Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 27, 1856, Page 3

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 27, 1856 Page 3
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sclMhe enemy wi'hout any eerl .us at ?m ..t havutg bee? larHde fur i>? dtUverjf , iet?be,LUj.?*i t? o?givrflbr.T. rj "o? aiqiatawl *ih pb\ steal cmi -ii?u? > he i-eat l *a in Vii wi I t >l?-, ib*i the lurks the rigb'- w?< '? to | e'W f''1 *> ?"m 'a Amisit, thk "lony iwrul hudU oi ?,^K?Lialf*." that "gent nnut.l ?tm gtiilil," *ui ^^Bune** of oa luDH " as tne tn..u?oei JWI/ apbe' Kit it ^BhO aptly leiins tbu ligblutd, e i my iii..vbui?u s ai'tt l |^?e<ble fri in the tiegL-niug ot June o aeeni >t 'ibe Ureeks of X-u'vno i, ne Krmaf of ?,jmD| tad mire lec-nt.y I lie l'?r>laiis, uud?. their I ooi<i(aarjr Nad.r S .<h, lei'-n' ->y s iireiiug . ?.?d on- ' i xpM iei c- to ki/uw vhai nnm?o?e di.iic. nl 1*4 opp-MH h.Bitki? p" g' t\<s tbee o 11 lug It' y <'b'r ajav n 1 ths r^^Hir. lli" K->ui?a Mililleii* ti-ranji iuwarlly e!ti 'el !?/ ^,^K.?U4g the ie-i < oi'* ? *<<?'. ami t'?? ->- wi ?> ih*lr wad?d through simw ll f ? iu nept i fjey hoi pi" cause fn- their jnjons ?U uta w >en thef L ^Higbt sight of loe greri and g-utlM huxiue ?onre w^ile I >' were <teacendiug hs tr.gbtlul wiikih g nV.hs ' out ,m Armenian highland ah- jre At 'bat tune tu y hail ^Hcnireci idea inspecting tbe elev?ti .u oi Ar'UMota, a <1 li.liu-nce produced uu n r- and climate, ewi u ^Hhoutr ern legions, ey variati. n? of altitude, riw It - c-.niiog 'hey < io in ui 'he g-u J P^n'io rent, hHd the remains of the i?*n hm-an comiig l ?iu warm ' .^H.?0p .tamia weie a-t oij.be 1 a the ^xunne iuc em uHc) ?il the Anr.eni?o a'mnepticie. I^H<)ji)<r Pasha itanlug 'rout B?-.uui iv-ald only reach tanie laud of Kara *>> marcmng ur uga 'he val y of ^^Htoriik via Artvin. Ibe h^ner- 1 ,.a?-? he liifl t*> wow U upwards oi 6,600 t'c* l ab.'T** he e% The liips or (^He Armenian Alpe >i m>irb f>eeur( iu ih? treovioi of Q|^H\atiara ?ud La?ir'.an toau in ba.ol lie fr?0'Z>bd ilU !j ^Hlut It f* pre ilwiy from ibln ?ide t at i Hi Arjueiiaa u'^Ktive fast oeoi- u keaei ao 4i> ible in a > oue plaon d t tm [(Bm be f> eep bei w thrf 'ere of the u /uut*ifl <J ??t< r^Hhlcb are ootiti-o wi b per pi- ual iuu? 1'raTe ler* ai.dca ]j^HVan*, 1/loi n.Ugu large p?r'y, ocver Uu >H ? ?' 'iiaki'ig the jt^Hvuney to Karx acroeo the nu.ihe*. e u luonu'aut ri g-i tbe Laaae, but tke ttie u?un oucn f iu ireilond, ,^H>ough Balbn-1 1o K'teioum It c*r-.y*n? al-.ue naaot .|^Hiotuie to undertake tbe j.iorney h ?* '-an *rinle? flti * ^Helr b.<gi(?ge and wa?( m traiuH d i ?- >1 tveu tuppukiug Lb> 'farts bad ba-l b???'ii i bartbHn la , ^BfticiiDt uunjtMn tbey ..ould uu I inite>' hire mi c ??<! ? ^Hicmuti the Tcfti'io* valley In n.mtiw l?n . l'_in **y. , to tbe frequent ce61*-H and 1 1* pav-"ge ot rf^reaini r^Hirougb raviae? irttui-ueu and often p?rpe?<luiiiUr **?ti< . rook nn eituer tide, U ev<u m-ired dliMlt tnan the lof y . of H?>.l a Bui>ar Oetveeu H?( urt aud firaarOUBU v^H>re weaUoto vuunie ti.at?.naro y co.il. m M.ionisi bit e^Hevated tract f |? iy an tint an one ut Hie on u iu trading i ^Htravan*, with i a nornee tod nmie-, Mturr i'aati* ? mil requited bet.reeu ten aun t?*l?e ayn to re*ch tue i^Hruntaiu plain i t K zeronm mulu Ua'.o uu, and f-'mn the ^Hain i f Ktwroutn ?"out tbe fs we 'i u? t?g"t th 'ouga ^Hie fwftCtulu 1 Af? a" la>' an t ie n iuice. f tm a ir, to )^Hhich tke tab'e ixtxl of Ka h hew gii Inoi .ding sue |^n)l be w luld be fnioed to ?et i-pu t '<>r lenta'. K SHrou u, ?r atvcoroingly eoulo no. teach be tir'r-n auloi a ina'h, tTen If be por.->e tiec all ho e ju .it ? J?#ain of ai. sport. Wh 'lib and held goua r iliujj tipo'i - umI-i l^Htnntit po*i lbly tmd ngge ar n? the u ?i*v? aiu >m trauw Armenia Iu tela di e ti d, aruu'e e??u '? ? mmlo u iu l Hue tread at Bumpier 'leanU noen no rerenl c u I dial ^Hiils ?Bd a^Bente. ut er I'lvbn iu. have a I ?ita una at ^BbHt '.0,(Huf buch amuiatii -o car > ind'ii l 'U4 an*l jir'i* ^^?Ui. ns, nuvduub a unirn-e ?e e u >i t > .n> f uu l lu toe d. and c'm Id no ea~ 1> baT? "Hteu o m*?ye Ui mi 0/ ^^? l piLg from a 1 h.un pn. lu tbe moutfe f N(j<e?oer m u train paea of >be vulmiilu -*ee:i iti i aul ^HiiHtouu ? ft p?Mn iu%> id ft tuus'. 7,0") < 'whi.h') ??*} t'ltJ ^^?1 the eea mc men quite iupaf-Bthle Cue ?o-:.uel ^^?r-udn in tb*t 1 job t'J aie *retih d hi. ou t ail eiiilyi ?? ^Hb<- 1'e Bba of Krai-iouiu, t ??, e iul ' do no'? ?iug u n-? la ^Hctoher. for artillery i ould thi n u 't o- tra i-p r e i, aud ? Hoidiers ffoold p i;bitn'y i r.?e ->? en Met m t^" -too r In i p^oetnon to he imgnty tinpednoen a ratted if o? ^Hore biid at sn' h an a'-??u -ed oiim f he yeap, > ner ^H>i-na han leally no ebo' ^e. ?a? o i upe>le ?. ? leave ^Hht- gikrrijMJO oT Karr to i'n fati, a> o *it li.ni e i 1 1 a dl ^Heieion aguant ttingrdU and I iiniet'* pe uap* to the ^Bagne dope thai K n.afie). du l^arum; t a Ka ait *uJ ^B'Hii' were thi ea enei, w.iul I lalm Jio J>e<e ii' Aa .h aud ^Be' ? eat io Georgia. Whe her t ie t'u.k ah jertluBimo ^Beueu-'iy ludnlrf-u in J" m'l ill-uno-ia or it 't wnu jian ^B,iag hi? diT^rrlon we otuoot *ay. He **d oil g?d t>> d > ^H'.ini- ling In deferens ti pu lie o,ji-ii n. ti* eiii t a ^Hlttie even in Turkey ? w.me bmg thai oigu l ?ok ai if be ^Hrlfbed to B&re Kam A iu?rch oir?et t,i tht Jlaoe *?i Kmpoad^le for be iea?oijc a're^.iy He a*<, tft-ire ^Hl>re, operat-d egeiott th- <ie?p Ta ley of the 1'hiM-, ^Hfhicb be could et-l'y reach, and # ie>e t.ie>!tiint e in ^Hviuter it* mild 1' i*a?* p^i tinpe tiin unj nt--p n? h%d ti> ^Hake. 't taken for 'be .mp *e "f ??l*rnii"g the na.siam. ^B A n ap la n hef or rur*tt?h \> meni*. wti.ch W "ill -ntn'e ?u mor* eBiii'y t'? follow tritto he eye ne ip-r?',i > ih iu ^Hiiat Mrat ot the wir. ba-n' t jret Mm 'iei ited, ti c <n-ie ^Hjuence ot the uuper ect top g ai>m>*al lm'i#uilj(e *-? ?ilU ^Hiave tif that rtgton. Uihfttoa ha- pub imiid the r>ej<t .nap Hit It aa ye<, and 'hii". althoug i tua e f >iui the enr ^B'ey o' tue KnHahtn ? all. ib r ydeectwe aul iuc ir H tct. The writer ? f thti-e lia-a, on hli ?eo '?u vi^it tj ^B*"iatic Tni^ey. anO during t etx erniy -1 ?* ad<auo* ? t U>? caravan from K Zvrouiu <o lai i?, #a,; xnah ed w ^Htrquire a Ui'e?ab J cnrrec.l loi-a ot the Afinej a i ti nin ^B^in lange. in ?o far ta the extnrnat ' rins <i the ina.H?es ^Bire concerntil. Many loity suoiiuite toire- the e in the H .leva led plalus ef faeln, Aii h^ert am B?j.md high ^Bibnve ibe lyiioers ?' the plateau a' d jire-ieaig el potute ^B'or cuimuttoinK e geographical and a vop gr?pHlo*l plan ?>f 'be AiBiemati mg lards. Uu vi'Wi.<g tai< V*?t p?no H'Hii ?e I'biain tu iL<->gh iat.i the raib-ir c nnp'laatea Hiif> m Cf the Aineoiao rauiie range, of which tae Kara liiouiittiiu, with their huge plateau form one of the most ^ErffttM beapr. The whole c Aigttreties jf the -Vi a?* Hiitn Alpine irgion staodi in striking contract to the Cau HguilU. H The ArmenUn Alps h%r<;ly anywhere d!eplf 'he sudden Bitm^t rij e of lie Causa***'! t?wsrd? tne Hal ?t-?pye? of ^|the Kubsn end Teiet. i'srall*! raoges of sp'ir-i "( I M ^BjlfTall' n, and which we sight call Marine Alps, form ^|rver) where ag t?Cuala?ceut to the real highiaud. Per ^?baps the lole ? xcepti^u t?thw ra.e exl -u in the preciplt ^?ras elope to tbe n rth and n.irtowea of K*r?, in he dl H-ecirn of Adsbara and La istao. It i-i the sauie direc Htlnn that Omar I'aiha would have been couipellel to taki ^Bhad he ci?rc' ed oirect ftora K ilole to Ka a Tut pre Hsenoe ot Duine ou? table l.nds, o gapi funned by steams, Hand depreeei'jne serving ar paiuiee, faci lta e to a great ^?tx'tnt, it m<uit oe coufe??ed. inland in ere urse earned Bloo b> the nomad paitorai tiitiet, oy caravans, aod even Hainiles, but only curing th? tnon^ns of ?ntmT. The cli l{t,i e, which df penes nn the grea* el va'.ton >f the soil Hab ive tbe M>il above the <ee level, li niie all trallc acid ?military opera' tone to en un:>minoaly snort period of the a well known fact 'hat the slopes of few miunatn Hchains torm an unb;- ken link wlta ono aa it ler, creating Ha e i o?lled ereet or dorsal lidge. Io general he hig i-st ?tirge, ohich constitutes ale ? the wa erobed, yOMWMM ? c n ruble breaoth, taat spreads oit tot? Urge pla Hte^us. Such is the cate with ihe 4a ies chain in Mexico, Ha>- Alexander Tin Hum xildt informs us; aud L- vott Bicb ^Bjibrt-ivd the same fact la the Laugheid mo intai s of HNcrwsy. In nost ruMi valleys inte ee;'. t^e xltpes. Htenac^n break the te-c4M VV> 'kni1 scat'e'd hill t<ip< Kri e at' t g tbe sines, linpaiWg an irregular aapeet to tie ^Jupi er and n iddle paria d# tne cbaiu 'hi-1 i-1 also par Htlally voe i?se in Arnjfnt-? ahe'eth-t eye Of tkiCKs gUt ? li nk- in vsin for tbst real central rhhin #".io1 ii s i p?l ? iiii.iir.jt in nioi u'ain rauKet > f li'sf ? eadth in th? ? j ? j "ii i ? ts for icitaiiHe. But the -xiraordi i*ry b ea th ? o tbe wster lieu, and rbe rows, three ..r lour dee u, of Bf o onatain fWna, with ?b?ir loagitadihal va le^s iht- He Bh-twu-n tbe hlghesi I'hams. iind rim silts pa-a'l-l with H1! .em. are most ch -rac e; ij-tic In he Armenia! higli ? isms. Between Ispi ? *nd Ka taftj atd c iv-i i- g a Bbrc-sdtb ol cenriy one md a half dig'*** tne^e Hsie four cbains ai blgli as t'-ie AI' * ea-.h of which is I B thi- sonree <"f a iarge i ivi-r Th?s? ch* i ? t inn c U?o'ive B ly ike gri-e' wa'ershe . o' Armeola. I is not ye', kuown Bwlnnbo' 'tieni has .he g'et est aosolute eleva'i i". (B B'va io' a ociaeton" ?'hen I c iiii'.rti s<*ve al ?Ummtte( B cbieti> with thi ?li*w o " .lui mg a g? (riplWti c m Bcipi'-inot '.be principal cba ns I oec t ue emvuee' tltt Bit .1' ge, a sbkrp onrsai sp oe si eonapvs tits y p j-Mt I I'd tin oi'gh 'he lifne 'late r >otliieuc* nf.t he -lipe* in th ( Bcsuew-us for ire aDce, do 's n ' exM'. in A' uwuit. fir I B f< i.e. that tbe pri' cipal ? o .t of the Arj.en > lairic B ej.-tero in tbe rc .'.re of 'be lrlina ennsis ? of 'hof-i f mr B Al; int- < heins a'rescty tll' d -il to. fa r. 'uvinre aun-e'l ? of ini? truth the t'?T"'er neel only tfa*" arounc from Bibeiopstn ths Michtsl 1* lind the Giaur l>ti<b, n irttt of B Kizttoem, or Ir. tn in-iiihts I f th? mouu a us south I ?asi of l i i II lia, opposite the Kussa Otffh a ca iital B epot tor Tiewiug agiea p?r' ot Hpner A meu'a, whore ? the eye takee in a < ne a d t'e mu- mo^uen the i. whist I cbaii's and the two inr;.' striklnK of 'h? V lcanl I 0 met ? atandlng apart, namely, tbe biegml Oagh ann ko . IHtgh, ? wi'irh are pur onuOfd by 'he Aia'a'. so Selo^n l?agh. I To all fntu e sslen'.ilis nriimfl who iu'tnd vlsi i ig Ar ? msia, I reoomw end the atatl m I htvn Just de-cribsd as I tbe best frr ob--eryiiig i|n< stupendous land f mou ntains. I IWc mtst n vrthern one ? f ihose f ur parallel c la n?, all B of '.bem covered ai'li eternal snow, iuns M MM K?rs ? ?nr Npir. tblefly from the sua h e*st to the nortt west. I an' it divides the oonntiy ot the t*-sOH from 'hi" of the I Armenians. Near tbe highest s MMMi or tt -t n irthe n I- sloj e is tbe district that gives il'C 1 1 th-? river Kur, fiat flows trom theie to Grusia in a north-ea^'e ly course through a part <>f 'be Uo chin Lighlatid. The suui!ni? of this chain, vhieh loi.ks oowu upon the Karsp ateau are frowred wi h perpetual snow, aud in p itaiof be-ght teem bttle Interior to those of the nine "OUth"ri cb lu. Half a t eg.-ee in oresdth, and souih of thesource-i o' the Kur, rli-es aro'ter A'pine chain, w'al h run* in the sami nirec tion, and ie the oirthplace ot the Kn jh -a'e* Tne sp-ical ?ap of Armenia, puhlished in Ge nian- in 18 0, *U<o? tMs chain, toat lorms thenortoern side of ihe great Erre roum'asle 1-nd, to bf the h'gbest range In A-meni*. But that lewai k isrotcorisc or a*. Ie~it not proved. The two chains mere to tbe ,-iou'h, appear to be prefy o<|Uhl in heiuuT. Kop- sgh Ak-Dagh Serl-hamah t-hlk, Uiaiir Ihigh are tbe uamen if the lol'ieiU suiumi s in tt is range to the n"' th and north- we, t or l? xeoun Kter'ial suow 'ies also in the gorges uun ravmei of t'ie highest actin sins oere ?' I J e< on the turraicd t -p-1 <ii. d hresche- in ihe boundary chain of 'a-i-itan. Tie h? j.hn.tes. rsllea lieie tie I ar?su sprl g- fr -m 'he inut.ta ernmos* terraces ot the (Jisur-Pugh. 7 ftln fte'. an >re the ltv l of 'he Bl<ck .-?a. I'he son c ? a e '-"any and one of lhi m contilnnti s a cotsi- i ratilo h i ly of water to the gUiit s'leaiti at the lis tu of 1 s bir'h. At the truth rn sid ? of ttje kjie'iinm plslem the-e l< a third rartje wh'oh in i'< ei? ei ly <0 ir*e form* the MUth beroirs o| Flasytn Ka eh, T pra Kaieh and tnjt'tr, thfme prcceedlng to A"e. beldstiau. (Hi? of theli'tifi-i uu tntains ie tbls cbaln is 'he Ala fa^h at tho eastern ,fr<ntier <'f Armenia, from wh ?n nortj ea<t?rn terraces /K I.i 0 )ee?, high) p nr dom he b-,urje< ot the Uurad Ik tisi. or Fas'k'u F.uphr*t"s. Of the our h and sr tithe, n most malo c.haln of the Ar tBeniauhlgh'%uds the mlgn'y Bin^ u-Dagh, the ' Rill of jfce tporsanc' rt-'.-nms," auirtig whiih a." tto rource* ot Ifie Ataxes. uppear* to fii'm one ot the t Iglu-st inas>o< I >ave not iry-tlf visited this moiLcttin, hut I ?aw quite ?iis'inc'ly it? sn< wy peaks whsn I sto<v<l u tie summit if tbe -ic' tsklt in tlie month of.fune 1K14. A< the petks o. the Bingoi l'anh *urpa>s by a irreat <l*-al the 8hiU*n I)?gh near I'rze.unm. I thin* I may venture sev dovo i s beWht at lO.COO feet ar taereabiuta By naeau of eputs running off like yokes, the tonrth Aipme rhala of f, menials cornee'ed on one side with the thlra caaln of Ala lHgb, t n 'he o her side wi h the m >nntair>s north it Take \'an w'th the Ni?irod-D?gn, an" also oerhits with the more' lscla ed v lcano -eThan-Ongh and trie Alps ot "nrdlstan N?y. 'o the east I' seems to b'eud wi?h thise chains snd cl appear as an independent rainre. I.Us tie irrest chain ef the An l?s, io the desciiploh sire, hy Ah t Ven fltiuiO'i tne 1 <ttv A.n ?ni rniirir r?n?? Is irr- ifiilsriv distlibatco . someti wt i ronj^d t nee, loir ?id ll<e d'-ep. and then o onnep^>d by narro* spurs qSW&i 4 V* V*-? i V* ^ From pr?cia* ob*erva'ioii? It h?a beee moor ?iooi th*t none of the tuur Alpine c iaiu*, or, rn iro uroptvl/ apeak ii f ?f the f ur r??> iu the A in-ilan m i'ttt aii ranffv | fi?mt> au aba l '? wa ><r rhm Tarougte ??ob <>f tuem (?tie-Din tome <iieir r?| ia r.intrary di-e-.tl a< ?r n-um | <f ceep fl?-u ? ?. Toe two brtuii-h-ui it <h? Kuuirt^ ; tif? <n m ubaiua nt iete fin th.( om u th*o ibr Unicoi i I'egr, auo yet. toey take h unmiui if courito wtiii< tun i An im, which up iugt. 'rorn ihe in??t o'utftttrti b>rt] * r : rt'kin i I Uie broaa crefct, flo.v* flr?t to Hie ?x ?al j then twiila away to t>;e e**t. T> tni<?' r(ri g ir?-e<'iUri jr in tht river bed* ih? water njntea ??' the Cutain a atroiig rent' h?u Here he / out ?a'rtl sh-iia i le-eu l< e? ao eD trnxiui dike, th ?t part' tli< il iVi?l it t>ic?atonue anu ae.tidtiiilr. Dw<p tlefw, forming toe o.bief par*M, me only (uo. wit-i at two Hp>t< ; out uim th??e <10 niit uii?k loir uu iug i to allow 0m? paj?*gd of a river tbrongn theu iu an oppo-lW? dt-eHioo. All tue cpril gH n&d ilvuleta bat lis- uu tti? n rtbmHteru ttiope flow to%&i an the Ruoilm ntepuet, all thut ruah d ?wu ..ue M>utbwes??'u declivity *?el' tue lvera :>t Crao* -auo ??ie. Tb? ab?ence of a narrow, hhai p i i> ge along tue in >unt?in iccgeip, ia A menu, ttie rawoo, kino, * 'if in iiiafatiu p'aut* and animalu aie >0 ettooaivl/ mei with, rhe tei iaced f<? molV"A <u*ui*n Liga^audd taa wlae xpr-ttd table land*, m en(.eoi?ll^ charaotert* 'o of tbu Alpine land, are utterly wautiug iu th? (*hm4?o afMtuin. The Influence orai t e worW wni h U Pierai-i-d oy tUa whole ot tie Armenian bin bland, In 'he re a u?a* of ???j ? Ukttoifae went, hive wen poiut^iljr dw<t upon i>f Hitter, in the older edliioc of bin ceieorated (r^ograpaicai wirth. He calU il ''toe na'ural bound* y st">ne of aa iiu aud eiijj i en," and, wheo alluoiog to the Sunaa Byitntiua (ii w ibe Turkiih) einpirrt, "the natural gruat (renter to> ?re-? fcgaiuei Iran " The Aru.eu>an nit of naoua *itu ih for tbe uatiouH inttuing from the e^a?t, aeeai- Hog to Ml Oriental kxu m-inD "tue bivant to be cip u vdj" for t le ? iiig'ii niH in Ihe we"t, nowever, who b-*ve to ma ntain ?no de'end their ijjcependeLoe. "ihe i?vor l to he hrai rtifhed." When tbe g'e^t ge grapher at tha'. peri>d petiued r e e leata k? a ?>ut the imp -r an te to ilix ?rh >ln worui of tbe ^.rmeniaju bigbla:id>< ? gre t ptrt of it ww kiIH geegiaphiaail^ unsu wo. tte-p-c'i.-g -.use <uu try la whioo l?e MMirceo of 'he Ar?x>M rice o ir kniwo'ige >u limited ? the Meant; Inl'ortna 'ion Huppiied b/ X-aup ion. the en'i e M)uta-ea-t>ru p-m.t of he ArineaUa iri.n<l\ a>< far an Xetx pnon'8 rieiile (the inoun ain rampart of the Korid), loci dicg tbe la'ge Alpiue Ukes of Van and l in.i*, van still a tei ra lnoogt i a (or u<. Since f.h-in '.hu giigiapr.lcal darkneat > ?h heen gr-a'.ly cleared up, ant when ihe wii'er o'thia a-tl Je wax m*Mng hi- tour round U e Urmia lake be bad ha< one piedene^or a*. le*-t? tae ?nv> Lur-na Her P rter. We art uioa'iy iadntted fir oar | a i ?! e intimate Inow'eogeof TutkUb Arineota to recent I- 1 gl'>-b traveller*. Coitcerniar 'he R iti-ian part of Ar- I rr ?- nia, tbe Uernmn g<-r>logia>., Abioh, who bail resided at Tifltr fii.ee 1 844, h*? given the moot important goographi < al an 1 geological account. OPERATIONS IN THE BALTIC ( Tfie Mt-xt CniupulK"*^" OfcariM Sapwt ? Vli wi? Admiral y?iida?' OpIoloii?OarloBl L,tll?r from Another Orltiuli Amlral. 818 0MARIJJ8 NAFIKK ON TIIK KNULIHtt NAVV Uf TUB WAB. TO TDK EDITOR OF TBK LONDON TIMH3. In vour leading article of tha "id Jatiaary you at tac k statesmen, admirals and general*; you Bay 3011 wilt set before them what the country oxpeow at their hands. , . . 1 will leave the statesmen and generals t:> speak for themselves, but . will not rem tin silent, and see the whole navj condemned as oowarda and unbe "lknow tbe risk I run in making observations on your articles, but I will run that risk, and tell you plainly that you know nothing of th: auiyect on WVveutareWto*ftlBm that there is as much talent, com age and dush in the British navynowas the? was in the days of Nelson. You say. Mr. l&Ltor, in the last war tbe ships of England we.it everywhere uiid did everything, with incredible darinz and aa>* cess. With only tbe uncertain wiuds and treache icuh waves to rely on, they entered every week; and, 1 rovided they <ould never get in troubled themselves v ith the superfluous consideration ol how they couia KCNuw, N^editor, I served fifteen years last war, and it never was the custom lor ships to approach batteries at all. No admiral ever ventured to take his fleet into an enemy's port, except Lord Nel <on, Le went iuto Copenhagen, gaine 1 a victorv.aud was well pleased to get out; ard he never tried it a^'a. he did not take his lumbering fleet, as you call it, to Cuil.-cioua or to the Swedish waters; he never went higher ia the Gult of Finland than Nargen. Sir James Saumarez, who was a most enterprising oflicer, little short of Nelson, lost a Hue-oi-batUe-ship in attacking Alzasmus; never even went ud to Cronstadt; nor did he attack either Riga, Revel or ^?Lor^Nel8on remained Beveral years off Toulon, and never thought of attacking it; he never thought of running his fleet into Cadiz; nor did Lord bt. "Vincent nor Lord Coiling wood, though it was by no D Uord^Hotham never tried Toulon; neither did Lord St. Vincent, Sir Charles Cotton or Lord bx 111 Lord ^Sowe ,TLord Bridport, Lord Gardner, Sir Charles Cotton, Lord St. Vincent, Lord Gauibier and Admiial C'orowallifl, treated Brest, Rochfort and L Orient with the greatest respect. The dashing Cochrano burnt and drove on shore the I- reuch ships in Basque Roads; and many other dulling things weie dude by frigates, aud daring enterprises by beats, but by fleets uever, except at Alters aad Acre, and they defeuded by Turks and Egyptians. Admiral Young and Sir Sydney Smith, when they were captains, got their shii* cut np severely by two round towers, one Ik Corsica, and the other on the coast of|Naples, mMMlag one ortwognna. Loid Nelson did not dkre to attack w ith hu ahipa the batteries of Boulogne, but tried with bis boa?, and was deieated; be did not dare to attack Tene rifte with his ships, but tried his boats, and was de feated , and lost his arm After this statement you must not mislead the couutry again, and throw odium on her officers. , If enough has not been d .ne in the Baltic by the navy to satisfy you, Mr. Editor, why don t you put the saddle on the right horse ? ihe Admiralty. In 1864, a fleet was teat to the Baltic, very badly maLmd, hastily got together, and inexperienced. Without pilot* (for those we had knew uothiag) and with very indifferent charts, yet we managed to get that fleet in amongst rocks aud shoals up to Cronstadt, und found that there was not sufficient water to float them; and had there been water, we were ignorant of the parage up, and the batteries nitjch too stiong for our ships. At ; Sweaborg, we knew nothing ol the , assage, and there again the latU nes wei e tiemerdously stron g. What would you h. ve done. Mr. fc.d;tor.' Whut we did do was to point out to the Admiralty the proper a ay of attack-this was in June, 1864. The fleet then thieaded their way through the labyrinth of rocks up to bomur^nd, .anded tbe tri t ps in an iixietlioly short time, and took it. Kweuborg was again well recouuoitied, and the plan of attack repeated. . ..? You. Mr. Editor, teem to have known better than the English and French admirals, or ^ the Marshal, and thought it could be attacked, aud the '^ords ot the Admiralty sgiecd with you. You both had heard of the tall of Sevastopol, and lout 7?ar heads, lial not the honesty to apologise to the Admiral >011 bad insulted, when you heard the I all of 8eba"t?P(Jl was a boax. There was some excuse for the Adtnt talty not providing the proper material for attacK tbe llrst campaign, but none the second- They were waned cf what was wanted; aud though they knew that Sebastopol had held out for eleven months against an uupuiallelied bombardmeut,and ? the last twenty -four hours recei ed 70,0tK) shots aud 16,000 t-bells, 20 mot tar vessels and 15 or 10 gun vessels at tacked a plate as strong as Sebustopol. Tliey did not even support the moitar ve*8?" Wlia the fleet; tliey were dispersed over the Baltic, the Gulfs of Fin.and and Bothnia; and when the tew mortar vessels had fret the plate in flames, there was no fleet to lake advantage of tbe confusion that must ha\e attended the contiagration and the explo frion. Now, as the admimls have hauled down their their flags, and been complimented by the Admt laltv lor their conduct, it is clear that the plan of the campaign must have been settled at the Boaid, and on it must rest the failure ? first, lor not sending gun aud mortar vessels suffi cient; at d secondly, for not having them at hand to take a (1 Mintage ot the conflagration and explosions. 1 was U Id, in 1 64, a tew mortar vessels 01 ? even Lancaster onus, more or less, could not make tne diflereuce between the possibility and the impossi bility of attacking Sweaborg; and in 1*M tbey ap pear to bu\e thought a lew screw line-ol-battle ?hips, more ? r less, t wild not make the difference between the poi-sitile ai d the impossible. Now, Mr. Lditor. the long and the short ol it is this ? in 1nj4 the A din - raltj sent a fleet to the Baltic, without gunormortar ves els to assist them and clear the way, aud In 1856 thev sent a few gun and mortar vessels to the Baltic, ancf hud not the fleet at hand to support them, in fact , they w ere so ignorant of the art ot war, that they did not c.vj ect the 13 inch mortars could do so much damage; all they hoped to do was to fire away their shells, and net be langhed at for brtngiug ^hom back; and when tbey found out the mortars had al 11. est all In.rst, they scnto ut a ship w: ith a ficsl ^ snp ply at the very time Admiral Dundas was ly tending his mortar vessels home; and so > blv ignorant were tbey, that they did 1 u?l ^ \ the moitar vessels could go through tlie Kiel Canal, but positively sent them round the ^a*; . . n 11W fir 1 ask wcrf th6 government ainccrc in their wlfrh to cripple Ruarift in 1854, aud wcro they Mrious in 1866? tor certainly no one j tdging by these actb ns con thii.lt. so. 1 on tell us, Mr. Lditor, a mortar vessel has l>een built and armed . . . kf). ui rely then 100 could have lieen built in a xear, atd in 1W>6 the same lorce that is prepiring for ls'?fi might havo been read^.and Sweaborg t? toHv destroyed. Now, I don't bUine Sir Charles Wood or Lord Palmerston, tor they were not In their pieseut offices when the Baltic fleet ^as fltted r>nt ilipv ntmear. however, now in do*nrign* earnest, ifl msy judge by the powerfulflotmathr'V aie now preparing. We must expect the Russians will do tbe san e, ard must hope we are not too late. As von, Mr. F.ditor, have passed a pretty severe censure on the navy , the Inst thing the government can do m to lollvw the cxuuii'lc of the 1 reuch at '.he begin idn got the Revolution, and send the Commissioner to feet the admirals do their duty. ??JiT1' r have 7?'" own oirrespondants, *nd I >ee no reason you should not have your o?n Coiunifc?o"er; and as I have reason to taiuk in/ orn.er friend of the T.mt* is the writer i, the ? art qeaabuateg the AdnlraU, he would l? tn? taut fitting peno n w fiJJ the oflioo of Com Mo a ,d i?*?3 to say whoever commands tue deet ?.'.d6rei and tlk" c*? at the heart a JSLteut occupy ? warm berth to his I' the licet was not lost tlie first campaign, it was 'auIt * "'? Admiralty or my iCK Tne they did their bent to lo^e it. The second DtillH^h wAd?'!ialty took e??d 'are Admiral Dundas should r.ot destroy Swe,tl>org The tfi r<l ^mpaign had better ba under iny irien.l oi the rS t i.h0 as Powerful with . ** he. to Wllu h,s **"? 1 remain, your ^ aiV^ES ? t CHARI^ NAPlttL lH, Albcmarle-street, Jan. 8, 165a. ? dAUXDKES DU.VOA3. [from the U?eroool a..Jo.j J*u. .8ffl ] virtnUti V1u?d"f ' aeema, has for aome liine bask virtually anticipated hi* own deprivation of the .Ui tio comnuu/d, for he said he would not actively re ,? oonaidered the operations prop ised by the Admiralty for the next Baltic expedition to be i>e- - fectty futile; regarded Cronstadt as quite impregnj. ble, and that it would be the sheerest waste or' tuu? men, and materitl to attack it; Heldugfors as iu 5Jn,# category; and, moreover, it id said, that he disapproved of the war iu principle and policy, and deems all operatious in the 1$ ti tle to be alike unwarranted, needles* and pre Xfr*- 0 y ,thi8' but> il i9 now a]di)l, that he acted against his better j idg.ueut when he assailed Bweaborg; that he knew a id said the assault would prove the partial, resnltless and abortive thing it has turned ont; that rhe Tn titshes, the real strength of the place, wo aid m Msiiv made stronger than ever, as tiiey hrn- bueu; aiid.lasOy, be is reputed to have made as little so tret oi hU opinions on all these poiuU as did hm Predecessor, Sir C. Napier, on certain other points the year before. We believe therein mdldubt new that when the trne stoiy of the attack on S-ven borg conn s to be told, it will differ as much from the gazetted narrative as the amende i versl >u oir rent in January. I860, of the Baiafclan ch ?e dif feicd from that told by L?rd Cardigan at the Lord Majors bunijuet the preceding wintar. There is tl.is r.ther e.-Wntial dilference, that the sea oaitaln at t only did not seek to take credit for what he had not done, but was anxious to de line much of the credit he indisputably earned, and whioli his fneadi would force upon him; whereas the noble horse 11411, who incessantly blew his own trumpet, was i isalute of prane for wholly unutteuipied and im.>o.i.ible par torniances. Ol ccuise with Aduiral D.in las'oplni ?n.s, li? thought of that he should proceed t> the liultic again. But theu arises for the public two ,^ti"D?:1- First. these opinions ult.iUitedtobimloundedlnfact? AreCronaUd'. Hoi* Mng.ors, Ac, impregnable? Is the proponed navd campaign lor the coining spring in the Itiltic witii ?"?" Of ? ,iwS ld,gu bXff&'id shot-proof floating battorfe.,. and all tho u ipreot ticnied accessories to success?is this campaig 1 cer remotely likely, in the opinion of tue Admiral who conducted the last, to be like that 1*4 and the oi-e preceding it, namety, so nethiug ouly to J?lVef or * !flu?h at ? Secondly, if such oe the Admirals opinion, why did he? we will not say a?ow it. for we believe he did avow it? but why did he cot immediately throw up his command ? This ,Ve d?n* ,on^ a8? witho.it aetri-nent to hnttori^f* 8tttson one of stagu ttioo; but to do it now, on the very evo of tho renewal of active hostilities, 1$ to say the least a very curious proceeding Not less enrious, however, is the conduct of MinLsters, if they knew? ?e ot course they mmt or ought to have done-the opinio 1 of the gallant Admiral, and did not iustantly relieve him troin so lalse a position, fraught with obvins n?lvmewK^ ,he efflcien.T and prestige ot the ^. .a. the nuvJr' what must the nation, * bat must the Czar, think of an expedition from ??iW^'Cj two Admirals in sucoession If ? ne partly in disgust at the Admiralty, and tbe Admiralty disgusted with him; the other L dis *he e^frprif itoel1'- Bnt the instance need, perhape, excite Utt.o astonish ment after all. It is but ol a piece with the pro ceeuings of those who led us into the war, and then backed out ot it Rightly was it surmised that w hen certain Russians were expelled the Cabinet thej left others behind them equally friendly to the raunay. Dundas, as a non-lightini Admiral, was al ways supposed to be a protege ol that clique, us op posed to Napier, who wonld have fought if he were *i. action of Dundas now seemingly ^stifles the appreciation of his Peelite admlrenl ?i? we are i?boril?K ouder a delusion al this while; lor we see that Admirals Lyons and ww %i i" thf ?rf^?"miD^ ?>uj'cil of war at Paris. This is, indeed, the crowning coupe -n 4 Who,e mejcPlicability, only there is one eon Bideration gives us pause: which Dundas is it?? he of the Baltic or of the Black 8ea? As fai as the Ca*e' We taliefe i4 do?3 no* much mat ?i J u course it matters as little to the country which has such very discreet guardians of its honor <wwr???ik 2th.erH that needed and admitted of deeds worthy of the antique fame of oar flag. ? 0F A BRITISH admiral. [From the PitMDnrg (Peno.^ Journtl. Jan. 84.] , , , j? . genlleman, weu known in the city submitted to us a letter to him from a British Admiral, written in I^ndon on New Year's day We are permitted to make from it such e* public ? 7 10 proTe toterexting te the j * ' Everybody here complains of poverty, and all f?^nler8'- am afrai - are more or less pinched by the high prices consequent on this mise rable war. * \ cannot think that the AmeTi [a.?g can be bo foolish as to plunge their country m .M| 7h,le a neutral position is a trne ITnltPrt & tf?" ? idea of war Wlth the I nited States, which a short time ago was very renc 'lcr,c* boH died away .but I see by tne rhfr,t la <Jr?a?a ,hat Palmerston has told Mr. Bu chanan, in plain terms, that he his exhausted his ex Potions and apologies. What arnnt fools our 3 niPture witb tlw Unfed States tor some ,KK) of the veriest trash that ever were eii . "TJ^m at Hoelar, where they are ' lo agififst the lift 8nd W?,Ud back ttlty I have not the least hoj>e or peace, for I feel cm vinced tliat Ruswa will not cede an acre of her ter ritory, and they continue to make the most active preparations for next year's campaign. I suppose something will be attempted against l ri.mtHdt, or the 150 guri-boats and the 60 uiortar boats we are 1o have in the spring will be a iselesa expense; but 1 do not anticipate any decisive res ilts lJuiidns says that it is but luir to give the Russians credit lor doing what we should do. and his convic Cronstadt had a British garrison, no eart hly nower would I e able to wrest it fro 11 us. They have hauled down Dundas* flag with as little cenmouy as they did Napier's last vear, much lo his disgust, and a very poor dodce, as it is evidently in tei ded as a reply to Napier if he brings forward his c?se in '.he House of Commons. Sir Rdmuml L\ on? i? expected in l,ondon to day. He has left his command for the purpose of attend ing a council in Paris, of which Louis Napoleon is chairman, to decide npon the uext campaign. Fremontle is in temporary command of the Black rka, but at this season he will not have any oppor tui ity of distinguishing himself. Graham is In Cumberland, but cxpected home shortly; lie continues very shaky. I renlly think the Americans "have great cause to con plain against the Hudson's flay Company. 1 had son e transactions with them seven years ago, and found complaints against tbe Americans in Ore gon, groundless, and in fact, that they were the pir ties in fault. By to-day's papers, I see there is an intention on the part of tne government at Wash ington, to buy them ont, which will be a very wise measure. 1 beir occupation of the so-called forts In Oregon, is a perfect anomaly. TmkW Finance. The Paris Monitcur of Jan. !'th publishes the fol lowing letter from Constantinople* under date of the 2^th December: ? The Ottoman government has just published a re port. addressed by the Minister of Finances of the t-ultan to the Board (Commission) of Control, cou cerviiDg the budget of exjiensea occasioned by the 1 ^ar TnriteJN Th* following Is a re$ume tf this Uteres ting document:? I Tie imperial government, wishing to correspond to the confidence shown by the two all ed Powers in guaranteeing its loan, accepted the principle of contiol given to the board it is the duty of the board to see that all the money of the loan is employed in tte pursuit of the war, and that this control shall not impede the ser I vice

The Sultan's government, to facilitate this double Iulor of the board, submits to it the general budget since the commencement of the war, of the Minifr ten- of War and Marine, and a statement of all the extraordinary expenses of the war. Tlie statement of accounts of the Ministers of Fi nances submitted to the board comprises the budget fr< m the 27th of Msy, 1853, to the 27th of Septem ber, D66? 28 months. 1b those 28 months the Treasury disbursed for ex traordinary expenses of war, marine and artillerv 3,015/jsH purses, of ?11,200,000. These accounts are divided into three periods 1 Frcm the 27th of May, 1853, t.. the 12th of March, 1864, tlie period of the Turkish tinancial y?ar. 2. From the 1 nth of March, 1854, to the 13th or March, Df.fi a whole vear. 3. From the IJth of March, 18/55, to the 27th of FepUmber. 1855. Knch period K divided into three categories de partments of war, marine and artillery. The fin-t category consists of the expenses c??w ed l>y the ordinary bcdget; |tud oi tiie auio tut of ?3,015,588 purMM, or ?11 ,200,000, we And the sum uf 1 462,1 3:> pui>en, 400,000 ) covered by the I u< i v ? t allottt-d to the three departments. '1 l.e ? coud category comisU of the expenses for which tbe treasury has been able to prooire re nooixi.fi, tuid tliin figure amounts to l,029,tf?4 parses, or ?3,M>0,IMJ0. The third categorv consists of tbe expense* cover ed by the funds of tne first loan, and tbe amount is 623,754 purM-B.or ?1, MO ,000. By tiie document* annexed tbe board wilt tee that tbe lei-curcvs found by the government, exclusive of the b< dptt. consist in ? 1.617.297 pones, (?2,286,2*5,) the produce of the first loan. 2- 150, ?(>0 purees, (?009,000,) advanced by M. de llotb cbild on the new loun. 3 1)4,1'.'. i purse* (?201,b00) national gifts. 4. 3M?,162 purses (?1,440,000), issue of paper money. 6. 12,652 purses ( ?46,700), lent by the deposit end merchandise banks ranges de depots et de dent a?. ?which makes 1.223,674 purses (?4,573,000.) Of this Willi 017 297 pums (?2,286,000,) form the pro duce of the first loan, of which 523,764 purses (?1,040,000,) expenses settled; and 9S.543 purees (?340,000) received by the treasury on account of tbe war expenses advanced. Tbe total amount of the war expenses during the twenty-e'ght months being 1,553,44:) parses (?5, KjOmi(i), and the amount of resources disposed of ly the treasury being 1,223,574 purses (?4473,000), the treasuiy may therefore claim 329,874 purses (?1,227.0?0.) On tlilh. latter snm the treasurer has paid: ? lr 0,000 nurses (?500,000) by conversion iuto bonds lea ring 10 per cent Interest; 160,000 purees (?590.000) on the ordinary reve nues destined for other branches of the set vice. To this sum of 1,553,449 purses (?5.800,000) must Le added a floating debt of about 20 >,000 purees (?760,000) , which the government has to pay in the provim es for goods in kind, and about 300,000 purses (?1.235,000) for difierent purchases on credit for the War and Marine departments. To jesume, then, In the period of 2- months the extraoidinary expenses of the war amounted to al out 2,000,000 purses (?7,400,000.) In this sum figure ? 100,000 purses (?370,000) advanced to the allied aimies in war tnaUrii/, ammunition, Ac. D> ring this lapse of time Turkey, to be able to re eht Kuf+ia and the Greek encroachments, was obtig < d to have never lees than 250,000 men under arms. The troops of Egypt, paid by these provinces, have always leen maintained (entretenux) by the imperial go'emmeut. Tbe imperial government, without levying any new tax, maintained thw war for two viol's unci a half, without any other reources from Europe than ?2,500,000 ttei ling of the flr.it loan, and ?000,000 advanced on the second; it may be proud to fchow such a statement to its allies, justify ing theii confidence. It must rei.der testimony of all the populations of the empiie, which, by an admirable devotion, allevi ated the burdens of war. In submitting this statement to the Board, the go vernment has two objects in view ? that of making the Board thoroughly acquainted with tbe actual state of afitiirs, and that of asking from the Hoard on the funds of the loan the 109 74 purses (?628,000) advanced to the Treasu ry, and indispensable at the present moment, as well on account of the interest of the public debt to be paid as owing to the delay occasioned by the state oi war in collecting tbe revenues. l et i-s pass to tne Departments of War, Marine and Aitillery, to provide for the present budget, one half ot which is already gone. 'Ihe War Department, the most considerable one, has already pietented its budget from the I3tli of March, lt-65, to tbe 13th of March, I860. The Minis try of Marine is preparing its budget. The artille ry m.t being able to fix beforehand the amount of materiel anil ammunition required, will call upon the beard for money accoiding as it may require it. In 1846, "or an effective force of 122,000 men, the budget was fixed at 618,654 parses (?2,257,618), owing to the course of exchange, ?1,920 ,00 J. On this budget a sum of 81,331 purees (?300,000) was destined tor general expenses, council outlays, the diffcient military schools, school of engineers, Ac. The 7th Corps d'Armte, that of Bagdad, paid di rectly by the treasury, is not included in this esti mate. The board will see by the annexed that there ex ist:? Men* ln iintrj arid Guards 72,180 lavahy pad ArtlUety 22,737 Ar.illwj ot tcrtmscs ?i>d reserve 10,408 Toia' 106,826 From which nnmler must be deducted 2,259 men, contingent maintained by the British government. Tbe pay of this effective force for one year amounts to 13f>, 3.8 purses ?614 000 I'M i?ii< dm to 298,867 " 1,106,000 Ex[n..'n of ausbolMoes and i-theix 27.297 " 101,000 Iiieus and accoutrements 81,483 M 302,000 Total punei 023,788 ?2,320,000 Dednotingthe ordinary estimates from that snm, there i en ains a deficit of about ?400,000, resulting from the exchanges and from ihe increased price of every article; it must be observed that the prices since the month of last March have again greatly increased. Each soldier of the line costs yearly 2,411 piastres, ai d each horseman 3,403 piastres. Tbe cobs of Redifs actually under arms amounts tc ? Jnf?D'ry Men 92 640 Cavalry 11,177 Total 103,827 From which must be deducted the contingent n-amialned by the Utltiah government 7,741 fUmkiofi 96,086 The body of Hedifa having been placed, as regards pay and rations, upon the same footing as tbe regu lar troops; deduction made of ?9 .000 of permanent outlay for the list placed on the budget, there re mains an expense of ?1,710,000. The increase of the expenses of the corps of ar tillery and militia ? f 5,872 men, which in times of peace is sedentary, and is now mobilized, forms a (surplus of 15,41 7 purses, (?56,000). tor the maintenance of the Egyptian force of 23,?i31 men from the month of August to March 13, 1K>6, the sum 31,534 parse* (?118,000) is demanded. For tne force of 2,0,(0 Ottoman Cossacks up to March 13, 6,002 purses (?18,000) are demanded. For 485 Tartar horsemen for the whole year, G ,-17 puises, (?23,000). llieexpeme of the transport of troops, travelling expenses, and others, according to document uh nexid, would be lor the year 140,912 purses (?515, (00). For the army of Georgia, the accounts not having yet been tent in by Omer Pasha, the return of the expenses will be sei.t in later. h or the Bedifs and other chapters the sum amount ing to (>U6,U23 purses, (?2,450,000), and the deficit oil the budget of the Nizam (regular troops) to 105,134 puises (?400,000), the war requires, besides the ordi l.arv bidfet, 771,15b purses, (?2,850,000). An approximate calculation must bo m ide that the Ministries of Marine and Artillery will want 300,000 purees, (?1,125,000), and for the eventual ext-emes of the war, 100, OOo purses, (?370,000). buch, then, is the general state of affairs as regards the wants of the war: it proves that, with few extra dinaiy resources, a vigorous war was kept up for two years aud a half, and the allowances demanded cannot but appear moderate. The Treasury, forced to come forward to the detriment of other branches of the service, to help the necessities of the straggle, finds itself in the urgent want of making good th >se sums to regulate Its accounts. As the war estimates presented to the board will only cover the four months which remain till the month of March, the government proposes to the board to concert measures for adopting for the fntnre estimates such method of payment that meane will nevsr be want ing to enrrv on the war with vigor and ease. The Ministry will send in a monthly report to the boutd of the employment of the fundi received from it, for the approval of the expenses specified. The Ministers of War and the other head* of the eervii e, having assured the government of his Ma jetty the Sultan that this system will allow him to < an von all branches of Ihe service for one year, It will not be necessary to have recourse to othe ft r Is. it Is nrgent, in conclusion, to call the attention of the t>< aid to tbe necessity of taking energetic mea sires to mpp> ess stockjobbing on the rate of ex change*, which is of the greuleet prejudice, an can' es very considerable losses. rhf Poimlstton of Clifna. We may with tolerable safety estimate the present population of the Chinese empire at betwe-en 350 i OO.OCO and 400,000,000 of bumau beings. The con stnnt f!uw of emigration from China, contrasted with ti c complete absence of ia>migratlon int') China, is strikii p evidence of the redundancy of the poptda tkiii: for though that emigration is almost wholly coimred to two provinces, nameiy, K wan tung and Fookien, representing together a population of pro bably from 84,000,000 to 35 ,000,000, 1 am disposed to thii k that a number nearer 3,000,000 than 2,000,000 fiom those provinces alone are located in foreign countries, in the kingdom of Hiom it is estimated that there are nt least a million and a half of Cbi rese. of which 200,000 are in the capital (Bangkok.) They crowd <11 the islands of the Indian Archipela go. In Java, we know by a correct censni, there are 136 ,C(iO. Cochin China teems with Chinese. In this colery we are seldom without one, two, or three ves ?e's taking Chinese emigrants toCallfornin and other plQcts. Muitltudes go to Australia, to the I'lnlip I ir<es, to the Bnadwleh Islands, to the western coast i f Central and Soi thcrn \merica; some hart' made their way to Itrttleh India. The emigrntion to the BrM*h Wc * lnirv- has l>er>n ' onsiilerahle to the Huaiis greater still. Tlie annua! arrivals in Bingar poie are estimated at an average of 10,1)00, arid J. (MX) U the uuniber that art said annual'/ to retuia to Chin. AJ1? )f?l VaUiurr of til* Kr*t Trade 8f JWia In Ka<?pt. A MancUater (Eng.) correspondent wriUw as tol low 8: ? The Jwnal tits Ecimomiidet him lately published a ttuiou cut upon the commerce of Frauce tor 1n">4, and from which it appears that the amrout of mer thuLdise exported from France into Huglaud wax ?17,600,000, and the value of the imports into France from Kiiglai'd watt on I > ?s ,000 ,000, showing a ba lance egaim-t (free trade) England. and in favor of (pro let lion) France, of ?'j,6u0,000. How Uiuk can a nation btaid ?uth a drain upon her industry a< thin? Hut this is not tne worst feature in the .ase. TLe total anouut of our export* of British and Irish pioduce aud manufactures to France, as shown h y our Board of Trade returns, in 1864, was ?3,175,2'*) ?the differcfice of ?4,824,710 belug made up of fo reign materials, such as grain, rawcottou, ti ix. heiap, dve btnffe, goat's hair, lend, oil, quickailvor, taw silk. skins, spelter, spices, wool, Jcc. Hut the m^Mt important point to be ooserved is the woollen tride . f th? se two coentries, and the following is a state ment oi the imports of the raw material into ea' h: ? bBWa '8, 1 AMJth', *rt . WOOL IMPORTED INTO OHKAT BU.Tjll.N. 1812. Impcitfj, lb* 45,883,98-1 tiporte<3? Kuitign 8,687,789 I t> .>i? jsui BriUi.n 8,678,0tfl j 12.-1B-4,W Lett for ocBfumi>tt?n 83,667,603 1863. !mpert*d 119 8W,4W (*:'<? ? ForHtfu 11, 726, 369 ) 1H w,, ,.m Briii,h 0,736,940 1 I ett fcr e4M>eumi ticn 100,936,140 stitxr's lambs', isc. , wool mroRTKD into niA-ica. 184 a. Tina* lbs 60 183,035 Ixpcited 8. 978,822 Left fur ctm-uztptibo 40 204 228 1865. 'nsoorl^d 130 566,866 Exported 12,8^4,633 I eft 'or crneumption 117,731 233 In the first place it is necessary to mention that the growth of wool in Ftunc? and En.'laad i< aboit equal in amount, so that the consumption of foreigu wool is a fair tcBt of the trade of each country. It will, therefore, be Been that France, from 1842, the year of S>r R. Peel's first tampering with o.ir tariff, has iiicr eased her consumption o I foreign wool 71.600,000 lbs., whilst Great Britain has only in cleaned 67,300,000 lbs., showing an increase in France over England of nearly 4,6')0,0v>0 lbs.; aud yet the iinpoitb of foreign woollen manufactures into the United KingdoD at the two periods weie? Kxeund. 18f3 ?1,062 869 Pioieotii d, 1842 40,0<j0 toanwte wder fr ? t'a'e ?1 0-'2,8',9 But as 1P63 was the year in which oar trade ob tained hi ch .in impetus from the ra?h speculation or excess-ve i-hipmeuta to Australia, I will show the position of the woolen trade lu this kingdom since that period : ? imioits c? mur s, lambs', kjo , wooi. mo fa* umibd KIM. IX M IN HIP. FIKCT TP. > MONTHS OF 186b AMD 18 Sl>. 1866. Import/ il ?79,05(, 121 ExporUd- lot clan ?28,402,4?'* \ ... nao ??? Btltbh 14,6i6^675j <*7,988,068 l*ftfor consmuptit a ?41,066 056 1868. ImpoHeJ ?'<6,4i59,346 SSSE left for oor< uii'p^ioi) ?82.340,865 Now, cou'd theje be anything more convincing than the above statement of the docliue of the woollen trade of this kingdom ? And if further pi oof is wanting, it will be found in our export* of woollen maiiclactuies, viz: ? KSPOMS or WOOLLKN MAM PAlTCRRS IN TUB PIR.-T TUN MONTHS OF 1853 and 1866. 1868 ?8 083,73? 18t& 6,320 448 lecreaM 82 367,491 I have shown that the balance of trade in 1854 against England (and free trade) in her commerce with France (ar.d protection) was ?9.600,000. 1 will now show the result of that year's commerce between France and the United States ? two protectionist countries. IxporM fiom France to United States ?12,360 000 Iniport* into " from " 8.800,000 Baljnee in favor of France ..?3.600,000 So that with a one-sided free trade nation France has an advantage of ?#,600,000, and with a country a little more liberal than herself the balance in her favor is ?3 /> 60 ,000 Could any thing more fully prove the necessity of reciprocal treaties ? But (he total exports and imports of France in the year 1864 were? Exports ?66,240,000 lie potts 49,7(50 600 Balance ta favor f t Fma ce ?6,480 000 And the total imports and exports of the United States in 1864 were ? txpojts $276,166 840 imports 201,468,620 ?13,088,320 Or a balance in favor of the United States of ?2, 861,734. While with Great Britain the very reverse is the case, as will be seen from the following state ment, as published by G. N. Newdegate, Esq., M. P., in which the imports are calculated at their market value: ? ANNVAL BAlJkN'CI OP TRAD* AO A INST CRKAT IJUTAI.N IN nKB m#UiCK WITH AIX THB WORLD. 1847 ?19,374 700 1868 13 306.110 18-19 14,166,833 1880 10,516,786 18M 13,068 862 1962 13,000,000 Lcr-s to tie ir.dufttr j cf the fclitgdcm in six J ens *83.462 300 1 his is the last publication by Mr. Newdegate upon the subject; but It may be fairly ai-sumed, in conse quence of the imports of grain, Ac., in 1863, 1854, 1S56, and the very heavy foreign demand upon nor bullion, that in there years, at the very lowest com putation, the balance against this kingdom cannot nave been less than ?20,000,000 per annum, making the national sacrifice in nine years of ?143,462.300 as the cost of the insane policy of hu experimental ore-sided free trade; and if to this be added the ?90,(H/0.ti09 which Mr. Villiers admitted the nation had lot-t by ti e repeal of tL>e corn laws, it make* the sum of i. 233 .452,3t!0 as a national sacritice, fully pro\h,g that peaceful follie< are sometimes more expensho than deadly warfare. Bat how stojd the ca?e previous to " free trade?'' In 1845 the bilauce of w ci mnicrce with all the wor d was iu lavor of Englaid by ?4,797,360. I am, sir, &c , R. Bubn. The Laed He volution In Ireland. The lri?h Encumbered Estates Commission is now in its seventh year of oOice, (Jan., i860,) and it will not be vninterestiug to those who have watched the working of that remarkable tribunal to give an example of the complete revolution it has effected, or rather is effecting, in the agricul tural rnd socfcil condition of Ireland. The counties of Gal way and Mayo contain 2,800,000 acres of iand, or about one-seventh of the area of the island. In 1860 the landed proprietary ol those two coun ties were, perhaps, the most hopelessly involved in Ireland. The tolvent exceptions were few. chiefly in the eastern portion, where some estates were comparatively free from encumbrance, wel I en 1 tvrred and comfortably tenanted ; while the remoter districts, including the great lakes aud highlands of the far West, exhibited little more than the primi tive elements of agriculture, the land untonohed by enterprise, unimproved by capital, ajid even its na tural lesources unnoted, except by the casual gl .nce of tourists in search or the picturesque. Now, on every side are unmistakable signs of im proven ent and progress. Many estates are being furnished with well constructed farmsteads, drain age is becoming peneral, a higher style of farming is adopted ar d the wages of labor are more than doubled w' th in the last five years. 636,000 acres, that is. about one-fourth of the available superficies ot these two counties, have already changed hands, producing a total sum of upwards of ?2,000.000, mid petitions for sale are still pouring in unceas Inoly. The m mbcr of proprietors over the extent t< Id has lieen increased fourfold, and about one thin! are purchasers at and unJer ?2,000; thtse, with tbe English, Scotch and Ulster tanners, set tled on Clew Bay and in various other localities, contributing to form the nucleus of an independent ml< dk cJa-s, the want of which has been hitherto K) 'iijurious to the political and social Interests of this count! y. /.bout one fifth of the whole numbeT of purchasers me from the other side of the Channel; hut though the Eiglish ai d Scotch hove everywhere set a good e:?amj>le as farmers in occupation, they have not as proprietors, generally speaking, managed their es tat? s with as much prudence aud profit us Iri-h pur eltfeer*. Thus the capital nnd skilled Industry of our Bri tish neighbors have been drawn to that region fur the^t removed in geographical position, as well as in industrial progress, from tbe seat of government and superior civilisation. It is gratifying to state that the improvement in our land market has e Ha bit d seveial of thi original proprietors topresoro a portion of their ancient inheritances, and they still lesine among a tenantry by whom they are beloved and respected. The mineral resources "and fisheries of ihe west, hr ve not kept pace with agricultural iTQgtees, nor has tbe vast water power of the great lake s Ik en as yet appropriated for manuf icturing purposes; indeed, little decided pnvrc-<8 can be ex ptrU <1 in these braoclios of industry until Counauglit '? permeated by * -y-'-'a of railway ''"mmuriicaWm iiuu Miutb to north , ^ Gulwtv linked with ttit uiuiiufui-turiiiff proTiDM of Ulster. Tbe Urea Northern In*- w,u 'nr,>j>aUr be s<>on wnimeiMed, and subsidiary b.aiolms will follow, thi ? <-oiu|>iet)i.g thone physical aid-* to develop utssii of iiKtunil resources wfiLh lacdity and cbeapue:* Of tincsport luvttrialJy confer. The ttallw*!! of Ur**t Britain. (I rOQi ?? U>dooo II >*>,, fl, Irftrt.] It appeare froui the publish yd traffic retires ?f railways iii the united kingdom for?i?e year 1865, thui the icceiptd aoj'Miiteil to ?20,t43 3lo ou 7,700 miles of railway The receipt for the year ISM amotnttd to ?18/>41,K65, ah twing an increase of ii,7t.l.4ti(). In addition to the published trifflc ro tuir.s, thf-ie aie other ti/ifllc receipts on several jew and i ld railways, whi b are not published either ? i?r y?if>r }' t,,'tiil>r. and for which uu e4iiuate o 01 w,t )?tler of the year had t ? b# ' ?'i ? " U1 ''"'?Ktli of tho?e lines is 54s miles, about 1 m Tim* -rt'. tr,4?c uf"n them Tar the year thi tmti ,? 1 . added to theabov* ihows J( r b t-t xrtViJ ?" ?" ltJ tlje united kingdom ,f k iV I * *e" ?-1 123.315 on 8.240 miles The cl at ?l' .K .al Ver,ite"f ?'2M1 P^rmlle. Jite cost on < viibtruciiou, working stuck mid m forth. amountc* to ?2 .1 ??* ?< o ?> 1 \ I s?w^;??-3x vS?? Tfiity-Bb"Wt"? a" a**** Of XljJSJ . , or 6.61 | er cent iu iho leccipts, ?"d I . HI? 061 ln llie mJ1eiK?- The increase ?t 'I"?,0 m 0ter Wilh ?2.0:0,000 or about 1 1 per cent. Nothing ci.n 1 e more satisfactory tlan tie incieaie o( traffic on railway.!, and were n net i??i the unwarrantable increase of expenditure ou cspital iccoi.nt. the railways, on the w'mie woulu now be pay ing ab?.ut 6 per cent per aouu* ; '"stead of about 3J per cent, as at present, which ie ( in 'iict an increase npou the average of former y.ara 1 at 'e**t h*"' per tent. Had the capital intrasMd ? to railway d'ie< tc>rs been j> dicionsiy expended eft | railway* iu the united kingdom, and had their in teiosis been involved in the hoc essful re ult of dividend paying lines as in France, instead oris the outlay or capi al. there would probably be no , 'er property now than railwavs. The ii>lk>vrir? allows the progressive nature of the trifle t'u# increase of traffic on railway- in the united k nirdom m ihe year 1? 43 n?er thut of tne nrec^dinir \enr .V'*'0"'*,74-- m ,K,(4- ' ? ?7il^,337; in into, , r : )n 1H4rt' toXl.OWI.MO; in 1 -47, to ^ S,i07;, ln ,H4S? 10 XI 10.1.335, in lh4!?, to ?:'K0/?<;p; in 1*6Q. to ?1.741,Uil; in J ? I. to ? ' 1D ^2, t'i jl>2(i.4<X); in 1:0 1, to "40, MO; in lMt, to 3.080,00(1; a-id in ih,',.,. u I ai.n-0' ""twithKtaiid ng the depresaion of i.r.ida. I ne liaflx receiptn, in fart iu- reused year after year . w,,,, n thc-> wt'rt! ?V>42,'M )j to . I'V , 1 ."'6' The expenditure oa cipital ao ?r?n . .wLe '"cre rged from XM, 000,000 ia Jjlr, <i ?? ?^?2,OOG W 0 iu Ji.ly, l?Ar> ? the increase in li . f r l,)? >ear ^ 'K ?16 7 ->0.000, and in tb? J '?'pit"! e*po' ded ?^3!i,04>0.i>00. The average coat ?tf Vvr V?, ?yH. ,Jf5 ,",l,, wai< lf43 f34.(l'J0; iu 1*43, 'a44' ?3<>.f?70; in lrt4.?, ?36.070; in 1H46. i^J.>80: In in IS47, jt31,7'?0; in 1K4-1, ?34 231 in i4; ,nlHA0 ?SA 229; ?'l Wl.?3r,.<m; In 1862, ?34,?30; in 1H53, ?35,11.1; in 1854, ?36,014: ui>d in 1K.6, ?3n.42(>; at< thut. iiot-vith.- tandin" the conttnif non ot thousands of miles of comparatively T' nnC ,aveIHBe 0081 f?' mUe haa not >x*q Ueiieatrf-d The traffic iec?i|it? |?r miie per amiu.-n aveiiifrcu in ^42. ?3,118 per mile; in l>43, ?3,o?6: in 1S47' iolln' V !*1o' 4,t!,; in 1H4>1' X1..106; ? n ? ' ,n ^ 4?> ^2^)50; in 1H4'?, ?2,302: U/3 +9^71 '' 3; ir,1^2.XJ,23*; m ^?3. ?2,471; in 1864. ?2,604; and in 1866, ?2.i48 rcr mjje. tr, m tbia it appear* that by cl tainx tba account and uttc.idin/ to the natural iii crea^c of traffic the aagmented receipts wo. ild, at the end 0/ a lew yeare, ndmit of reapei table diri dei dn on railwayn generally, b. t unfomonafely w ihe hhanb< Idem, the closi g of capital aoconuta to ..n,:on Ha an 'mpowibillty by railway direct m fitid others connected with railway companies. A Prtwiit tor ( romtadt. ^ lJ?*rpo<il r'Oft ] Through Wbe favor of Messrs. Finch & Kelly we have had tl.e satii-fartinn of viewing one of thone coi.s.derable pres?nt#< which we intend next year to shower into Crcnstadt ai d Helsingfoia in sucb num fh^L*8* will prove the ainceiity of our interest la three strongholds, if, indeed, it Khali not overwhelm them. The present we refer to ia an imnen* botnbshell of the bngest and moat extraordinary propotlione ? one of a number which the Lowmoor iron L mpany is nnder contract with the gorern n.ent to mpply, and which the company i* now rapidly casting ard completing. This shell ia 3 feet oinche* in circum erence, and 36 inches in diameter. The aperture by which it ia charged and the fu.-e in serted are 2j incheB in diameter, and the shell iteelf rS ,.ncheBi?,ck throughout, and at the aperture 31 ^ WC!gbt 0f tbe hhe'l ta 1 *?U ? CWt. 1 nr. 7 id. wnb such dimensions and such weight it is easy to understand that when propelled br adequate projectile forte, ro granite can withstand those monster shells; and Cronstadt must crumble befen the repeated and sustained operation of such a bom bardment. This immense shell has been sent to tbe company s Liverpool agents for transmission to the Puke of Devonshire's castle, in Lismore, Ireland? ^?.J???,paDy-.Juving' at ?** Doke'8 request, pre ^,d/',n with one uncharged. Of course sucha L L?. ^ reqnlre considerable leverage te Flllfv j chamber of a mortar, and this J ? ?? . without a resort to machinery, te fat ilitate ahich we should state that the mouUi of the fbell u si rrounded at a convenient distance br four lugs, made of wrought iron and cast into the ?!Lr ? "w"18. placed within the El *,?f ^le .cort of e^h 8hell unfilled will be ?20 to ?^0, and, however expensive, we could not send nis Czarship an uglier present, or one more nnwel cctre. 1 he mortars for the discharge of these mon ster shells are in course of manufacture at the works of Mr. C. Mare. BlackwalL They are of wrought iron, and will weigh about 36 tons eaoh. The Cse of Arsenic. TO THE EDITOR OK THK LOVOOX TIMR8. Mm wiinu th,e,1Cna9e of th? ^euth 01 the unhapW Mrs. Vi oolerbtill remains enveloped in mystery, allow me to oter a supposition which d.Ks not aptiear U bnve piesented itself to the minds of any of tbe 1^*1 nw concerned in the investigation. cottin, nfVe^f Crmmon pr*ttia} aum? parts Of the coLtintnt ? iu Germany, H'ingiry and the Tvrol for persons of all classes to take' argute in m mute qnantities as a tonic and btimi lant. it Invigomu* tl.e frame and has a remarkable eff.;ct upon tbe chet-t, enabling them to climb steep mils with ease* It aWimpaits a brilliant bloom t<? the cjmulbxiaa and a general appearance of youthiulness. The too II cqueiit practice of giving arsenic to horses in this country is well known; and the beauty of coat, ex ccl eme of wind, and appearance of good health pr? diucd by it. while the an-ei.ic is ad ninhtered in lolf "in ^a'l qVa",ity' "l e^c'ly regulated iuter vals, is evident; but, as the practice is m isvly re boritd U> by grooms without the knowleige of tnoir masters, the want of caic and exactness, and th? Treqtent change of rervants, have oi;casinaed th* l .ss of mwny valuable animals, whose deaths have remained in mystery?for it is a wonderf.il fact with regard to the taking of arsenic that if it bo disooo tiiiLed the constitution breuks up with pre isely tbe *cme symptoms which are prr.di.cid by arsenical poisoning, and the sufferer (for the effect is the suae on tbe man as on the animal) dies a miserable death I from wart of the arsenic, with ererv appearance of 1 being the victim of poison. Now. ft certainly it possible, if it be not thoiizht I probable, that Mrs. Wooler may have beea for yc mi y* w',crtt h?bit ?f toking arsenic, nuknown even to her nearest relations; for arsenic eaters like keop their 0<,rn secrets. The nr Vabin J ^0w,e^s sol lution? a very convenient form of taking arsenic in very small doses? is ia the me dicine basket, and it would be well to inquire when and ly whom that bottle was procured. Mrs Woofer ' leave off a habit, ud 1 L iT I the "Sequences, or, when iU and unable to help herself to tbe arsenic witho it the knowledge , of those aronnd Ler, may have disliked their obUdn I mR possession of her secret. The News ffo? Hnytl, TO TBB KD1TOB OF TH* HaKALD. I 1 beg to state, ln connection with the article in ! the IIkbald of the 23 1 inst., in reference to aflhics In Haytl, that I have dates from Port-au-Fr nee of tbe 27th ult., which inform me that the Saytlea army had met with some reverses wbieb migtt com pel the Emperor to return to his capital. Hut he had nothing to apprehend flrotn his own people. Here is a correct translation of an extract of a letter from good authority, dated at Port-au-Prlnee th*; 2'. th nit., received by the last arrival: ? " We have news this mornin? of his Majesty; he is in pe ifect health, and is at this moment in Banica. No Inrther news." Banica is in the Dominican part of the island. The accounts firm Hayti are general!/ of a highly wrwifcbt chare < ter ? much of tne news from there being reported by masters of vessels, -frith the bert intentions, no doubt, who, opining their informa tion at the code houses, through broken English or fii m their inability to understand French perfectly, phe to the news collectors In this country informa tion having some foundation ln troth certainly, which, however, tbe event has usually proved to be exnggeiated and highly coloruL In m* jndgmi nt tne Haytien army met with a re pulse from the Dominicans, and has retired, with the rmreror at its head, to Hanica, where it remained (>n the 2Pth nit. unmolested by its enemy, and the* nris no meeting of the two armies after the one .*1 ltide 1 to in my letter of the '27th ult.