Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 3, 1856, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 3, 1856 Page 1
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THE NEW WHOLE NO. 7066. MORNING YORK HERALD. > ? . ?? . , , ? ? ? , EDITION? THURSDAY, JANUARY 3, 1856. PRICE TWO CENTS. OUR FOREIGN RELATIONS. THE CENTRAL AMERICAN IMBROGLIO, WARLIKE ASPECT OF THE QUESTION. * Important and Exciting Official Corres pondence* The Two Constructions of the Claytou-Bulwer Treaty. letters of IHarcjr, BiAuui, L*rd Clireih den aid Others, *0.. Ac., fcc. MS. MARCT TO MR. BUCHANAN, [No. 2 ] I)hl'ARTMH\T OF STATU. ) Wahui.ngtok, July 2, 1853. / ?Jxuva Bt't'HAKAN Esq:? SlH? * ******* Great Britain Tor a long time had possession of a district Of country on the Bborea ot the Bay of Honduras called w "Tlie H*U.*e." The right she has to hold it is derived Troma grant by Spain, and this right is limited to a sin gle purpose, with an express prohibition against using it for any other. A possession so restricted as to ita use could never be Considered a British colony. Wkile the confined herself to the boundaries specified in her treaties with Spain in 1783 and 1786, and uses the district or country described only for the purposes stipulat ed therein, we have no right to complain that Hbe U infringing our policy; but when she extends her occupancy by encroachments far beyond the pre scribed bounds, and changes its tenure by exercising over It civil authority, a very different character is given to this settlement ? it then becomes a new colony on this conti nent. Mnce Hie acquisition of California Great Britain has taanifented a mere matured design to change this Spanish license to cut dye-wood and irahogany at the Belize into a British dominion. Tlie object ot such change cannot be misunderstood, nor will it be disregarded by this gov ernment. The character of the British settlement at the Belize is explicitly shown by an authority which will not be controverted or questioned by the government ofGreat Britain. 1 ills authority is no other than the Parliament Of the United Kingdom. In two acts ? one pissed in 1817 and the o' fier in 1819 ? it is admitted that the Belize Is not Sritbin the British dominions. In these acts provision is x. made for t'ae punishment of crimes committed at the Be lize, which otherwise could not be punished by any exist ing law, because Belize, as expressly alleged, was not a British dominion. In 1826 Creat Britain renewed in her treaty with Mexico the special grant made to her Spain in the treaties of 1783 and 1786, to enter into and Occupy the Belize upon the same terms and with the ?ame restrictions as thoss imposed upon her by Spain. The 1 'utted State*, while they concede tait Great Britain h?a right in the Belizo, positively deny that the Belize is a British I'rovince or any part ?f the British dominions, and in maintaining the policy referred to they are bound to resist any at tempt to convert it into a British colony. The protectorate which Great Britain has assumed Over tlie Mosquito Indians is a most palpable infringe ment of all treaties with rtpain; to which reference has just been made, and the authority she is there exercising jonder pietence of this protectorate is in derogation of Abe sovereign rights of several of the Central American States, and contrary to the manifest spirit and inteation of the treaty of April 19, 1850, with the United States. Though ostensibly the direct objeot of the Clayton and Bulwer treaty was to guarantee the fr?e and common use of (he eoatenjp^aud ?utp across the Isthmus of Da rien, an t to secure such use to all nations by mutual treaty stipulations to that effect; there were other and highly important objects sought to be accomplished by that convention. The stipulation regarded mist of all by the United States is that for discontinuing the ase of her assumed protectorate of the Musquito Indians, anil irtth it the removal of all precept whatever for interfer ing with the territorial arrangements which tho Cetilral American States may wish to make among thenselvej. It was the intention, as it Is obviously the import or the treaty of April 19, 1850, to place Oreat Britain under an obligation to ceafe her inferp^sftious in the ii flairs of Gen tial Aiuenc*, and to confino herself to tho enjoyment o' tier lint I 'el i ights in tho Belize. She his by this treaty of 1860 obliged herself not to occupy or' c .Ionize any part of Central America, or to exercise any domi nion therein. Notwithstanding thc?? stipulations -she rti.'S asserts the right to hold possesion of, and to exercise control over large distihts of that country snd important islands in th-- Bay of Ifonduras ? the unquestionable appendage* of the Central Americaa States. This jurisdiction is not less mischieva-is in its effects, mor less objectionable to us, because It is covertly ex pressed, (partly, at least.) in the name of a miserable tribe of Indians, who have in reality n? political organi sation? no actual government ? not even the semblance of one, except that whish is treated by British authority and upheld by British power. This anomalous state of things is exceedingly annoying to the States of Central America, and but little less so to the United States; for through the Bay of Honduras and across some of tliete States lies one of the most desirable routes to eur possessions on the Pacific. This inter feres*, iCwill be iccsllected, did not assume a marked ?cliaracter until our acquisition of California. fjreat Britain should be liau*Iy assured that the policy to which I have iiiluded, and to which the United States mean to adhere, is exclusively political. As relates to eomverce, this government neiiner aims at nor deniiea any advantage iu our Intercourse with the nations on this continent, which it would not willingly see extended to the whole world. The object whicnlt is hoped you may tieabl ? to accompJlah, is to Induce <Jre%t BrUiln to with draw fromall control over the territories and ishtuds of ?Central America, and, if passible, over the llelize also, and to abstain from intermeddling with the ]K>litical af tfairs of tlie governments and people In that region of the *orld. 1 his object is the more earnestly desired by the i.'ni ed S'atss, as it is apparent that the tendency of events iu 1 hat quarter N to give a foothold to British power there, in contravention of the policy waich this govei tnifnt is resolved to sustain. With } our aupde knowledge of the facts, i'. is believed tlmt it will 1*. (?fj for you to satisfy the government of ?Grfat Biitnin that it has no right to intervene in tkp Solitical itlfairs of CeDtral America, founded upou any omfoian "he can fairly claim in any part thereof, ami that uo obligation of duty or iutore-t is ianpseed upon her to i*ci me a volunteer in the matter U is tru? she h.n ?<>m? lights, as I have betore s 'ated, in the Bel lie; trot when restricted to proper limits, no part of it in in ?Central Amo:iea. Tho^e ti<hts, however, aro ve-y few, ?jji will lie perceived by the second and third articles of tiietriatv between her and (Spain, dated thollth of J uiy, 178fl. '! ;.?? second article c'etlnes the extent of the district upon -wtiir : British trabjects nay enter tor the (specified in tlie third article, which contains anexpies?*d miislon tiiat th.' Belize then belonged to th* crown >f ^ptin. end in it Clreat Ilritnin stipulates in n > ambiruo is tfrun that ht-r sutjects who hiive the right to enter it ticut ? dvenood mid mahogany, (-hall not use this 1 i or. i ? e 1 right aii a pit text for establishing " In that count -y aoy plan tation 1,1 (far, coffee. c con, or other kind of arttclei, or any bird <i 'abiicor manulielure by mean* nf milU or machi-er^ whatever,'' with n>e exception or sawmills r.n cutiii g .lie u<>od which .hey have permission to take from that dial] let of country, i'o enter Into the country upon -ucV ocndlUons !or the tingle purpose giant'd, the Jtritish light cannot be ?ell fiuestlonc*, but this right is ainderstood lobe now of vor.v lii'le value, and possibly, :>* a mutter of interest ai .1 good policy tireat Bri'.ain may be wil ing to tenc-Luce it entirely. But her preteu'ions be yond t .it light cannot fc<> regarded in any other light xh%n as encroachments ??h!ch ough t to he abandoned. To sh w that htr piivlhtge is thus circumscribed, nothii'j mote is ncce sary th:in to reud the flrfet article of the itciity to ivlilch I have aliui' d. As a hioorered attempt has been rrade to pnrrert 1', the lan guage is too precise and explicit to give plausibility te aueh f n effoit. That arti;J? ?t>palates (I <{iiote tv>e lan V'uaize of the ti aty) that "Iter Britannic Majesty's subjects, end the otb r colonists who have hitherto en joyed the protection of Ktgtand, sliJ.M cvddia'.o the jcountry of the Mosi(uitos, fii well t< ihs continent iu ^jeutrsl aud the islands ? 'ja.eet. n!tb .ut exception, situated beyond the Jtno hereinafter described as wh<u ought to be the frontier or the extent ot country gran to I Itj his Catholic Majtsty to the Knglish lor th" t!sc.s apr cl lied in the third article of ibe present convention, and in addition to the country .V.reily granted to them, (the Belize,) in virtue of the stipulations agreed upon by tho ?;o)iin, i -i ioncrs of the two c.owns in 1783." Alter raid ing the treaties with Spain of 1783 uA 178fi, la which <ireat Britain renounce", in tersas the most explicit arid ?omprch'i'Sive in the English language, all riMht to ?any teriitorial possessions in nny part of <!enir,,l America, ?a'l sovrteisrn lights in behalf ol the Mulquitoe, and all claim to a protectotale over that horde of -avsges, it would seem to l>e useless to j?n bevond those treaties for tacln to i xplede the prcttnsi /ns she now asserts for her "?ell in icard to the protectorate. < Var m both of these treaties are (gainst such preven tions, it Is nevutheleps true tkat oi.e of h"r Hritrinic II ,i?;-ty'.s late piincipal S^eotetariei id State for Foreign A flairs, lord Palmers^on has endeavored to pervert and Iiv construction to render theai meaninglesH. in the same itiannei t lj;i t bur ;>r"??*t ^0'f?tary attempts to render ineffective the treaty with IU- i nitcd St;it?? of the lt'th Atinl lsuii. The boldne.- of ,he attempt with respect to thi tieaty of 17*0, nnd its 111 micccsh is shown by a proceeding In telation ihereto in the flriiish Parliament ttithin uie yjar after it was concluded* The reooid ol th's proceeding is noi found in the more genortl repository of Parliamentary Beba'.es, " lUi.sarJs' Colleetlrn, '' and it eould not have been in the tex'l <C'.i n of lord I'almereton. wheu he wrote his brnm. 4 letter a|?4Wl treutjr and Miat 91 I7$n, al dreaded to Nnor CMtilliou in 1840. As this proceeding shows the groundlessness of the claim then, as now set up, to this protectorate, and all other British claims in Central America, I deem it proper to preeent herein a succinct account of it. On the 36th ot March, 1787, a motion was made in the House of l'eer?, by Lord Kawdon, "that the terms of the convention of July 14, 1780, do not meet the favorable opinion of this House." On this motion ft long debate ensued between Lord* Rawdon, Carlisle, Stormont, Hawke and Porchest?r, in support of the notion, and the Puke of Manchester, who nego tiated the tieatjr of 1783. the Marquis of Carm&rthun, Seci etary for Foreign Affairs, who negotiated the con vention of 1786, and the Lord Chtnoeilor, the relobrated Thtrlow. Lord Itawdon, on iatrodusing his motion, stated "that the Mosquito sbqre, given up to .^pain by the treaty ai 1780, had been for more (ban a oemury in the posseuim of tireat Britain; that it consisted ot a territory of between four and five hundred miles in length, and was noarly of the depth of on* hundred miles inland from the tea; that there were on it various settlements, and that the residents at the tiutoof it* cession consisted of near 1,500 British sub jects, including whites, male and female, persons <fl mixed color and their slaves; that a regular form of government had been established on it many years aince, ctcsiMifcg of a Council, &c. ; that it was a settlement of great value and importance to this country, and that our claim to it was a* good aa our claim to the Island of .lamaica. In support of these assertions his I/ordship produced various documents from the Governor and As sembly of the Island of Jamaica and other corroborating papeis. In exchange for this valuable settieni.9ut.<he said, the British ministers had contented themselves with accepting a narrow slip of territory of between eleven and twelve miles in extent, only. 1 ord Kawdon then proceeded to censure the Ministers, e p< cially for the 14th article of the convention by which the King of Spain promises not to exorolae any act of seveiity against the Mosqultos inhabiting in any part of the couutiies which are to be evacuated, on account of the connections which may liave existed between the said Indians and the English, which his Lordship declared to be "a mcst degrading humiliation of Great Britain." The Earl of Carlisle in tho tame manner spoke of the Mosquito shore, as a settlement that had been in the un disturbed possession of tireat Britain for more than a centuiy. He considered the Ministers especially censur able "for baring bung ifp the humiliation of Great Britain in every court in Europe in an art isle so degrading to the national honer as the 14th article of the conven- 1 tion, because there could be no secret reason for such a moitifying saciilice of tho spirit of the country." Lord Stormont likewise particularly enlarged on the 14th ar ticle ns an unnecessary degralation of the coun try, and be said, " The Mosquito Indians had proved themselves fall Uful allies, aud had invariably adhered to the interests of (ireat Britain. lie contended that they were an independent people, asd that we had no right whatever to deliver them over to the Spanish yoke." On the part of the ministry, the Duke of Man ebes'cr and the Murquis ef Carmarthen said very little moie than in support of thtir own personal agency, in the lr*a'y ot 178o :>nd the crntiuuation of 1786; the de fence being lefl to the Lord Chancellor, the cha'opion of the administration, who left the woolsack, and in a most mast pi ly manner answered the various arguments that liad been urged in support of the motion. He begun with ('eclaiicg that " be had expected to have beard ttie ques tion spoken to with that cegrte ofexplicittessand candor that bilcnged to it He looked for tnore accuracy of des oiptlon. in point of geographical character, than had been attended. The Musquito t hore lias been talked of a 3 a tract of country extending hot ween four aud five hundred mi'es, * itliout the smallest mention ot the swamps and mo rasses with which it was interspersed, cor any allowanoe for the parts of it that were actually impossible to be either cultivated or inhabited. With regard to settle ments, it would be Imagined by those who wore estranged to the fact that there had been a regular government, a tegular council, and established laws peculiar to the ter titciy, when the fuel was there neither bad existed the one nor ibe other. His Lordship went into the history of 'he settlement, tracing it down from the year 1(!60 to the i ear 1777, mentioning Lord tiodolpliin's treaty and all iU circumstances, and ceducicg arguments from each fact be mt ntioced, to prove that the Musquito shoro never had been laiily deemed a British settlumont, but that a Oetachment ot soldiers hud been landed from the Island of Jamaica, who had erected fortifications, which had been afterwards abandoned by order ?f tho government at hrue. He instanced the transactions on the iraojeet of the Peace of 1'atis, in 171KJ, when Governor I.ytlleton governed Jamaica, and enlarged upon them, to show that this country, by tlio peace ol Paris, had renounced what ever claim she might bti'ore that period have fancied she bad a right to itaint.nln, and had given a tresli proof ofbur hiving done so in tlw year 1777, when Ixird Georgo Ccrmainc, the Secretary of the American Department, sent cut Mr. I atme to the Mus .uito shore to see that the stipulations of that treaty between this country and Spain weie carried fully into execution. His lordship ? nlaigc i veiy much on these particulars, ami after en forcing and applying tbem to 'he arguments that had been urged in defence of tho motion, procesded to notice uhat l/oid Carlisle bad said on the delicacy of ques tion'* of that fort, declaring that he htd been lisppy 10 hear the matter so judicially observed upon. ni? Lordship s .id he should have been extremely gUd if the wlto?e ground of the transaction! could vii'h pru nenc? and propriety have boon gene into; but as 1 1 tat could not be done, he must m<M>t tiie matter as he found i'. With regard to the degradation ol the country (hit the 14t)i article was pietcudod to hold out be denied tue ftcf. Tho Mosquito* w ro nut our al iet, th?y wore not a i eople we wvrn bound by treaty to protect, nor were thi-rc anything like the number of British subjects there that hod been stated, the number having lx-eo, accord ing to the lust re).ort from thence, only one. hundred ami twenty men and fcixteen women. The fact was. wo hid precurtd (by contract, if tho noble Lord pleaded.) a sti pulation that the King of .Spain would not punish those P.iitish subjects and the Musquitos who had possessed t htm selves, impropeily, of the rights bel inking to the fpnish crcwn, ant in conwquenoe of such ir Kgular posic-sion, bad persisted tor a of time, but with fteqttcnt interrupt! >n in the ci?jcy nu nt of those rights, nis Lordship repelled the argument that the settlement was a regular and legal settlement, wi'h some sort of indignation; and so Jar from arguing as has been contended thlt we bad uniforndv i cmaincd in the quiet and unquestionable pos sesion of our claim to the territory, ha called upon the i.ob'.e Viscount Stomont to declare, a> ? uub ot honor. whether he ?lid not kno* tlie contrary.'' Tli e purport of Lord Roruiont'a answer in not given. Lord Kawuon, however, defended bin motion, an i prj uuced some documents by General Balling, wh< a Governor or Jamaica. to prove that a superintendent had been seut over to the ecttletnent on the Jfuaquito .shore at that tiire with a licw to l'orm a government. Hie I/nd Chancellor replied that he wit.-, iron of the ? PiUcation for a charter, but ho winhed tlie noble l.cni had meutiuned the answer that wu ffiven to tnHt application when it wan made. Bis J.inl ship stid '* tlie liaviriR seut a superintendent over jrilli a vifcw to the cnUibli JmifT.t oi a veprular council, etc., did not by any means prove tliat vho government at home had countenanced the ic'aeme. He referred the nobto i oid to what had been before stated, relative to the con duct ol' Governor l.ytileUm in 1763, and of I .?> ? t George Ccrmalne in 1777, a- an ami !e proot that, lelwh it .rnuld have bicn (he state of the M s juito shore, or the opinion ot*thls country in 17-U or 17IS. the ilea of wtrlin^ thcro hnd been chanj^ed coniplotcly iuce, ? ?>?! ' he fort'.HcUior.a re. eotly abandoned and witndraw 11. After snuw foither debate (tlie particulars of which arc not eiven) the ?l"c stion was taken and decided againtft l.ord I'awdon'i 0 <i Ion to condemn the convention, o> a vito of liftyfhree to f evntctn. ("Ibis debate i- found wore a', forge in I'niliainenfory lugivter, 1787, vol. >othinp could be more fatal? not the treaty of 178''- itself, to the pretensions ret up b) lirNt llritain for liersolf and the M isquilo Indians, tl in this dcbaU' and tlie rote oi the mo'.ion to err .sure tb>; treaty of 1 78?>. The lords who supported the motion ot'een-ure on tl.e administration for 1 .wins: r ;* .!< the trca'y, asfeit, it is true. that t-rea. Il.i'.aiu an i li^r adit's, the Moaqui tor, hid rights before the trra'j of 1780. but adait tbri# rights v. < re given up hyuiat ireifj. lhn post lion di -ir< s the prevention* of 1 1 rvV. Butain, both lor hcr i li and the Moaquitos, of hiv tout th-to after that teatj. On the other hand, Ixjrd limrlow, la his do !enci i the administration, denied all claim* on the part of the Mo -qui to Indians, as well as on the part of Creat jtiliai;., exei pt wba* wa?. given by the clause routine to the Bell tfia poalon, which was concurred in by nco i ly the win d" Houtc of I.oi d ? i- therefore equally fa? ? I to there pci'terudenjt cf the Bii'la! government. hi nno 1 i: ? 1 1 the o'iior, the \ An oi tue wiule il ju?e of iordi is nunc'. : o-?!. . ;;.uent that i nat Mrit.tta, a' a?' 1788. hnd no lights whatever in Central tmerlea, oi in that virlnt ty. the limited usufruct to ? small trae.t o. eeunti)? the is;i.i ? nut claimed as a pait of t'taliil Aim i lea, :..nd t!:i; the Mo&|idto Im'in:^ hud no sovereign right." to any territory wliuttvar. The acta of Parliament oho , that (treat ilrt lain had no d> minion tfceu ? none oven in the U li/e ? aod i>> four treatie?i? thtec \iitli Sj .i.. and <ne wi'h the i lilted S'atc ? (tbat of tl . ? 1 ? 'tli <i( April, 1830), she hai pie'lur d Iipt. it from io thuali'al: ? ot On xi ,\mei i a. 1 then 'on trust, you will encounter hut !l':le i Cioidtj i:i indueiig her to abandon iiuf>mtdcd pi < -tc; hi ?. *nd to I1 j e i the-e vi t-en'y -linu'a iior,s. I he whole Cential .Vmeriem nnesti >n, no nr nn '.icnt l'.rit. in hag -t<a lit to connect hwsek" with it, >? entire!/ coniMtsl f<> \ ? nr manage, lent, Modi . -.uch in true'Jor s asjoumn) from tiire to fiaie or -itch n. the PrCtiOent may or.nsi'it rhlnv.elf CivUed upjn to fur. nidi in th'1 p <a;i c? the di "cus-iens wl^eh an ay mi tin If' n. I nu. ?ir. res]ie<-tfulH . woir ob: dient servant, w. |_ MARTY. mi:. MARt'Y TO .Mlt. m<?i(\NAK. ISo. 11. | J MJ'AicmiAt i 'i <rAn , ) M' iSHIVi .TOX, .'-ep!< uiber 1U. is.") !. ) .l.?VI ? Bi I HAIMN. 1 ??., .ViC. Sm ? Your two despatches, N'o, u, (Juli ?"), an^l So. 4, (Augn-t 21), have been received. 1 herewith transmit to yon the l'terident'a ful' power to eonch^L) a treaty nilh i-rest Biitaln in regard to tho t'entriU American i|ues tlons. A copy oi the despatch of hor Mn.jesty's 1'i lnciyal ^ccretnry of Mate el Foreign .\ITairi to Mr. Trnmpton, containing the overture"^ c., dated the lffth of Janaa r . , lf<fri, was lorwaried to you from lliis Department on the ottli of.lulj la--t. 1 do not find any oilier document on tile in ihe ,-tatc t 'epartmimt oet?Uinioi( overture Si ?., m the Central American qiwatioM; but it is proha'ile tliat In ll)e conferencei hetwet u iny predecessors and the Bn'ti-li Jlloii-ter, imelation to tbo Mosquito Protectorate and tbn affairs of .San Juan (Urej town), overture, miy ha>' I ecn rnggested hy him. 'Ihe genernT views of the Presiilen.t in regard to Central Araeiican sflalrs, were presented in thelirsr. instructions with which you were furnished. The President did n>l deem It necessary to be mo e explicit as to the pain's of difference which mlsrht arise, until he was fully possessed of the view* of Iter Majesljr'a gorernment. The main object to he accomplashed is to induce tlie BilUnh government V> ffvn) aU i?lcrfc{vjiw Ul* po'MicM nf?lr? of Central Aineiiean States and the adjacent islands. It ia quite evident, judging by communication* received from her Majesty's government, particularly in regard to the difficulties at Han Juan de Nicaragua, that a dif ference of opinion between it and the United States exists, an to the construction and effects of the Clayton and Bulwer treaty ; but how wide that difference in, and on what particular polnta it ia raised, have not yev been very clearly disclosed. This difference will be. as the President presumes, fully known when these mutters shall be brought by you under the consideration of the British government. Your intimate knowledge of the subject in all its bear iocs, and of the general views of the President which are tmbodied in your instruction*, will enable you to cover the whole American ground in opening the negotiations. How much will be conceded and how much contested by (iieat Britain remains to be seen. Until points of differ ence are I'lscussed, snd the views opposed to those here entertained are fully oonaicleifd, the l*resident does not 4mm it advisable to fix on ultimata. Tbefce, if debited in a more advanced state of the negotiation, will be fur i liMied. In relation to the Belize, 1 believe your instructions are sufficiently explicit. To the teriitoiial extent, and for the limited uses, de ed ibed in the treaty of 1786 with Spain, Great Britain ha* a rljrbt to continue in possession of that country. 1 hough the United States cannot claim as a matter of l-ght that she shall altogether withdraw from Belize, it i? a very important object to ) ire vail on her to give up that terlltory uow regarded as of very little value. Tais government is not aware that Great Britain claims to Lave full sovereignty over it, but, if she does, the United States would contest that claim, and regard the assertion of it as an infringement of the Monroe doctrine? a doc tune which it is the policy of the President to maintain. I believe Great Britain has never defined the character of her claim to possess what is called "the Colony of the I>ay of Islands;" it does not appear to be one of her or ganized colonies. She has not, in explicit language, claimed sovereignty over it, though her acts have indi cated such a purpose. Whatever may have been her rights or pieteueions to rights over this colanj , i bey weie all jpven up according to the view here taken of the subject, by the Clayton a ud Bulwer treaty. The President cannot conceive that Great Britain can have any plautlble ground for excepting this possession fiom the operation of that tieaty, and he is quite sure i-be can allege none to which he could concede; yet he thinks it the wiser course to give her an opportunity to explain her views thereon before presenting a solemn and formal piote?t against her further occupanoy ef that "lhe President expects that you will treat this subject in such a manner an to learn no doubt on the minds of ' her Majesty'* Ministers that the abandonment or that colony will bo insisted on by the United States. It Is pre sira ed that the only part of that colony to which Kngland v.iU be di*pos#d to attach much value, or have any inducement to retain, Is tho island ot Ruatan. Item an intimation made to me, It may be Hint she will take the position that this jtlnud does not belong to any of tho Central Ame ?lean plates but is to be regarded in tho same condition an one of the West India Islands. By reference to tho treaties between (ireat Britain and Spain, you will find this island clearly rece gnized as a Spanish pssseesion, and a part of the old Vicetoyalty of Guatemala. Should an attempt be made to dialloRuhli between this inland and the States or ( cntial America, upon the ground above suggested, it is probable tfcat mora lull Information than we have now in iegai d to that subject may be obtaiusd froai or through Jlr. Molina, the Diplomatic Representative near this government from Costa Rica and (iuatemala. On receiv ing an intimation fiom you that further information thereon may be necessaiy, every effort will be here made to procure and torward it to you. A copy of the convention of tbe 8th of February Ust will 1 6 forwarded to you. With this will be sent a copy of the Ctmwruional Globe., it it can be procured, containing the debates of the last session of Congress and the called te?Mon of tbe Senate. ... I am, sir, respectfully your obedient servant W. I j. MARC i. MK. MARCY TO MR BUCHANAN. (HO. 21] DWABTMICNT OF St ITE, I Wjusiilxuton, Dec. 1, 1863. ) J.imek Bichanan, Km}., kr., k<\ Sik? Your despatch, No 16, ofih# 12th ultimo, came to hand yesterday, and was laid beforo the President. He approves entirely of the sugeation made by you to I^ird Clarendon to place the Mosquito Indians In the same relation to Nicaragua that oar own Indians sustain to the United States.since it is in strict accordance with the Tie ws of this government on thd subject.. as will be seen from the following extract fiom the Department's instructions to Mr. Borland nnder date of the 17th of June last:? "Admitting these Indians to be what the United States ? nd Nicaragua regard thein ? ? savage tribe, having inly possepfcory rights to the country they occupy, ii nd not the (sovereignty of it ? they cannot fairly be l eqnired to yield up their autnal pjeeession withou son.e compensation. Miijht not this most troublesome i lenient in tbis Central American question be removed by Nicaragua, in a way just in itself and entirely compa libln with her national liotorr Let her arrange this n alter t- wo arrange tho^e ef th%*/ai?i? character with lhe Indian tribes inhabiting poctiife! of our own lerri tiiiies. I think it would be propffr for you to urge upon Mcnr#gua this view of the subject/ i\n hi considerable annuity wcured to th* Monquitos for their light of occupancy to the country in their p >* -<?*? ion given up t<i Nicaragua, would. I believe, cause the Bri-i.h povetnnient to abandon their protectorate o\er them. Assurance of this is given to the United Hales. Such a course would nt.1, in my opinion, be an n< knewlcdgrocnt. dirt-ctlyor by implication, of tbe rlqht l.-l intertennre by the government ol Creat Britain in ib>- Mo.-quito <|uo?tion. The sequel of the agreement be tween Mcstra. Webster and Urarapton, about which in quiry i-i ma<?ehy you, was an irstruc ion to Mr. Kerr, lhe (large d'Affcirs of the United State* to Nicaragua, c'irectii.g him to present the aareenT-nt to the Nicara gu;tu government for its assent thereto. He complied with tfc* instructions, but the appliciUon wan rejected, Mr. Waldi wai a'-o rent to 1he Republic ot Co?ta liica hs a special agent of the government, with la s' ructions to present the argument to the consideration government of that republic- This he did, and i* was accepted by the Costs Kica gove-niwnt. The Papart luent has no spare copy ot the document containing, the jitter ol I,ord I 'aimers on to Mr. Ca?sellon, asked fur by i oil. but if yov? Tsi'l tiun to the tenth vjluiue of the Kie l-alive Documents, tirst session, thirty-first Concrre<s, I i age 104, the letter riferrtd to nuy there be found. As l . n cards your inquiry about the number of tbe Mosqui to Indians. I aiu unable to a.s-eruia with any ilegree ot c<?f?inty what ihst mnnber is. i am. yir, rtspestfuliy your obedient aervant,^^,^ ^ MK. M'CHANAN TO UK. XAKCV. [No. 10 ) ] X UTIO.V OF THV. UXITTO SrATKS, ? Ijosnoir, 5th January, 18?t. i | have the honor to acknowledge ikie receipt of v.*n .lesjairhes, Nos 20. 21, 22 and 2!, o? IWh Vovem i or. Mr it l>t, ;.i ami 10th December respectively. * ? * ? ? ? I bave not deemed it advisable to p-ess the Con rat .'triiiean uecotiatiuii with l ord Llttrendcn in N'ovtruber. itn- cau?es for this 1'elay b.iivo been tho unsettled condi tion of the Kiiti.-li Cabinet, in cooseouenc.eof the rcsigna ? ion >l l.ord l almeri'ton, and lii? ub.?equent withilrawal ? t l lm f rtrinnatioii, the : tate oi the RiuM-'I'urkilh quCi tli ii. to which the Ministry ba\e been ilevoting tbem M-lvi fruitlendy, us it is it'*w believed, to the task of I rcvenllng a war between Creat Britain and Russia, and I Ii tic ii e which I left to iecci*?- your instruction-' in re- | i id to tbe sogg??tion wiiioii 1 h;i'3 mode to l ord Curen- . ot-u, that MoMiuito Indians might he placed in the -aw* | ? . la'ii n to Nicai: gua thai our own Indians austaiu lo the \ riittni MatCH. _ , ?? Vour s?tl-mct?TT 21? liAfl romn?ed all , , lit,: . on this latter -t biivt. I Iwve rea?on to bellev hat n. y omi siou to pre-i tbeCeutnd American question nt. the puseiit iro. : imporlanc cii-is ootween tireat r.ii't in anil Ku.-.-in !? i - been p-oieriy appro la'el b.v 1 ord t li'ii ndo n. t'n Monday lrBt, however, 1 i.dd-e. ed bi lord. -hip a note lequcvitiig an interview, to wHcn I . i i, lec iveJ his an ?cr ?,iiieintin>{ to morrow liroi.ty ? ?? halt in?t thr.e oVIonk, foi our iiic?tinj? to ? Ia4? to? tb'!ti\'t sti mfr. indeed, I l;ad rea;on to i>;" 't tioi*, ? e tjiis, he would himself liaie talon the initia'.ii ;idd | l'ii vi in>iud mo t?j an interview. ! am, sir, &o. I JAM !?> KI CHAVAN. Jlvn. W. I M.iPfV, kc . .sc., Kc., Wa hinjton. \IK. irt rtANAN TO SIR. MA*. 'T. | No. 31. | IjtSAlU'N OK U'K I'stTtP S'l AT H. \ L" .no v, M-y ir>. 1M4. i - ,i mi Ti es. 't?y i \-i v'n^ in t 1 receive.1, tha long ! I t rr j-s.l l id loPK-ilehifed f tateme;it of I, ord Cla tendon I i it the Urn triil Arueiicm qucsti jn.'. iluiod on lhe 'Jd inst., ii . .?) ,? ( I rb'it h I b'e now tl e honor to transmit. Ac . , ii onnvii' IV .'s'tmi r.t 1 pl?o received n private not! . 1,. o ? -I i,., a| olrsi/ipfT '"for the fnither -leliv it. Id' In'-' n ).b. "c owing to tlie la-tor h.ihil.iv-. and iicioce ..-j if ctn ul ii it -ot oi of my [lii>] coHoagiio# . I. net' mi' ?f tow*. ' Vo-.IIS, vor. reapoctfiillj. I .1 AMK- Bi'OHAnAN. lion. I.. W.^Hi-v, SflcreUry of State. W It. I.AM 111 Si F. TO LORT> PAI.MKRSTON. I . >. J.ts-A'i on, Nov. $, 1810. Sii r 1! I ? .. ti? .% - I toll you in our ? nvers.iiiou tit i i- on. lie -. I li:i.vo V.e?n iri-tru.:'cl by the l r< d l?n' to in i o ,i hi ho. the Britis h ^ovrnmi nt intended to ocsupy , co i I) I> \ Iciiagna. I ."f i:: ?, or uny t irf oi fVnti.i, Vmeilco. J have a'?ohe< n in.stm. ted to iaq .iire wheth'i tbo Uilti h government wl)l utifie with the I nited Matei i ? nfiatantKiug tbe neut ality of a ??!. p canal, railw.iy, ov other or.nimuni jatlon t-? Is1 oj en to the world, ami i i niiuon to nil nations. May 1 tie? the lavor uf an ausner to thee inquit ies, end to e prrss th'1 v .si that I m?y re ceive !t lK'foto two o ? li>cU to morrow, so as to M>ii.l it out bv this week'* packet. t ?m awam that N1 ?? nm in is in dispute wlttCon* (I (oh f,n tl 0 one hand al I t her boundary, and Willi '.lie > osqtilto Indians on tlie oUitr abont tbolr sovcrelgiity. 1 have no purpose now to enter Hf0B those questions. 1 i.niy d??ire to know the nem of her M?.le-t\ ? cover* nu-nt on tbe .,ue.liois- I have i.roposed At the -amo time I (aiiuot but think that Hreit Britain and tbe I nil?s'. S.nto can heal those breashes by kind oflices; an I tbnt the In '.ians enn bo provided lor in a manner sit.-Uc ti rv to Nicaragua and (ireat Britain, and lar bo'.t i lor tbcm than the equivocal position thry now occupy. I need not afsure jour I?rdsliip that tlie I ni ed - Htes ba\o uo ii'itciior pnrpo en in view. They Trankl) dts c 4?Ini all intention* of obtaining territory in Centnl Ameiica. and I have no doubt would be filling to mutu ?lly agree with (ireat Britain neither to eet?lc, annex, c-donuc, or fort If, that country^ I au. Jkc. ^ Viscount PMsirRMON, Sc. I, OKU TALMKBHrON TO MB. LAWBKWCK. I okvji.n On n ?, Nov. I i, lHt'.i. My TIl.*ii Pjk? I have received your letter of tin- 8th, wiiUet} la %c<nrf*uw fHli '? W ?? t on in the morning of thai <J?y, tu<' I t eaten to raply tv jour inquiries. With regard to the 6rst pert of your inquiry, I beg to ?ay that Lor Majesty's government do not intena to occu py tr colonize Nicaragua Co?t* Kiev the Mosquito Coa^t, or any part of Ctntiol America. With regard t<. Mo quito, however, a clone political connection has eii.-<te<i between the ciown of Great Britain and the State and Territory of Mbequito for a period of about two centu ries, but the British government does not claim dominion tn Mot quit?. With regard to the secoud part of your inquiry, I beg t4> fay that her Majesty'* government will feel great plea Hire in combining and eo operating with the govern trent of the United States, for the purpose of asaiating

the operations of auy company which may be formed with a view to estaMi&h a commercial communication by canal or railway, between the Atlantic and l'acifi 3, across t' e isthmus which -divides the northern and southern poition of Uie American continent; buth by obtaining local security for the wo*ks while in progress and when completed and in me, and by placing suoh oommunl :%? tion, through the means of political arrangements, be yoed the teach of molestation, disturbance or obstruc tion by reason of international disputes which may at any time nnforturateiy atise ; upon the condition, moreover, that such communication should at all times be open and accessible for the com merce of all nations upon equal term* for all, Mr Majesty's government would Seel that the union of two great Powers for the accomplishment of an object of suoh general utility, and tending to much to assist the diffu sion of civilization, and to strengthen the foundations of international peace, would be as honorable to the l'awers concerned in inch an arrangement as the result would be advunUgeous to the commercial interests of the v orld at laige. With regard to the port ofGreytown, at the river .n. John, her Majesty'* government would fully undertake to obtain the conseut of Mosquito to such arrangements as would render that port entirely applicable, and on the principles above m? ntioned, to the purposes of such a sea to sea communication. You advert in your letter to the differences which have arisen between the republics of Nicaragua and Costa Ricy in regard to boundaries and to some other matters, snd you suggest that the joint influence of Great Bi itain and the United States should be employe! to heil, by their good offices, the breaches which havo interrupt ed the fiiendly relations of those two contiguous States. Her Ma jesry'a government would, upon every account, be glad to join with the United States in effecting such a reconciliation, and the more so because the cordial co operation of both of those republics would be essential for the satisfactory completion of the contemplated under taking. 1 have only further to say that Her Majesty's govern ment have received with great satisfaction your assu rance that the United States have no ulterior purposes in view in regard to thtte matters; that they frankly dis claim all intention of obtaining territory in Central Ame rica, and that you havo no doubt that they would be will ing to enter into a mutual agreement with Great Britain, neither to settle, annex, colonize or fortify that country. { and I can with eijual frankness assure you thai unto sucli a mutual agreement Her Majesty's government would be equally rea?y. I am, kc., Ac , rAI.MEUSTON". Aiuiorr Lawrew K, F>q.. &c., ,Vc. STATEMENT FOR Mil. BUCHANAN. Hie substance of the case submitted to her Majesty's river cincnt by Mr. Buchanan, may be hi ieily stated as Hows:? 1. Tbat Great Britain, prior to April, 1850, was '? In Sissession of the whole coast of Central America, from e Bio Hondo to ihe pot t nnd harbor of San Juan de Ni caragua, except that portion of it between the Saretoon and Capo Honduras, together with the adjacent Honduras Island of Ruatan." 2. That Ihe government of the United States does sot understand under what title Great Britain, harinjr aban doned the greater part of these possessions in 1786, re sumed them subsequently, nor does it know precisely at what period the protectorate of Great Britain over Mos quito was re-established, the first intimation which the I nitcd States government had received on the subject being from an American agent in 1842, and tbat more over Captain Bonnycastle and other authorities had never iepretented the Mosquito shore as extending as tar as the liver and town of San Juan de Mciragua, which latter the Spaniards had ennsideted a place of much impor tance, and the key to the Americas. (J. Tbat it appears to the United States government that Spain, in virtue of the tieatv of 1780, had a rijjht to objeot to Grtnt Britain establishing herself on the Mos quito coast, or assuming t lie protectorate of Mosquiti; and that Great Britain had by her treaty with Moxico, lecognized that the former colonies of Spain stood in the Miiue position with lespcct to other States as (lid Spain herself, and inherited the advantage - of the ancient trea ties of the mother country; taat the United States gov ernment had always contested the claim of G-reat Britain to all the poaaessiens held by her ia Central America w ith tbc except^* i;f lb-it portion of tha settlement o 1 elixe which ?? Mtnsted between the Kio Hondo and the Kbem; that it hud always resisted the right of Great Britain to establish a protectorate over the Mosquito ?ud tbst i(^had learned with great surprise and re^re that the Bilhsh forces Lad. ia 1848, expelled the Nicer* gusn authorities, which held the port and town et San .loan de Nicaragua in virtue of the old Spanish rights, ac<l had then hoisted thereupon the iiag of the Mosquitos. 4. Hiat Mr. Monroe, when President of the United States, had. in 1823, announced in a public, message to C< ng ess, that the American continents wera not hcuco fi.rth to lie coD idtrcd subject to colonization by Hurojiean powers. 5. That no claim on the psrt of Gre*t Rri'aiu to act in the name, or uidtr the authority of the Mosquito In ?'mns, could be will founded, Inasmuch as that race, even if nc er conquered by Spain, were savage*, who, acoordirg to iha practice and pi iucip'es of ail European retions which had ever acquired territory on the eonti rent rt America, had no title to rank a* independent States in the territory they occupied, but had a claim to rrere eecupney thereon, such territory being the domin ion of the (li ecoverer of it, or even ot the itiscoveier of territory < n the same continent, tfcough far distant from it, by whom a 'one this claim to mere occupancy on the part ot the Indian* was to be exiiDgui' had by purchase, as the advances of the white settlement rendered necei ?ary. And, tinally, that Great Britain having declared by tieaty, in 185o, that she would neither crUmtze, for tify. occupy, nor assume dominion over Mosquito or Central America, was thereby at all events bound to withdraw her protection from tin people and territory of the Mcsqiiitos. and moreover to deliver up Itua'an, Which was an island belonging to Honduras, a Centra! American S'ate. but which, nevertheless, hud lecently been eolo ni/ed and ocr.upitd by Great Britain. Such aie the main points brought forward by Mr. Bu chanan. in the statement which Ue lias d? live red to her Xlaje sty's g<>\ ernni) nt. It in speaking of tbe p, session* held by Great Britain j ifvious to 18iO. on the coast of Central Ameiica (the settlement ff Bed ize excepted) Mr. Buchanan means that li: cxpres'lans should apply to that district which is called the Mosquito country, it is proper thu' her Mnjes. 1y govern) en t should at once .-Ute, thst her Majesty his i tver held any possessions what?ocver In the Mosquito country. But although GreatBiHtin held no possessions in the Mosquito country, she undoubtedly exerjise I a great and extensive inliuence over it rs the protectirg ally of the llrpquit o king, that king or elite! havinj 03 cnsionally been crowned at Jamaic* under the auspioes of ihe British authorities. Tbe United Stale* govern ment, will, it is apprehended, scarcely expcc' that Great l.iitaln should enter iuto any explanation or defence of her conduct With respect to acts committed bv her near ly forty years ago, in i> matter in which no right of pos : ession of ihe 1 nited States was involved. Ihe govern luent of the Inited States wiuld, it is much led justly surprised, if the government of Gteat 1'iitnin weie now to question the propriety of any of its 1 wn long past acts, by which n? territorial right (it Great Britain had been sir. ct?d, nor would the American )<ople consider any justification or explmUion of such 1 cts to loielgn States consistent wilb the ? lenity and in ilepwdent positing of the United States. The rove, -n nient ot the l uiteil S'atcs, therefore, will not be sur prised ifthe government ot i.reat Britain abstain* on itla occasion trom entering into anything thich might 1 ppcaran explanation or defence of it- conduct, with re ? ajfil te its i<i?:4e>-tabliah .1 protector* te ofthe Mosquito*. With respect mi soy ?ij;ht or .my Interference ot th? povetrment of Old Spain, on the subject of the Mosoni o I prote -toi ate, it must be observed that ?inee the place of I 1816 that government ha neve; rai-ednny question w ith , ? -jec;t lo this j roteehirale, and as for Great Itrltain | I living by her'ieatj with Mexico reoo^nl ed. as a pr/n. i I le, that the^ngagements between ber. e!; anl Spiin wei-e iirces-arlljr tiansferrcd to every fraction of the Spauidi monarchy which n?>w exists, or inay exist, on a dUtlnet | i.nd Iniiepeni'ent ba is, htr Majes .v - gevei nment must entirely ctnv this asKumpikin, G1e.1t Britain, in her 'tealywi h Mexico, shepty stipulated the!, Itri'l-h >ub jects Fheuld not be worse off under Vexico ia>lepen>lent :lian under Mexico ^hen ? snanish province. I*, was natural in xcigri/ing tbe independence ot raexico, that Gitat Britain should ir.a, e sucli a stipulation', hut tbe foe' of di ipg so rather proves thu she 'bought 1 special stipulation nr < essary, and tUa< the did not con ??lve thu .-he would ha\e enjoyed under ao> general t>ilnc!f ie the piiviUgn she bargained for, ac.i tills stipu lation. us indted ilie treaty Itself, if a proof lint Mexico ?... not cm-ldei- li 11 ?? inheri'ing the obiisa'i in< "t rljrli.s it' Spain. I'ut admittii 1; that it niaj in some eases he expedient, although not obligatory, to recognise tie! ti^Vfs and obligations of 0 1! Spain r- vested in the new ^pnni-li American States, sr.d slloningtbat in canfiumltr itii thai poll 1 y G 1 at Britain might hiivo thought proper 'o receive concerns Mosquito the r-m ustra > ot ihotc netgMifirlrg republics which h?r- successivclv i??n ri America on the ruins of the Spanish empire even hen. it may be observed, tiist no remonstrance wss rr.adehy anj t< such republics fur r:^ny yenr> nfier the j rote-ctorate of ( rent Britain over Mnsqulto had 1 ten a tuct well krown to tnem. anil nonoTer, that w hen uch 1 em nstrances were inane, they were nude with -itm'Ur I iftensicns, not bv "ne only, but by ?everal 01 thow goternnitsta, insoiui h that lithe Mo- nits In.iian >\t <* at this m orient withdrawn altogether irom the portion of A1.1 rica v hicli they now inhabit, and if it wei e pormkted to the Stetes ol Spanish origin to inherit ea? b respective ly. 1" ?Uini- of their narent Slate, it would tilil.. ? ??uestienon which ot the c'aimauts the territory thus left unoccupied would of right dcrolvo, whilst it i< cer ?aJn tint sin h withdrawal, without previous arranire ments, w? ul.l lead to conti -ts alike <i'<*dvantaireou* to the itnl inti re-ts of tie several -tstcs Rul to the irene-al prosperitv ol Cer. t ral Ametica herself. Thus much with reference to tne condict and position ! CT'-i "f'i 'l1.'' ' rntr"' Amerienu states witn renant to the British Irotectora'.e in Muaqnito; but with ie srect to ti e conduct andp. aiiion of the United Hues Illative tlieroto, Mr. Buchanan i? mistaken in thlnkinir that the I 111 ltd Slates govei niiient has always contested the Mosqnito eoiurtf0^ Britain on JLTit rate1 HEtt lairta'aa t H veil I to, until 184-', but tUe; we(o Uv(i U ? n.< j tit there Is no trace of tlwrfr hiring alluded to this question in their OMUBufcstiona with her MaiMty'a government, up to the mi ef 1S49. Nay, u igso whan the Pn ddemt of the United States preeeiiten to CongT*?e various ?apern relative to the affairs of Central America, it will U" ?*"> that on introducing these affairs to the HtUutiou o.f Uougreei, thePit?iiieut':i Secretary of mate for Foreign Affairs expressly says that the nrrernuiem of Nicaragua, iv November, 1847. solicited w aid of the United States government to ?i event an anticipated at tack on Han J Uitii by the British forces acting oft be hail ] of the Mosquit* King, but iecwvsd no answer; tliat tiie Incident of Nicaragua addressed the I're-.idsut of the United Statea at the name time, ami received n? answer; that in April, 1848, the Lnited State* Consul at Nicara gua at the request of the Minister ef Foreign A lain! at that Republic, stated the oocu[*U?n of San Juaa by a British force, but was not aos?ered; ttfct on the ML of November, 1848, Mr. Uaatellion, proceed 'og to London (rem Nicaragua, and then to Washington, addressed a letter to the United States Secretary of State, soliciting hif intei ventiou with regard to the claims of Great Brl' tain in light of the Mutquite King, and received no an swer; that on the 12th of January, 1849, Mr. Bancroft, then representative of the Utitod States to the-Court of St. James, referred to Mr. Castelllon'a ariival in Lon c'on, and the subjcct of his mission to settle the affairs of San Juan de Nicaragua with the British govern ment faid, "1 think it proper to state to you my opiniou that Ixird 1 'aimers I on will not recede. 1 have, of CJar?e, taken no part." And that, again, in March, Mr. Bancroft wrote that Mr. Castilliou would be anxious to seek advice from the United States, bat that he had always made an swer to him ''that he was notauthorized to offer advice.'* it would thus seem, on the authority i f the United States government itseif, that up to the end of 1840, the United States government have made no remark or remon atianceio Great Britain on the subject of her protecto rate of Mosquito; and that even with respect to the cap tuie of San Juan de Nicaragua, (now called Grey town), ti e United Slates Minister In I<ondon wan not authrizej to take any steps concerning it, nor even to afford to the Commis-ioner from Nicaragua the benefit of his coun sels and gcod ohices thereupon; and it ia but right to obcerve, that the United States government pursued, bv this crime to her Majesty's government, tnat friendly and considerate policy which her Majesfy'a government always wishes to pursue, and has pursued towards the lnited (Hates government when that government has had differences with other Pi were. With regard to the grounds on which her Ma jesty's government made the capture of Sau Juan de Nicaragua, in 1848, the desire of her Majesty's govern ment to avoid all subjects of controversy in which it i? not absolutely necessary to enter, restrains, it from ad verting to the documents which stated the reasons on which her Majesty's government came to the resolution it at that time adopted; snd, Indeed, as those documents w ere laid before Parliament, and communicated officially to the United States ccvernmeot, it would be super fluous now to recapitulate their contents. With regard to the doctrino laid down by Mr. Presi dent Monruo in 18*23, concerning the future colonization ot the American Bcutinrgt by European State-, as an in ternational axiom which ought to regulate the cimductwf European States, it can only be viewed as the dictum of the distinguished personage who delivered it. But her Majesty's government c*nnut admit that doctrine as an international axiurrr which ought to icgulate the oonduct of European States. The doctrine with regard to the incapacity of the Indians to exercise 1 he rights of sovereign powers roust also remain a doc trine cn which each State which has to ("eal with such Indian?, must be free tj exercise its own policy and to follow the dictates of its own conscience. It is certainly true that ( rest Biitain, Spain, and the United States, were all at onetime in tlie habit of treating the Indian races in the manner in which Mr. Buchanan describes, but thin past practice, though general, cannot be taken as an inviolable guide for any luture policy. The period had not yet passed beyond the memory of man, at which Great Biitain and the United States, now m> nobly distinguished in suppreesiog the slave frat'o, practiced sad encouraged that trade nnd deemed it legitimate. The project of a republic composed chiefly of negroes from the United States, and originally established under the eulightened and hnmane patronage of the United States, would have Ireen deemed, flf'y ycbiS sgo, an absurd and impossible cliime la. Yet liberie exists, and row tlontishos as an inle j end( nt State. Already Great Btitain, in her ewn deal ings with ludiaus, lias recognized them as independent chiefs, whilst in her treaties with foreign powers, she has epoken of these tribes as nations, and stipulated for the restoration of their possesaions. Thus, on ail of the above mentions! topics, ber Msjsa tj's govertmeut, without seeking to impose any opinions on the United State* go* eminent, claims a to hold Its own opinion*. Nor, indeed, does it appear necessary, although doubtle ss it would be desirable, that her ilajsa ty'* government and the United States government should l?c perfectly agieed wi'li respect to them. The ore remaining subjoct to be discussed i?, however, oi a very different chaiacter. It i elates to a (|ue?tkm in which (;ieat Britain and the I nited State* are both dl reotly concerned, and in regud to which it is a milter both of honor and interest that they should avoid all s isumierstanc iog or diragreement. This subject is the rightful inteipietaiicn of a treaty engagement to which Gieat Britain and tbe ( nited State* are parties. Mr. Buchanan lays It down as a fact tha*. Great Britain held the sovereignly of the Mosquito Coast prior to 1850, end he then (dates that Croat Britain still continues to 1 old this coverwgnty, although the treaty o< 18.'0 pro hibits her from to doing. Bat Mr. Buchanan conlounds ti e two condition" of a sovereignty and of a protectorate, end under this error tracts tbe agreement *? nst t.) c?lo iiize, nor occupy, nor fortify, nor aasume, nor exercUe iVminien over," as including an agreement n?', to pro l<ct. A\lth lespecl to so\er< igu'y. tireat Britain never clainud, and dies not now claim, or holj my sovereignty iu < r over Mosqut'o; hut with reaptct to tha protectorate which (iieat Britain lias long exercised over Mosquito, lier Majesty's government aaterta that the treaty of 1800 did i>o<, and was not meant to, annihilate such protec torate, hut. simply to confirm its power and limit its in fluence. Now, the spirit of the ueaty must always be inferred freiu tbe circumstances under which it takes place, and the true construction of a treaty mu*t he de din eo fr< in tl e literal meaning oi tbe words employed in its Iran iap. The circumstances under which the treaty if 1850 took place wire the following : ? Up to March, 18-10 ? i. e., one whole year after the cap tute of San Juan de Nicaragua by :he British forces ? tlie United States government mane no observation, as it has itlreaoy been stated h> the British government, having any allurlon to this act. But in November, lM9,Mr.I*wrcnce, then Just ariiv*d in England, as the reprr-cntafivc of the United S'a-es government, addressed a note to Ix?r<l i'almoraton, not sskicg any question as to the Briti-b protectorat" of Mosquito, but requesting to know whether her Majesty's government would join with the United states in guiran te eing the neutrality of a ship canal, rjil way or other communication between the two oo nns, to be open to the worll and common to all nations, and whether the British government intent ed to occupy or colonize Nica ragua, Cost* Hie?, the Mn-qiii'o uovst, so called, or any part rf Central America. To (hi- note Lord i'nln-.erston i eplied by stating that her Majesty 's government 1m l no intention to occupy or colonize Nicaragua, or Costa I'.ica, the. Musqulto const nor any part of Central Ameri- I in,, aid that her Majesty'.- goveimr.ent would feel great 1 leu>-uio in e' mbining and co-operating with tb ? gnverii n ent of tbe I nited States f :r the pui pone of assisting the operations (if a company which might he forme I with a view to ertabll -h a general communication by csnal or n.ilri ad across the hihmuK separating the northern and southern portion^ of iho American continent, both by offering security for tlio works while in progress, and when C( inplcted and in use, and by placing ?uch com muniration. through the means of political arrangements, t eyond the teach of molestation, disturbance or ob-t tele l.y reason ot international disputes, which may at any tune unfortunately nri-e: upon the condition, moreover, i hat such communication snould at all times lie open n r.d accessible for ihe commerce of all nations, and on equal teim- for all. The note*, eopii of whu li are here unto annexed, are of great importance, inasmuch s. thev laid the foundation far the sub-cqnent c -n ention of AVa-bingtou, whilst tWy explain the nature of ths feeling* entertained at that time by the I oitc.l Mate* governs eat and by the government of her Majesty. It m a cleat that the I nited Sta'.es government, which regnroi d th" affair* >f Central America not long before with comparative ini'ilfvrenoe, ha-i hid it* attention lately cailcd tn this patt 1 f the w.?rld hy its ac'iutsition ot California and the. diaootcry of the ore which Hat reaion was found to contain- circumstances w hi tendered of vant importance ?i>me ?aic and rapid communication between the pove-sions of the I'nitod -tales on (he I'aciiic, and the possession* of the I n'.ted fit tea on the Atlantic. A prc j":tc<f a canal communication moreerer, t hrough the S:at< and lako of Nicaragua, and the rit r Sun luan, ?as tfcer. in contemplation, ?i?t Xicwugiui had granted t< a company el American eifi/ens unatcver tights it pfie -cd r.ver the proposed line ot traflic. (?reat Hii'?in,|hi never by baning plied s pei pie under 1 er pro'eetlen wtto ?ere In poa*cs?ion oi the post and tuc of San Jnan de Nle-' -agva, r^'ght e^ her in tin ( i ce elil er to pre\ent thl-i cana' I rmed, or it' she slloweo it to be '[iiuikI, might a.'jiA u oterti tiie protoc '.oiate. as aci|Uiiing oru -uch '?.inal peculiar right* or i b*olute control. The go\brrmentotthel nit<-d "-tate* wm therefore Jnatly ; t *ious to kio* whether the Itrlti-li government would '..v< r or impede the constructioti of canal by the river S. r .'nan, and whether it wonld a'tempt to e-taWi-h a ] redeminant ard teimancnt poirer over ThN eannl by i (d? nlieirf, fertifylsg, occtipyinj or taking a1>s<>1ute p<is h?mib ot the eountiy through which it passed. Ihs tin rt pn tectorate ?>f (ii eat Itritaiu stripped of those attributes wrich nttfeted the const ruction and fretslom ot the propoeed canal, was of small e inse>menc? to tbe I rlti d Mates, but connected with these attribute*, it was n matter of great importanep, <>n th? otnerluinl, le-r Majesty' government which haa just expelled the Nicnrenguan* 'rem <;reytoan (or SnnJuande Nicara(?ua) and the (ountry adjicent, and linsH* rejected the claims ol the Mcaiagoii government to (lieir con tee led posses sion, cm hi not with honor or credit retire at the mer" i tMcrpoaltioB ol the United States from the |*><i'l'>n it h ui assuiiiid, or abandon (he lorg established British I i tie*'mte over the MoKrtuitos and a'low the author! ties ol Nicaragua le occupy tho ground from which th?y had so uctntly lieen driven. l"nt (ireat Britain could clearly engage her-e'.f to the j 1 piftd States to do all thai was re |Uired respe -'.ing lia ci nstructlon and protection of anv canal communication to le erjejrfd on crjual terms hyail nations, and she coal 1 i. so tbe powora ol her fro ttc tor ate over Musrjullo, so as to lemove all suspicion or jiOi -iHillty oi lisr using it ,in?n^ manner that would place such canal communtoa tlr.n uti er h?r exclusive authority and doiniwion. Thin when Ihe drawing up of a treoty afterwards took plsce, lite object ol the Fbi?.-h negotiation, and It must be pre furiie* , II nt of both negotiations neeosajiflly was to draw up si ch a cenventlon a* without conceding any "|M?eidc e< int in which or.e paity conid not in hi?anr yield, wnuid mako such eon session en all ether point* as tho other fad,. dftitJ nudil UK SWTtaUfB U JK re. ferred to, it vUl be mn that it t* drawn up rarefnlly la Huch a manner u to inai. s it ? ? '?ttor of indidereac*, a* far as the canal in concern 3d, aa to' whether the post and town of San Juan are under tbe mo difled protectorate tf Great Britain or under the governine!.* oT Nicaragua. Moreover, in drawing up he treaty, ho'h Mr. Clayton ? rid Fir H. L. Bulwer referred to the t. vte? which nad parted between Lord I'alwemton and Mr. iawrence, ?ad even made use of the precis* term* which h l,eSB there employed, from which, it must of necessity " inferred that they meant to tranfer to their conreniioi >? *'"> the words whieh they borrowed, the meaning wnich Pre* neuelr been attached to tae word* in the docami froal which they extracted them; and a reforense to *u> ^ docu ments wi 1 at once kliew that Mr. Isnrrenoe, whdle he asked her Majesty's government whether it inea ?t '?* occupy, fortify, colojjlse, .or assnme, or exercise demi'?**? over Musqaito. did not allude to the protectorate of G. ?at BfHainorer that country, acd th? ? ford Paimerstoe disclaiming that her Majesty a government Ad not la> tend to do any of these thir ga, expressly left the ques'iea" ? concerning the political relatione between Great Britaiw and tne Muaqnitos untouched. Po ir.ucb for 'be Hj.irit which presided over the coavea ? ti< a of 18M. WHh regard to the liberal meaning, this treaty declare s, in word*, that the two parties "will aet i occupy, ?>r fortify, nor eoionhe. nor assume to exerctae any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito ce&st, nor any part of Cent >al Amnios," and that ae ther party ?i)l "make ui-e oi any protection which eitoer afford* or may afford, or any alliarv a which either has or may have" with any Mate or people for the pnrpoae of occupying, fortifying er coleni/.ftig Nicaragua, Casta Rica, the Mosquito coast, or any part of Central Ameriaa, or of at aumicg er excreting dominion over the naaan Mr. Buchanan says, with regard to that portion of the foregoing which restricts the use which Great Bii'ain or the t nited States might make of any protec tion which either might afford to any 8 late or people, it ha a been aaid tha/t thia artisle of the convention acknow ledged, by implication, the protectorate of Great Britain orer Mosquito. Now, her Majesty 'a government doe* Mt ?retend that in thia article the l otted State* ackaaw ulgen the aforesaid protectorate of Grent Britain in Maa quito; it waa now the intention of her Majesty's govern ment, or that of tlie British negotiator, to obtain indi rectly that which was not asked for openly; but 1: in evident that thia article clearly acknowledge* the peanl bility of Great Britain or the Inited States atlording protection to Mosquito, or any Central American State, and that the intention of the parties was not to prohibit or abolish, bat to limit and restrict such protectorate. But (supposing all mention of protection In the tre*ty had been omliteo, and that the question at issue merely rested on the words "co1od??, fortify, occupy, and ae hu me, or exercise dominion over," is theie any oneaf these terms which excludes the right of protection, al though each of thi m limits Its capability* Defending or protecting ia a temporary act of ti iendshlp, occupying; fortifying, colonincg or acq airing sovereignty are now which Lave a peinanent result. It has never been held that neutral territories or king doms, over which other kingdoms are prohibited by trea ty from acquiring dominion ? which other kingdoms can not colonize, occupy or fortify, may not be defended bf such kingdoms at The desire and request of the neutral Suitea, although it would doubtless lie neeessary for any nation undertaking such defence, to declare formally, and promise dually, that It wo. Id not turn this transitory at d allowable act into one ?t a continuous nature, whicn etirapt nitnts had prohibited No one will maintain that the bar to colonizatioa, or fortifying, la a bar to all pro tections. No one will asseit that to afford protection to a Stnte, and to establish dominion over it, are necessarily the same thing. No ooe will contend that to aend a na val or military force, for the purpose ot expelling an ene my from the territory of an ally, or of punishing liia an tagonist, is to bold or occupy the territory ol that ally or his enemy. Were this the sense of tbe word, as In serted in ihe treaty of 18f0, aa that word is equally ap plied to all Central America', aa well as to Mo-quite, it would have a far wider significance than her Majesty's government contemplated, or than tbe I'nited States go vernment would, in all pi obability admit, for, in such a case, neither Great Britain nor the United States could. In any circumstance, employ force, naval or military, ?gainst any Central America a State, however great Sr jyst the invocation they might receive. The citlzeoi at the l.'nited States, for instance, might, on tneir way froaa California to Washington, )<? arrested and confined am any suspicion or pretext, and the demands of the Unite* (Ma'ee for their release refused. But, is H to be argued that, under uch circumstances, the I'r.ited States ctuM not tend an armed toroe into Nicaragua to compel the re lease of the citizens from California, and chastise these who had unjustly incarcerated thorn f The United States government, however, would bo hound to stat<* the objMt it bad in view in sending a force into Nicaragua ; it weaM be bound to declare thai it d*l not m?nn to colonize, for tify, occupy or establish its sovereignty over Nicaragua, and by adhering to ibis pledge its treaty obligation* weald be fulfilled But surely this dispute, ?>< to the na ture and meaning of protection, is one tbat should not have ariaea, with respect to the treaty of 1660. The ve*y object and nature of fl at treaty ought to manifest that protection is not equivalent to occupation or sovereignty aid that it does not ol necessity imply the acquisition ?f any exciuaive advantages to the parties protecting, or give tboss parliec exclu>i\e control over that which is piot 1 did. Great Britain and ;he Dnited States, by the naid treaty, bii.d theiuticlv <?? to protect certain cauals or rail way* which may be forrntd through va:iou- indeper dent States. Grcut Britain and the Tinted States do not by this pro tection acquire any (Mat <>t sovereignty or occupattsa over such taoals or railways, whilst they carefully ea. clude thun-ehes from bavlrg any exclusive control over thiro, and tu rn receiving from them any exclusive pri viitge*. It ic uniiecesaaiy further to discuas (he cmstrucUon ef Die treaty Willi rcivren:e to the protection of the Met quitoe. lhat her Majesty's government merely eiprew? now that vitwot the treaty which it entertained, and which it hod understood that the government of tha United S ?ies entertained when the trevy wan concluded, U evidom from tlie iact that within little more than a month a Her the treaty of 1St:0 had been ratified, her Majesty's Minister at Washington eu'.erwl into further in gotiationa with the gorerninent of the Uuited State* re lative to the position of Mosquito, interpreting the treaty a* her Majesty's government row interprets it. That there w?:; nothing extraordinary. ut natural or unfair tat the inteipietatioii thus givm to the treaty by her Majes ty 'x government, >a e?(ually evident from the fact that such imeipre'ation watt at once accepted by the Secre teiy of Slate? Sir. Webster ? titan whom no atateemnn at the time living, whether in Kurope or Ameiica, was mere fitted to comprehend the spirit or analyze the wording af any interna'ional obligation and that her .Majesty 's ?ot emntent was not a' .hat timo and is not now, aniaifttesi hp uny such object aa that of obtaining any peculiar inlluenee or c< Titrol ov er the tiver San Jtiam. or the c mal that may be termed from ita water*, is liheui-e demonstrated k> the circumstance, worth uoting that the Hjllt whim Client tfiitain had in view in pursuing thee further ne gutia'ionH with the 0 UM Slat'*. was that of withdraw ing her protection fiom the very town oalled (ireytown or .-an Jttan de Nicaragua, and the adjoining territory, ami of placing the same to the hands of Koine Central Amtricau State, on conditions in r.o wi-e bcnnticial to h<r?e)f, ( r only beneficial in ao fir as such condition* tended to maintain a stated" peace and tranquility in that pert of the world to whUh they related, anil to pre serve the Mosquito in nlerrltoiy boiitring that which tt?? to be cetictl. in an itioffftui-ive state of neut :ality ant et cuiity. Indeed, when her Majesty's Milliters, in a conversa tion which toot place alu.ut the end of .Hily, 1841, na tain subject, agiceo, on the part of the Biitish govern ment, to?.--*ign tireytown to M".aragua it [ion the coining to iifair settlement with Costa Hi? a* to some of tha p intu of contention between them. aril ttpon her agree mg to leare the Mosqni'o people unmolested within oer p*'i t Ion s of the 'ertitorr which they n?w occupy, and over wlii.-h the Spanish dominion never, otherwise thaa i>. ininally, extended. Mr. Webster, whilst observing that the Tinted States had no direct interest in any question concerning Nicaragua and Mosquito, except a* n spccted the construction ol a canal an 1 its free navi gation; and that, consequently, he did not wish to take an active part in any neg >tiation- e\ tending beyond thaM limits, adced, addres-lng him. -elf to the .\icar.i??iian min i ter, who was prensn*. tnut he cftnsi lered th# ofler tnadeby the Itiit'.-h Minister ens one which the Nioura frim n government might consider as a fair basi* for aa ininrgi meut; and her Majesty's government then enter taintd tlie bope and be lie t thathy the friendly undurstand. irg mbslting between t.roat lliitnin and the United Mates, atd the j< int eltorts of bo'h such a settlement would be jeedily concluded bet ? een a'.l t'ue parties in tevcsteil, a- would Pouole her M i jesty's government t? r>le?>e itaelf trnm llie duty ot protecting or defending (iieytrwn. in which, for tiie time be!ug, a self-elected b< ity. in a !*ieat ineaauie composed of United State* oiti ? n? *as e;:rtyit'K oo the government in the name ef the King i f Mcs?|Uito, 'rte prceediog obnervationa compH>ic all that her Ma je-1y'? government has now to xiy with regard t> that |stiioii of Mr. Hnchanan'a s; >teit*nt to which they 1 ;i\e l<?n intended to reply. I'tit, ahl'oujh the connection of tlrett Britain with ?'om|viIio formal one of the ati' jocta of Mr. Riicbauaira r< n ninnicatfon, auother subject, not less important, i? 'l>e actual cendilitn oIL'iilitll Ilotdttra-, Kuatan and the lb y Islaiida. I - v as never in th< ronfeniplation of her Majeaty'i f irrniiw nt. nor in tha'4 of the jiovi ir??ent ol the United I ttatm. that the treaty of lR&n -hould inteifere in any v uy with her ilaje--tj i, -ettleuient at Beliz ? or its de ' |eiidencles. It was not rece.-arv that this i>lioi<ld have been par tliulaily s'.ated. inasmuch a It la generally eon Milertd that the term "tential Aaiericaa" ? a tirm of niodem inventien? couhl only appropriatel> apply to those Mate* at one time united under the 7.ii me of the "Uential American Republic," and now e* ?ik1iri|f as live epai ate repub'.lc- but in order that there botil t be no |ies.-ihle misconception at any future f.eiii d. illative tu Ibis p< int. the two negotiators at the t me ot int. tying the treaty, ex-hanged d?'l*r?titms to t be el ect that neither < f the government* they repra ?cnted bad meant in Mich tteaty to comprehend the ?et t:? Kent nil depei.dt ei if ? in question. As to Ituaian anil the adjoining islands, all that can 1 debatable a* to tii< in Is whether t bey are laland de |. t: I ueie . Of I t ? or :? tt? :.ed t.? -ome Uentral Avert ran State. Now. it CinCot It diipslw tiMit wlMMTtr I'.tiatun li s been pe manentij ocoupied, either In re i lote i r tt .en; tino . auff'buijf mo.e than a military guard or st ul, lb* i ci-ujatiou lu? been by Brltl-h *ubjfct?. ? Ii I* true tlia*. the repub io r.f ( < ntral Amerien declared tliat it had a ? 'S '!>"?? 1i,*l Island front 18^1 to 18 9, but this fact inertly rested on that tepublio'H decls i itioa, and all that Is positively known is, that wheu the lit ltl*!i g1 ternnient were aware thai a foreign fla< v.'s tfying at Kuatan, a ltniiah "hip ef war was sent to haul it doe u, *nd ainee that time no attempt ha? be> n ioade to ic e*tabli*h it? but on the oimtra.y, when e-i two or thiee oeeaaione complaint* have been brougti' ?,? the citi/en* ol Central Anierican States againat ttie t*t yiM U> ^ ?t Ii^juUo.