generals, till 11 treaty 1 peace waf concluded in 1739, Which left Russia 11 posst;'sion of the fortress ot Azoff, on the sea o that 1,aire, as a -turting point for further aggie siois We now resume the narrative of these inte resting transactions:? The tnuty off 74*1 eccured to Russia Taganrog ami AiM'S (deniorished). The Ru* iatis were to havi no v e. 1 Is .11 tlie Blaek Sea or Azoff Sea, but to u>o Turkish vessels lor tiieir commerce, in order tha they might not smuggle munitions of war. Oc/.a km and other ioiiqiie-ts weto restored to Turk ? Tin Kin (ii cs Anna died in 17 it). Munich and Lacy took part in cfiei ting the revolution in 1741, arid Lrtty '.aniiil on tin war w itii ^vvi den with a flotilL. cn tins waters ho familiar to English ears in K'.l " The seating a king on the throne of Poland w. T'e l acy's next lea.;-' and the second great war iu the Crimea began in 170!) under Catherine II. It appears In m Prince de Llgne's Memoirs, and from Muislial Di Lacy's Autobiography, quoted in Nash's '? Crimea," that" Prince (tiillitzen met wit), varied success in Bessarabia." The campaign 'f 1770 found thi Russians with one army on the Vol ga. a nether on the Don, to keep up communication with the Black Sea "until mas ters of Turke,," another to Pender, and another tn Moldavia. T'e Russians conquered Uie Mniea, defeated the Turkish feet at Tchesme, and actually o'taiued permission fre ni the English government for its sailors to enter the Russian service. A fifth army under Tottlebein matched into C'ircassia and Asia. They were vic'.'s in us in several encounters in tlds campaign, but " the gnat prize of the Crimea still remained in the lands of the Tartars, subject to the auzerainty ->t Tin key," as rn orded by General Maurice Lacy, who wmt out to his uncle Maichul Lacy. In the m xt campaign, 1771, Catherine despaLhed agents to the < 1 in iu. and announced her intention to punish its Khan for his "Impertinem 0 in in teiterir.g in licr dispute.s with Turkey and the other Tartars. Nixt slie despatched an amy under l'liuee I)o!gi uronski to the Crimea. He touk Kafla. defeating 27.060 Turks and TarRirs. The Turks had abandoned the "key of the Sea of Azoff, Tenikide and Kert.v h, so that the Russians had 1,1 tiling to do but to take Raluklava to be masters i f all the Crimea.'' Tin Kniprcsa "or retly ende.i vored to win the Khau over to her side, and |>o. niad< him to declare hirn-elf indtp< ndent of t,.e Forte, in.d subject to lbe suzerainty or the Kui titetw." Another <nmpitign in 1774 led t? the t catv of Karnidji. >?} which Russia retained Azoff, Ti ga'nrcg. Yeiiikale. Kert-ch. Kinbnrn, and Little Taitary. the free navigation of Tnrki.-h waters by Ilu;sii.n'merchantmen, " subject to the riglR of Mai 1 li ' for gunpowder, Ac But a clause was add ed. dev luring " tfl< Crime a independent of tlie I'orte, a flee 1," witli elective Kluns, without inter im in e Vy Russia or Turkey. This of detaching the ( 1 iir.en ti"' m the I'oite ri ndcrrd it an " easier | rev to B' s-iiv " Hie peopling ol tlie new district n?rlfi .1 Feiekop proceeded; a revolt iu tlie Crimea against tin Khan l?d Catherine to march ;u?rrmy to "support law ami eider;" Tutkey objetted; a tew hhnp was sent'd. supported by Russia, and ? ntherir.r vleclared tbut h<- " had placed hiios. lt un der her protection, and sooner than abandon hiin she would 'Relate war." In 177'.? tlie new Khan was in kn< wUdgcd, and tiic Fusslaiis evacuated the ( ri ""ihenew Khan, bowevrr, had to fly s<Ktnafter to " ' Fotemkin insm hed an army " pro lection .111 assemblage Tagarrog.aid i'ritwc Do to UmaseisbM'CC. L uder his of nobles was held at the capital, and Khan Gahim again proclaimed. Meantime, the Porte (for its own protection), had taken the isle of Tuman. Khan Gahim despatched an envoy to require the Turkish officer to withdraw. The Pacha, imping, no doubt, for the reconqucst of the Crimea, refused, and had the envoy publicly executed, "We inu-t revenue the death of this innocent man," said Catherine; and this led to tht, third war of 17-3 4, which lasted but one campaign and led to the "annexation of the ti ime a,"pi o Jormu. In June, 1783, Prince Foternkin (the nominal chief, with General Lacy led un army of 70,000 men to the frontiers of Crim; Repiiiu followed with 40,000; a third army, under Romanoff, lay at Kiofl' The Itlack Sea fleet was grown up, and pre pared for action. The Baltic fleet only awaited the signal lo pass into the Mediterranean "aud conquer (jiteee, Ac. On the 30th July, Potemkin issued au addreai stating that he was appointed Geuerol-in 4hjet in tLe Crimea,with full powers; aud four days after he made the treaty with the "Tartar" Kh::n who "c< ded all his dominions to the Empress." On the 20th Potemkin made formal proclamation in he Empress's nan.e of her acquisition The Tartar (hiefs submitted, and Potemkin became formal gov vernor of the Crimea. On the 1st of August, 17-3, the Empress issued a "manifesto," in which she said, "our last war < gainst the Ottoman empire having been blessed with entire success, we hud the right to retain the Ciimeu after having conquered it; we did not hesi tbis and other < tate to sacrifice this and other conquests to our ardent desire te secure the pnblic tranquillity, and to establish friendly fesling with Turkey. This w as the motive which induced us to stipulate for the independence and litierty of the Tartars, whom onr arms had vanquished." It states that troubles continued; her bopeH of improvement were at an end. and she had " resolved to take posses-aou of the Crimea, Cuban, and Tuman. Animated by a sinceie desiie to confirm and maintain the peace concluded by tieaty with the Porte, we believe that we arc justified in putting a termination to the troubles in the Crimea. We do, therefore, uuuex to our enmire the peninsula of the Crimea, the isle of Tuman, and the whole of Cuban, which is but a just indemnity for the losses that we have sustained and tiouble we have been put to in our endeavor to maintain peace and happiness." She solemnly pro iithes freedom of leligion, to protect aud defend their ancient usages, and to " make no diflbreuce between them and her other Russian subjects." l'erekop was given up to the Russians?the govern ment of the Caucasus taken by it?Turkey still manifested a hostile feeling at the encroachments? " the English Ambassador urged the Porte to war, but in vain;" but the l'orte issued a mauifesto, in which it complained of these proceedings of Russia, molested against them, stated that the mediation of Fiance was ottered, and dually declared that it "could not consent to the occupation of the Crimen, which is the burner of Turkey' against Russia. War seuned inevitable, for the fleets of both countries tailed. Atistriu joined Russia by virtue of their old treaty " to support one another;" the English ad vised the Pone to war, but refused to send a fleet to Iter protection. Spain did "send a fleet to preveut the Russian fleet entering the Mediterranean;" .the French despatched a "neutral" fleet to the Mediter ranean, " to protect trade and not to permit a vessel of w ar to enter." Rut Russia "secured her object without actual hostilities, obtaining a seaboard, in land seas, aud a million aud a half of subjects, with stufLei n oulh ts to her people," through the skill of Potemkin uud I acy. The natives of Cuban contested the right of do minion, aid denied the power of Turkey to concede "teiritory not its own.". In 17f5 hostilities com n f net don the frontier, and the Tartars invaded Geoigia. Russia, therefore, declared "Crim a province ol the empire," and thus brought it under ihe existing Russian laws. In January, 1787,Cathe rine mode, herhumous tour to the Crimea, escorted 1 y the King of Poland, the Emperor of Austria, and Marshal P. y, of Austria, and Gen M. Iatcy, of Gn guo, who had made those conquests. At Kher ?on, she recorded the imperishable phrase, " the K ad to Byzantium." Docks and ships of war were electing there, mid the Turks begun to fear that she picnntto make Kherson the " seat of a new Empire ol the East." Remonstrances passed, und war threatened. The old Khan of Crim,Ganim, saw (when too jute) "the emu he had committed." Prince Hera decs of < eorgia now sought to throw oft' the Rus sian vassalage Turkey was then at war with her vassal of Egypt. The Empress Catherine demanded et the Pcrte'tfce cession ol "Bessarabia as a country lorn trly belonging to Crim T.irtary." Hhe also favored tLe settlement ol Russians, wandering Greeks, aid Christians dispersed through Asia and the Danube Prin.ipalitks iu the Crimea and Bessa rabia. She despatched regiments to Ocnakoff (near Odessa); also pi escribed "regulations'' to Turkey on the "reserved question" of "boundaries." .She required the nbaudoi merit of Georgia, the Tartars oi J e and A1 mis, and other intern i! matters, which the l'oitc disputed, but, offered modifications of existing at ran gem en ts. Turkey, incited by the Kienchaid English, declared war, hastily, on the lctot August, and claimed the cession oi' the Cri mea, and for it to be independent of Loth Powers? tl at the treaty ceding It to Russia was contrary to the Alcoran, was obtained by 1 rand, and was ad it itlcd by the l'orte merely pro forma and while un der duiess; hut adhered to the treaty of Karniilji, and required ether mutrers restored to their former looting. ORIGINAL ANNEX ATION OK THE ? KIMKA TO THE R0S MAN PJtPIKE The manifesto | nbilshed by the Empress Cathe rii.c upon the occasion of iier troops cnteriug the Crimea, to auucx it, in 17^3, has more than an his toric interest at thr pre.'?ent moment. The following is u translation:? pKTXaam Rfi, Aug. 1, 1783. We, Catherine 1!., by the g'uoe of Hod, hmpreas and sole M< narch it all the Russia' kc.. CJnr Ia?t ?ar sga>al the Ottoman Empire having hecn alp tided with thn most signal ?ucci'--e-. we had oei tainly aoqntred tlie right ef re-.niting to tha territories ol oui ? ntjire the Crimea ..t whi-h we were in posaesaion; we. however, Hesitated not to -aorlihe 'hat, witii many other cenqveat*, ic our ardent <i>--i.<? r.l io-e-tabli-iiiug tb'.-pub ii.- tranquillity, and ot eoiu.rmlng be good understand l"g ?d<1 friendship between our empire and the Ottoman forte. This no live induced us to stipulate for the tree dim u nil independence of the Tartars, whoui we b til re duced by cti ruin- b"|iiig to remove tor oyer, by this ninne. rveiy caui-e ot dissension, and evnn or ooolneaa. between hu--ia a'.il the ottoman I orte, exposed too often V' ll er-t Inconveniences ay the form ol gu> eminent v. hich then -absisted among the laitars. (ireat as were oi r saoi! es anil OUT effort# for realizing ihnat hope- they wet- so -n. to our great reg et. con sirieiably ? 'irnj.i-lieu. lh" reifies ine-s natural to tlie tartars. fomented by insinuu io/i-. the -miree of which i? net unknown to us. caused them easily to fall Into a -rare laid bj foi-:im l ands, which had s-iwe.i amrig-t them the seeds of riutaihanco and confusion to such a tiifivenato induce them t'1 labor for the weakening tnd even the lotal rvin, <f an editice which our beneff ? rnt cares bad erected for the hanpines- of that nation by j,n curing tin i? liberty and Independence, un ler the authority of a chief elected by themselves. Hat illy was their Khun established according to this new form of g vernment, before he saw himself deprived of nil authotity anil even obliged to desert bis conn try, to lwc jiluic tn ?n usurper, who would again stihjocl lh' fai tars to t. e j he c a dominion from ?hi b our be t.ef cs ure had releartd them. Tint gnater part of them, as blind as tbey *ere Ignorant had submitted to that ururjer; the ie-t, thinking themselves too weal to tesist. would infallibly hav yielded to Ids ybo; anil tbu we should lave lost the fruits of our vic tories, and the pi tint] al re<omp?n-e for the sacrifice wlich wo willingly miu.e ut the last pears, if we had not instantly taken undet our immediate protection such ot 11 e nelbdiepmed Tartar who, prising the blessings of llieIr new political existence. lamented their ic ing forced to snbmit to the usurper who had cupelled the-r lawful Khan. By thus effectually protecting them, we finni-hcd iheni wi h the power and the means of do- eiuga n? w Khun in th? naim ofSuhtb i.bcray and of ?i lanlbhiug an uilminlsiration anal gous to this state of affair:. It** to a. tain this end that our mili-aiy tones were put in m tion. that s considerable body of our tnot- weie ordered, notwithstanding the severity of She fe*?on, toen'er the Crimea, where they were sutvisted at our expense, and obliged to exert 'he power of our arms Tor the snpf "it of the good rause In order to recall ?uch nf the Tdftars a* weteestranged from It by their revolt. 'Ibe public is not ignorant ibata rupture between Km tin anil tlie Ottoman Porte bad very near ensued upon thia cccasl'n ; but thanks to tfca Divine assistance, we dbpored matters in such a manner iliat the Ottoman Porta again ncknowleilged the independence of the Tar tars, at.d the validity ut the election of Scbaghtn-Hhcray, their lawM sovereign. Nolwithsiandlng all the fnc- n venienrer abov- mentioned, as h ng ?- we were uatained and annnuti d by the hope of re-establishing *he rej>ose necivsaiy to tin- advantage and preservation of giesi m lylit rltic <i with the n't- man empire, we regarded the < rimea, a"cor' ng to tlie tenor and letter of tl.e freati as fue aid Independent country, confining ouraelve idr ly to ?p| easing the 1 roubles which prevailed im.<i gs II rti'. I toin our low of peace wo found in this coudue ? st IS ctell I reci mpenre for tl.e greet i xpenses incurred by it ; hut we were soon undeceived in thi- respect by the ft eeli row It occasioned in the Crimea lust year, the en c-uragfn.ent (,f which always llowe-l from the same sot, fie. Me have ireen obl.ged in c n.equem-e to have rtcnwrie again to considerable iirmau ents, and to cause tioopa to enter Into the Ctimea ami the Cuban, irtin>? j le-en-e t? become in Ispen abb- for main'lining tran quillity and good order in thi a jarem countrias. Tlie rad e\ j , f ey< ry <'sy detoonstrstes more clearly that il the eovt-rftgnty of the uttoman I'orte In the Crf n en on-a | erpetuil -<?nfce - f dbacord between our two imj ires, the ie.lef endtnee of the Tartara exposaa ns to ful jrets of contention no le<e numeroua nad important, un e the long -erv tude to * hleh tl-at jss-ple have been a<en-tomid dai renilete-, the gssster [ait of the indi vidua Is incajabla of vnlnirg the advantages of the new titration pircuicd 'or tl em by that Independence ?f which we si-uglit to give tliem tin- enj -rmet t; and whicb, laving us under the necessity of beiog always armed, i crash ns not only great exjenses, bnt ala- ev(.i?es our troij ? to inevitable snd eonlmnal fatigues. 7he rffoits tbey made to extinguish the dame of dis ci rd in aucrorng tl? trell-inlowmmd of -hat nation, evio-sil thetn to the violences of the -editions and 111 intrntioned, win m we weie willing to leave niipnni'hi-d, .11 order to avoid even the abadnwof an aetof sovereignty. li n? as we could cherish the least hoj*. nt at lengih rs St. ring good Older, and preventing, by this means, the es-eut at >ntetest?of eur fntn le-ing injure.). 1 ut to ? nr gr-a' regie' ill these tmaeures, dictated solely by t>ur Ice of humanity, h b led umy to bring^np<m uh losses an1 damages, which wc have the mora senrib'y at heart, as they affected our auhjoet*. The loss in mail ir not to be ap]>re jUted- we will not attempt to estiinalo it; that in money, according to the moat moderate ealiu 'aUcus, amounts to uuwarda of twelve million* of rouble*. To these particulars Is to be added another of the utino*t importance, both In It* ohj.ct and with regard to it* consequence*. We ha*e just been Informed that tha l'orte bos b< gun to lay claim to the exercise of sovereignty In the Tartar dominions, by sending one of lis officers at the head of a detachment ot troops, to the island of Tatran who has even proceeded to cause the ottk-er to hw publicly be beared who w?> sent to him l.y the Kh?n *chog liin-(i)MTuy with acommiaMon only to inquire of him what were the motive.* for his arriod in tnat island, and. what evidently prove* tbe nature of the mi?sion 01 lain commandant of the troops i*. tliat h- made no dilHcoHy 111 declaring o:*n)y to the inhabilauta ol Tainan that he looked upon thein a* subjects of the l'orte. ^rhls deri sive, though unexpe tied step, convincing us o he in 1 lility of the saci ilices we had made upon the last pMce, auuuls, in consequence, the eogrgements we had con tracti d. Willi the sole Intention of Hi inly establishing the freedom and independence ot the Tar'ars, and suill clcutly aotliorirei us to enter nguin Into the enjoyment of those lights which we hail lawlully acquired by conquest; Ihe more so as it is the only means remaining lor us i*? ecu re hereafter a solid ana permanent peace between this two empirer. Aulmaied, therefore, with a sincere de*irw 1 confirming and maintaining tin last peace concluded with the l'orte, by pieventlng the continual dispute* which (he affairs of the Crimea produced, our duty to ourselfand the pres*'v.tlon of the security of our empiro equally chtnandour tuUlng ihellrm resolution to put an nil, once for all, to the iroubles in the Crimea; and for his purpose we reunite to our empire the peninsula ot 1 he < rimes, the island ofTaman and all the Cuban, as a ust indeuinilication lor the losses ausiaiued, and the ex cuses wo have been obliged to incur in maintaining thu eace and welfare of these territories. In declaiing to the Inlutbimnt* of those countries by he present manifesto that such U our imperial pleasure, we promise them, for us and our successors in the lin ltrial throne of Russia, that tlv*y shall be treated upon un equality with our nm-ieut subjects; and that 111 taking them under our high protection, we will defend against all people their persons, their estates, their tem ples, and the religion they profess; that they shall enjoy tiie most absolute liberty ol conscience, witliout the least real fiction, in the public exero,i.-e ot their worship and their ceremonies, and that not only the nation in general, but also each iudfvh ual in particular, shall participate lit all ihe advantages eujoyud by our ancien' subjects. But we also expect, from the gratitude of our new subject*, that, touched with the*e favors, they will be sen*ible ot the value ol this fortunate revolution which rem ivew them from a convuUed state of diiturban -e* and otHsen sions, to one ol entire secuiity and perfect tranquillity, under the piotectiou of tlie low ; and that, striving ti? imitate the submission., and fidelity of those wins have long had the happiness of liviug under our govern ment. they will render 'hew-elvo* worthy ot our Irnpoilal favor, beneficence, and protec-ion. tiiven af our Imperial residence ol St. Petersburg, the 8th of Apt 11, In the year ol grace 1783, and in the Twenty first tear of our reign. (Flgned wilh net- Iuipeiial Majesty's own bind; v 6 (U 8.) CATHERINE. Tile Booty Fonnd In Selantopol, The mixed commission, which was appointed t'? in ike up an inventory of the stores and spoils found in the town, lias nearly concluded its labors. Seve ral of the items air completed, and the figures have been given. There aie-? Hound shot, number *')7,<Hh? Hollow shot lOliM# Canister am! nm? Gunpowder, lbs ??6>J)?? Ball cartridges, number 030,00'* Wugous c Pulleys *ht? Anchors of various kinds 549 Anchor chains, yards "(Ml (lid ropes, lbs 100,(MX* New do. 00,001* Water tasks, number 3(h* Old sheathing copper, lbs 106,OiM* Bur iron and steel 1,400,00<k Iron wire ???? ? Sheet iron JJgJ Bed copper Tin plates 14,00(1 Small boilers 1A/G'^' Large copper do ow XR Copper screws ' " Old iron WOOU Bells, (number) J)? Hospital beds 3W* lion forges '*'* Coals (toriB) ?????: Hleam thirty hor.*e power (number) -* Iron cranes Ditto twelve hop e power I Diedgirig machine ? ? ?* Tltc provisions include, as lur as the weights tiuvo yet been made up;? Biscuit (ions) ' Hour Bai lev .J? Buckwheat !?? Oats :? Millet ? *5 reus (lb,.) Wheat (quarters) Fait meat (tons) "'J There are a variety of other article*, such as mar ble sphjnxct, clocks, and other -mailer matteis. Theals ve figures will, however, convey u. tt.leiobie notion of Ihe stale ol affairs in the town before it* final capture. Odr>M-Iis Origin oiid Piwivt Powltlon. A few I acts connected with the origin and present position ol Odessa will be icod with interest. It u* to the ambitious policy of the Empress Catherine) tbat Odessa owes its existence as a iree trading port. The place of a small collection of miserable Tartar hovels is now occupied by a fine and spaciotn* city, intersected with broad streets, and ornamented with the magnificent Russian Cathedral, an admi taltv. a tine exchange, a spacious theatre, and Iarg> iiu laic gardens, There is also a spacious covert it Waai with 660 simps, and in various parts of thy town more than ilOO magazines and stores for corn. The town possesses also numerous literary and edu cational establishments. The town has a popula tion of about 7(1,0(10 inhabitants many of whom art exceedingly wealthy. A large nnin' er of I tartan noblemen u.uke Odessa tin ir residence, and their elegant carriages and equipages rolling about tlio town, and the activity ami fuerg) whicu are ever) where visible, afford to the traveller just arrived lrrm Turkey a striking contrast to the ethargy and inaction which evetv where .prevail 111 the adjoining don inionsof the Fultan. llie town is in the form of an oblong parallelo gram. seated on a declivity sloping towards the sea, and the whole of the country tor many mileswound is u vast plain, with but few undulations, and desti tute of trees or foliage. Between the harborand the town there is a long line of barrack*, formed or 1H detached edifices, tupable of containing nearly 2 1 SHI soldiers. In 1817, Odessa was declared sk fiee part tor a period ol 30 years, mid subsequently . xu ruled to 1864, mid it is now the great depot for (lie grain and other produce of Southern Uu*sia. The treacherous conduct 01 the Russian government in rot keeping open the passage of the -tulwuw months ot the Danube 1* mainly caused by * desire to increase the importance and the trade or Odessa, to the injury of the ports of the Wallachian and Moldavian Principalities. To such an e*tent, has this policy been curried, that the trade of Odessa has now assumed most important dimcu ious. home statistical returns presented by Russia to the govern ment of this ronutry. in 1861, showing the trade, industry, revenue und population of ihe dinereoL portions of the Russian empire, contain .much in formation with respect to the trade o! Odessa, the last year to which the returns were made up. the total number of vessels of all nations that entered the port of Odessa was 878; the tonnage, 233,1!'6; ihe number of crows employed, li,314, and the total value ol the cargoes, *1 ,??h.27X The amount of the trade carried on with Odessa by di. feient countries was as follows:? katkkxd. ShifJt. Timnugr. Cmct. English 189 6*.4oi dieek 172 40,8,6 2.5'.'t? Faidinian 114 30,310 ! Amtiian. 137 t illissin 1'8I ?'2?f oaf Fiench 77 "J?"] ,r\ Tuikish 21 "l-504 We have omitted Ihe statistics of other countries trading to a -mailer extent. In addition to the foreign trade with Odessa, a. nigt proportion ot the coa.-ting trade is carried 011 atlhat p<rt. The entire southern coasting trade of Russia, which is carried on in Russian ships alone, was according to the late*t rosttiro* which we pov ess. of un aggrepatc value ot ?2.160415, the num her of voyages made being lo.slo. Ihe ports with which the laipe^t amount of con-ting trace is carried on are arranged in ll.c following ,irdcr:? Kostofi, < hereon. Taganrog, Kertrh, Marioopol, odes-a. Ib Niktiiaelff. Tlieodnsia. seUmtopol, and other imailer one. The uuraber of Rns-ian ship* which weic built at Odessa, In 184 t, was 16; at Ta caiitog, doting the ame period, 12 had been built, at Clieiron 28, and at Nikolaiell 9; the total addition o the Russian men an tile marine has been I2t. the remainder of the \<--el having been built at Riga ui.d the ports in tin Bultitu Hnssla. Clrramla and Mehnntyl. The l.ond? n CAnmic/t of October loth, publishes the It Rowing Abstract of ti e hcrol- nml valoron* exploits of tn" > ir essfian ct lef. 8cham?l In defence of his country, airain-t the l egiarlit g tyrai ny ami ile*|siti*in of the Hu-sian g > veri nients? . , G'caasia Is b?mtu ?<t on one -Me by the I'lark -ea. and ?n the other hy ibe t'*-| lao, and in ic-ngth ex'?n'l? froiv fOO to SOS mll-s. In isfc-/ a fierce attara was made upon the stronghi Id <.f the Circa-ian* hy Cen Von R, *?b. the Kuerlan ts mtnander in Chief, opon Vbis inwaei. n. -cha mil *ss wounded by two bullets, and havinr re-eived a lavs net wound in his body, Ny appa -nCy deal. Hehawiyl rec.vered. and no tn the present time has .tie reeJed In haflllng the whole force* of Ku*-ia In IHdS, ir e B?s?lars renes ?*! their a'Urk. snd the loll .wing yeor the'nf the sohmittcl to *c.hamrrs antnority In 1*38 (federal CiraSho, after defisatiug *. hamvl follow ed bun in his retreat to hU str ngh dl, Akulgi, ?hlq)i b a took hy (trria. .*ebau,yl lumscll casaj^I by tha de