NE^r YORKHJERALD. lAlli oubooTbisiitt, nor a. .*roa and editor. j>m j?. v- corner or nassau and pulton 8T8. WIVI. in i* trance. THE VAIL V HERALD 2 ?mt* pcr eopr, 17 jwr mwiuirt. THE ' VEEKL V HERALD, d*y Saiur-lau. nt 6'4 cent* per Wptp. "r "* P"" <MMM'n> CU ?*ri>p?un edition, 94 per Mwut. to met p*rt of Urtal Uritum, or St <o axy part <</ lA. CuiUuunt, both ttlndpde;??lw VOLUNTARY HORRESPOSDENCE. rr.ntainimj import ?d ?<v?, /r<w? ii?y (WtfMr "/' lAe ie-irltl?ij' uent teill be WMuIty paid for. tof uou Kounias Oiwumpdiidiiim ikl PikTH Diam-T Ri?tunD to Slal aul Letters and Pack A7M Hunt us. Manx XX IT*. 358 AiiUBa*Kcra rnis evening. MOADWAT THEATRE, Broadway?Kino Charming? m Riughboii's With. RtlI.O'8 OARDItW. Broulna/?Beaiiet Marriage?Tim Miliar B*h aeiw?Medina. BOWIOtT THBATRR, Bowery?Tog Omr Bor or toi Dry BoOI?Rol'ESTHIAMMn. WVRTON'8 THE ATRB, Chambers street?Cxlv A PlRNY ?I'ok u Governor?Tair to Niagara. ? ALLAPB H THBATRR, Bmai way?Where Therk'r A WllJ fURUB'S A WaT?i*0-"A U0.V IA8?PEMFECriON. mpB'fl MINSTREL*, AAA Broadway?XtmOflAlf Fir MBMfc ?UOKI.W8 fl-RLnQCE OPERA HOUBR, BSD Broad EOO OUHLaKiHE Oi'KRA AMD HMU KLMSTSEUT. Mwn York, WediutdRjr, Dtecmka 36, 1839. Bf TORI HARALB?EDITION FOR HTBOPR. Bw Co Jinn mail steamship Baltic, Capt. Com stock, wifl *? this port to-day at noon, for Liverpool. Mefcuiopean mails will olose in this oiij at half-past l e>oleek this morning. IBs Herald (printed in English and I en eh) win ho I at ten o'clock in the morning. Single copies, ha Bsappers, uper.ee. BB?ni i|iH?ns and advertisements lor any edition of the ?Rw Tors Hbihi prill bo recoiTod at the following places ha leewpet? London?Am. & European Express Co.. 17 and 18 CornhilL Bomb? do. do. 8 Place do la Bourse. ?eemrroL? do. do. 7 ftumford street. " ?John Hunter, 12 Exchange street. East, fiat oor.tents of the European edition of the ?M swttoaee the nows received by mail and telegraph at i sdftee daring the previous week, and to the hoar of The News. The Northern Light is still anchored off the But tery, and near by lay the steamer Vixen and the revenue cutter Washington, with their guns bearing ?pon her. The " filibusters," or those who had got on board without tickets, were put on shore two o clock on Tuesday morning in a towboat. They numbered about two imndrcd. By order ?f the District Attorney, an examination was made isr tickets among those on board, and those who were without tickets were placed under arrest. About twenty were arrested and put in the keeping ?f Capt. Faunce, of the revenue cutter Washington, who has the Northern Light in his charge. The District Attorney received letters yesterday from the Attorney General, in regard to the course the government intended to pursue towards the parties ?sspected in the expedition. The cargo of the Northern Light will be examined to-day. We give another interesting chapter relative to this exciting afihir on the first page of to-day's paper. Our chronological index, published this morning contains a faithful history of the great war straggle' ketweeu Rtisaia and the Allied Powers as it progress" ed during the past twelve mouths, both in Europe and Asia. The notes ol the state of the armies at me beginning of the year, with onr account of their reinforcements, fltratugctic movements, sorties, bat tles and losses?by disease and in fight?will be loond exceedingly interesting, us they are ample and prepared with much care. A history of the famous Vienna Conferences is also given, with a true sketch ??? scenes occurring before Sebastopol, from the date of the first renewed bombardment of the city to the period of the opening of the "infernal fire'' which preceded the fall of its southern half. We have duly chronicled the terrible struggle of the French at the Mulakoff, the failure of the English at the Redan, the burning of the Black Sea fiect of Russia, the retreat of the garrison of Sebastopol, the buttles of Traktir Bridge and Kars, with all the ether leading points of the dreadful contest. The hard shell dcmocrati: ward conventions will meet to-morrow evening for the purpose of selecting delegates to flic general committees of the party. Each member of the ward conventions is required to subscribe to a pledge endorsing the platform of the hard shell convention held at Syracuse in August last, and also that he voted the real adamantine ticket at the last election. We publish elsewhere a semi official ac- ount or ?he proceedings of the Hudson's Buy Company's Arctic expedition, sent out to ascertain the truth or the report oi Dr. Rne relative to the fate of Sir John Franklin and the party under his command. Jtwa clearer and more connected narrative than that published in yesterday's Hebald, and will uo doubt, be read with intense Interest. Christmas was more generally observed in thta ?y yestcniiythau on any previous anniversary of d?y- Business of all kinds was entirely sus pended. The weather, however, was of an execrable quality, and confined people within doors, leaving our clergymen to preach to empty benches. Misty drizzle, alternating with copious showera, continued from morning till midnight. In Host..., and Phila dclphia the same sort oi weather prevailed. A wet tyrm has set in, truly. Yesterday forenoon Rev. Mr. Bellows' new church, (1 nitarian.) on Fourth avenue, between Twentieth and Twenty-first streets, was dedicated to divine service, w ith the rites peculiar to the sect. A number of Unitarian clergymen participated in the interesting exercises of the occasion. Tlio at tendance was fashionable aud very numerous. A report or the proceedings, including a synopsis of the pastor's address, will be found iu another column. Tfrc Aaliu I nlst rn I lun versus the 8t c.nufr Northern Light?Our Neutrality Laws? The Sublime mul the UUUcuiotu?Wliat Comes Next I The affair of tho Northern Light gro ws more ?nrious. pungent, piquant, interesting aud ro markablc as we continue our researches, to gether with the government authorities, into ihc facts, circumstances, parties and merits of the case. Accordingly we devote a large portion of our news eolumus this morning to the latest intelligence collected by our report ers upon the subject, aud to the latest official representations of this extraordinary piece of business, rritnafacie, considering the fact that ?ur form of government it wholly dependent upon the loyalty of the people to the supre macy of the law s and the ofliscrs appointed to administer them, we experie nce a sen-ation of satisfaction in the success of' the Federal au thorities in the pursuit and capture of the ship disregarding their injunctions. We presume there can be but one opinion concerning the vigilance anel activity of the United States District Attoruoy. Mr. McKcon. in this matter, as an officer charged with the execution of the; law, and that opinion must be that he has faithfully and fully discharged his duty to tho government aud to the ptiblio. But when we come to inquire what right had the govern ment to interfere as it has done with the regu lar departure of this steamer, what principles of public policy wore thus to be sustained, what law was to be \indicated, what wrong was to be redressed, anel what good purposes ?rcrc to be subecrvcd. the whole affair assumes a totally different complexion. If there is to be found outside of the Cali ?ct of Washington, a solitary democrat, hard vi soft shell, "manifest destiny" maa or hide bound ''old fogy," who can truly solve the riddle of Mr. President Pierce's Central Ame rican policy, as embodied in this inexplicable affair of the steamer Northern Light, we be seech him no longer to "hide his light under a bushel." We are still in the dork; and though Mr. Joseph L. White, the active diplomat of Nicaragua Accessory Transit Company assures ns that there Is some explanation of this business in the President's annual Mes sage. we must still remain in the dark while this Mesfoge is kept under lock and key in de fault of an organization of Congress. It is qu-te possible that we may not have a Speaker of the House for a month yet to come, in view of the third party holding the balan3e of power between the democracy and the black repub licans, and the obstinacy of this third party to its original proposition?that the moun tain must como to Mahomet In this existing state of things we say, if there be a man ou side of the Cabinet who knows exactly what Mr. Pierce is driving at in regard to Central America, and what is the exact meaning, mo tive and object of this libel, pursuit, arrest and detention of t' s..auisbip Norther.1 T.'ght plying between this port uid the Nicaragua Isthmus in the California trade, let this wise man come forth, and,pro bono publico, give in his testimony. In the absence, meantime, of some such de sirable witness, we are thrown upon the IWd of conjecture, with nothing but the antece dents, proclamations, general instructions, and inconsistent acts of this scrupulous neutrality administration as our landmarks. In the out set, we And Mr. Pierce reiterating in his in augural the Monroe doctrine concerning Cen tral America, and appointing a decided and violent -manifest destiny" ambassador (Major Borland) to carry it out. Next, at the instance of this ambassador, Grey town is bombarded and reduced to ashes; and, to crown the out rage, the unfortunate place is officially de nounced '-os a camp of savages." Next, the 1 resident s official organ puffs and glorifies the colonization scheme of Colonel Kinney; but alas! while the Colonel is dreaming his "olden visions of success under the favoring smiles of our government,prctioJ he is denounced by the same organ as a filibuster?his ships are block aded in our East rlver-ho and his associates are arraigned, indicted and detained by legal prosecutions, until his original scheme of a sell-sustaining Anglo-Saxon colony of a thou sand men is reduced to twenty individuals wrecked among the coral reefs of the West In dies. lie and this small party survivc-are carried to Groytown in a British vessel?are received by the inhabitants with a hearty wel come, which is shortly followed by the elec tion ol the gallant Col. Kinney as their Gover nor. His policy is exclusively conciliatory and pacific, and resting upon the doctrine of "popu lar sovereignty." He advertises his Mosquito purchase as being open to settlers, and upon tbc basis of liberal donations of the richest lanus in the world, he invites them in. Yet he and his agents, and all concerned in his peaceful adventure, are watched by our admin istration with an e> 11 eye. Cushing, perhaps may consider this the fulfilment of the Monroe doctrine; Marcy may regard it as his line of duty under the Clayton-Bulwcr treaty ; but we apprehend that it is as difficult for Mr. Pierce to reconcile it to the one thing or the other as to our Premier's original circulars presenting the cut and the cloth of our diplomatic coats and breeches to a fancy court ball. The next chapter in this Central American imbroglio is the daring and successful eater prise of Gen. William Walker. He sails from the port of San Francisco in an armed schoon er, with a body of armed men ou board, avow edly to wage war in a foreign country with which we arc at peace. Why was he not inter cepted . His departure from San Francisco was he^ very crisis at which our government should have acted to arrest him and defeat his purpose. But he escaped to Nicaragua-he andiCnlCt hnMVOlatl0niZinff tbo eovemmoat and in establishing another-that which L> now < e jure and de facto, the government of that r ' I'cand his associates from our shores have been outlawed- -they are no longer citizen, or the United States. Wc must cither deal or aB f,llibustcro3. W M officials or citizens of Nicaragua, in which country i u !r, !8 recognized and adopted. We hold that the government of Walker is the bona fdc government of Nicaragua, and that wc cannot go behind that fact, Ld disown ? on the ground that Walker is an interloper and IZTrL l f0l,r ** tbttt ?ove?ment . _ the if6ht to invite immigrants to its soil, to give them donations of land, and to provide lor their shipment from New York or any other quarter of tho world. From a statement of Mr. White, it appears that Walker has exacted of the Accessory Isthmus Trausit Company, upon his own terms ?whatever they may be?the transportation by the company's vessels of emigrants to Ni caragua. This may be construed into a violation of the rights and privileges of the company under the Clay ton-Ilul ver treaty; but as they have not complain ed. we must rest this executive hostility to Walker's emigrauts. and the vessel engaged in their transportation, upon some other plea. According to our special despatch from Wash ington published yesterday?the rcul ground upon which the administration has proceeded in the detention of the Northern Idght is, that Walker is a (ilibuslcro and his government an imposiiiou and a fraud. But how, under the circumstances, our Cabinet eau act upon this presumption, without assuming the right to prescribe what shall be the government of the State of Nicaragua, we cunuot divine. There s only one remaining plea of jn-stifleatioa, such as it is, to wit: That Mr. Fierce regards Walker and his associates n* he regarded the inhabitants of Croytown?that is, "as a camp of savages," liable to extermination with or without a specific cause of oll'cncc, and by any means that may be deemed most expedient for the purpose. WcdareBay. however, that Mr. White has hit upon the tine explanation of the scrupu lous attention of Mr. Fierce to our obligations of neutrality iu this business, lie desires to show to the Briti.-h Cabinet that in the sup pression oi Mr. Crampton's unlawful enlist ments hove for the British army, there was no thing of trickery for Buncombe or political capital for thc^ succession. Oh! no! Look, my Lord Fulmcrston? look, niy Lord Clarendon, at the uniform vigilance of our administration in the faithful ob.crv ante of our neutral obligations. Look at our persecution of Kinney, and our cold shoulder to Gen. Walker. You will thus perceive thnt we do not treat your Minister more har-hly than our own citizens. We ask, therefore, Crampton may be recalled for offences to those for which we outlaw and pun ish our own filibusterou. In fact, it is quite possible that this Northern Light affair is but ^ bonus offered for the recall of Crampton. Almost any other democratic administration claiming to be of Jacksonion desoent, would dismiss Crampton without further ceremouy, and apply the Monroe doctrine as meaning that the independent States of this contineut shall have the right to mauage their own do mestic affairs in their own way. llut, alas! there is the Clay lon-Bulwer treaty. Wo can not perceive its application to this steamship; but we may be enlightened by the President's Message. It may be that the States of Central America are but dependencies of England, placed by Clayton and Bulwer under our pro tection as ?nch. The time is at hand for a de finite u .uorstonding one way or the other. What cornea next? A Year's Wu. We present elsewhere a chronological table of the events sf the European war during the past year. It will be found useful to keep for reference hereafter. At the close of the year 1S34 the position of the belligerents was as follows: The com bined armies of England and France had lain for some months before Sebastopol, and hod made an unsuccessful attack on the works. Winter was upon them, and the bitter predic tion of a Russian general, that Generals Janu ary and February would settle their business, j bade fair to be accomplished. Nothing but the remembrance of the victory at Inkermann kept up the spirits of the troops. Eupatorin was held by Oiner Pasha with a small army of Turks. The Russians were advancing rapidly upon Turkey in Asia. At St. Petersburg all was hope and confidence. In London and Paris all was doubt and dismay. Lord Raglan was arraigned for incompetency; Sir Charles Napier was assailed for having accomplished nothing in the Baltic; the whole army estab lishment of England was covered with merited abuse: while in Paris, sneers at the Emperor were freely bandied. At Vienna, nothing was talked of but the prospect of peace which was held out by the diplomatic conferences. Such was the situation of affairs at New Year, 16j 1. During the first week in January the hopes of peace wcie raised high by the diplomatists assembled at Vienna ; but after somq discussion, and a reference by the envoys to their respective governments, the confer ences broke up. Close ou the hoeL of this dis piriting news, Mr. Roebuck overthrew the Aberdeen ministry by moving hia inquiry Into the conduct of the war. At this moment things looked gloomy enough for the Allies. The accession of Sardinia to the alliance was a reviving symptom: and a defeat of the Russians at Eupatoria still further raised the spirits of the Western Powers. In the begin ning of March, the Czar Nicholas died, and was succeeded by his son Alexander. A vulgar | impression had prevailed in England and France that the war was a personal concern of Nicholas, and would end with his life: this I blunder was rapidly corrected by a warlike manifesto from Alexander. A new pcaco con ference, however, opened at Vienna, simul taneously with a new bombardment at Sebas topol and several sharp skirmishes in the Crimea. It held nine sittings, but failing la ar riving at any satisfactory adjustment of the question at issue, adjourned sine die early in April, and wus finally dissolved shortly after wards. On the 9th of April a new bombardment of Sebastopol, from batteries of unexampled weight and power, wns begun; but no substan tial results followed. From day to day sharp skirmishes took place, the Allies generally gaining the advantage. At last, the pub lic in England and France losing patience, General Caurobcrt was superseded by General Pelissicr, a soldier of unscrupulous daring and reckless energy. The change was soon evident. On the 29d May, the French attacked a place d'armet erected by the Russians outside the cen tral bastion, and carried it, after two nights' hard fighting. Meanwhile the English tioet took Kcrtch, seized a quantity of provisions there, blew up the Russian forts at Arabat, destroyed 100 vessels, bombarded Gcnitchi. and occupied the whole Sea of Azoff. Within a week, the Mamclon and the White Towers were attacked and taken by the Allies, though at a severe cost of life. Flushed with success, the Allies made a fierce attack on the Redau and Malakoff on the 18th June, but this time were repulsed with enor mous loss. The disappointment, acting on a frame exhausted by the fatigues of the cam paign, led to the death of Lord Raglan. lie was succeeded by General Simpson, of whom at first the public entertained expectations which he has never realized. In July, another bombardment was com mcnccd without effect Large reinforcements strengthened the Russian army ; and on the spur of the moment an unsuccessful attack was made by Gen. Liprandi on the Allied lines near Traktir Bridge. A few days before, the idle fleet* in the Baltic had given a slender proof of their desire to distinguish themselves by bombarding .Sweabourg : the place was destroy ed, but tbc strong forts behind were not in jurcd, or, indeed, attacked. At lost, on the oth September, Ihe final bom bardment was commenced: and on the 8th the French carried the Malakolf by assault, while the British were repulsed after a gallant at tack on the Redan. The Russians evacuated the place in the coursa of the night, after blow ing up most of the public buildings and setting fire to the town in various directions. The fall of the town of Sebastopol mty be regarded as the close of the operations of the year. Fuel) affairs as the capture of Klnburn arc not worth recording after such a siege as the one we have rapidly sketched; and though the heroic defence ol Kars by the Turks ap pears to have some importance, as effectually chocking the liussian progress against A-iatlc Turkey, it will suffice here merely to mention the fact. batovcr their sympathies may be, all will be struck by the contrast between the posi tion of the Allies to-day and that which they occupied twelve months ago. Now, they have accomplished the work they undertook?the reduction of Sebastopol; they have beaten the Russians in every tight in the field, and in every assault against stone walls, save one; they have demonstrated their capacity to raise money for the purpose of carrying on a war, without destroying their commerce or their in dustry : they have shown what immense damage tbey can inflict on their powerful foe, without risking another Moscow, <w even ano iter January and February at Sevastopol; they have seized the stroogest fortress of Southern Russia, occupied tho whole coast Uue, from the mouth of the Danube to Kars, sunk the Russian fleet, and tlnally have scaled hermetically the Russian nation within its own territory. This is very fair work for a single year. Reflection upou it will lead one to accept with some readiness the flying rumors of peace. Tho latest of these ascribes the settlement to Aus tria. and assert* that tho Blaok Sea is hereafter to be closed against ships of war of all nations. It may be so. Who know* t Tho source is not particularly reliable, and thoro is a looseness and Inconsistency in tho story; but let us not bo hard of bollof. when It is so evidently the Interest of all parties to make peace. p^atlu Um* PjIIUmU C?ui? ? Ai?i*u?1 Mor tality In KnghMt, miiti, PruWu, Austria and Haul*, over thit of Use United State*. Old Mortality is certainly more at home un der the sway of absolutism than under repub licanism. lie gathers up his victims there more readily?ho sous and reaps with more success. He is with us, democrats, too, but it is more like au agency than a principal office. In proci of this, let us look at the following statement of the annnal per centagc of deaths in the six great nations presented C>w ntriti. JV ceidagt of Mortality. ??
Frsi.cc J: Prussia Austria i a, I'nUed Stows The populations of these countries, in round numbers, are fBjggk vw? 37,000,000 V.'. 10,000 000 . 30,000,000 60.000.000 1 We have here five great natious foremost in numbers, wealth and civilization?tho great poineer and controlling governments in the world. They have not only given the law to Kurope, but have assumed all the airs of su periority, and have haughtily undertaken to chide, if not direct, the people of the United States, We have hardly yet closed our ears to their lessons and intimidatious upon the al leged lawless and buccaneering spirit of this republic. They have treated us far more as a band of pirates than as a nation of freemen. Nominally admitting us into the family of States, they have lost no opportunity to render our association with them uncomfortable, if not intolerable, nor to impose upon us a sys tem of espionage and offensive dictation wholly inconsistent with our rights and dignity as an independent nationality. As the primary ob ject of government ought to be, and in this country is, to secure " the greatest good to the greatest number,and as there is no better test of success or failure, iu this respect, tak ing whole communities together, than is to be found in consulting the yearly mortality in each, we append a statement of the excesses of deaths, according to the foregoing per centagcs and populations in the live European States, over those oi tho Federal Union, viz.:? Countriet. tjx aof SSff Total Here are the deaths of more than two and a half millions of persons in a single year, over and above the current mortality of the United States. This enormous excess is due to suf ficient operating causes. A considerable por tion of it is contributed by France and Eng land?two of the healthiest countries in the world?the common resorts of our enfeebled constitutions, impaired digestions, and our I lovers of pleasure?countries long siace res- I cucd from the miasmas attending the first I operations of agriculture, low laud and river improvements?the very scats of science and medical skill. It is obvious at once that we must look for the solution of this problem some where else than in climates, soils, and mere occupations. We must open the great book of politics?search out its records?an alyze its laws, and be prepared to credit its astounding testimony. We purposely, and we think logically, confound politics with educa tion?moral and religious?and with cu iliza iion and progress; because the former, in its various stages of devclopemcnt, is a ro-ult of attainments in the latter, and it will he suc cessful and stable and firm just as it is based upon the acquisitions of the mind. in this connection it is remarkable to ob serve that in the Ave European States named their annual deaths, greater or less, arc found to correspond with our ideas of the political, intellectual and moral conditions of the masses composing them. If we add the United States to the number, it will go far to strengthen the conviction that death is produced far more from moral than mere physical causes. Independent of education, moral, social and political conditions, the people of this coun try arc far more exposed than cither France, England, or Frussia; and it is believed even more than Austria or Russia. Our population is altogether mercurial in its nature. It is en gaged, and has been since the discovery of the continent, in felling our forests?dredging our rivers?digging our canals?draining marshes A-tearing up, exposing and purifying soils, and ?U the lime inadequately supplied with medi cal attendance and skill, and often beyond the reach of human sympathy. Excluding the ac tual condition of our people in all that relates to their education, to political and -ocial com petence and independence, and it is obvious that the amount of mortality would be greater in the United States than in England or France. It is enough to show this to recur to the face of the country at the present moment. We arc thus driven to the conclusion, much against our will, that the European system of govern ment, including that of England, is responsible for the -ncrifice of two and a half million* of lives every year? sacrifices required, be it re membered, to maintain the present aristocra cy, which derives the tenure of its power through the ignorance of the people. This, in truth, is the cost in blood to main tain tlio real <Mw jw on the other side of the water. The men who arc so profoundly dissa tisfied with the republican institutions of the United States?they ore sorely moved by the enormous wrong- and inhumanities of American slavery, to overthrow and obliterate which they would, if need be, destroy the fabric of our free j institutions. Viewed in the light of effects? ! and it is not clear how otherwise we arc to re i..id political audjMtral causes?the govern ments of the Om^orld carry off every year more persons than arc in bondage in the New. We admit if the character of that bondage was -uch as to produce here in this country the re sults of wlivh *c complain in Europe, 9m slavery would only complicate us in the gene ral wrong, and make us responsible for our share of its annual deaths. But fortunately for our character as a nation, and more fortunate ly still for the cause of humanity, our mortali ty returns show that, for Instance, in the cen tral slave States of Georgia, Alabama and Flo rida?certainly fair examples both in regard to the institution itself, and soils, climates, pro ductions and exposures?there arc fewer deaths even, in proportion to population, than in the strictly healthy agricultural districts of the North, East and West. Now, we infer that good treatment, kindness, abundant food, genial go vernment, large social liberties and enjoyments, religious freedom and independence, do not increase the sum total of mortality. They pro long life; and we point to their fruits in the slave States of the Union, compared with any other population on the globe, as a triumphant practical vindication, if not of the institution itself, at least of the humane spirit in which it is administered. To illuBti'ulc this by compari son, are there not more men, women and child ren in this city to-day suffering from hunger, cold and neglect than in the whole slave States combined ? It is from such sources, here and in Europe, that we must look for an increase of mortality. It is not, then, in soils, climates and occupa tions that we are to find the sources of disease and death?it is not to the want of medical skill?it is not rightly considered, because population is crowding on production?it is not to defective physical organization?it is not to epidemics?it is to ignorance, to de pressed moral and intellectual conditions and attributes, to religious fanaticism and intole rance, to political dependence and subjection. These causes operate in a modified form in Eng land and France, more severely in Prussia and Austria, and most of all in Russia ; and they bear their fruits of death just about in the proportions assigned to each of these govern ments of civilization and political equality. Again, adding the United States, they will servo greatly to fortify the general conclusion to which we have arrived in surveying these mortality statistics, viz.: that death is caused, to a frightful extent, by the political institu tions of the Old World. Making all due allowance for an increase of population in the five European nations refer red to?much of it resulting from arbitrary an nexations without, in fact, affecting numbers it is not too much to claim that their excess of mortality over that of the federal Union, within the period of its constitutional existence, has been seventy millions of men. It is something more than folly, in this view of the condition of the human family, to concentrate the eye of the philanthropist and the philosopher upon the operations of armies, and upon the theoretical dependence and hardships of any portion of the American people. By the whole theory of civil government, the first object is the preser vation of human life. It is for this that our criminal codes were established; for this soci ety has surrounded the citizen with a panoply of guards; but it is evident that, practically, it was only intended to prevent individual kill ing, giving governments and aristocracies the unrestricted power of universal slaughter. THE LATEST NEWS, BY ELECTRIC AND PRINTING TELEGRAPHS. From Washington. CIHtlSTMAS AT TUB WHITE HOUSE?TIIE SPEAKER SHIP?THE .NICARAGUA EXCITEMENT. WisnuiGita, Doc. 26, 1S55. The- President entertained a large number of hU |>er eonal and political frienda to-day. Several anti-Itank" men will be lib rent from the House to-morrow, and the possibility of an organisation U an ticipated. The eourre of the administration towards the Ntcara guau immigrant.-, is exciting great intermit here. E. Disaster to the Ship Timor. Htaxms (Mass.), I We. 25,1856. The (.blp Timor, from New Orloan, for Ilorton, "truck on Great Hip thin morning, where "he remained for noma hour*. The steamer bland Home mircedcd finally in getting her afloat, and towed her into Edgartown. She has an assorted cargo. (lirlatmai U?y-8lu(r of the Weather. Boston, Pec. 26, 1865. To day has been one of the most ine'erneut of the sea son, raining, bailing and snowing by tarns, with a strong northeast gain. Christmas day has Ik en generally observed by the closing of places of business, services in tho churches, 4tc. To-night there will be extra theatr.eal performances, Pnit.vnr!puis. Dec. 26, 1866. Wo have had a frizzling rain storm here all day, and the weather baa been very cold. All bnsineM was suspended. The places of amusement are packed to suf focation to-night. Police Intelligence. DESCENT rrON AN ALLEGED DISORDERLY HOUSE. The Sevtnlh ward police mado a descent on Monday t ight upon the German lager bier hou>o of Henry How cnhines. No. 661 Crard street, which is kept as a place of prostitution, end there arre?ted the proprietor and two of his female hoarders, named lliry Meyer and rhisan Hccl.er. They v. ere taken before Justice Wood, and all committed lor exuminiticn. MJM-ECTED STEALING A GOLD WATCH. Wm. Wafllns, a painter, was yo?ti>rd..y arrested, charged with stealing s gold wvtch anl chain, valued at (85, from tke house No. llil <>uliml rtic.-t. Tiie pro perty was recovered. Tue acc.acd was hell by Justice Wood to answer the charge. SUSPECTED riCKPOCKET AT WASHING TON MARKET A youngster named Richard (leer w as urres'od yester day nt Washington market, charged with picking the pocket of Mr. ltlcbard Gaugban, rcsldirg n' No. 105 De lano} ??tn'Ct, of a wallet critalniog ll'J. It appea n that Mr. Gauglian, while bargain!) g with a but ilirr, f It some I?rsi n attempting to rob him, and in-'autly seized Ueer. but found no money in his possession, he having, proba bly, passed it to a eonSsdr rv'e, who m ide oir eitU It, and i wing to the Unisiiy of the crowd effected an oeoapa. Get r was taken brfo're Justice Cenno.ly an l locked up In the Tombs for trial. ALLEGED PASSING COt'vTf.RESIT M0N1T. John I arlc and hllra Wll'lams were yesterday arro-ted on suspicion cl having passed counter l. it mief at Wash ngton market. As soon as Kar'e was captured he crammed a bank bill Into his mouth, and tlrogh the offi cer endesvoted to choke It out of him, ho was successful in swallowing it. Roth af Urn pr I toners were taken be fore .Im'ice t'. nuolly sad ?nmrnl?ted for < gemmation, l i e ft mule pritoner i- t-Md to be an adept at pa-slag counterfeit money. ARREST OT AN ALLEGED FUGITIVE. Taniel Cunatd, cbargtd with being a fugitive from Massachusetts, was yesterday arrested by ofliceT Jordan, of the I-omer Police Court, and locked np to await a re quisition torn the Governor of Maasachasct'.s. It Is allrgrd that in May last he made a felonious assault at Fa-1 Cambr idge, upon the person of Ja-nei C. Nate, then a private watchman ol that place, and fractured his eknll by a blow with a cart rung. He afterwards fled to a vil lage ralleiljf upe Ann.where he lived until n-i ently, when b<- proceeded to Brooklyn and engaged In a gla ? lactury. PttMiial InteUlgeeiee, ARRIVALS. Prom 8avaTinab. in rtramshlp Elo-bla -Rev Wm CaRls, l?r Albon Crane, Mrs Itrsllsforrl, Mbw LI. IfgMon, Mrs and Mm I rw is, Mrs Pttaoss, Tbeo Clark, Ctioa Rosell J Ptatta, Mr At Join, KP Dorian, W ('uiinluaham, A r-elurmaua, An tr ?? t rawlord-7 In tba ateemge. 11 ro rage. From Liverpool, tn ship Rarer - Mr Petrlval Mrs Ainssmr ! MM Owen sad sl-'cr, Moore ami aervau', I) (> C 0'\ ,-nd lady. Miss Lionet. I fit Ulialv-'. I'll % 1*U Ifi'Nfc* XkiiMt, A DISMAL CHRISTMAS. THE DAY IN NEW YORK. Yesterday was not a merry Christmas oat door* by any mean*. It stormed dismally all day loa|, and, until lata In the evening, there was no evidence of a cessation of the rain, business was very generally suspended, Inn courts, banks, the Custom Bouse and other public build ings were closed, and the frequenters of them had an op portunity to enjoy the had weather or a good dinner, whichever suited iheir humor. Appropriate religion services were held in iho episcopalian and Bcman Catht lie churches, and quite a number of exhibitions and an niversaries of Sunday Schools were held by the other de nominations. But the gloomy weather chilled all out door enjoyments, and the hacks, wagons and ntagni ilcent turn outs that were got In readiness for a dispfoj on the avenues and on the riding grounds adjacent to tht city, were kept back until a more favorable season. Down Town hud a dese ted and dreary appearance, a few unfortunate wights who had no homes and no Chris* mas dinner to enjoy, might be seen stealing along ill streets with a downcast countenance, as if they wee conscious that the weather ly pi fled their melancholy co* dltion. The restaurants and eating houses, usually? crowded, were coir i ar.tlvely deserted, with here ag there a straggling guest eating his turkey and pudding and trying to delude himself with the idea that he W| enjoying a veiy capital dinner. But all day long the i.in kept pouring down pitiless!; pattering against the windows, and making a diimi music on the roofs of the hodses aud through the street) But the day was not all gloomy. In doors, at least, 1 ras pleasant enough, ai d the creature comforts custom ary at this time ut the year were indulged in to ? grea extent. Ilark I the turkies' plaintive cries ! Puddings tare und pumpkin pies, Chickens fit ?n? doughnuts round, Hissing, swelling, bweoi ly rmelling, Sweeter moinoi tes upweiling Wt u the sound, Hail, merry Christmas, and good living?. May they everywhere abound. As Christmas is a day set apart for family re-unions and homo comforts, perhaps the unfortunate state of th? weather outside intcnsitled the enjoyment of those who hat homes to go to nnd Christmas dinners to eat. Of the target companies, of which there are a great number who generally parade on Christinas, there were but very few out, aid the ranks wore but thinly filled. There was one or two fantastical companies cut, but the mirth they created wa? of a very melancholy charastog. Among the companies out we noticed The Ulster Guard, under the command of Captain Gor man, Meuts. Ward, Ualwey, McKechnie and Brady, pa rudtd yesterday, (Christinas cay ) and proceeded to Mott Haven, to contend for prizes, which were awarded as fol lows:?1st prize, a gold watch, presented by Mr. J. W. Scott, won by Mr. white; Yo, Capt. Gorman: 3d, Lieut. Ward; 4th, Mr. J. Uahon; 5th, a massive silver porte monnaie, presented by Mr. Gribbon, Mr. Bannan; 6th, Ucuf. McKrcbui?;7th. Mr. Johnston;8th, Mr. Iiagen;9th, Mr. (.ashen; 10th, Mr. Cunningham: 11th, Mr. U. Mahom; l'JIh, Mr. H. Taylrr; 13th. Mr. McKiUop. The company then partook of an excellent dinner, provided by Mr. Ward. Alter tie cloth had been removed, Mr. J. W. Scott, in neat and happy terms, distributed the seve ral prizes to the successful competitor'. The company tlien proceeded to Now York, where they arrived well pleased, notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather. The John M. FT men Guards, Captain Fields. Twy turned out twenty mu-kets. The independent National Guards, Captain r&rneU, tw enty five muskets, on their return from Hobcken. THE DAY IN BROOKLYN. MISSIONARY IKcTlVAL IN TUB SANDS STREET CHURCH. The seventh annual missionary festival of the Sands street M. E. Church Sabbath school was ce!cbM^?d yes terday in the ehurch and Sabbath school ro?m of tho above congregation. The children, numbering between five and six hun dred, together with the teachers and officers of the Sab bath school, assembled in the school room about nine o'clock, where they were arranged in order by their Fuierintendent, Mr. M. F. Udell, and proceeded to the church. The exercises were commenced with singing by the school and a prayeg by Eiev. Mr. Phillips. Mr. O'Neil. lTceirieut ot the Society, then stated that liev. Mr, Weed, pa-toi of the church, would read cfl tho different names of the ? lasses into which the society was divided, when one rt-pie cutatlve of each class would come forward with the amount of their contributions. The names were then ca'led, in all numbering about fifty four, which contributed tire sum of $080 74 for the missionary cause. Mr. Udell, Superintendent of the Sabbath school, then catne forward, and addressed the pastor ef the church, liev. Mr. W- ed, stating that the Bible classes ot ;he Seb bath school considered this a fitting opportunity of pre l entirg him with a testimonial showing their regard aud a ft etion tor him. Mr. Oo'ell then presented him with a rosgn'ficent gold watch, bearing tue following Inscription Presented to liev. L. B. Weed, by tbe Scholars of Sands street Me tli'. dLst-l' piscopal Church. Sabbath School, Pec. gg, 1853." Mr. Weed accep'ed tbe gift In nn appropriate speech, thanking them for the present, which be would always look upon wilh fee,logs of thiankfulueM for tbe high re gard shown him by them. Addresses were then made by Mr. Qnrlei Shelling, liev. J. Viler and li. I??\is, Esq., which, wi'h a ben"dic ticn by tbe tier. Mr. rear.es, closed that pari of the cere monies. iho scholars were then conducted to the school room, which was appropriately decorated with evergreens, mottoes, Ac. After *cbo< I came to order, several presen tations were mace to some of the teachers by Mr. Odell. on behalf of the scholars. A boy nam?d Marryfc'.t, about twelve years of age, was then Introduced, who enter tained the audience with several airs upon the violin. After which each scholar received a Chrir tints present, and were dismissed to their homes highly pleased with tire interesting fes'lve occasion. SOUTH BROOKLYN HOME MISSION AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL. There w*? a large fathering of little children at Mi St Ion Iia'l, on the corner of Court and Nelson streets, jester ('.ay mrrning, notwi'hcauding the miserable nail of the weather. 'Ihe children belong to the most nc.|j clasa of that section of South Brooklyn, and are indurad by the present of a dinner every day to attend. Clothes am i ldo provided where the necaeaity requires. This cele bration was gitten up by the manager* of the -an day school, who provided sufli ;kn ?,t the ?ub stanrial as weil as the delicate things of the reason for the accommodation of the little ene*. A targe table was spread, and 13t children sat down to aa excel lent Christmas dinner, with which they were ail satisfied, and wereus happy as could be. The hall hid been neatly decoruftsl with tvergn ens. and, with the eCa tering oc cupants, prescntedaninterestjngandagreeeh'ei'lght. The school Is under the superintendence of Charles I', Bald win, Esq., assisted by Misses Holuier, Doub'.-Jaj, h'tevens and several other philanthrope ladles. Addresses, suit able to the understanding or the children, were made by H(V. Mr. Backus and other*. The proceetings closed shortlv after dinner, and tho children ran oh t > their se veral homes. I Hn t-'aturilaj evening industrial schools N'os. 1 and 2 a ssi mbled here, and had their celbra'ion. No. 1 meets in Mission Hall, and lumbers 78 scholars- and No. 'J meets in Cfcncord street, and numbers 89 children. A dinner was set before litem, to which they did full Just! :e. Ad dresses were mmlej and songs were aung, and altogether they had a happy and interesting time. I-KhriBKTATION TO TIIB RETIRINO COCMTY CLERK. Yesterday morning a committee of the otilcer* and jurors attached to the courts of Kings rounty .i?-ambled at Capt. Hopkins', under M.nt igne Mali, tor the purpose of pnaenting to Cbarles A. Dunike, Esq- lb; County Clerk, a suitable testimonial of their regard and eitaem. on the i vent of his retirement from office. the present consists of a valuable bunting case 'gold lever watch, al exquisite yet plain workmanship. with the fAlowing In - nptu.ii engraved Hereon ? "Presented to Cuarlej A. Dcnike, Esq., County Clerk ot King*county', by the Jurors and QMmi ? of the several courts, as n rear I. of their es teem and regard. Dec. ?6. 18?5." Addresses wo re made by lieiard 31. Stevens, Esq., Deputy County H<-, ? n Lj John I.. White, Esq., rn behalf of the officers, wl.l.'i were teclincly and appropriately re-pondid to b_. vhi worthy recipient. THE DAY IN WILLIAMSHU If i. Yesterday forenoon the Sunday school scholars attach ed to the Dutch Xefcrmd chnrcb. In Fourth struct, con Toned at the church, where thej were addresie-1 by Kev. Dr. Dorter and others, after which a collation wa-> served up. last i venlng the annirersaries of the Sabbath schools of the first 31. E. church. In Fouth Second <t est, and the 31. P. church, in (Irand street, took place, ll.c ererci<es consisted ol singing and recitations. Notices of Sew Publications. Soya** AND ltAI.LWiH or THK AMEHH A.N ReTOIX tion. By Frank Moore. D. Applctou A Co., New Yoik: London, 16 Little Britain. When fir Walter Scott set about cotni ling the "Min streby of the Pcottish Bolder," so much time had elapsed after the, stirring events which gave rise to them, tint great number* of the war acngs of the period had dtsap pi at cd farevsr. Not so with the field of lab r of Mr. Frank Moore. Having the acquaintance of many of the Revolu tionary airra, and with full access to the line historical colteetlans of Mr. J. Cartfr Brown and Mr. filter Fori*, the libraries of YaU College, Brown I'niverslty ami mil New Tork Historical Fociety, he has given us a collection of the min?trel?y of the ltevoluttm that every reader of hiafoty will have to possess. The inlluencoot these songs in the ratise of liberty was unquestionably great. We all know ho ? 'bo tory leader- writhed under the lash of Me Kir,gal, tho Ynnitee flodlhras, and how much enstinsisam was aroused under the martial note* of Yankee Hoodie. Dai low, one el the poets of tlie ported, ami ? ho*e nam sud fame r!!l ever be associated with tho Revolution, said, " I do not know wlielher I shall do mere for Ike cense in the capacity of chaplain than I could in that of poet. 1 have greuttaith in the Influence of song- sn I shall eoatiawe, while fulflllirg the duties of my appo ifment, to write one now and then, and to encourage the taste fir tbrm which I find in the camp. On# good son* is worth a do ten addresses or proc'amattons." Re tin] ia this volume " American Taxation,'' "Tlie t'ow CUasa," ? Tlie Taxed Tea,'- "Battle of th? Kege,'' "Yankee llovo.t a 1?4 I* 1-aVvA