Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 19, 1856, Page 3

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 19, 1856 Page 3
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PROF. BACHE OH THE GULF STREAM. ITS HISTORY AND CH&BICTEE. Bow the Rhode Island HerehaHlmna Used to Brat the New York Packets a Fortnight ML. VVAHKLfll MB TIE HAIIVfKBT 8KIPPKE THE HOT STREAM AND THE COLO WALLS. COAST 8UB VBYS- THEEB RESULTS. ImltM Trftrte f Utat, B?rh?, Ad., Ac.. Ac. On Thursday evening, on the anniversary of the Geo graphical Society, I'rofe- sor Ba)be delivered a lecture in the chapel of the New York University. Mr. Hoary GrlnneJ introduced the lecturer who, he mid,' w mid make some rt marts on the Quit ftre?os. Dr. Bacee then eaid:? . The Norwegian pea f ants who found upon the coast strange fruit* or grains of kinds which the earth in that region did not produce, and carefully preserve! them a? curiosities ? [Geographic Botaoiqut- Alph. De Ga?dolle, p. 016, Causes de Transports, Ac.] ? veie In p Mission of evidence that the water* of those s **? had at soase iia>e washed the shores ot the tropics. The flshei m?n of the scant of Scotland bad, in the logs or cotton wood thrown npon their f bores, the same proof, lbe route- by which the fruit or the tree came were in a degree conjectural, but the botanist knew that it had grown in a more genial ciime than that to which tho current had brought It. Such bets were early known and commented upon, and even pressed Into the service o' the hj pothe -ii of a Northwest passage. [Phil. Trans., (London), abridged, vol. x. (orig.) 1675.] They were, however, geae-ally re cognized as proving the preseuce of tbe waters of Southern North America upon the shorts of Northern Kurope. llic great part which tho heat of tie sun p'ays io dis turbing the equilibrium of the sur'ace of our globe in well understood. Wherever he sMnea upon the surface the uir resting upon it is set in motion, so that the circle of tho sun's illumination aa it advances over the earth la a circle of disturbance. It is beautiful, on some calm summer's morning just as the day baa begun to dawn, to l<ok from the top of a high bill upon the quiet of the plain b?low. Tie air bai gradually cooled durlig the night, and the vj.U*ye ire filled with dense cool air, qui'e .julet, witu log tanging over eveiy Btrearu and lime, and pout, shosriug th? se cret oonree of 1 he stream a>ou< <n? la >d<isp* an. tno hidden jdaces of tho lake. Tie lijnt g o *n stron^r, nd as the first rays of tho sun toue'i thi-i pe?c>?rul acme it is thrown into movement. The fog < loads ri<e ant till again; they epread, c>veii og tfa? hill tops. >rt<cti just now were bare, thinning out an hey rUe, <ith 'he rising of the sun, and becnn? at last a thin hate spre* 1 over the whole tcene. The rntuwea <>t fog serve to *h >w that tbe air hac bef n in motion, for th?v hive riven and fa'lon wi?h it. Tbe currents, mingling ?.< r of liCTir-ot densities, light no longer peootra'o* directly ani tly through it, but object* aio seen waving to and fro Dimness and distortion are tho results, or the ii<ht i* lost, r.d ohjsola disappear entirely, as it uuilluuitnaiei. In ,he great bolt of the earth within which the sun travels in his annul course standing Mill and turniog o?c?. whe a he retcUe t its limits, this action has a form aa I regularity whlc'i to us of the temperate regions hi* n > para'H. The c inlac and the landsman of tlie 'emperate regioiisjire u-e i to con sider tbe wind as sou>e hl?g uncertain, th.t aw< of viilch it may be well for men of i-clence to stud/ ami endeavor to explore, but wbioh may be " puit flo iiaz o it." Strange the etn< tioos ot suoh men when in the tropics they first Qnd thomaelvee hnpe'etsly to leeward. rh>? con stant blowing of tbe eastern trade is :nv iri th e as th-i pro gress ot the sun showing hi-) p i-i-.lon aim wt as <h->htQda of a watch the time? his daily, weekly, monthly. annual progress. These currents of air carry the waters forward with them from Ea*t to West, and when they meet the land great currents a-e produced, ani taking their di- ; rection from tke land carry the waters of the equatoiial regions to the North and JSonth temperate seas, to bs re turned in th?se great system? of circulation, so ne of which have loug been known to navigitor* and geogra phers, and others of wbish rem tin yet imperfectly de veloped. (Carte Theomale des Globe, par H N'ioolet? Project Dlerne Carte des Courant Mal-is, o?r VC Duper ry: library Smithsonian Institn e ) Ttro o' the most important of lhe><e ? one of tbe North Atlantic ani the other of the North f'aeifio? will form the euojejta to be brought before you on successive ?v*oia t?, ths one the American Gulf .Stream. and the other thi A-iatic atscam ? the first matirg, as is Most prohaole. the circtfb of J?e Gn'fof Mcxion, its name indlcatiig the view or g*egra phers as to its origin issuing through *h* straits oc F orida, gradually leaving our coaat, and seeking that of Europe, tho main stream to return by a want er current to the tropical regions in which it was fl-st prod acid the branches recognizable in the Northern seas of b >th Ame rica and Europe. The teeoad, as traced by Lieut. Dent, ftom the no os of onr Japan expe-iiti m under C)nm > dcre Perry, dcriec'od to the Vorth by the sk;n< of For mosa, parsing slong the ooaat to the Northward and East ward, and leaving it at tne pr< jectlng portion of the coast of Japan, as our stream dow the coast of North Carolina at Battens. 1 do not propose in this ad ires* to attempt a complete history of the progress of tbe discovery in regard to tbe Gulf Stream; never the ess, a brief notice oi F; is almost essential. 1'once do Leon, in 1612, sailed through (he channel be tween Florida and Cuba, passed through the aralt and followed the Golf Stream as high as St. Ausm-tine. In 1619, the famous pilot of Cortex, Antonio de Alamiuoe, passed by the same route, and keeping fer the greater part of the voyage in the stream, carried the news or -Corter's conquests to Europe. 1 He most be regarded as the real discover sr of the Gulf Stream as a great octaalc highway." [Lo'.ter of Dr. J. G. Kohl to Super in endent Coaat Survey, /anuary, 1866.] The first delineation of which I have any knov ledge, though it la altogether probable tb\t there were attempts made to show different parts ol It at aa earlier date, was that made by Dr. FTaaklia, in 1789-70, from the inforuiatl in com ninnlcated by Captain Folger, of Nantucket e nnnand tag a whaling vessel from that port. The de'alls are so in teresting, that 1 insert it as a remarkatle instance of practical sagacity on the part of the flsaertoan and the philosopher : ? "Vessels are sometimes retariei and som?t(rn?s tor warded in their vovngns, by currents at set watch are often not peroeiv* d. About the year 1769-70. there was aa appllcati n made by tbe Board of Customs at Boston to tbe Lords < f tbe Tieasuryin L ndon. cnmpliiaing thvt tbe paekets between Falm >utti and New York wnre gene rally a forUight longer in their pasi-agm -han merchant ehips from London to Khnde Island, and priposlogia nteod o' Ne^ York, that for the future they sh<utube ore ered to Newport. Beiogthen cja terned In the ma nagement cf the American Post OfB.^e. 1 happ>-n>dt) be ?onsi.lted on tho occa>i<jn. and it appesrin^ straage to me that there should be such a dlX-rence be' woeti two places ecaice a day's run asunder, especially when the merchants shios are generally deeper laden, ai.il more weakly manned than 'he packets nod had from London tbe whole length of the river and Ch*nuel to run b-f ire tley left the land ot Elngland, whl'o the DMkets had only to go from Falmouth, I c >uld n..t but think the fact mis understood er misrepresen'ed. there bap^iem-d th-io to be ia Lr.adta a Nantucket sea ciptsij of mv ac qnaiatanee, to whom I com iunioate.1 th? afTair. He told me he relieved the fact to b? true; out the difference was owing to this, tbat tbe Rhode leU id eaptaius were no Slnted with the Gulf stream, which those of the Fu< packetswera not. ? We are well acquainted with that stream ' said hi 1 becaasein our pursuit of wh tics, Which keep aca r tbe aid>-s of it, but are not to be met with la it, we run down along ths sides, and frequently cross it to change our side; and, In crossing It, huv? Home lines met and apoke with those packet-, who w?re la the midst ef It, and stemming It. we have in'ot-oied them that they were stemming a current that was against them to the value ?f three miles aa hour, and sd\ Ised them to cross it and get out ot it; but they were too wise to be counselled by simple American fishermen. When the wiads are light,' he added, 'they are carried back by the current more thaa they are forwarded hy ih? wind; a no if the wind be good, the subtraction of seventy milei a day from their sourse Is ot som) importance.' I then observed that it was a pity a > notice was taken of this current upon the charts and requested him to mirk it out for aae, which he readily complied with, adding <11 rsdions for avoiding ft in sailing from Europe to North America. 1 procured it to be engravi-4, by order from the General Post Offioe, on the old >hart of the Atlantic, at Mount A Page's, Tower Hill, and copies were sent to Falmouth for the captains of the packets, who slighted it, howwver; bat it his been sinee printed ia France, of which editloa I hereto annex a copy. "This stream i< probably genersted by the great ajc l mnlation of water on the eastern coast ot America bo tweea tbe trouics. by tbe trade winds which constantly Mow there. It ia known that a large stream of water, ten miles broad, and generally only three feet deep, bas by a strong wind, had Its water driven to one side ani sustained, a; as to become six fret deep, while the wind ward side was laid dry. This may give some idea of lb* quantity heaped upon tbe American crast, and the <?a eoa of its running down In a strong current throagti 'ho islands it to the bay of Mexico, and from thence i isitlnr through the gulf of Florida and proceeding along ths coast to the banks of Newfoundland, where it turns off towards, and i una down through, tbe Western Islands. Having since crossed the stream several times in papain* between America and Europe, I have been atten tive to sundry eircums'snoes relating to it, by wbith to know when one la in it; an?i, beside the Golf weed with which it is interspersed, I find that It Is always warmer than the sea each side of It, and that it does not sparkle in the night. I anno* hereto the objer vatiosa made with the thermometer la twe voyages and ?nay possibly add a third. It will appear from them that the thermometer may be a useful tn<trum?nt to the na vigator, since currents coming from the northward Into southern seas will probably be found colder than the water of theee seas, aa the currents from southern seas Into norther* are apt to be wanner." (Amerioan Philos. Trsna., vol If.. Old Series.) The quaint device which bears the title of the map la one eorcer, shown the American philosopher, (an uambrakable likeness,) chiding Neptune, the index finger raised with much aotborltv, while the sea gid, though holding fast to his trident, is plainly crest-fkUen. Ths a hart drawn by Franklin expresses exceedingly well Ibe Inner limits of tho Gulf Htream, as we no t ktow thcoi We shall see that the passsge from wild water to warm on the Inner side Is so abrupt at the depths most sought by tlie whales, that the indications from their f'rer,!icndnsr tbe region would have heen somewhat of fhe same order of accuracy as that a* the thermometer at tfcc surface. Tbo ob. trrjnloDS v< Ifanklla that (ft* water q< tUo h'. re tin ? as warmer than tnat ot the o^etn n<*a<- It, latrn JceM the uf? of ihe thermometer la at?tf?-.ioa Hii results were consigned to the r e<y uapreten li-jg Ut e manuscript book whtc*i 1 hare n tw fhe b 'a ir O soo* t> the m<-niher?, aud w?<ch I f.uad mm JTMri *.% > to % t uik i f mi?ce iateous pap*"*, w im* it h?i Uli oefifc^ cd f' r cb.> generti toa. To* iawett awakeae 1 r>? t'r-iat liu in this bd hj.'C1 w*? at grett th?t Cil. loat'bti Wit Uma, (American Piiliojo fr*o* , v ?l. lli, 0 S) i wards cLief of the C>rj>s of K'g!n?er? of the United ntatee, William 8t: ickland, (I lid, voi. v, 0 3) aid J ihi Han-ii on, (I'tio, vol i wttu several oMur.4, foil > .radio bin wake, and eolle-ted ?B*ny carrf-il oh ie-v*M m? la voyages between thft V nitetf dtatw aa 1 Great Bit tla til I'.ong a part of our o? it. The e ob^erraUoa-i ten directed to the limit of the ilrtia, in te ape.-tt'ire ?< compa-ed *1 h the air ah?ve it, aid with 'Ji* uea.i wate> kdjaceut to it, it dilfe.eat ne *ao h o' thd year*, ?ai In f iff? eut j earn, 'he diie Una aot (>r?e o' it* attentat, tii. Tte obnetveru a-o eanrawd other re<iU< ia tneir tesearches, which it ii not at prase it n?M*?ary to Iwjll Up"?. The obwirvaH^DB of nummom British and Atn-rirai navigat rr In private ?nd puwic ve*wtU, obmrvitg el.htr fn m JJ orlveatf intnres'. aud curi mity or ay oil Hat la etiueti'va, were collected aod digSHted by neli, io h * "Investigation uf ? he Cur teat t of the A.laatlc Ocenn," published ia 18 ?2, ?/'? Ul< det'.ti foot hu notes, by h's laughter. l?ioy Sod I. (An "lnve<tlg<Uoa of ti e Currents of Uie Atlantic U.tean," tie , b> the Ute tffcj r Jam?a Resnull, F. II. S., Ac Lood-n, 1932 ) This work in acsompanixd >y an a .la? cmta(nt'i< el*h>rat? charts o' the cunenta of 'he ^orth Atlantic and repra stilting tbe obseria'ion* of dl.fo eat aavigtt.irs chiefly in the i-ervice of the British Admiralty. All thete ob pervatioos, wi h few excep'.ioa*, were iiaHml to the Mirf?ce or to very moderate dlstaacei bel >w it. ail it iaeasy to a?c that tbe surf-tee doea not oreaeat the bent conditions for investigation. M<jor Rma-tll was aware t>f tbis, an<1 recoratneudsd ?le-'pe'- nxplo 'ttiout. Btrghaoa' Piiy id'nl Attas, ai edi'ion of triihh by Alex. Keith Johnson, o' fc>ilnbur([. u be a known ia oar e ma try cnta'ns a resume to hi* map of what w<4 kn >wa in regard to th<s ftt'eam u j t:? 1818, which, th i ij i quitd inc'>tuf>leie, Kev.mn to give a getie^sl idea of the dire :u jn, c xfltM and veocity ot tu? current. O^C^ns materia h h*T.t been collected by Lie it. Maury, tn his curieut cbortM. and d^dm'ioai fr ?m taem h*vo been j)Tef,Pnteil at different time* in hit sail'ng dlrec 1 >a% in 1 be proceedings of tbe Ame iiaa AisiMattoa for the adraBcement of ncicnoe, io hi* address bef >.-e th t s^cUty two years Hiuce, au ? In other publica'iona. A n-tm tir by , the same officer, containing mtuy i'<gnni mi ' ia among his early papers in tie Southern LiUrary Ms ttnger. i might, (erhaps, be expected h?re ti pisa in review tbe ciaims to hare advanced on- an >w.c.Igt of the Half Stream covering the same period of tim \ with the ro i-earche-' ot which I proponn to kIv* y >u au *ry>aut; bat this hi>-iory cannot ott written now, u ir porhips at ail i>y me. The best mode <o arrive at truth is fairly to ?tsr? facta end this done by eaf-h one to leave to others to a 1 just the merit or demerit of tne several augfesttjn*, plana, diecu^sions and duvel >p?mea-.i>. Ah thrt ?empe aiure of th* (Jul* S ren p it one of l a most htriking and impottant f-atun**, fo i: m to th- la ?eatigation of it that I detenu! nit first to di.ecn the ?t teutu n of the t.-ffl ;ers of th? t'otst Survey, i'h* current wsh to be observed? i'a direc i tn *nd f tree; the dea-ity, color and otber pernliaritiei <f the wa er; the vege:ahe ?nd animal p. eductions weia to he collected; t.ie mtt te?rology to be studio ! ; but the'e we<*e to b* Huoorclnate to tne oj tin obj'.ct of inquiry, namely, tbe temperature ot 'he water. T? have observed the surface tem&erat irea merely, wim inanutrchts ctireluliy p.-eparei, would h?v-t b<eu a a'ep forwa.d for wlttiou.- such comparison . th? re*atts crib Id only be considers! as 'ough, aod mere'y t ? oe e n piojed in 'be at> ence of be'ter nues. At t'le surface, t to, '?be beating tffeitu of the bun, the effecs of tbn teiup >r i ture of the air, of wiad and of rain, are the greatest. I; wat, nf ct hsarj , io a systematic exploration. to g > belo f tb? surface. At a certain t i-tauc > ihe<e dlitu. nlug ae ?on? n ight be expected to dliniuisa, and at re ttiu aea s< na to cease albgeiber Betides, it was llk*dy ttia'. this fetream extended on y to a certain (lip b, un I that pa-t ol the return northern cirreut tjll>w td the bottom of the tea. The iut?re<t in the deep sen temperature pro .?ed in fact m >st oi n jinjf, end entry eff rt was di recto i to** da o itatulogaa instru ment for their rea^y loveativuti >n. rh? greit p -ens ire to wbieh Much an instrument would >>e iai<j;:ei readerel this no ea-y matier. Tho tugtrumuut must reenter l".s iudicat ont ; it mult be easily u<el, anl tl?ero''o re of the class requiring a simple observation: not a piiU'o?ophic u ex(jo in,ent. The crtliaary a*df- registering therm > n ttor wa a first tried, and to seourw it from prenure U wis jdit -ed in a gl bular eiso. Ihii therm orneter rejuiivd quite a long time to take tbe te npeature of ttie sea aronu>i it, the case keeping it from immedU'e contact wi'h the water, 1 (aside s, at quite moderato dep:&a, 1 110 envelope, unless of un wield y thickness, wan era hyd atid this was true, when to diminish the size of the apo* ratus we reaoitva to small nivtillia thtrmamiters. like those made by Juogernsen of C >penhagm, anl by vi ?u tatdon. ol Washington. There mu?t be an opining to li trodui? the thermometer lato the ecvel ope, an I this opesing? however tighcly it might l).i made to close by grinning cu by the interposition ot India rutihc-, or otae: material fulfilling a si allar purpose? changed its fl^ire ULder prt?sute, aud the costly thermo jitter insld* mi crusted, or salt water was torced into it, deatriyin? Its delicate parts. It would det tin you too ling to naii the various contrivances which the lageuutty of oar hydro graphies and mechanicians prodnced, and how tie mod^s wbicti succeeded best with one o osarver etna oat only 1 second or third best with another. W* mast roiiu depths beyond which Six's self registering t liernontier would give tray, or their indications become erroae >ai. After many experiments Saxon's helf registering ther mometer superseded all others, and the atuntiou of its ingenious imentor was taincd to pcrtoctlag its details. It consist* essentially of a coll of two me als. like Bre quel's metallic thermometer? the more expansible placed in tbe interior? Ita fbrtu, scale, c Taring, and, lu short, all its details, being adapted to tbe mo for whici it li thus det-igmd. The coil, fastened at one end. unwinds when tl.? heat increases, and tljhtoas when It ae^reums; f.o that by placing upon the fore end of the oil a hanl. like that of a watch, to move up >n a did ptete, the tem perature is seen. It registors, by the simplest of all coa trivtnccK, either tho highest or lowest temperature to which it has beea exposed, or both the highest aad the lowest. The ease is merely to pro act the instrument from external injury in use and to sapp irt the spiral coll. the scale and hands o; indicators. A si iral four inches long of ailre? aad plttlnam serrcj to give a tufficiant senfibllity to the instrument, so thit two-tenths of a degree of Fahrenheit jaa Madly be re id upon the dial. The brass anl bliver p?rts of th<ne in sirwncnts require to be coatod thiokly with gild, rtiioh is readily done by the electrotype prooesa, requiring, hoctver. great care and thoroughness to >4 eaectivf. Their use demands certain preeau Ions which it wjaid te out of place to ?ta*e here. Ko inst rumen: shoaii be iuade ant wer able for the want of skill or ctre of an ob teiver. I can truly say that in the hands of many ojf tei vers, and used at great depths, tbeae inst-a ami have given entire satigfao ion- Thoy hive in tho C>a>? SuiTry observations superseded all others. It sou d teem an oaby thing to ascertain tho depths t> ?hlc'n a thermome?r attached to a sojoding ltao hVl goce. I lecoliact well ih:it ihe triumphant objection was msde 1o Kricssou'a and to Ogdeu's ie*d.-i for sounliog, thi.t it *as quite tim^le to mea?u>etbe length ol? the Hie to which ihe lead was attached. The faet is, bew t vor, that at e< nstderaBlO depths the length of the soundicg line not only d ies not give the dspth to wht;h 'Le lead at the end of it ha? been bat docs not givn even sn apptcxtmu'.ion to it v>i hin twenty to thirty per cent , of ihe truth: ULCer diffeMnt eirsuuisian^es nit even a constant proiiortlon to the true leng<hot the lino. Wl have 'ouLd t'ncsmm'a and ( igdenV leads vc r% c invculent for moderate depths, uud Mary's, sllgh ly m ilili.d for gr? ator dep'he. This is on the prlnci plie ot VToltm*n'i wheel, ubichhab been apphel to slnilar putpose-i lougar>, and j el leaver t>on.( ibiug to be desired on the sjore of h?usi I'Liiy aj>d eoiiveniiuco. The wheel lu 'ui.'ig an the Hue dctcends. and prevented from turning >y n ca cb w iei Jbirg, liir turns a>e registered by wbee. wire, uni tu.w the i:ej>th to which the lead has descended t j marked up on itt> ,-caie. Ihe general features of the Oulf Htrsmm bvlng ko>wn, it wan a natural idea to refer it to a medial Une or txii, en tacli side of which it would be m.>re or leas simi lar in its temperatures, and therefore to run sectf >nj perjKndtcu'ar to this line across the whole bre id h ot the stieam. To set out from points oa the c<)is; o' well ascertained po i.i ,n, and dete ndaicg by the hert n.eans known to nautical attroa imy tho pl i:e of the vef el, at the shortest interval practleabls; to check it neccssaiy these results by re urnlng <n the mine or anotbor known point; to occupy p >?itlons at which ihe temperature at different d'pths would oa do tei mined, the frequency of which would depead upon the greater or lees rapidity of the change of temperature; to determine at tho several positions the tempsraturos at depths varying more or less rapid .y as the temperatures themselves were found to vary, attaching ?ever*l instru ments at moderate Intervals for observations at small depths, at largei intervals lor grca:rr depths ? such was the geoeial plan ol exploration pursued In the Coast Sur rev. In regard to the seasons for explorations, the summer was of course on evety account to be preferred for the greater part of the stream. The seasen of sold and stornaa, which renders navigation perilous, and interfiws with work, is also thatjwhen the stream, cooling rapidly from Ihe air above it, the surface wator descends, an J, mixing with tho warm wa'er below, disturbs essentially tbe equilibrium of temperatures. Sounding in stormy weather Is a very difficult, If not impracticable operation, yielding with much labor very taacurate results. Of course a complete exploration requires that the changes of the reasons to investi gated, but to add to tbe et.sen.tal difficult; hs of the unknown features of the stresm thoso of navi gation In itorn-H, would have been to task the observers beyond endurance. It Iim turned out thit tf we had bTiivcd the winter reason ia our early work, tlve canfusod :ifate of tho temperature* at different depths below the surface would have Impeded the stady of the rosilts, and have eauced as probably to miss some of tho moat beauti ful and s'riklng of the generalizations. Important as is the tin If stream to tbe navigator of oar ccast, and foiming as It does one of Its mast marked hydrr grnphlo features, still it was only a pirt of the work of the Coast Purvey, and to havo given an unitie share of means end attention to those researches at the exferse of the soundings ?-f the harbors, bays, hounds and sea coast, would have been manifestly Injudicious, donee tb< ^ researches havo b"en prosecuted by piecemeal, and frroi time to time, but always with a steady aim. so that eveu partial results contributed to the aesompllshment ol the general design. It would be of more personal th*n general Interest to ppeek of the Instructions for making tho observations of tnote in regard to instruments, to tho mode of repre senting the r faults In tables and diagrams, to the ph? ticaena that were to be looked for, and to the mole of study of the observations. The ehifes of hydrographlo parties of the Tiast Surrey, to whom tbe work has been entrusted, have. In most races, been seleetod fir It in consequence of sons apeoitl aptljjj de, and gonei ally aa volunteers. The first ofllcer who entered uprn the field was Lieutenant (now Com ntnder) Charles It. Havin, the present aec.omnllshed superin tendent of the Xautioal Almanac. Full of real accord ing to knowledge, he made a most <raeoe<sfnl bng'AnIng, nmlfrtmbie observstions in IM4 resulted th? law of tf mitereture with depths in the cold current between the en ,-th and the Oulf Stream. Bottom was reached at 1,300 fathoms, aid a spee.inen bronght up by Lie<iton?ut PavUi. in Oetnlmr, 1846. Ibis otilcer, who had pre. vionsiy been connected with the Ooast Survey under SCr. Uss ier, rejoined it sooftaftyf i ny appointment, te eo-opor ate la the Investigation of tides an: currents, which wei one ?* <fcf first -it ihfc gecertti bydr ><r?pble probeiu to whoh my k U'li ioa (u turaei, To ?ai j lint labirn, and t hie <4 my UU kr t'?, ti?o r& M. 8*-he, auo on* of the bydrt graphic chiefs of to* ear Tey, ur?f due the first ef?b iratluo* of th# ? /?w? of ttitri ?ud earns! okwn'iati lntr slucei ir.to the ?u Troy. Tbe tri?'* of th-j ias<ru<ueat?, se l>-cAng tho?e best adapted to the wotk, tbdr Im jr>?e lot-n' ?ad 'he routine in the prac imt p*r t< ??' tn? Galf i S ream exp lorat ion were male by C >m aaoder Devi*. ? I well wn??N?r 'ho rte igh' with which ?e b > a en(ti?{ ii iho diatiUmiua #1 tin*, to th? c 4a?u of wac*' ?k> pi red i a his first rojage off he cit<t of l/>n{ fsianl +ud Nantucket, thi tew of d'*'ribul<>n of Ut'. la* fl tid warme. at tho top sod rUw.y t m<nittlt^. by i op?t f-e; C'lOduJtioB, to the lower strat* the heat from >. e nil*- ! ftk c It n? from m ?ut of lt irM , out truia th ? ti- j cesi ifjr tor cute iDg upon another and T?ry illffl ? ?1: fi U ; of dury, and fr m a tcenerom prearWng of he sutip i? 1 ciainiH of another, that Laeutrntut Davis left liili A* >1 of tewartn in 1816, after a ?ta-><io's woik and the Jhiyo waa ass<g ed to Uauteaant Gomta*ad<n{Ge try., K B*?ie. Or thin odl wr. wuo-e e itlr aeath, waile iu b: ?uc joy ful proxecu iuD o! tr.lt work, wa a 1 ltl deplor*, t only epeus in the terms rer>gutzni a* atr'C - W just t>y all bit a 4*>cia h? sr'iea I **y that hi a turn of mind was peculiarly adtp ?i to grapple with thin problem, and that al hi* energies and resourci" vr-r# beat t> lti sil'iiit. Remaikably fertile in exped'eaU for nxptrlui-nt, itri e?te in he us< of laetruai'*n*?, etre'ul In obserr^ti >ns r *<\Aj la classifying facta, perg^vtnug li their actum ilati >a, ap1 at generalit ng his mind gl /Wed brighter an t brmht-r a* he entered into a ootirse -if export aunt ?nd >b?t T t 'ion. Ia this ca*ehts enthusiasm Mud 'e l <u?1 bi'n-wt brilliantly It U most interesting t> f>l!o?r his <l-<crIo tioue of the trial* of the leutrumentt, of bU u>?*.h >l< of obMirration, and of hU tentative -e<ul *. To ?e *v><r per foc'lj ho idesii&ed nim -el with the iu*e?'ijtt I m? ??<r the ni?Tlg*t'ir atreaOiau t> hi* T?i4bl; i'if tht exp?rl menttl pbiloeopher, earing for, and tfn'.inin* a id trying his UvtrumebU; noc tbe mm offoleai', l>oklag ??, C 'ltinotinp, geuuralixtog the RMulU. We oiri to htna tbe dhtcovery of that sudden shange >f to np<*r.t ture frcm the inner cold current to t1 e Gulf Htrea-n, whieh became to marked at molea'e dept*ia m to dt-serre tbe name watch h - g*r? It, ,if the " e >1) wtlL" Writing to me, he s?/b:? "1 <ro>ild like t,-? be <rit*i yu i wbon you look at aud admire thU Kv/ion ?fir ad itire ii jou must? and speculate on it with you Ht.e LJAtbe left we hnv<* tbe main current ot thi stream rWrned to tbe eastward by Cape ll*>.<enn and Sut 'iiig ap tHtaln^t a bank of ool>l wa er, irhiah it ?Tt .aow?, ana oa tbe ligh*. mlogling wtch ? vact >e-arr ?ir ?>( wurm <r< cr, wh*eh iii p.obably b ou^ht there b / the e ld<e.i t'*o n tie ?tr< an itself. Mow 'Mautifullj >h? line U de 'liked t.i the left, or westward, and how well th? innervation-" of the 2d of August coou) in to rerify tbe o'h^rit i I hit up a thU by hnnng tae marine therm uneiergotaif to the iep'h of thirty lathoaiH, ?a i as aooa as ii *>rougUt up w ii-n water, bore to and made the errition The traiin? of the cold wall froon Htttera * up will highly (nweu trg and wl'd lead to nie.ul praedutl reaitt* if it i4 t ermsnetit. And ean i; he o MrwUef (t will a'Tird an excellent sea mark, and I 'htnk a nea* np.ir^a i i m ty be indicated by sn'fhce temptratureit. A* all eren t, a oepth of thirty ftthxn* wtl. r*o I-., uole n the ?t'at im if warm waer deepens, owing to wind or the *e?4oa. M tbough we had worked pretty h rd for the la?t th ee fi( in. 1 hop?d we migbt te able to get an >th*r so: I >n complced before roturninif t>> p >r i it piiaoip^t re t r.ir: t r my abandoning thi*, it that *ho o ir miaett t.eulu to ditlor, and I am afrai 1 to trait to tbom t to edde'l Xa tbU, a ga'.e spruui? up on the Sd, one of tb? mi pt nolont onex we eicounter d It f-o a toe e t-t wnrd, ngiinnt tbe c ir-oot, and we were in tho etna^st pur' or the stream li blew very hai-d and w^ c m-t out of the a'ream at 'he rate of ten miles an hiwr, uulcr clcse xeoled topsails and reefod t> re-aii." We al o owe tc this officcr th5 dl-i: iT^ry of intruilre cold water In the midst of the hot Wit -r ?t" the Gu f Htiejm, "hrch stenel at ttriit 1 1 point to a dlrUUa jf tUe bt'esin, iuto tv i branch?t> by a old ittretin. Ills < bserrutlins hivo s ooil leiaa-kaily th* test of fuf?cq<ient resoarcheg, and with a l the im jror-'mentg tince ot nine ye?ra In meth (Is and 'attruaa um, hi- ia v(>stigition>, of the Sand^- H mk, Gape Mty and ('a te Hoory section?, are admitted to he th? very t>e,t aad most thorongb ot tsose on res >rd in the iwrty A d*p:h *f fathoms wa= 8u;p)?ed>0 oe retco d in theae HoundiDga ?l'hout fiodiag b t-om, the te auc* .u.? be leg 87 org. Fdhrc-thett. an' 2. 100 fathoms with a torcje r.ttiro of 40 deg. just bdlow th* axis of the Gttlf 8'teaui It was bis zoa for 'bis work, the Oeii e to make tiro aiditlonal posltl >os ia .eturciug ti tbe coast, w.'icb his lore^tigttions snowel to b-? ncies Btry, (bat exposed him to the buriieinn of riepi. 8 181 1, Id which his vcsrol was nearly w cokid aud ho ?r<t swept frr m her deck never to regiin it H(s c > 'Ia,'?s in this ten 1 tie emergency etabl?d hi n to rake such p*e cautfous as ens ired the s*fety of thi rec >rds of hU ov ?e;TAti. ns, and to perpetuate ul? nam* lu uoaaej ioa wi h tbe history of the ijulf Stream explortti iu? Th? work tlius well begun was c mtfna*1 (a 1817 and 1848 Ur UcnU Ci icmtnilicg S. r Loe&ni Rlahtrd Qathe atid witn fiiUifiilne-4 tad ia'cm rue reaul'H of Lteu tenant George M. Bachc were conGrmud bv th?i- oser > valors on the Cape Henry necii m, nod valuable remits were obU'ned in :eg*rd to *ln limits o f accuracy in ob serving, acd to the probable li nit or chang* la p sUttn of the psrts of the strctin. To tneto iviiaii* I -h-ill have occasion to refer again. Lieutenant Biche had 6rst tbe uh ot a a. earner for (hi wirk; not a very efficient one it is trne. but a vessel watch enabled bim in favortblt weather to maintain a dcji'c l course, to manipulate readily with t*ie to indlo* dn? an 1 give liin steam ptwer to keep th? vessel in pojf.ljn aad to reel np tbc line in expert aienting. Tbe exigencies of the Coast Sir rey suspended tbose ex ploration!) daring the text fear years, and in 1823 tb^y were vigorously renewed by the detail of two parties for their continuance? that ot Lien", Mtffist, in a gulling vest el, and of Iieut. Ciavea, ia a sterner. Meat. M if. fltt took up the survey where it had been left at Hat tens, runniog again, for eompar'son, the U?tt?ras sea tion, then that from tUe Cape Fear, thea that from Charleston. The labors of bis parly we-* rewardel br the Uscovery, on the Caarlcsfoa soctim, of twj ridges of bills beyond the main braash of the Gu f Stream, ana farai?hed the observ mtloax from which I hare drawn the conclusion as to the connection in that portion of thi stream ot the form of the bottom and the distribution if the warm and cold water. Lieut. Craven htd been en gaged in the section* acrois from Cape Canaveral, 9'.. Augustine and St. Simoon, GeirgU. Upon the eecll>n, from Capo C< nam al he had made the discovery or sound ings on the other side of the Gnif Stream, and had tracked the banks, or more property range of hilU on the other section*, tindirg the same results as Lieut. Miffltt, on tip Chariesion sec Ton, within a few days after the pi ty ot Iieut. Haffi.t had determined tUcm. To t'ic*e oRl*:ers jointly the disoovery of this imoortant and in teres dag tact ttuat be awarded. It is difficult to separate the n in it. lieutenant Commanding Craven has since wi h great rkill and perseveran e, re uxamiced the S'.. Simon* and Canaveral sect ioas. During th? last summer ho c*rri?d s-oundings across from Cape F ondi to Bemlai, proving that no greater depth "xlated than 370 Cithomi aod re futing one of tho?c fabulous ideaa ia regard to the bo -- tom if tbe sea, which va gie c wjeetnrc lad first emit '*4 ideas which world assign different g nttral pay steal fea tures ro the surface i,f the rn th, above ani aider (he water. lieu'cuan-. Craven al^o found at "70 fa h tnn, in tbe straits of FlorMa, a tempera "ure of Sft dep. Fahre ? Ueit, thawing tbe existence of the Polar curreut beneath the war? water of the stream as lor a* Istiudo 2a *c greea North. In the course of so long a s*ri?s of cxpl >ratfiss. in which so many aillirg minds have bexm employ el, tbe me hods, instruments iee ?rd s. ia<!<nd a'l thv. po tato to the work, ra\e beeu greatly imo ovid, and the wb<>le is new reduced to svtnpai etive Rystvm lhe greater part of 'h>i O'Viuul record* when wig(i) to form, *ill be put.li?h?1 through tue lio-*r* it' of Cm ff'ess, n or u met* of tbe Indu. try and tn>el ljnnce o' lite hjd roj; ni phie officers of the roast Purvey That this servl.-e Is on^ of no ist l hard.-blp ani '.IA enltj mav earlly be con^ired; tint it in ooa of great ex posure, in the small vtw*ele of the survey acoestari y eT.couitenng the most b istoruut sea?, may (>e ren.ieetby tlie fact that tbe exploru Uon or one part ot the ->t e iin ti it l?en attempted three U n?s ?i hunt sue ress, mich rough weather set ing in a?to deprive one olTl iir o> thn iiti.ra ments, and to oamngo th's en^iaei of the s^eam ve-?e.H in two othtr cuses. no that t hoi- commanders r^ e obliged to put bock; by the danger run by Lout MafHtt tn the steamer l.egnro, Iwely reaching port in *at'y bv In trn*e exertion of officers and crew to keep thH' ve;?ol afloat; aod by the sad disaster whlca dtpi?od the O ant Survey ?nd tbe Navy of the service* of lixafoatnl George M. H?.che. The daty is most hazard in*, guccess most gratifying. The delae'iona which 1 liavs mtds from tims t> tin* from the Coast Sui voy observation*, and have pre tented to the examination of ray scientifl j brethren, hsro r?j)io!ed many mon'ht at interval-, and will be published to de tall with the observations themselves, m 'ho ?rran?? mont of this work and the eonparison of rcnulta In care fni InvoKtigatlons and reductions, and in (kit fal and skil'ul traciDg out cf the pbenomemi on diai(ramt, ( hue de>iv?d ranch a?sl?tance trom Vroiesjor fandieton, U.S. S , to whom I dasire here to make public acknowledg ment. The diagrams In which the results are repreaontcl. and npon which it has been found convenient to study them, are of a simple form. On the ordinary chart, suoa ar Is now presented, are delineated the Uua of the sec.lm referred to by the name of the nearest c?pe or oth?r well known locality, near whlea it paito.i, and the B si lions at which the temperatures at different depths ve been ascertained. The law of chtngo of timosra tnre with depth is] ahown by the next diagram in which the depths are figured at the side, and the Umporatnres in degrees of Fahrenheit's rcalo at tho top. The chaDg^A of tnnperature at the aamo depth and in different positions are given in the next diagram, whore the scale of tem perature to at tbe aide, and the positions are pintle * In nautical miles from the coast at ths top. Ia this the dif ferent euirea show the clianges of temperature* at tho same depths, rising aad fulling on the diagram as the temperature rises and fells. Tho carves showlag the temperature at the surface, M) fathims, 100 fathom ?, ft- , aro distinguished severally from oaah othor. The depths at which the temperatures are the same aro shim in tho * next diagram, which also serves to give the form of tho bottom of the aea, where it h*a been ascertained. The depths are written at tht side, and liie positions, as before, at the top, tho di ttn.w from the cjast in nautical miles helog expressed by the scale. The curves for each Ave dogieos of the thoriatmoUtr are marked ho as to dlstingui*h them *rom each o'h-T. Whea tho results are generalised by thor's diagrams thoy aro ready te be entered npon the general ahtrt, upon which tlie section was alrevly marked and the p'isltion of ob 'orvstion plaooi. This aB seems very pwln, but not a little study has been expended to bring it into so simplsa shape. Tlie law of the change of fenperature with depth M ex pressed, more or leas perfectly, la all the observations, anpnoe* the temperature ascertained by ohterv.ittia a* In the diagram, at the surfeoe. at ten. twenty, flftv, one hundred two hundred, three nnndred, five huudrel, one thousand, ftftrea hundred fe'h'ims, the deptns mtrk?4 at the sides, tho temperature at the top, and vertical lines drawn through the potots of temperature ob?ervatt;>o downwards until they reach these depths on the sstle, the Intersection* being marked aal the curve drawn. This shows at one* te the ere the law of chaage. Tiiare are two clasaes of eurres which are expressly typical or the cold current, (the polar ctfrrent> betwoen thsflulf ftreem and the ciast, and in the Oulf 1 1 sel Thsftru f* '?hown on the first diagram, deicen'Mtig almost verti cally from the surface, it expresses that the temperature 3hM(*? very llttfe V9 fire % tea fslUom* , th^o roau Hng it show* a m' derate dcerseie cf temperature to sotna tea ort?eut> Uibuuta, then running rapidly i?r?nU the vrrtii-al liue on tti le. of tbe Diagram, whic * c >n?? pnn la to a temperature of UUrtj -tiro Pa*ireaU?it; a* it cW?c<ni? I- sUows wiuio ttaa n?xt thirty Utb >m ? a Very rati' rate of dbcie*"* of temperature, g adually (lackeun.j a? it approaches the left haod lite ths sweep beid-s ?o^ppr. a:h that ilnevary tiowly amhit hrtwwen '.00 ai d 1 .006 fatb' ins it has passed in bat a few "legree* . Tbe ttn-t .tortious of the curre are thiite wtiero the water a mix, a region cf disturbance, where, t-nly under vary favorable cir*>ims-ance<, uioely r?uu?i<?l I'll* ? are t lund their >rat p-jaaibtt; place* to Mury tbe pbenouieca, the rapidly varjiug oarta ot tne curve voneap- u \ to th? oveifl >w of the Cu t Stream water winch teetr the side* oa it fl ?ws oun <1, turning to the coast on onu i td? tod to the br ad Atlau'l i on ' ha ?'trior . The long tongue u tbat water from the Guii; the c ?H wa ter slowly f< 1' iWDg a* tbe bottom of tbe sea, and whch, when it oaahett Cut Kloil.la hu only a tmnpatature of 87 to JO deg., is the polar current, tlowi) ho* log up from the warmth ab.vel , a? it flows toward* the tr?vics. 1 tie intei meuUtc portions ma> be coaaiGe<e<i aa between

two trutn, one or warm and tb? other of cold water, and ai. nlowly t>?namitt.iog the beat downward. Now, wt know when heat U nlowly traainltted do *n wuru in a ma *s <f fluid by c toduction. that aa the deptba inceaxe in arithmetic U pro gves?i.io tbe tempeiaturea decrease in g-otnot lsal progresri- n The curve re[?e'Cutlog tula loga'i'htnic, ana the number expressing the conduction oi the fluid, U the aodulua of tbe ?y?tem of ligarlthns I know that ?< rot doubt ?a? thrown by certain experi ments upon thi* law, but :aaUy the beautiful renal u of l)*-pretz by which it w ?a proved, c u'd admit of no <iout>t. li re juiibf peticuce to verity, ana care and will cbos*n pioct-hf.H to get iid of sources of trior from the en elope of 'hf liquid. These given, the law somes >ut, aa ba? t een p^ved autre the doubt wu raited. Hen we tave up >n i> beautiful scale, and with umpla time fv equilibrium o take place, the wh >le ator to d of conduction thiougb a mass of salt water. Tbe curve* are from a ce;taln depth unmHtakolr lugarltbmie. und tbe observations thrxrn into the form for computing by the moot Impart'at of ne tb' da, that known to mathsmattelans aa the method of leant square*, Rive results differing le? tUan the unavoidable errois of observation froui those dire-.tly observed, and yioliiiur, when he averages of sevaral curves are united, a modulus by which the o induoting power amy in; exprosaed. In thtailowly movtm? cold cur rent fiom the p >lar iegit-as ruckinir the bottom, aa oeing tbe denser, ca|ipod bv auoverflof of the warmer tropical water, you wo iid expect to And j>i>t euch cu<-vc?as those wiiicb first rcsulUsl tr >m the obiwrvaUona of Uavis, and were r tiflrmed by George Bache an1 by his ?uccasora. One feature io tbeae reeaita. ot considerable interest, Is this: that they were m ide oy oQlccrs having tv> ap?:oitl hy i<>tbe-il ; cellcoting data fr >m wbiuh hyp ithcucs might be made, cuofli ui ?d or refuted, fully >'.onvin<;nd, no doubt, that hi w would c 'me out of ftlih'ul results, but not particulatly iateie-ted ta tne form ?hi:u it might pr ve to have Faithful la*iorera, it h'ts often struck mo when dtaouttdng theso re<ul'?, to laud them to- many thu gs, but oer-r more than for tbe'r Htrict tru'hfulness. lin e and xgain 'his law had been repeated, when IJeut. Craven pie?L'uted his winter rosulw, wi h sotne dis couragement that they were aa much le^s r?g ilar than the SUotSMr mea. The torm ot cuivc, ail aUoiro in me ne* ditgtam, g vea nearly the ?am? tooponture from the soibtce dowu to 100 fa aoou. M we mtliHit that at this beasou of me year the s'.ream ts rnpi lly oo ling by the colder air, wo atiall unuerstand tlii-, an the surface Btra'a "ina us they aic cmilea. So in eouie of lieut. M*<ftti's results there wore Irtejru ia: iviea which mat aed tne u ioltiig action on tti? surface ol 'he stseatD, ana evuo a temp ra.ry i bifunp of the upper anf lower atiata, with respect to each otber, if tLe atnter iea?onhi l b? n the <>au cu isec for our Orbi ex net luient., tbe mivi(jt.tor? ? iu'.d heve cnrjunturtl many dithcal it - and m<i. with aaall rewa d. If ho?e resuUs be cotnp?reii wi h th* e'aiirate ol>4<<r vattous of Pro's s >r Forbes ami W. Quetalet for th-.) dr termtnatioa of the law of clita/i A traipe-a'.ure in tho ea th a'.til more coufid^uci wilt be iu ptred hy thera; t or nt bare in ;h??e lattor, dilferencss r?su tlnif from t're natu e of the ctse itself mu;h larger thiu ihit pre s nted by ihercsul's -f the Cm* t Survey oflSm-s. Tho advatiUge ot the fluid medium in ?dju-'ia< itse.f rapillv to^liiiigeii of tewpo atura i< thus cl-ury maru'eytc {. too Lex tv i>c cu've in tua: >n hieh belongs to a positi is heli'W Uiesxl* of the Calf tii-Otin, un<! I:' gh iwa (i the mxt cucce'iiig uugram. It hss 'he saiau fust. ires of tot* nenrljr wtfoul b rttigat Mae and the sh >rt curve, like un arc ot" a eixth o." a eircuac 'deuce, ad the other, and i' beglcK to ajii i o*cb the vertical arls on the isrt baud but Blow:;, and parses no? n to * dopta of none r.hree or four hundred tut'.oiuf bc'ore it caive< (award with cu pidity. The suitc aimost at one time coiuel et a<*in with a vertical axaight lino. qiviug a ?e:tlon wp! h apteare in compariiit n with th? other* to hare a gentle s?e;i, then suddenly turning towards the line of 1 ?w torn peiaiure?, It b gi jm to ulsuiui; the appearance of the for tter curve. It hi* reached the old wtter. N'uwthls f<rm if euive 1h not that wbi .h oorrespocdg to ctjuili biium of teu>peratu e by conduc'in, nor ought we tidnd vuch in 'he n>o\1ng masa of gulf water, which mint cjoI chiefly l v mixiute ul the cooler fciraia from the surfaie at on^ pun. and by mivmre with the uud>r current la aaothcr. The toi gue which we saw in the inshore dia grams 11 in these lunch tulckened, anl the lover pirt is otep below the surfs.ee. T to thinning ofT as we go to the chore is dne to the thinning off of the tropical waters on that sice, and is u>aikuc c nit fly an the; overrun the polar current. On the other side the? over flaw a comparative ly waim ocean. Althoogu in a general senaa It is thus easy to ttc the uiviilont of the water, if wo scrutinize it me re clotey to define the limi-fl wp shall find it extreme ly difficult to do n>/. The Us form or type curve is that In the st~altaof Flo rida itcel', resezn oltog the projecting part, or tomrue, as I have called it, ot the type cirve iasuoro from the Gull Stream, and of the Oulf I xclf. This one m'gh , litre b?en drawn from previous inductions, suca as it is pre yen ea in the oliset vat tens made in 1864. by liuutciant 0 mmanding Craven, between Cape Florida and Bemioia. The?o type curves aro variously modiflod, aad there a-e others which seem' in ecrtatn parts of the stream quite typical ot the'r positions, bat which are less gen eral in their application loan tli ise forms. The cha >ge? are eatily unacntocd, and I have cufBcisatly dwelt upon this part of the subject. I proceed next, to consider what the cross section of the stream present*, taking tip as a first point of reference the diagram of the Sandy Hook section. Ch? dnep trough in which the warm water lies, with !te,Urg* pro jeciii g lip towaidb tho Und, and a shor er one towirds tbe ocean, are sufficiently marked. The carviis show similar features af er wo leave those near tho surface. The moB'. rctnavaable of these is toe guide n chaagu ot temperature, which in ten miles rises some fifteen deg ees so suddoiily 1bnt lu the diag'a-n of this, between the "ooM wul, ' as l.iout. Baclic called It. it Is almost verticil. IhU same form pi ononis itself to the greatest depth of the sounding*, Lamely fonr hunlred fathoms, though diminishing in sharpness, rising at a moan ab>at twenty degrees in fifty miles, at leiat seven degrees in fifty milei. so perfectly distinct in ail the curves that iti dc*ermitation upm anv one would be pronounced eatiafartorr. When it Is rccof licted that the obeuivatlon at each depth is an inde pendent ( ne, having no lonncitlm between tan: abive and that below i?, tho induction is complo'e. The over flow of tbe (lull water U dietiuc ly shewn by the curves ot 5 and 10 fathoms, every p.iint hoirg above the tem perature of 66 ? eg. in this ecetion at these depths, i'assiiig from (he J-an^y Hook suction to tuat off Cije M*y and to that off Cope (leery, to? same result shows 1 ae't Ihoreisa coid wail, at it were, e <n(luiag the water of the Golf. Th* polar current passes alonr the ?boie, mo if) log e^eonttul.y the ollmate of tho Und Had the character o' toe narigition of our coast. The warm wu'er Lverljiej ttis Hows towards the coast, roaihlog i. south of Caj'c Hatter a* and nometiaaes north of i ?, super r.cial in depth, but sufficing to impart warmth t> the (tons ?Lich It reaches. Ikies this c -id wall extend to the southern seiUons of the stream? and if eo. how furl" 1 have drawn t'ie c nu patative <*i?gram of curves of temperature in the interior ps ? 3 of the s< u'hern secti >na, to peeve thai, though the difference of tern orature is less st riling t'ian to the north, it eils's. The northwardly current, whic^ must bring thiH water, thus really flows along tho coast, al wa7S at certain dentM, vaiiable with the seison anl ?lr cuiafi'ance of wind and tempera tut e, bat always the c. Sometimes the warm traicr ncac the surface buthes tbe very coast, at shown in the diagrams of tne sections south of Ilacterif). The cold wall Is with tolerable certainty traced by ob Hervatioee as far south as C'aAnvcral. At times 'he south erly f ot oi this inside enwont u decided, as was tho oase by Men*. Maffitt's ob ervatlocs off Charleston in .rune, 186?. This set of the corrcut further north has beon long well establ'shed. Beturr ing to tbe diagram of tbe ^andf Hook section, we see that tbe curves lire and fall in successive wares, dividing the area across which they pass Int.i well marked spaces. Toat, as a rule, the adjacunt curves conform paseirg into different shapes, which prcdcnc c intrants if we tegard those at many fn thorns distance, as at one hnndrea and five hundred fathoms for instance, but which, as shown by tho Intermediate curves pasn gradually from ooc to the other. The law of division U best marked between twenty and two hundred fathoms. Kach position is independent of the firmer, a.-> eaah ob servation in the position is independent, and thus the re sult* obtained at ?ne depth confirm those at aaothsr whea they agree. The next diagram, that of Cape May, strengthens the forn.er inonction; then that ef Ctp? Henry it ill further confirms it. We sec, too, that the dirieiors into warm and cold bands, wlnci are indicted on the Sandy Ilex k paction, are not arbitrary or aieidea tal, but that tbe same banda recur more p'alnly on the Cape Msy, and a'.ili more so on the Cape Henry soetien. their (lia.ancea from the coast are soch as to c Queet them in tbeae secti ms. In each we see a rapid rise of temperature from the eo)d wall into the (lukf S ream proper, a alow dement to cooler water, a second ri e to a p< ir.t not so high, a second fall, and a third rise not *> wed marked. At the depth o' thirty fn 'horns on tho cacti. -n, we hare a rise from tbe cold wall ti> tbe axis of the Oulf of a fall to the axis of the Brat cold baa <3 of Hjj,", a liso ro tbe axia of tho warm band of 6?, a fall " f 3? to the ?*is of ibe third. 'J ho dbttanoes on this sec tion are, to the co*d water about 100 miles, the width of flrst warm band i? 60 miles, of the first e ml band 76 miles, of the second warm band 60 miles, making the wldtk of the Oulf S'^eam proper about 1A6 miles. 1 ne aidth of the second cold band is 06 miles, of the third warm band 76 miles, bat indefinite, giving for the whole width of tbe warm wa er 270 miles in this xeelioh. I have thiown the others iato the form of a small fable, as follows IHttonm qf "Cold Walt" from ihe Shore, ami l\n WiJiht if the Several Batuh of Cold and Warm Water of Ow Gn\f Striu/n, Measured on the Lines of Ihc Sediom MM.dy Book Cape Msy.. ... . . Cape Henrj Cape Hat *raa.. <5ape rear fliarloa'on Bt Hlmon's M. Aiunstine... Caps *'<u>?voral. C|pe Florida. . . . 76 TS n? w 38 29 ao| M at 10 6 flpj pri;tbt a willh of Gulf 8trt*tn proper of fr?v t?M>C)-Av?> ibiles at Cat, * florid* to one haul rol and fcfiy Bill- a ui -fcudj Ho k, uiU of ?tiB *?Ur at, u) ftf teen fat:oms, o' ftMO> thirty to throe bund ?d ni'U" ?M?. Th<*?> p< iuciiki elviti n* of the stream, ?< *? n? acutbwud. tuc uw m their tiuhniteoe**, *ul are limited to scalier space*. Vt >. h? , on the Charles on n?ctl >a and Mi tbe Ceuaveial the hhw?- te itarea wiijh were dfanly abanowed forth lo r*aody Hook, and ami Main the n.i<aciy which decerned in tbel' gtna* tlu>* rich trait*. While we trace thus c?re'ult , ?t?p by stop en mart e >? slder how fer then-; results can be relied up?o as exact, or capable of reproduction ? bo* tar are Jieito baals perma nent or moderately variable. and bo* far al'-ogether a >oi d. n'al, the reau.ti of error* of oba< rviag of err>r? of pi-ce, of change in the stream itself. Wo have tw<> mod** of trvbg thts? first. e&:h series of l,s->rvatJ)0? waa connected f > the pre eritng one by runnluv o-er the tame seotion. We have thus the tact esuui.h*! th*t the f-atoe division? of the atroem %e,e uLtala<xl in succes sive tear*. i nwd not remaru that not ooly ha1 the ob FiiT-m no reference to the rnulti of their predeeetwirc, txeept in p**l ton which they endeavored as far a* con venient to make the Mae. but in general <h' exttmna Hon* of tbe ie?ults were brat mode by myatli f r >m th? rongh no e> of tbe hydroaraphic officers. The table la the diagram is an f llows:? Tail * Sharing fht PnJtAble Uncertainty in Determination qfttu Maximum and Minimum I'oinit. j Uncertainty in JMf. Ckljj! if si K : * <? Sand* Hook ? Cape May 82 Ow? (leery (three year*).. ,H4 Cape Hatieraa (three yearn) ? t'ai o Cear Charleston J 25 8t Sinn n'g U) ft Augustine .. EJ C?pe Cauavcra! <t5 Final value .fis 7SI 00 I 25 .61 5 77, i.?H 157, ?74 51 169 2Aif 254 56 6.38 72 1.27 44 St?ti7.99t ? 4.W 4 87 167 - 170 1.061 ?S1 5?9l ? 2 98 2 09,2 40 .41 ? .441 .65 U4; 3 41 ?.23| ? 3 49 13,37 3.71 I 6 45 The table show* that the sine result* are reproduced in oiffutent seasons with less vatiati m tliao those of the iii-sn K-n.peiature of tbe mc ions tliein/elvet. Oa the ( a(e Hei.i v wetlcn, which waa run overth'eo tirnos. the poo'ti n.s of the colt wall and of the axis of tbe <5olf stream were reprrdocsd within five miles and a half of the tuccecd-ng iraximuui and minimum points within tbe limits of eight iuil-s Now, ? the pudtluns at sea were liable to an uncertainty of Home throo to five tni'es, thin re.-ult iiiUbt be halt aa proving conclutdvely tba genera! pertnaof oey of thete oi> Isioan. and the ponot bility <if feterK.lnlrff tbetn within very m idenve 'imiU from .year to year. But it cot only proveg thi?, but the a< curacy of the different ohservorg. Thn Cape lleury rection was run over by Lieuts (ioo U. Btclic tticbard ftiche and 8. P. Leo; t&o lla'.toraa i-ecti'>n by l.ieuts. Kichatd Bacbe acd J K. Matf.tt: the Charlcnton aection by UeutH. Matlitt and T. A ('raven. But ti ere la another te-t ?f the results. As e%ch c i i ve of temperature, at a given depth, is independent of any ether, antics a gete'tl law is establiabeJ by tbe comparison of the whole of 'he curves thut ttie cold trail and axU of the hottest water change their pisl'ion Iron- the surface to the dtpth of six hundred fa'.h>m<, siowfy, ond ty an ascertKicd progresaim. and tnat the i-uccoxliDg Qiuxiinum and njinimum poin a ate at the Rome dixtancee from the shore, or iu a vertical line fron <he mrtace a' all tbe cltfn eat depth*, the reUtive po t-itlons ot these p- iots (as shotro by the obiterr*tl >n* at e fferent <?e^'hs) bccome thus the teat of the pertntaeuiy of their positions, ana of tti. accuracy with which ttiey tnve >een ttKoeita'.KoS. These t how '.hat the eo.d w*U tm a?i? intxiinum could be ascertained at the Ca^e lln.' j section to about out uile, and the o'.ner poiats to rather more hf.n two mil?s. The tev>t which t.hoy apptv to tbe acenncy ot tbe different nbserveia, who used the ?aui? instrmuents, it woalo be iuvldious tocmpl y wiceaii .h? observations are bo good. Tried In this w?y by ob.?rva tions bel >w th* oit'.urblog itiDueuco of sto m? and oroi unrv meteorolegical chicges tV sliort dura'l in, the p<ir iratim ce ? f the^-e divisions, the fact that they cm tie aa ceitaiued vl h certainty from year to year, the s#tneor similar remits bting reproduced, that the regu! s can he had by different ob-ervors a .d svi'h dilfereut instru ments wi hin moderate limits, are conclusively prored. It t? quite instinctive that nbdo the pheaorneoa as re lated to tbe axis of the Gu'if Stream vary so llt'N, the tev peratu1 e of the section" themselves oaaage so mac a from ) ear to j ear. Thus the average tempcrutu'e be tween the surface and ft ur hundred faih tm?, beyond or eutaide tbe cold wall on tbe Sandy If >ok aoctioi In 1840. waa as high as that cu the Cape Hoary and C'?pe Hnttoras teciocs in 1848, and aaca thcCaoel'oar scot on in 1863, and triitiiii a dtgree of the St. AgUi fnc section in wbl p tbe Ctpe ilaiteras section la 1818 and 1??3 d:fferefi t?o deg ecs. Agaia, the tiinperature from tho mrface to thirty 'at iom*, jaat below ths axW jf hottest wa'er on the Sacdy Bo -k section in August, 184C, wuh sither above or as nigh as thit on the C*uave ral s-octi' u in Jui>e, If 53. (u general the Cape May sec tion of 18-10 and the mran of tLe Cape U"nry section of 184ft, 1847 and 1848 are warmer at the same depths than th? rfetions south or it were m 1818 and lift). lhese lesuits have only la part been carefilly scriti n>zid. They serve to show that there are great chsnget in the mean temperature from year to year, and probaoty tiom tea. on to tees< n. The cor section of these with the weather changes of the Gulf will do doubt one oav be made oat. Thiy will bo studied with, the ci. tinges uf the season, of the g eat body of tl e stwam, and by wind and st.rin of the sur face and near it. The depth at which the phenomena mar be asccitalned with considerable certainty turn/ out to be about twenty or thirty fatlioma, and this in a depth which can be reached witfcont injury by a thermometer in a strong eat>o. and by Six's eeif-rogis Uritg thermometer. That the surface gives in the midst of a>l it* variations, at times, reasonably good re sult", our ob' ervations also clearly "how, and in rite rather than repel the comparison of the means ot many observations. There subdivision* ot the '-tream serve to show haw naviga'ors have dlflbied so much in regard to its ex'eut and temperature, and how they have been balllcd is ebanglng position to And the temperature unconformable to their expectations. Cold water in the midst of the Gulf Stieam has been set down more than once erti in the earlier voyage*, but it has been su iposed an acci dental or special occurrence, and not belonging to a p? dc ral system. It nay be observed In pas-tag that the different forms of ihls discussion have not given sensibly different re salts. I commenced It fiist by diagrams of the separate eutves at different depths, next followed it up by ave rag? h in which the eurvex worn grouped, then had the re sults independently wtrked over by Prof Pendleton and a 1 with essentially the same conclusions, differing mere ly and moderately in numerical cotai.s. The physical cans?s oi these divisions of the Golf Stieam does not appear at the dnpths which wo have leached in tha more northern sections, but In that of Charleston, as developed by Licuts. Ms.ffl ; ant C-aven, and in tbe more southern -odious, n covelnped by the latter named officer, the same divisions ajipoar. and toe oau-cn ot them. Tiunirg to the second clai:s of sectional diagrams, in which tho doptbs corresponding to the ran.e temperature are shown, we take up toe same series o: lacts in regard to t'uo distribution of tem penttur* which we examined befo'o. the warm water piling to greater depths as we recede from tb-j shore, rapid.y tbi -keLiig at tbe Gulf Stream proper, and slowly thinning off again. When wo represent ihe bittoin of these southern sections, wo find tbat after m1 ipiair mode rn tcly from the shore it takes a sudden and qui * tteep pitch, continuing at a c. oeirierable depth ia many cases below 'he limits of the deepest soundings on the settlon, then j fan to a considerable deration to descend sgnla, and to rhe ond descend a soeond time; that, in fact, we have two hill?? one rue hundred miles from tae coast, with a seep slope towa-ds the Gult Stream, and on the outer side wi h a slo^e o' fi'tcsn hundred teet in twelve mih-s; a u?coiid, with a flops of five hundied feet in hf.ight snd a base of twelve miles towar ta tha avis of the Atrt am. and three honored iret with a usee of A teen miles on the oilier hide? ibe tirgt a hill rising certainly m< re than two thousand feet above tne geue-al surface below the (iuX. Oi the next section to the south of this the same ranges appeir, rising seve rally five hundred and two h ind ed feet above the adja cent vallejs, and so on; and whon we come t> traoe ttum f) cm section to section, we find tbat they lepre-ent ranges ofh'l's having a general parallelism with the coast, the distances increasing from flf'y-the and eigtry miles off Cope Canaveral, in lati tide dog. fO tnin . to one burdred an<l one hundred and twenty-flve milos off Clia; let-ton, in latitude Si deg. .10 min. That the axis ot the Gulf Stream keeps in the middle, or thereabouts, of the deep trough, that tbe cold wail is near'y over tha first steep slope from the shore the first cold b*D<l nearly on tha top 01 the first range of hills, tbe sec >nd warm band nenrly over the second trough, and the sac >nd cold band r eariy over the second rnoge of bills, rim in* again to tha toction we see that the cold strata of the polar current mnst lie in the depth* of the first trough, and irust ti>e on the flanks and orer the tops ot ih? hills, confirming in a geceral w?y to the slopes of the hill hide* and the valley depths; tbat this arrangement of tha strata will give Just such divisions as ws have found in I the stream. That the connection of tbe sections by ranges of hills oonfoi ms strictly to nature, there could oe nn doubt from tbe numerous sections. It was a most, interesting result, however, obtained by Commander Sands incoming north last summer from tho Gulf of Mexico, to verify this by sounding eonstantlj on the first range ot hills, thus tracing them fro? off Cape Canaveral (pas. 8), in latitude 28 deg 29 min. north, to off ? ape (<ook ut. where he was o elided to leave this interesting research to look ater the security of bis vessol. The problem is yet to bo determine), by the rest arches now In progress, howfornortfti tliis range extends; and the onestiou Is yet to be answered whether their siructuic. which determines tbe distribution of cold ard warm water on these southern sections, s till e ?tl noes northward. a. d is still the determining cause of tbe distribution; whether the changes In temperature from section to sceHen aie dne in any part to tne eUvationu acd depressions along the axis? w better the rlpplosob sctved in certain localities are connected with them. Thise, and a crowd of suppositions which the loaraed Secretary oi the Smithsonian Institution would class as *' unverified speculations," crowd upon tho mind, and if allowed to escape would only discourage some laborious discoverer by tuo chilling reicark, " I predicted that this wou'd be so' ' years ago. Ihese things must necssarily owe out of a proper lOeursn ol experiments, and it is uot good to indulg* in an ticipating 'hem farther than is noeeeaary for guidance in Invohtlgati* n. Tbe t-udden falling off of fie slopMex1: the shore, Is a common feature along our c??-t . fMs aeea la the sec tions U| on 'be offshore chart, embracing what I have ventured to call the liajr of the five States betweea Nan tucket or the southern extremity or Cape Cod and Cape May. at tbe distance of 2H5 miles from tbe entranoe of tlie bay of New York, and tn tbe offshore soundings of tbe Gulf of Mexioo, and In the Intermediate sections which have been sounded bet weeu Cape Fear and Cape K'oiida. if the cold wall ia connected with the sudden st?ep slope on the southern seo'i ms, why not on the northern where w<> do not find such a connection}1 The answer is not diftioult, but still it shews how cau tious wo ah mid be in generalizing, sinoe the vsry first attempt we make to transfer the generalisation of the Charleston section to the Sand/ Hook, fails. Some interesting observations of Commander Sands show tbat comparatively cold water is to be flauad ia the GyM of U*?io? ? the Wfht btfwocn tfco <^te ?f the ?bftlppi aad some point on tho peninsula of Florida or at the Kr;i, a c 'mparaiively ah ?i platoau, or rttklf goottf ?loping turfcce, lining the shore* of ?u*i LwliltM, MiMisaifpi, Alao.ni*, and Flirioa. That outalda ot tnia ia waim valor. In April, 1861. tbe difference of teaaperatura in IM mil**, nearly off *he Bailee, *u toadsgre**. Vbe tem perature of tbe outer water ?m 78 dog , or nearly thai ol the Gulf b'ream at this season of tbe year. Wc ??* now prepaed to c >Ilect and group on a chart, chiefly ?hernial, tho bets relating to the Gulf St'eaa. I at all Introduce what u knowa In a general way ef IU cunf&i iooideota W. l'ua?ing by the Florida key*, the stream waa fttnl last bulloch to Lav* a temperature of 84 d-g. TnU if 8 4?g ab< ?* tbe mean temperature of the moab or June at Key Want, a* given ia Um Hurgooa General'* report*. Tbe runontheie hat Uttle streug'h? eno igh, however, to make vcaeoi* seek ita aid in wo. king t > leeward tram h>y Weat, and enough them to cauie the ateimorn to m'k it la their con; se by atanrlng out toward ? the mU die ot tbe |aneg? between tho Fw. id* key* and Cuba. Issulcg through the Straits ot Florid* a ad rawing between tho eastern coast o' the prnlasua aid 'be Baoamas, it ia turned north ward by tae land wbi h col fines and rlrecta It. Tho diioctiou ot tho stream hi re b nearly north by o lit tie wmi or north. Ita velocity varies from thr*?> to live nautical n l:e< per ho iiy and ita summer temperature (July aad August) at ? teen h> thorns below tbe ?U' f*ce n at> <ut ? dieg., ?trying wi'b the teat-oo. Thi* is an iatero.Uag awcuon. It shown. Instead of an unfathomable gulf, Wiea by the resiling waters oi 'hta great ?tr?am, quite a modera'afy deep postage. with twu s'ie?.m> lni ? ina paaaiur rapid'y to tho norto and the other slowly to tho south, one ua mi-'tiilatly tr- jlc?l, the other an uomiatakaHy p ilar la ita oi igtn- the oaer saricg tan bultoin of the aeafiroae tbe great atnit'.oo athumed for i . by theorist*. Follow now the cou se of tbe B'ream a* it bend* in'o tbe bight bet* tea (Jape Florid* aad | Cape Haltera*. Hecolieot that cach one of tnaao | currt* ia tbe icsult of n any data, a!l independent; that the cold wail the axi*. the second miclm'tm, nod second warm atrtaroa arc four tnwp*udent peU of ob<cva tiona; tfca . tte po^itiooh in eaci u-c ion, and ia tho Bcer^l ie:ti''Bn, are results of iinleper.d- n' onservatlooo: th*t the i<?uls confirm each other r?m?rkaby, n A only in passing 'rom the aurt.ee to tne greatest dopiht, but lioiti po-itin to position, and trom aecuon t> amo tion. The atreim < ff Cape Canaveral has a north irnrdty tet. and bet* ten that Cape and rit. Augustlue of giaa to tend *.o tho eastward f n rih. the stream ??e'weea bt. Aligns' ine aL<l Ha teraa takes t'.e geoe a' direction ot the ci.att, making 6 dag. ot etetwg in ft of nor hiog, cuive* to the nor'hward, ?u1 then tuns eaitward so <a tc make about 3 deg. of easting in 3 deg. ?f northlag. In the latitude of t>8 beg., between C*pe Cburle-t aud 0*uo Ben!op>n, it turns qui^e eaa wardlr, h*rioif th<n a Te locity of only between one un i two miles an hour. That thi> general sweep fuu-jw- the c >a<?. unier w*t*r. (the c '<at-t line, I the curve of one hun 'rei f?thims and the hill ranges of Maffit . Ci *von and ^atils, seen in a general wa> fully to eatablish. That it may m idtfted by otb'-r eircuiufi aiices i- not defied, but inert- ly thai It is rot deterniltinu by tbem. lbs after pi ogres* i.f this mighty stream and of i^* brum bes remain jet to be tracco aa t .is i a-t hasaoeo. ami ibe ra.'ii i-nr from the general :uaaitljOd pre.-eaced by cbnng. s ot teas us. wind- aid Mortm T we may hope, utile-* the sue ie?? which baa bitbeitc at'.-nlfrl t^ese labors be for ihe f i'ure <tea<~4 them aecutately tc tit ter a ine, aod perhaps at some fa tuie day to preoent to your attention. Coil. MwAirr and the London Time*. [Kit m the Lr.orii.n T men, Deo. 23 ] Kurope was tet-l sail tii-4 Viet at l*ug th we have got ujku the tiace* of the "Great lokaown" *lio rti?chsge6 tbe duties vt /ite.-sry fthSihtam to Mr. Birautn with s?m em'tenr success. (Vol. Isl l*. Sbntfusr i< the man. It w< uld behi-rd inde d that be should 'to aetrau ed mt lauiels k just. j won, but be u?ay tieel well assured we ail i<-c<ynl/.e the muster m i.<i and running baud wHch assisted In rearing be *tn<? j aup-rmracturn of b:s pat urn 'ft fortunes. Vuti' e Is no evi ieuce like tutor not eUGence, af'er iiU. Teslim ny tray be fabricate! -*%'> ne'nai hefirged; bi t it in only V e same pen tiat acllelid the totTET triu o?hs w ;i;h can prodjou vie th<r ir ast?< piece if the like rind Ou> fiend the Cj ou't bag ??i.kei* leave or a time ??t the Ktej e Mermaid a:>d tbe Wooiij boise? he has a'-aud.H.eJ the pre'eu l>es O? Utnt-al Tom Ihutni (or u yet lo'tier theme. F-oa the seriire of Mr. fiamuu he has paisol tnt i tbo gci \ Ice if the Kusidaa Czar, a~d we are bnud.i say tbat Alexander ban every reason to be sati-fied #i h tbe new sgent be his taken into hi- pay. Dr. Pavga ?w a poor crectvie, after ali There w?s n> light aad shade in bb> svsUm of lying. He ?eut straight en >uga a* hi- tscts. 10 be rare, but he oi l nut stop to dll up o it lice; ? he bad no njtion of delicacy in hi* c iloiiog ? it wasbiynd htm to produce an haimoni.ua whole. Bo tides, he c< ttmitted he erormou-i blunder of permitting bitLctl: to be. cau$rhi in a ateamer a >s?? huodrei miies a* ay <iom i-ebast p la' the very time he was teptesnoT lug blmteli aa thwe, butlly occupied la administering euu deCol gne and perluaeri is-eo.es to the gallant tub pampered Muscovites Colouel "hafTier hat n>t ? at least, as yet? beeu caught on'.. He step* out before 'be pub ic aa an impartial and intelligent traveller, wb > haa Ri ant P3?r.P months in trnvtrsing the Rus-iau empire la all diiections. and who feels it a sac ted duty to enligdtea the- uiinds ot bii tetlow citizen* upon tbe s.tua. condl iow of that vast territory. Nothing can be b>ot? (Vdghtfnl. nothing more Arsa tilsn, cethii g more smiling, than the atate of tu ise eu * loous provinces ?hlrh e urt, rather than tolerate, the mild away of the Russian (fear The gent'e pressure which has bet a app led ty tba allies haa real j effected nothing more than Just u> bring out the oobler featuiaa of the Russian character. The heart or the Okar to melted wuh a noble eathusiasm ? the hearts of tba aoWae are malted with a s.i'l nobler cnthi a a<m ? the hearts of tbe serfii arc mtlted with aa enthusiasm which is tba no blest of all. The Imnerial family, so Car from kaisc troubled With misgivings or tore with diss* nstons, at* only d awn nearer and nearer to tie illactiioui bead ?( their house. Coaatan'ine la without ambition? the Ka rnes s i? at the summit of human blisi. The simple hearted diplomat ics, with Nesselrode at their head, om ace aothicg in what is passing bat a monument of Weak era violence and Western pe'Sdy. which Is aare ill mafely to recoil upon tbe beads vt iia eontiivars, while holy, holy Rubfl*,will be holier than ever ? the envy aal tbe admiration of aarrouadtug nations. Colonel Mtaifner deals with his subject aa a whole. Be leads ua ftom the peaceful drawing room ot the I ape rial family to the count y seats of the aoblea. who are re folvcd to p*mve e to the las masketaad the >att roab* ?to the huta a here the loyal aoTfs ate yearning to be cm oiled under the banners of their chivalrous sovsretga. Coloael Sbaffrer haa visited Croa-tadt. It is lmprefManle. Bo many additional f r-lflration-. have been c onstructed? they were scarcely ne ded? that tbe Western Po vers can expect nothing but disgrace aid di.oomflture shoe 4 ttey be to ill-advi?sd as 'o attempt any at'ack. lh* Rustiars bave taken all the oil cannon nut and meant** tew en oe in their places At f?r t?*eab J'g the ??>? bardmtnt cost the allies fib 000,000, whi.e tr.e loss to the Russians did not exceed $160,000. No harm was dene save to a 'ew old twedlrh workshops, whin* the Russians had intended, in sny ca-e, to rem <ve. The be sieged w*iu so cimp:etely at 'heir ease throughout, thai thty walked about, thoroughly regardless of toe bon bar ducat. Wiclielaleff, tco is impregnnhle; the Rus?iani "laugh at the thicats ot tbo allies t > take It as a f Kiliih, vain glorious toaat.'' Wenau tnit, it appears, o?unt apna tne financial emlarras- meets of Kossia, tor the expenses of the war have b?en Cef a ?cd froae the ordinary reve nues of the country. The Kmperir Al-x^nd >r haa sua ceered where Mr. GHdstore ailed. There laaa beaa b?t a mall loan effecttd nicce tne L<eginniag of hontiliiina: but this was not. neeeaa?*y, 'or at the prcment moment the public works of KuxsU, unconnected wi h tba war, are carried en >1 h u.. interrupted vigor. T ie govera m- nt ts actually expending c 1 Hons upon the ereotioa oft-cciviaat cal edifices fa more sutely thai aaf whiola St. FeteTshurg or woroow c?n yet fbow. Aladuia ev-n, would l>c suipri?ed at tho splendor of the Rut sian cbutohes. "The veiy domes of ao-ne of lh*?a aie of gold, ai>d tbe ornaments in 'he lu'etl>r ara of the sane valuable mateiial, and many of then studded with diam nds and other preotvu* stones " Purely, this is a Utile stn-ng; b it ne\*r mind, C?lin+1; jamb'i! own the >?fety valves an l make eieation so'eaisu " The yield ol the silver. g?.ld, and plattna mine* this year bas exceed) d that of any foru.?r year by $3 OOO.ftW. In acditloa to ihfs, he government have forb d ths ex portation rt the preei >us me a Is; the Mint is kept la constant opera ion night and day, aad tbe paper rouhle passes aa current now as ever. We pause f>r breath; but the Colore) gives as no respite. H- tells us that ths effects (f the war hitherto a-e quite imperceptible. Ne> sr were ibe plains of Kussia se well tiilea, eevsr was sa great a breadth of land laid down ia grata, never were meaubetuies especially that of iron, in so flourishing a oooditiou. To cr wn all, CoL tai. P. S'laffner brought away wiib him from Rossla samples of laces and other articles of ladles' dresses, made by serf woiaea daring their hours of Uesaro in their happy homes We bave been es entirely misinformed as to the effect produced by our operations as we have bees with reu-rence to tVo actual eoadition of the c (ma try. At 4weaborg we asstatel the Russians to more same old tumbledown huildii ga. The evacuation of the south side of Pcbastipol was or most trifling moment. TbsRas slans bad long contemplated s-.cb a movement, aad had prepared three brtdge?? not one. aa haa been commoaly supposed? ia order to carrv it Into effect with pcrtiet comfort aad caae. It is quite aa error to loMgioe that they did not carry away their woundsd They [ami across over aad over a cm in when the town waa ia ths poe j ieukinfi (tf tfedk alike and <>a*vlait nff (Ki.tr ffhllaitl AflM* of the beet circles at St. Petorsh irg. Nobody was hurt, save a tew rascally (-recks w*o bad attempted to exaea aa exorbitant pnoe for their corn from the Russian gov ernment. lhat government, however, dealt with them la a spirit of bwi-flcent con.cmpt. The Csar would aet undertake to defend them, but he set apart a sua of money, which he handed over to the Qroeks to eaaUe them to block up the rbaasel. Nothing oould be more truly ludicrous than ths result. Is alaee of slaainr vessels fllied wiih stones, these ava ricious traders fllied the vessels with sand, whiih was, of course, washed away by the current, when this waa knowr at fit. Petersburg the Ctaar oonld scares coatala him elf for laughirg? ?ad the Cm, ina laughed aad the jaivics ef St. Petersburg roared. Nothing, ia fact, eeaMI exceed the hilarity of the capital. Hpace, not material, (alia us. Ferdlnaad Mendec Pluto was a weakling by the side of Colonel TaL P. Slisflsar It Is a pity that his account ef the Husalaa amplr* has not been accompanied by a fall length portrait of tbe illustrious traveller. We should have liked to see the very figure of that keen and sal ow Taakee as he aula ally crouched in the full filth of a Russlaa hut, aad. wliile he a*aidaousIy whltt.ed away at sooac sua reniaat piece ol timlier, resolved with him-slf tbe beat maaaa ?f pouring a roseate spleedor ever that ueoahraMt scene. Bow far he has succeeded, it must be foe Ma readers to decide. ____________ Nbw Judicial Distbict ? At the GwmbI Term of tbe hupreme Court, held at Balls toa Spa last weak, the question Of remodslliag the district, uader Mm aew eca sus, was acl ated somewhat, and W A. Beach, Km., aA voosted the foimalloB of a district to heeemp>eed?4 Albsnv, Columbia, KcasseUer, Saramga aad Hcheaweta. dy, and a petltlcm waa draws up ta the legialature 1% sccoidsi.ce theiewith. licut. Hartsnff, 0. 8. A., was wouadod kr tkf Floril* Ittdiaar, Mt killed, m expeoled.