Uve ... > deg^er.^ ^ rn#(J ^ ** ">? eeaqww, m4 u the :n?-r. . f rrueltv ^ oppw%lon *b ?u-b a 4 #??. tf tij,f , a,, fMgttgg c the p^rt of the (.?< |< t <?tc pote.bie. ?'. IM lit. It) Ul*) n>fc a a* aCCOm fk-bfci m spite f The wbetMiee thr j*i m their *>; by I Ae seue rrder of ibinga. Hut this little ?u act miffl eier.t :? ernvblw the peop.e to undt.Ktixd the owntiil mad ?en?ti ueet elements <>( liberty. True republican in?ii fetkt ? a. e the h gnest deval verovut u( kuato wudca, their ^rvigppoMa uct inly i g"ne-aldiffu,-i n of hnew ledge, bnt a n?a decree of aptiiude in the n f of I the peep'e; their ;?r?umn?? depends en general in tnl'igenee mad morality. It is evident that the Speniah. American erJcnie* were unable to arr've at such a state e# porwetioa. They couM not keep paoe with the im peTenvntg which were gradually introduced n Htrope, ?* which even Spain oonld ao longer reeiet Tbeee ?utaiee had beea, from ihe beginning, net oaly u^t the 'Way ef an lrrespocrdtile sad locally impw hi gar erwment, without Ike aasee ef the tatter, hat had heea sJso nnder the icf! ie??ce of a rtectvo': kai>, expiring dor i?u>o en the 'lfce ctu j,i wa ci Mtuer*ei the Ufe Mood from their Terns, l? *r4*r U prolong ite own *e gwiehmg existence? n new ?1, whlca the* (hit without ?*twfr e hi w be avoid it. Their i fens of a remedy were, ?(Hrerer, ^ea awd infiefciitfc They were rather g.ided by the instinct at their en prase iwatioa and by the thirst ?f ?en ;ennee. than by the inspim'ions'otf renew amd ex perience. hi due <* *r?e of e**nt* and hy a series of regular do Tekpe meats, approached our revoiu jon ? a straggle tor ? early defiaed and well understood interests. It was ta eorec hy that great moral aid ami coawnfciaa which Hire aeonder the fatten in which the mt^Mj of Europe **** bound by .hti.- kir:g? ano hy the ohureh tor a pane d of a th/ unand yenrj ? ihe freneh revolution. It was Impassible to conceal this great event from the "werM. lht> knowledge of it spread everywhere, despite ?I vtee-oy*, ecists, ami tnc moa' arbitrary met* uses i-gaisst toe press. Tie Ionian of the distant valleys of the A ik es, or ?f tbe deep mine i of P?'?o, in Peru; th* ertole of tne narrow siot*. <rf Chih, of the high plateau ef M**i-o, or <4 the vr Ican'e regies* an J va*t lakes of Owitjal A ?t* tea? all beam tfc? roar of tbe revolutionary ?a???n, tint- b sat, their eyex spa'hled and thetr hesbs t"- so? led ?i h ecstasy. The fomentation apread to <he f rani h eoionier. Thoy thought of the paat and ?4welt hope ully on tbe future 4 futa-e, unJor.uaa'.cly hat too frtqurc tly darlMned hy hat/ed and jealousy, ?aiagied with tie fpirii <>f wengeaatt. spaia promptly leit the aboek <f tbs French revo '? ?? old in abases and o>?c>ured by oor iwptk.a, glorious ooiy in her soveair*, she his ?ever 1 inee been aMe to ro-wxtabliah tie 1 battiered tkhiie of bvr barbsrian e-andecr. Her minti-n Of ?oaquest and pripa^acdi-m is cl >s?d and all ehs felt, hels, or will ever tee', in her past greataess. Bat in b^r la J, ber colonies fill rema n<-d deface nt upon ner, iiko *te ivj wr-l.b clings to to old torret overthrown by an aartbqaake. rbe power of tne vieereys wa* r .renjt and ?V?r"nB. whilst that of the king was fee tile. Thej coa tkaeed 'btii aluaare wtb the thrr ne of l-Vrdinand and faataiia. tboogh profaned by a Cuiiaparte and supported hy f>r?ign bayonets. Spain presented to the world tbe ?hgnlar s?e?'.ta?le of a gove -nment strong in its em-remi has and caad at tbe heart. There was something adini ?ah'e in "he livoiioo with waioh tbe colonies adhered to their tr?di ions. Tbe colci>l>itj themselvee forgot for .1 ?owent thei.- grleis and h^jurioH, remembering only thiir fast glory and grandeur, and tbe tact of tiie ?euatry of thetr asvoetorg and tb* m >narchy of Carlos V. Mag ?r< Btrated at tbe feet of Kianee. Although Spun wa* tyraczical aid opprersive, she wa* still tbfir caotber omn'iy, and il patriotism e-nsiste in the nun pie lore ot the Dutive ?cil. tbe Spaniards and their descendants must always be regArded ?i tbe greatest patrlote. Tbe yaun^ mecle, ai'h-.nfh ceitniie'i b%ve "ilne? p?ssed away, still preserves with eiide tbe sweet acifnt of her^ndalusian aneestor* ; or, iodi^msct at a propoeltion which is njt te he accepted, replies hy ailtttnj h?r lair brows and pout bag like a queea, Sot ima kUaltna! W1 h the restoration in Sp?iu eetsei this patriotic *ea'i?Mtnt and *> m ^atby in the Spanish colonies, which were rtsde nue by 'he invariably absolute sjp em it the rice-ojs, tb?. the reforms It'.;i4:ced by tba: resto jetK.i in Ku ope were net intended for thsm. On tne ether band, tbe viceroys, tk-e r '.oti.nl aristoc-.-acy, an: tbe ule gy itself, wb > oorrtl a ted an uniimite; power atd a formidable ecderlartijal oligarchy, aaw wi'h uaeaeiness tbe jrog-ew of the spin of r?fcrir?tien. Tbe repre?entati7e yriaciple hai keen mtioduetd in Spain ; the power of tbe mo march, ti'l tber abeelfite tad beeo limited, the a.-istxra tj leforased, tbe priril?ges of the clergy oiatin:slied, :b Mwnf ?>iiiu gemiure > b uiaheo. aed <ht) s.eat pnneipl el e<(a?4i j brf 're toe Uw pi04Ui<ned. They .Va.-ea th ^iffu?K n ?f ibs spfrtof ureruiisai wnieh bat p odu:<> ?? eh nvvttlf n? ct?a.i,ee h) rhe .i'enuisuJa. Their fear ww e not nnfo'ioded. N?iwi(hdtanduig tne dlr an^e toat divided t^em, and the lon? peAicds 01 oppretsioo, Ign) ranee, aad al but aceoiate superstition, wsieh tud rwgned in the ?u*nisb eoiokiie, the ray* of a new i:^n poaied in upon Auci ca, snd people i tgan tospeaJt with Wet r iaiguise ot tbe ri^h'" ol ht.max>i*.y ani hastened to re eegaiie tbim. Tbo vuice of li er"y, chamtng '.be raie.t ? ft uad thr upends of listeners; it eansed amcnge'. the oppie-nd povulaii-uns tbe raise exciteeaenr, taes-un* pea?ant en>oi on* that mumc roes amcnge*. the savages, esgue hop? s cl an unknoea fn uts dawned trosa ami ngst ihe cloude which covered them. The mos' in teU%es.t ana eont ?nUiu-j??Uc thought cf ihe-.iie^ im poaiusle to ee le^jted, the Crroies, of an order of thing* hy whieo tb?y coula p' we themselves In tbe same rant wt'h ibe meet eleia'ed, im Iadi*n reiarnt l nam. in bis toecii a?i< n, *0 iboee glori <oh days w ?n the demj iracy ef TUfccaU, Mke tb< ? ?f '-parte, exercised their simsle bet ?eieie lawi, wisely adapted to Bie necessities aod eotiCKiuB, aad ween tis aocesV rs did net ?ow under a toieVB yoke. But lew or none bad a dear idea of ehai eoi nttiites true rrpaDliraulim. or knew the means of ?r-.ving at ina pre-ervrg it. T>.e fc??t. net to say tbe wisesf, >ike tee revolutiunists of Fmnce. Ceil lat.i tbe eeror ot ei.n,o-i?g lliat a people weary of ty.anny and ?n'hn>iastiC o lilw.ij, were capable of understanding .t aeo reals 1 gall tbe ci n Utn.n* i its euJoymenL He pueMcs aie 'i-e < ft pt.i.g cf lime; they are, to a eer tBtn fx int. 'he result ff these high devel i aemeats of btim-ni'y w' 1 h tkey at t^e - line lime in tbei.? tura kep to miprore. Tliud, whiec the most aost-??t treik- of lepbblicei it-ei -were pu iialsued wi.h loree and eio<|eei/c#, ibe p? v e J iut the means of attaining te ra tmeeJ and foily t?c ^Li^ed Jiber.j. Ihe separation from 9paiu *ae lb- fir^t g eat rtep bey Dad o v.ew *his "?e- accofcj, i -t f d , ;bey tbougbt nothing farther was wanton. Ihe feci i y ?itb whic'i the Spanish monarchy wae dis BeBilieird, and Ube fnuepetdence of the A>nericui C'^k> eies e*Ub it-bed, U i-,deed .- aiaTta'jte It ??j. r?-> doubt, t? giea> jar', a'tribi.ubie to .be feebleness ->f tbe ntotbs. ? ?aafry. But o ber cauae.-. to ahich we wili oriefly al kie*, eoB'iibu td U- favor it. The wiBb^raUe p*f, of the Spanish- Ameri t in popu Ibih n by wbie.h a<e on< e-s -<>d as eeil th -ee wbo o;ou pferi all the 'mpir'aut po-ie, ?nd who wire taore in'.i mVeli ttuiecv-d "M'h tbe gieerlmejat. an raen wbose prinaiplee weie monarchic* and of .a ex luMve iharac ter, eaO.aci. g ibe whole va^t boly of the ti. 3 c ecg7, b < bed at > < ni> eitb .e.'ror on -he piopaga.ion ot bbertl ptrneipies io >be I raineula out ?ere also *frud tha>. they m'fh' ex-kad to tbeir emm rj an tav>Mte .heir r>wa ia.e r**is 1h?) trea.l> en lor tb*ir imraanitlee and p ivile^ev , bet e"nnd<nt 01 toe mtlueii^e wbina fOfir ed^ aff>n and ?>? licit* ot tke C4>u i li-t gave 'bun, and of the poeer rtej '??< fce?o * oti u.i ed with, th?-y at * mtli ievi rouce "O t#e revex j-uieo and p o< Laoiitim of liberal lde?s in Anerica. lhus. when ru>a ory of ?ep*-at< -q f.-run ipaiu wm? raise', 'hej j m,<i it it aad uaderotnicon cv.se with th* | r-opi*. A 1 Uib*l' in 'hi- ' epfafi 'D not only "heir preeeiif reeur'ty but al'"i the o.B'iOuati ?n of t i-ir e>e )>b-d pnvi *ge aia autoeii y The Viceroy doped kj u.e?t ? . I ?.), p ??, s Kith wMoh h- wa 1 ve ? ed, to make <j n.-el ..ii.jt, a?rt t - enj ?/ ,>rj inrtepe'jd<>nt astead ?U<ti?ia'*il s'?ie; tbe ari-u>e.>->iry, to -tiaie off their e> K i.isl d- tei'iiea- e a d t' ? iud-joetd-tni arisco era'w. b cj. More \er, tbey oeii ved jat Of the es te* 's n.e- 1 e: an lema-tkto p < 1 I o (ga rc'97 they viivlduiir* bor ii?blj c.r?.in. c ov?-r f'he lg3oiaat ma lh?i bj' hejr t ?n are s ?w. dlsil e'ioue. lhae i< l>ap|i*aeu tbn il.a a-' eo'utiew, 'he int.lerao 0 ?ho sie.fH-/ Oixfi as -I ,n e> r-up'ioue o' Spun, th? f ep'ifg at tr,e 1 * gy nod 'v i- ny, k :*.fjge io An. - r'ce, std > > d-t tbere tr efr laet rthwu agaia t tbo >ro i *e? '? M'erel >enMu>ei.ts. lh > heter gse-ons uni n ?y 'Le '? f 1 *e of inre^en.< tc? "f h- aotbec counffy bar' tie hert ?esult. txcspt lu dex ei O loabii a?! seme (' Itil.fd JOF'S. f U'h Aeeie. tne decla'a'i <if Uoe^ad^nrw did not leal Hay nerlorn ciufli:'.. t'salo r-lit-rt c oboeot y flat be' rot *ial ffl I a Ih ? 4 id ? ?main b- in egrity if ber o seee icns -.nd w^eo ihese failed 1 e- was aware 'bat ter w?;a>t.e,'e w uli f?* all- w ber fo en hark in % st ?ggle *ht_h ,er^?iv 1 i? onr ? vn rev m ion i s .-.tan' ?u ?we t".c ????? V *'*" **" ir i*?^e tei.-e ca le<l witi in- r? unanimii.. sad fact 1 y tb?n in Cettr il Ail jict ti wbicj 1 nufy Ice lo-toe.iig sage* are e p*.duly devoved. No H<voi,er had the acf ' t s< par%>im tsk?n pla-e. at mo test c ngra i.ln'r u i \tpr n tho >'*prii?i >n <>f ' ;e ci tj 1 .n eaewy beet exchanged, taao ibe p^oo'e *. h a v dre n (ho ooer, called l(i ajetsnte i?id?peode_cs, o th bsJiit ef tie eoB>'itulioa o' we great re u <a(c of the Mortb. a lai *s ihey wen1 at e to untie ?fan4 it. r.M e ;tj nrerieed the sl)oe.k se.l struggle be W"n V.e two (f-eat ae^gonistte prineip<?ii slJuot.d - 'he tne .? pre." -nt'-i ^>y ? ri;h aid p we f .1 a-is" c.a-? nod .1 i-alous cJe gy prwiesre-J of jic>, heneflcn, 'hi? oVbf by ti" per 1 pie, shj aiMe of ihefr nhstract dgh s i>n* rich inlf -a 'hetr (le v? 11 n, en Jius a?fi "ei'y af ached to aha* they ;n st. M Pl !iie?ty atd lepub'l tui-m. in a w >rd. *>s' v< -0 th"'e who in Mexico ?nd '>nt-il Anerica w-e ^a.; d eervi.es und ibera's, oarnee ?hlch we sball adhere to 1 1 tbeee negew, be.^uee ?>' b?ir ea-ler dir,tln.tf n Ic li eesy <0 onr ere ano how this s'rngg'e to' euprena y e banged grtdna j Into nn? af e* ermination. i?r the e enele bea. cenpr mieeor c Bcilia \ n bstweeo prin ijiles ?o im^iacabiy hoe ile as tboee watch h*vedivid<*i t e fpeioeh cole. r les, Hence esulteo In a grea' mee-itire that ?e-eeious fntolereaee I tare deplored In the oo-runejoe mart of this chapter; fence Jut. ?< tee of reflation* a *1 eei^ter revi lu ie?s wbicn to ibis bsnrdistrvt the Hpan tah Amer>an Htntee, and in whic ? tH?- greet mtse o' oo gMepie b?h >ld aotLiog but the sfxife tf petty liieb and I the etruegt's of per tier, f r powe-. Onr own w diyi m was nothing Vit a so.*: I arntfiv ?frV ehcut reytjL j.^n lormi, itg e??ejitkJ ?iTkxi '^?gr^ j b*U MD;iLtd slowly and by d^ #m b.|,-i?ic i g with tlioee carried at Hunayaawie, ??''??' -tie U . out >r. ie tbe tceptie of ebwdete royalty, and whe i 'he principle* of liable wea. pracuoailf Uiiunphed, later -S-o C'.emweJ tm tewibhls "?ooro the King and the tUroas than wire*. in* >b<?k of thoae two principle* which, wi'.h u*. U?t?<i during a peiiudM can Varies wan conientmtad to ti c Spanish -American republic* into the short *pa>e of a law year*. The revolution in tttll working, the rights oi man are avt yei viuatcatad, >he triumph o< republican tun TV t jet obtained, and the fall of mxiahinn not jet et ui | leted. It iii true that the efforts of tbe liberals bin nut *u ay* beau directed By wtadom, for by falling into the i^-sdw of their adversaria* they have retarded or impeced heir own aueeam. It is also eertain iha. tbej had to w i W rather upon the sentiments than upon tbe judgment if tbe people. In the height of their ent ,u tiaam -.h?y ojMni'.ted actions dieg'aceful to their own cau>?, and wflch ihey have been the tirrt to deplore. But It la not to them that belong* the sanguinary odium ct this struggle. The strrllee hare marked their whole career by the Boat atrocious cruelty; never did thej show tbe least tolerance, generally or clemency ; oa the eotitraiy, they lmve always exhibited the extreams of brulaMy and barbarism In ail siragglee m which they have been implicated. It ie not my purpose to enter into the partionlars ef the pthtical history of Central Amertcv ainoe its separa tion from K|?io nor of that of Meaico and tbe other State*, in all ot which the slevelopewieut of ths principles 1 have indicated can be iraoed. I *?* only treating of |? nera uies. Some.imes ! may bare occaM>n to make rvfereaces, by w?ay of ill nitration, to the successes of the ?eivle pa ~'y in Mexico In estaWishing an epheaaeral empire, under ftuib?de. with wfc >t?e fall Disappeared ore ver the mona."oblcal system on the North American con tinent. CHAPTER n. FHK BKVOUCTIOH IX I'KM'HiL AMERICA ? SCm*JGGLK EiTWEKN TBS RfcPCMJCANH AND MONARCHISTS ? TK1UMTH OK TU KWlJBliC ? IKll *0 182J. No? bete in Spanish America ware the abases of the tj rsoLioal a kit i?i system of Spuin mora evident than In (entral America, during the epoch of the capitania general 01 vioe reyalty of Guatemala. Its Jeafous policy excluded tbe peopie of th?t vast region fr?<n any o >m munic*t'.lon whatever with the rest of the world. Fortlgnrrs were rigorously kept away from its ooasts. and no lmrntirration permitted, not even *rom Spain, ex cept uncer the : evvrest ree'-ric dens. The power of tbe mother country was sys tenia icaily aagtoented, aad the dependence or impotence of the colonic* maintained by all means potable. The crown oflloers enjoyed the m%t extended prerogatives, snd were entrusted with unlimit ed power?, of wbfch they ger.erally made use only for tbe pretto'loc of their individual Interests and person *1 sggranr'isr men' . With the people they bad no syaapa ifaie? at all j their ta^ue was Witli the rich and power ful ciergy, in wbore Lands lay that teuiale inatrumens bi 0|ipre?fi<iD ? in.(uim'J m. United, their were abso lute aad irresUti -.le The ccnquered abcrigines had be cone ths paf?v? siares of tbair will, cultiratiug their lauds without any remuneration, and paying iinp.sta ior woat they aere exclmed from. Tnese unhappy men were not twen allowed to moiint their own horses ; they were even whipped for rem?inlng cowered before taeir oppressors. 1 have already indicated some of the causes whi'h led to lie overthrow of this order <rf tliirjgs. In tne year 1815 "be firi-t outbreak of diei-atistaetion toox pjace in Uion, in Nicaragua. To this city belong* toe g<ory of having given the first impulse to the liberal senUmenU in Central America. Although this movement was suppreised, neverthelesi i"? has ei c.ed tbe public spirit, and directed it into the revolu tionary channel, convincing, at tbe same time, the government officers that separation t-ora 8 pain was Im minent and unavoidable. I have already indicated the political line they adopted. Following their own in terests, they thought to convert the popular elements to their own purposes, and made no opposition whaterar to the 'first arangeacents in reg?Td to independence. These were effected on tbe 13th September, 1821, when the peo ple of the city of Guatemala, aad tbe representatives ol' *uhe republic generally, as-embled in the hall of audience, aad proclaimed the independence cf the country. Tbe ohange was not ranguinary, although decisiie. Those wno eUher by syrr pa by or po'ition were the most identi fied with Spain did not adhere to the republican senti meor. nor to the plan? of those who looked to indepen dence *s a means of seizing upon power themselves. They quietly left the country, ana went either to Cub* or Spain, without being mnlested. There wire lelt only tbe servile > and liberals. From that epoch dates the dimen sions and tbe struggles between the two antagonistic principles of which these two parties were the represen tative).. There is no doubt but that the servile party of Cen tra) Am trie* thought teriously of establishing a rovalty or independent monarchy, comprising the provinces which had belonged to the late vice- Kingdom of Guate mala. But tbe provincial Junta, immediately assembled afier its separation, was lor the g-eatesc part composed of liberals who, In spite of tbs efforts of the serviles, wticb were surprised and half paralyzed, took the on'.h of absolute independence, nd convoke! a constituent national assembly, In order to organize the country upon tbe basis of republican institutions. This discouraged an'1 put down tbe serviles, snd dispelled the illusion* of their dream*. They were left In an impotent minority, ai.d tbe people where thy had despised and hoped easily ?o control bad aheady recovered their righta. Tl.ey beheld iu the usseiubled national congress, and in the uroclama ton of 'he republic, not ooly the ruin of their holies snd ot their new privilege' and powers, butof ? batever 'h-y iad previouitly been in p<Msesaion of. On der -ach cirauo'siances tbey saw with thegreate.it satis fac ion the re oitaoli>hment oi tbe empire in Mexico; and no: Munting on their own strength to combat the public opinion they were determined to give up part of their objects to p eserve the other. From that time tbev cou< e .vf-d the id?a of incorporating .'eutial America witn the Mexican empire, and they a<kod for the support oi the 'frviles wbo were triumphant in that csuntrv, in order to attain that end. The proposition flattered the vanity of Itorti'e^ titles and cecorati ns were even de manded ann promised be orehand. Sore of this s ipport, ttey ?#'? insphed with fresh ardor, and tiied with de? per?te effor 's v> produce a revolution in the public Bind. In tne meantime the National Assembly, convoked by tbe 1 rovincial Junta met in Guatemala, the richest and most populous city of the country; bat to her disgrace, tbe on y one which, as tbe residence of the viee-royal court, was devoted to the interests of the serviles. Ihis city aas and still is the centre of serviJsm, where all its plans are concocted, ai d from whence a'l its operations ate direc ed. Ihe Assembly, in spite of all the efforts of tbe conspirators, wno by pompous promise* of imaginary riches and happiness under the empire, had wiih partial success ecdewvored to seouce ihe ignorant part of the people to supp-irt their ntann, was composed of a great majority of Hberais. Their attempts to corrupt the ma jority having failed, they directed their first attack n gainst the popular party ? the beginning of that series or misfor uue? which have befallen the country and brought it to its ruin. The Assembly room vas sur r< u Lded ov armed bands, and their dehbe rations were violently interrupted. Some cf its most distinguished libtrai uemiers were assassinated, and servilUm ob r aired its first triumph in Guatemala by treason, vio lence and bloodshed. The people c Central America being spread over a vast Oouat.y, could not immediately come to the defence of -beir letiieeentatives. Some weeks after this event, smidst too anxiety of tbe promulgation of a republican chatteT, the simple poptilatloa were surprised by a pre e arc at ion from the tervUes annexing the country to the Mexican empire Many wore paralyzed by terror. Not ?nlj had the principal liberals succumbed, but they were cast into .be pri ons of Guatemala; and to filUhe mea sure ot their dirgn.ee. treason was introduced into their own ranks. Gainta. a wtak but popular citizen, who I had presided over the Provincial J un a, seduced by the pronhes of tbe serviles, and aUu. ed by the advantages he hoped to ob sin from tne e njitr# as a recompense for bis treason, j.rlned tbe trl.impha.it faction. Confused manses cf jh- pie, stimu'ated ?y gold, ran throngh tbe atr*eie of Guatemala, and the neighboring towns, crying death sgvr.at the csiefs ot the libe.al party, and de manding the p:os.;rip ion of all their adherer. ts. Tn-y invaded tbe bouf-s of ih? repuhlii^ans. and added mnider to virlence s.nd t i.Ume. In order to irive some semblance ot 'ormaii'y to tbi- pr?med a ted irjury, a spur! jus will of eorvoca'iim at t e h-ad of which tbe trai'or Galoza with ridl-ul' ns irory was placed, was issued, ^hi^ letter of crnvocation mentiotec with intention al affectati in ( nly tbe ir>< urpcia'.it a of 'be municipalities and of the any, M'hrut np^akitig of . he ,eot.l*. Tne '.erm fixed f?r ihe res' In'ion was so limi'ed that tbere wa* just time errugh tr. give not; ce f> tbe immedia'e dependencies of Guatemala. The ar~i_v -oorcin red by the usurpe.s ind coo'titotei As th r Ins'minent, was ready to support be h w.thes. A few, at tbe risk ot their liw, had the courege ko oppose tbi? proceeding' but as i' w is to be rxpec'ed fr->m 'h<* rnf.es ot a m> r^^nary armv, lou?? sinre prepared, and roM h ?e ct the lo'imidated mi nicif ah ii-s who had ? <-n g i n-d ov^r r.y 'raud, tlie tj it-s'i n *as do Kid iu fa'or ef annexation to Mexico, snd at ibe sacce lime l/.c ?ir ospooit^ni dnc-e in net. The ar ineo lorce wakii. by an ioi...i 1> n h*d (ieen solicit ed h cm l.'exic, ?a- it hfs Wit"1 ilready on its way, ? nd?r the fiDtr and -f ' ereral Fil ? >la in order to carry mt. fj mean-t of for?i?u br.j ne-s, 'he treason which h?l been inaugu ated wiiu turn su^esii. These a overrents i,f i >e strtile-, a . I mi-nt'oned Wore, .ei, , meO iorg 'inanowii ?i tne pO|iiilaklnna distant from i (iuatsma!*, nrid we e eoi s?(|ti?utl?. only supoorted by it.< ? of ?Kenighbo bo Hu* no sooier had tbe people cor ij from tboir asf.m b vent, than tb-?y opmned i, r on fly this work of usur ation. San -a'.v .dor, tne ii-xt prr vi/'Ce V" liuate rala. and ire eentre of liberalism, was "te Hr?t 1 1 hear rf "be cvetts j'jst narr;it?d, und al-o t??ftr- t- a'lopt m-sou'es of reststani e. rhe eii^archi we l man ot it in-w jrity, hasteied t.> send an ?< rr?-.i to -ce to Ktir.e tbess popula.- demonstrations in ?'an -alvidor. The hirtve repel > . ? s rf M ?t srriall province promptly V?tk "he field, mi V ijjh 'hi rO*> ?-my wit stipo ri ir in num it? ? ..,.4. I or tbe ?firat tiTS, a id un'oi ? un^tely an' ( ,- ih? U?t. the representatives of ths ?*o antsg-ntst prtMnples re ha /e spoken of mailo open war *d icb enrr. w,n?e 'bit ? me the foil of Central America Yi" Seen a- M o t wl'h biood. The pa' no s ct "an -alvader wt re soppor'ed hy the people of Crsnada in Mwim i and of -a . Jo-e in i>*ra Kicj T^ort, tno '?afft! or" Nica ?gna propir, was the *n'?*'e t a blood v ^'t'. rhe bi-bop of tne province had from the e^rrnrnr opnoeel the p vtil*" m-ivement. M d ?oo? part open y v ith 'he -ervli'js. The power of the chur-h nr s'll rt-esrrv!! and supp'ir'ed, not only y the a istorra';c c'i n, ont alwj r.y those who ware or.'g?<i to fol.ow tbe . gy. This str-iggle subse. uentiy produced s i ich terrible -'-ones t b at the whole city was 1,1 ary desfr yed snd by t's fall the servile faction in Ni '?> ag ia w is ft) aver ar.; ihila'el. rbi t.ri....iph oftfce liberals of San yalvado- was fatal to ihe re vii*s. snd wonl!, perhaos. have seiMired ihtir i;? 1 overthrow bit, for the arriv.U il the forces of [turbido In llunteirsla p!ronl'ai.eoii-'y witli th? announcement of lb* ir root. Tbe seivi'es collected with rennwed c infi (ieica the remainder ' f th ir a-my, and In aoi'oa witb the imtie >?1 t- jops ma'cbfd iwain?t the victorious lioo rals The troops nf Str Salvador, sl'er a lor.g and heroic cemtvalgn, were van ibi'hed With -.h s iitr rai m heg?n th" itmcltles w' Ich pave tbe Cental Awrioan ..rs a rharacler of harbartsTi 4| ror-wt witbmt evemnie In hisViry. The mercen^;1(.s of Mexico. a<t knowing any diseip ir.a, despised the tr ops w'ib wkeir, Itw/ w e-e wtt atws Mid > prei j ter.-or ev?wy- j where, amongst fn?nds *8 well a* ad sertarse*. The vilest outrage*, robberies and as?asiu jations were #ily oemmited. Drunken soldiers fillel t M and fll lie place* of toe city, ?d the net ^boring towns, they brutally attacked, and frequently wooded, fool pas*ea g?ra. The biaek fisf of tte r empire was the ?gn*i for whclesale slaughter an? pi infer, animated by cries of -Viva el embracer*" TVe pablie treasmry fU emptied, the propt ietor* rt^bhod, aud public charity corn et Md to maintain for eiga mad mercenary troop*. The m I le, I1L longer enjoying the protectlou of the law*, a Hi being everywhere the victim of a brwtal noldiery, hid to detend U>eir individual rights and ven gejiic* tt enwNw on their oppressors, u offer ed, *hich *gy rarated the horror* of <H*ord9Fand antral chy. The p ubiic demoralisation wan complete, and this was the ee^ond tiiwuph of s?r*i'itm. On th? 6th of Jawuaxy, 1822, thn government of Mexloo was proclaimed ia Guatemala, whilst the events just na"n tiouvd were taking place. Itarblde, hy a decree of No vember 4, of the same year, divided the country into three cayit a*U* gatervks, via., Chiapas, with it* capital oi Ciudad Koal; bacatepequea, with its oapltal in liuato naU ; and Nicaragua, with it* capital in Leon. For all three the respective functionaries war* Domi nated from amongst the members of the servile l'ajtijn. Nevertheless. practically they were unable to exercise any authority. .^aa Salvador, although vanquished in the field, was not conquered. Its provincial Congress, though wandering from plaoe to place, defied the iu vod ers, ard preferred themselves intact. Under such cir cumstances, and as a mean* ot preserving it* libarty, this Corgiees took upon itself to decree it* annex ttiou t<> tiie United (States, and by a solemn resolution of the 2d l>eoe?ber, 1822, pro Gained its incorporation with the republic wbot-e example had supported them during their adversity. It is not known whether the American pevetrment made any reply to this proposition. Happiy the triumph of servilUm was of short dura' ion, and there was uo necessity for it* execution, for in the midst of tlie^e i-uccti-ses the empire ol Ituibide fell by the ener getic and well directed opposition i f the Mexican liberals. The troops <*f Fill sola were dispersed, and the servile* were left with their own forces. Witnout loreigu support they were incapable of maintaining themselves a moment, and tbey left the field to the republicans, who on all Fide* reasi-umed the direction of publie affairs. Uhia pas, pt rtly by inclination and partly by the force of ciicumstanoe*, resolved to follow the ex ample of Mexico; but the other States, of Nicara gua, San Sah%dor, Honduras, Guatemala and C,wrta Kiea, sent toeir delegates to a constituent assembly, in ?der to organize the country on a repub icau basis. The ser vile* mads no opposition, but contined themselves to an effort to obect the parliamentary ooerati'>ns; for this purpose tbey emplojed ail lheir i-kiU and energy. They wi-bed to establish a dictatorship as the first stop to wards attaining iLeir monarchical aims. 8y the deliberations of the assembly the adoption of the constitution of 1824 was pronounced. It was oppos ed chapter fo- chapter, and i-eotion f >r section, but was vigoroslj and triumphantly supported by the liberals, lhe terviles gave a tacit consent to it, because they feared the opposition, individual guarantees, the repre sentative principle, the habeas curjnu and the liberty of the press, but they were the first to infringe it and to tread under foot tho.-e rights when they attained after wards some strength. Tbe plan of eoifederation com prised In the new constitution met with the most de termined hostility rn their part. With the view of central ising the powers of the government, they stubbornly op pored the extension of loeal powers and the sovereignty if the several States. Therein they were supported by various liberals, for although it war not yet determined, tbey accepted it by compliance with the necessities of the country. The aets of this asiemhly, besides the passage of the eonstiiaticn, were of the mwit libe ral and enlightened character. Tbe reforms in troduced retried us of the proceec sgs cf the republicans of the French Convention. All titles of nobility, includ ing that of I) on, were abolished,. the sale of I'ap&l bull* prohibited, all obstacles to immigration removed, the most liberal guarattees accorded to foreisners, and finally the republic wa* proclaimed under the name of "Tbe Republic of Central America," with a national banner, the device of which was five volcano*, with the moito, "Dioi, Union. LiUrtad!" Amor ? st the act* of this assembly there was one which is entitled to more than a passing mention. By a decree of the 17th of April, 1823, slavery was absolutely abolished, and its re-establishment at any time or plaoe whatever, in the republic prohibited. Trafficking In slaves was declared piracy, and the severest penalties were im posed on those who were di. ee ily or indirceily engaged in it. Therelore, to Central America beloegs the glory of having been the firBt country in the world which abol i.-hed negro slavery; it has faithfully adhered to the po licy adopted by its first constituent assembly. Tbe adoption of this measure wa* also the pretext of the first ci.-j.ute with Great Britain, which hypocritically invoke* philanthropy only when philanthropy is profitable to it. Is not the assertion proved by tbe demands of repara tion which it made, supported by a trig of war on Cen tral America, for ihe fact of some slaves of Belize avail ing tLemse.ves ot the constitution of that country to take ret'vge there ? There never was a more iniumoua pro ceeding. Although the constitution was passed on tbe 27th of f>ec*mber, 1823, it was only published on the 22d of De cember, J824. With it* adoption the servile* seemed to abandon thiir anti- patriotic and in?ane plans. The en thusiasm of the people had arrived at its height, and op po si 'ion tc rt w< uld have been folly. In spite of its great nefects and the formidable attack:* itsufibied, it exercised the most beneficial intlueooe on tbe people. If the latter had possessed intelligence like ours wbm they pri claimed their independence, and, knowing their necessities, bad kept afar from the instigations and sophisms of demagogues, there is no doubt this consti tution wot Id have been reformed steadily and by de grees. bestowing peace, hapruness ard progress on the c our try. '? liven su:h as it wis," observes a Central Amtiican, "aid in spite of its defeats, everybody per ceives the progress it aiced the people to make in its manners and customs, and the complete chan.e it ope rated in the spirit of Central America generally duriog the ten years that it secured tbe liberty of the press." CHAPTER in. THE REPUBLIC IN ACTIVITY ? THE LIBERALS FIRMLY ADBEB1NG TO IT ? COMBINATIONS OF THEIR ENE MIES ? CIVIL WAR ? 1823 ? lb28. A short time beiore the adoption oi the national cons'i tut'or, the people of San Salvador assembled and pro claimed the constitution cf (he State. Thla took place on the 12th June, 1824, and in conformity with it a local government wad organized. San Salvador, the first in the liberal mcvemen, waa followed by Costa Rica on the 2d January, by Guatemala on the 11th Oetober, by Hon duras on the 11th December, 1826, and by Nicaragua on the 8th April, 1820. On the 10th February, 1826, the fe deral representatives met in the city ofGnatemala. There were thirty-four altogether, in the following proportion: ? Eighteen from Guatemala, nine from San Salvador, six from Honduras, six from Nioaragua and two from Costa Rica. Genoral Arce, more from his hostility to the S aniah system thun from his personal capacity and qua lifications, waa elecied President, and organised the gov ernment on the following 2tfth April. In thr same month a Senate like ours, assembled in Guatemala, composed of tiro members for each Slate and Mariano, Beltrarera, as Vice PiesicUmt of the republic, became the President of it. The republic entered in ':o activity; its afTaini progressed with liberty , and the country, enj yirg perfect tranquil lity, made rapid progress . But although the aerv lies had been routed, they still existed, and towed everywhere the tetds of <*i*aontent, hoping for an opportunity to excite the prejudices and jealcu-y of the people. In the city of L?n. as we have at en, the bishop, supported by the clergy and the ariatocratic faction, had vigorously opposed all republican movements. His principal forces were concentrated in the city, and although not in a Ba rn t ileal majority, bis partisans were the ruling class. Thii- rendered Leon odious in the eyes of the liberal cities of the State, and provoked amongst them a jealuu?v whlh has notes yetoUappeared. Every movement in this city was regarded with suspicion. After a few months of tran quillity, and whilst the administration was in the hands of the provisional government, the populace, excited by the hi-hop and his friercs, insisted up .n the dismissal of the comn.andan* in chief, Basilio Carlllo? a proceeding which ian-fd a great o^trmV.ion in tbe whn.e a ate. The anti llbeials. inflated by thii gu'T.ess, continued tieir violence and trade otber demands of the tame cha -aster. Hence forth a reaction took pla-e, and by a counter-movemsnt in the K.une ci'y, civil war br ike out wltn all ita old hor rors. Tbe conflict was carried on energetically and with out quarto ? frtm either party. One part of tbe town rose against tbe other ? street, against street ne!gbk?"r ogninet neighbor, brother agalnxt Brother, fatlie .tgaia.i ?< n. The n ovement waa communion '."i: to the n-igh i r trg t< wn?; the adherents of both ptvties took up ar I h nd ref aired tc the capital in order to *tjpp . t thtir | iricnde. Th> re th<- t4 uirele ??< prolonged With various su ccess for a hundred ?r.u fourteen d?yn Jhiiurg this time a urea' rart of the ei y, InclU' ing ita finest and tUiie^thv dugs. v?h de.?t-oyed, tboueandf of hthita 'i. tis btirg eurnt in on* Out. was laid in ashes, and nevertheless the stinggllng parties continued to oc cupy their posts with unexampled obs'inacy. It ie itn pos-iMe to ?"l how long this cor Hiet would have lastel but fur the a. . it al of i.en-rnl Arce wi'li * divi<-l?>n of I?f eral trooj s li ? m San Salvador. f(l? intervention re e**ahli-h*d peace; tfe servile* remained subject to tho republican authority, and affair* prerentuj on Lie sur ?si-e the anpeaiance of tranquility. lhe liberal chiefs -generally irteaking men of g><d eouea'ion and jaulotic sentiments, whose cnief error l?y in th?ir imm'ic-ra'? eonttilen'-e ia th- ir p- pul ir in fluence (not to say to their own ji'd.nnen')-- in examining tbe struggle wMcb hail just taken pl:'?e, must nesessar ly have been awgreof tbe tact tbet )<>?< m nee and tboclerj*/ were the great i.oataclen to the pro perity of the nount'y, their chief enemies and the prom..ierH of d border. The church bad opealv taken side with ?>.? ihot-.v -hica! f?3 tiorj ond tecamo Identified with ihn?* who tad decia-ed their determination to ruin he; u 'less she -Idea with tl.rm. But altkovgh ?be . id do lnllue..?e wit i ibe liberals, who sincerely deapi-cd her, she exerci-ed irreat power over th? ignorant mantes. Therefore the policy of the Ibersls declarol against her open war. Being well aware that the general edu atlon of tho m*s*es is incompatible with p pular superstition and Its most cflee.lre oppor.ent, they direct' d all theii effort* to the dllTj?wn of Know ledge. Ih? "duca'ioral >'y<t?in of leriraster i)4d been receiiMy introduced Into Europe and the l ulled States. They hss'ened to fum ichools upon this sjsle-n; but the ex Knciesof tbe country pret.j, *d ti.dr Ixtr.'g useful. Tbe people wer- en'huu.vtio on t i,o subject, and asked for means ofeduca ion. but did not meet with teachers. In order to remeoy this want. the government official", true to their principles, cot /tented to become aihool masteri t'urirg the leisure ?iine left them by their oe ct pati cs. All barracks hid th'tr schoolrooms, and tie Indian solri-r wa< lnstructel t,y his own chief io the e emente of education. N'erer ts-fore nor since has there been shown, tn any part of the world, such a de sire for instroe'lon, or a public spi ItaqHal to ibat wnlch the liberals exhibited durW'>r ? he j^srl.sl of tuelr sway, until the hydrn of servllinm ruised again its crushec hnt nnited hea?ls. In the msantlron ,^an S?lvador, whose populatfcin was the be^ edu>^ ^st?*l and mo" radl cal of Central America, conld no longer bear patiently O e mschiuations of their own choran. Indignant at
sertain uinrpatlons of po*er on the j,art of the Arch hl>bep, Wboteslderl in Ouatomals. and was tho most cowpieuone partisan tf the re?c "taarf Union, they Klej.ted the principle Uuit tt? perils U'l the rifkt irf eWctirg their rel?gt(.ns M w#n M poi|tleal functionaries ?* W"b?P ?' !?*?> S*iv*uur Dr. I* ' T?" -Archbishop den.uuw" thi hiT'f' r^4tdiB? U <>?< * "?u. p? lo? . b ! ' noi on,y fieepfreve > M ft, bat or exeatnuuui atlug i? P*Pul?tion u# the HteW. Hjvreror. hit o d? recrtTM ?ith ooJd tcolffereMe, and a 11 tie *f er ?T?hJ 'owe(1V l*?amp?*?fBan Snvedor, in spiu, ?? w ilSu^ &t. Pe'-er. ("bin proceeding, to u; i 1,M tmpeKiie, and hastens l th? co*'l tier. wMch destroyed tie estaoli.hed edu.?lional sy,u>m at d preserved the cW?*y from the &ie to -ale' tnav ^IZT ???. ky ??? ?>ow but sure reform? which t-e >y?tea tteth mnst have operated. W? p?w a/rive at *7 wkioh turn a painlal chapter la our his ory. Hye jeara b?d??ed *1**. th. flrit cry was rSmrtZr 1 ' ?"?deDea. fhe attempt, to establish a new monarchv or an aristocratic oHga.-ohy had fail* d, and a liberal 5 repubHcaa government, which was exclusive y ft .J*" ?"?'?n"k'? of th* oouatry, J consolidated. With the exception of the troubles in I.?ot, which munt rather b? considered as a local than an a g?Lei*l resistance against the new order of thing*, and ol a feeble cemnsoMon in Carta Hie* for re-establishing S?aauh authority, no open opposition had baaTmaie .(gaio.it the republic. Bat notwithstanding thla tran quil appearance^ the eltmenta ofdleord were sse'hinr f"? ***' ^tinc'lons continued, th? opi^fitioa had conceived ne* and dangerous ? ?mbinations. The ardent aspirations fur indepenleeoe weie born amidst the deep pre-oooupattona of the people, who assured their developement to a more or U as ex tenotxi uogrfce in th? xacnieot of attaining tho otject, but their enthusiasm hod grown aold. Thi* must eye r be the result when men are mare incited fcv rentiment than bv reason and reflection. rhe ohiefi of the t cacti n, piofittine bv these circumxtanoea. ha-tenid to eow duaffectk n amid Jie poo pie whom the* pushed to the last extremes. ' F The servileg were oempried of heterrgeneous classes without having anything in common but hatred Of the llbei ate. The uucleus of thin organisation wan the sui dt ant nobility ? the hope of the viceroy a ty?whose ten itenclea went with thrge ot the beieticed clergy to oo |)?M the education of the masses. and to centralise power in tfcs bawj of ? few?in a word, to ehtablixh aa order of 1hir,ga whish would .;??ure their complete dominion T te ai ia toe rata called thia combination tanare cuul (bloe blood). >ii : ? roHiMon, richei., and iofluenee. Ibo eJt'rgy wag not only n;h? a guffle'ent means for opi-i atlrg with eaxinehs? but they cconted more ^arti ?*rg in-ocgft the people against whom they eonnpind traditional respect paid to the church, and i . J8?0'*1"*' wt,lch ? ?de them a bUnu initroment god victim ol thf-lr plans. With such element* wiih an ignorant jeople who did not kniw their dutita 'and who were unable to understand where they were li-.l to, and wlih a powerful taction hosUle to republ ean forma in general, it was absolutely impossible tor the repnblia to if?? to peace. In vain the most enligh ene i cai-fs of t. e liberal party endeavored to prese, ve oroer. Their invei eiate enemies were indelatiguble In gpreading dis ??lf',c!u 'V4 ^ bT2*h' ,lle ftd?"al government in | coi flict with the Stale oi Goatoma'a. lh?/?e ineonveniezces were eonsicerab'r aorraentel hr seme essential dtfrctg in the eonstttutlon itaeif wblih lil^e ours, had not with precigion deflnad the respective powers of the general government and of tbo?e of the several Mate*. The liberals themselves were dtrided on this particular piint, one part favored the centralianti ?? f- yie'*'leral gorernment, and auother thought the It git urate object of a confederation wai to en<et tv a I?.! individually were unable to accomplish Tkeeedlflerences contributed to weaken the liberal nartv and to hasten the ruin of the republic. i A'ter this necessary and preliminary exposition we e*n now trace the course of events. From the beginning ih# cause of the liberals was exposed to treagon. As tbe i.v .V *"?,*? of an influential social pc si - ha? *he ?' ?nB of winning over those who Were suscep ible of it: 1 hey were not want'ng in the tact neces*ary to flatter the vanity of oihsrs. Taeir unite t m jiolicy, when they could not openly attaea ^i " nDoVln,?' *nd v,Ten Uwhiof- General Arce! th?ir wl'? rePublic, was the Brst viatlm of their wi ei?. Under the pretext that a aec-et h;ibMn m?d? of the faec ef the authori ??? fcA i Cuatejiaia having congpited against v. Ial^veJD? ent^ the7 prevailed on Wm to arnst the chiel of the State faon Juan BarrunoU, one of the hi^LStSf ln?vacj!ro ^ber?ls. whilst he was exercising Palace waereupoa he proceeded to d'sarrn the civic militia. Vhis entrwe to ^siHor1^^ ?f committed without any op ; . P*aoe ">? 8th September, 182A? tho epcch at ^hich began thoae terrible commot l#m which have agitated and siili trouble tse country. Th!s arW TioUli(,B of the constitution, has dtomtd its perpetrators to eternal in'amy. citii^VrSrri! Vl>r011'rt'7v?b^?lned olb*r ""ceesses. The h J i * h%Wy esteemed man. and Vice tb? H?.t^ r **"? attbe tae of this event, Id Uh?Vl?Jl? f e*?wci.ing his duties. The lnhatitants of this cistriot are all ig"orant lnaisns and UDder the immediate diction ot tne d'e^y c n**" the Governor's p ooeedingB arrived, v/r,1r raonnted the pulpit in one of the principal ehorcLes, and excited the fury of the populace against Hores, wlio was lorced to take refuge ia a chureb and W? ' si St i ?\ ?r ,the *,Ur he **s a?"?gs*nat^(f, and his body Urn into pieces amidst eries of ?? Viva Guate mate . mvera ia tepvlfaa ! ? lie osteite m tion r.t it vpI>(!*ai>co on the part of the friars was that in the impoHicn of the genetal impos's thtir nrooertieH CXemP,ea- la ,hia w?y lie clergy fup^d as ?Jv ttOTement of the aris-ocr*tn. Ihe violences txercUed sgaitst the flrst functionaries of Gualemaia were followed by thoee against the sobor dinate membeis ot the government, some ot w iom were nnamitated, toue implied, an'd some suc^ed^n TJ:T?TelVtB "if!ht- *** unex,.e :tedl? * 'a..^d' utaole to oppose any resistance. H wever n?nd of'r1?'r ? assembled, and under ttts con v? ?J J-?1""*! >ierson, an Inamn Creole o the Wes -?utajtea the awaceina of Fiores in Queiaitenango' toUrL ^r*i ejrwer* *W#to cotnbilie and uni'e thlr' !? t 0/ ^r 10 "arch on Guatemala, they were at tacked and dispersed by the troops ordered and com fd by the traitor Arce. uider such , oiZJu"" DeStMa?^,Uf^ lTf'7 compesed of .erri.es, was oiganzea. Den Mariano Aicinena who, under theSna nien jst.m, was bo. n with the this ot Maroun was i? WHiVi1he,d!i<;' <bn1t ,t%)^ 'be dictator, of tiiTstato With his administration began that detestable svsteit < t ^l'"icTl(dnt'T,,0;er,p,i^ whieh '^tStheVe! I . . barbarous proceeding-. A teriible inqui?ition against whoever hvl" or was ^ Ubllsh^ ?t? eontrarJ to lhe usurpers was -i.v. ' ? were secret, tad its decrees issUcii Td 8 ?ap'dily. Many persems were eondemn been heard, fo hold ULeral obinio. , WSSOM VtrZ t0me rm,e<d were sufficient ba^f condemned to deportation or death ^ PIoecribed, and Colonef^lerl son, one of the most capable of the partv, and who had ousiy shot against the walk of a cemetery. TerraW.-n and ?ei vilitm extended over the whole country. velW 0P Us 'rea-on to thu republic by c- - 01 ?*n authority a general oot gress t ? be eau'eufed '^eVn^YH*?'^ that lt co^ f? c, ??- Tb? known objeet of this convocation w . s d?ett?nwii eCI"t't!tttioa. ?nd ^ organize a oentral . - Jit! I^wer. This has been always th? favorite ?. .. tie- r^er> * f,arty> who> eneouraaed by tne suoeesset . ? rs?' ? ^!f5Vi ln "?'!?' 'otented di isensions in Ni ja rsgua and Honr.nras by involving tbem In a civil war | San l-alvadtr, always republx.n, maie a 8rm op?>siT^n I the M,h<'?''y of Arce. ^in a Bcment of excitement sent a corps of troops against the ?surfers of Guatemala. These were att*?.<.<? * Prudent Arce and of the seTu? "id (too2 tS reti^ ?f hs?k ,b.Vanie tim#.SMI SalTador was invaced, but it drevs back the et,emy in a decisive manner. Amidst theH , r * tbouigh* Pr?F?r t? rollew in Honduras M in ''Uatamala, of destroying the gov ul.h? WM completely routeo: and Uie ssrv.le inhnrrection bayiog been in his own citarA pwsed, the latter joined its forces to those ot San Fa va !i r-. I:LC*??U* m th* ?!??' All th? tn terio^ s ra? 'b* States proved of no advnnllge to ihe eervilw have s?h r ? i t5fu?hter and cruelties like those w( i-h have ch.racterlied civil wars m general the l^nhTn ?* ^Ptember, 18/8, the nominhl ehlef of ^ exercising his gnvernmen al funcioos being only supported by a portion of the federal soiJiers a?d .he eerviles of Guatemala, who amidst all this ter rorism, weie the directors of Guatemala Arce bsiair th?,^ instrument. A 1 the aid he and tTty r^eW^ frSm thl other htateg consisted only In loeal insnrrec i * the legitimaie authorities, whichtetog^ o^'erd>,,li'^Cttt'I>,/r0dD" DO ,aFor,bI? rtsul- On the overhand Honduras and Nicaragua, wit.n s ?reHt m? iZ,I^TnJr ,be ^aitoreof the ref nblic who pietended to be its representative Cctta Kica genu. IT! /,! gb mount?ins, was a <|Uiot and afl.icted "pe*" I etween Vwre two'd'0? ,t00lt D? ''Srt tba ?luarre? -,n i i \ . d.vltiorsor pa> ties arote a striiBaln which in reality was but the piolontfiition of that ? M. i wMeh^he 'enHl ot ftde^e^ an^o zz'z" ?* rented the combined fo c -s of Homjurag L l s ? "'J' Tegucigalpa, in Hon, u,as. But th-s triumph w?. ,?hem. ral. A few cays fa'er it was attar e<i h. >h. # SanSalvsdof and Mefcagna at d cmiin eie v d! This battle was of the 7.I?C io ^ manv o th^ hi S? "LUrh h,e*u ?" or t,,,? '"'media's vicw?v ot tbe liberalfi) an hccante it brought iot.o ^ JL who was destined to be the ch ef ot th.- libersl , frt? tfe most prominent statesman of Ve w?at?v * A.V. was Francisco Mctazan. to whose enH, 7ml ^ ent, although in the position of a*. lnfpro.f!,mesr tne ?h? "z: of t h.,,g"r\?st;r0'.r:i "f rMimg^ parted new Hfo to liberal Institutions ' ePooIlc atd l?' CHAJ'TKK IV. FRANCISCO MORA/AN, TUB BULWARK OP THB RE rDBtlC? LIBKRAL EFPOKMF ? REDUCTION OF TUB CLERICAL POWKR ? FI.EMKNTH OF WrA*N*f8? TRIUMPH OF THK PKDKR AL18TP? 1828 TO 1H30. FrabcifOo Moraran, who Ik dentin* 'd to figure la hi* tory m th? best and most remarkable man rf Oen'ra! America, wan born in UnndnraH, In 1"0S?. HI* Utoer wa*a oreole of one of the French l-land* in tne W<Mt In died, and tin mother a lady of tlie city of Tegnotgal tw. HIh education wm the ons usually given in the schools, and no more than mifflcieet for a man who ?ine? to live lrdependcnt, but he noon revealed a superiority of intel lect which wan advantageously devoted to the interests of hi? countrymen. Be wan alio ro'od for i.he quick n?ea of bis mind, joined to great energy and deoi>liB of cha racter; tie Banner* were pollahed and prepossessing to an unusual degree, and few persons were ever brought Into contact with him without being immediately pro dlrpored in hi* favor. In 1824 he wan Hw.ietary Uuent' of Ilonfuraa, and rabvequnttly Chief or Governor of the Btate. I'eing by natare inclined io tniiitary pursuit.*. he wan not satisfied with a position exclusively oi a civil ct ? racier, and noon begun to turn his attention with snc fep* to ml i'ary mutters. He was at the Dead of the troop* o> Nicaragua in a battle of vbiah we have already spi k?n, and in which h? eatnbi?hed his fame an a com mander while be settled the destinies of Ills con a try and plae?d tin in on a favoraHe basis. The battle vt .Sahara fJran<!? was followed by a series ?f blood/ encounter*, with varied success, the advantage, hewe*er, beUg.ntheif-.eral.ide. On the 17U? of D* ???t>er?>ie el <tn lunit se.ioun ?f these encounters toui j?l*ee lit . -*nia Ai'ba ftx* 8*n Sal ad or: th? result of r,Di* **!! ??.?r'?iigeu.?nt ""Ulna'ty igreed up>n, by virtue ..f ? ,H. ^iJT^ i consented u> retire from ibe olty ?i r t?J? HXS^U Ocu o the treaty ou he g?rt uf liberals, and then St'tv VtalS ,hU f??? <?' dejei wa, vlew?dbj lhe?n in Mm llybt of ? triumph. The servta* (or ?*?-?'????> ?ogQ,.?.?j :be ?ai?er uf th ir f r!i< a.dwyobMup.nh.DS?lTM?r with a view of reducing the Hat. to *?bjee>im. Arw gave Up toe * w?" n'm,,n-V,J ,n *?? h^nda, 1o Vloe Present Bei "???. ?^d ,0, k *'"}? ^ 'be rank, of tbe invading ?? ? TV'" ? vtrfa/iea came to meet them a: a puT* near ??a Halrador, and Uere the liberal troo#?. alter a prolrigtd contest were lefeated. Toey we ce under h, ?n mend of Col Merino, ud very much Inferior In num lera. fhe vietora n<? no quarter-not eTeD ^ lhf) wcud' td. Tbit ac' fen may be called an indiacrimlnaw ?lai'gbttr, for it w? li.tle e.ae and, a. ia^5? ?? *a? follcwee by '?iKllar pt.ceeoinga on the other nidi and ihu. it |. that th* aervlle party first ,LmSK S'i Ike Caatral American wa * that character for barbarity and ci ut It) which hat rluce die icgciabed the in ani hj/ rifi.d tie eivtlizta w.-rld. The victorw ug noope immediately laid riege to *he city out were repviiaed. rheir ope a-iona. however, were' ronlinutd; ri y al e' city fell into their hanoa and in the Bonth of June it 'eemed aa though all the Sta"? ? ere reduced to enaction. A capitulation was then ? g'*d by Ut government of the Sta e, al onrlm; the ia vucing forces to. ccupy ihe city of San Salvador, aul Arce t> cal together a e ng ess at Sent* Anna, rug wan, ot course, to be in no respect a eon'-itutional congte**, nor an ind-pencent tody, out a blind in?tru *?* Y' ? Aice himie.f ano of the e^rviltM ef (iua'emala. Ibe Intell'genre of thin eapitulai ion or iobmixaion, ho hamiiiaitng 10 the leople, ?ac tee rauHe of a genera' lo tvntt ton: the 'eceral gairUon were attacked and made liileonera new provisional an>bnritie8 conn tit a ed, and toe ?ar earned on with iu?y. lhia popa'ar movement *?,v'.Dv?cu1??<'v *"<1 "?PP?n*4 by General Moia/in who, wi b ir.e lihejal army M Bonrutaa, that hid Just put fl?wn the State Uoop*, marched 10 owt the onemr. in his first titer unter with tie invading army he wan ricti rifos, and so sucoe^s'nl did he evntiiiue t j be in hH ope rations, that -n less thin two months thej werecoean eM Jy rented. ^r:e returned to *>uate a%la; but not#itj stkiiCii g all the efferta wLicb he made to resume the nouil nt 1 ?ulLo? ny whic:i he had given up, the Vice Presl lent re fnteo to retnrn K. l*u?hc o lorn against the two and ?gaiDft the whole fervi'e party had meanwhile takeu aueh p>o|ior iitna, that he d'.d njt conaitter btm^eli safe "d w*8 t" w lloxico, warned, a? will hereafte* appeaT. he atUmnted to invade the eotiotry ahice first u>agir t are he had been. IJaving leorganited he l?gvtm* e anihorities of Sal vs dor J. e> tun maiehed a?aln-t the serviles of Guatem* la. the aimy rf the latter being dee troy ed, their re lourcea exhao?t?d, and th?ms?lv?s incapable of oflerW any fanher leriataaee. they adopted a temporizing po.lcy. Ility first propoed an amnesty ai d af^erwa dsopenei negotiat i. ls Laving peare in view; but during this time ibe pe< p e ? f (.uezal'ei asgo 'efu-ed to recognize th ir auao'i.y, aid tLe <*epar m-nt became in*ol?ed in a wo ol me aafu bi. cd? chaiajter, Antigoa also took up tins anr pitnnntced kgatest the govarnaeot. To flu op the 9(a;i!? of tail- misfortune, Morazan, wl'h tw.? UebMLd tlLi'ps firom Honduras and Salvador, nad abeady entered their tenitiry. After a few unimp >rfant ??gtgtmenu, In which he w.s invariably sue easful hi petenttd himself kef-.j e the city of Guatemala on the Iftti ol March, 182?, and dematded its surrender. Thn II'T A r,duf?<1 fc"?ost 10 despair, and oonvinced ua? time al. ne etald save them, thougat of nothing but oelsy. Tbey therefore proposed a >ieaty which wonld call back al. tte exiled li erals and at o to divide the g verameat with them aid regtore thugs to their oiiginal state. M?rszan being convinced of ihe want of >loce:tty mnfeh gave birth to tnese pmpo sltuuis, put an end to a l neuciation by an attack upon the elty which promptly fell under the bayonet In honor ct him be It s>io, bowtver. thikt although theblood wbicb tbe aervtles had ihed was not yet dry, and alt.iouuh tn? ' O I,?eB 'hat tkey had perpetrated were still fresh in thi ?emory of a I, he nevertheless ex te need every guarantee to ihe vanquished. j Ihe authority ct the servi es being at an end, the Ithe ralaietuintd to the teenpativn of the postt. wheaoe tbey had be? n driven by tbe set vie insurrec i >n. Tie redeial (ot gifts, whico had ah>o been dissolved in 1828 jas ptovitlonauy reo ganiifd by Nicholas fcspinoz*.' Pre?-iting Senator. The first measure taken by this bidy was to cevee extraordinary honors to Momzan it wa? ordered that his portrait be placed in the halls >f CoigierS. , a?.o a go d medal was awarded him in com memoration of the re-esuhl abmen* of tbe lepubUc. lh? coi gr. ps that Mlowwd next elected bim I'resi lent in the place oi Arre. It then abtogatod all tf-e lawe pm arulgated by A'ce's an h'.rtty fri m the llth d April, 1826 to 'he 12'hcf April, 1829. and declared the gjve. naen Vhei ce they i> rned illegal and nsuried; anr, afte: tbi< letcent i<f public affairs gtueraily whicb tad ri en thrown into the greatest contusion by thite years' anarchy. B na new bte was given to the republic. Shs received a steond bautisnal blood, bl4 unfutuns ely not the Usr. Ihk ci.-peiMd literals rttune to ih??ir OrosideH. Uioy dnilng the period cf thei/ exile, Lud vUirwl the Unite t ^tates ard Lurope. I bey therefore returnei wi'ii clearer , *8 to tie eyM?n of government, and with m tch piactical in?M?ati. p, wn.cn couia not bu. beueflt ;beir mch^ an3 th? CAU66 fur *hifca ^*3 ^ uudergone so It would not be toperflnnns to reanr for one morooo to ?be a> pect of afiaire in fioatenula dnr ng the peri d of tfivl Um. wbi.? tte meti of that ractioo remained m pover ?i<j ijci ? irect cheir etf irt* ?-z?'iusiT?*>y to prr+cr.p l. n of the patriot* or he >x ensi >n of tbetr power 'In o her btate*. They JolW-d, in other parcci 4a; iLtir tun\n?th acd ao'foUeot*. Ah ro d the anetccrsey had become eUvatad anew, the rhuron requlrea that the ? coBOitions whi:h h an be^a stipulated ?r in 1,8 tahaif should be eoup.ied wi'h. But the arist "*c-' wll? tnccess azo actuated by its acouswmed MO 'al h betiayed its aasoci'ites aid nly restored ? !!!)', i'?Vv ,,l# P,,IU'K"! "t'eh h*d been d ne away a-ith by the hheiBis, Tne i<an calvador question and is?ue? iaiffdwi ho herRti. es had given rise to a teeling o? , r 1rim *e toe ioflaeoce he e'etgy exercised ever the generaU'y of th? nation. The latter however, thoi.gh displeated an.l ? uapvf in'ed. deenitd it more prudent to asaucon a pan of what it expected and had a right to expect. ra^Br Iban to quart el with its treaeherons al.les. It had wis dm enough to know how to goffer and to yield to the pi est ore <f even's which It onld not oootrol. Ttere itie it wae that when the aervile atmies wete deatrayoi */.V< * tke ?*i'?,o*J?cy bad lost the elemeots ill u p0*Tr' *! d ??eking tor some means ot prop, leg it up the chrjry en'ered into a new aid ill-defined alliance to ruttain u>o failing aristocracy. Tien the no 5*7" *'m' no reMrawed by any con i Jeratlon <-t principle conceded all that was a?ked of it, and marked thi 1 last hours o? its existence by a 0001 p ete destru -tloa r.^v of equality and improvement which f*f, KevWly adopted. With tbe charae er Utlc vadBfi-g of le?ltin,ist parties, it abolished ev?iy thirg ahieh tt IV ojh^ its?tf naable to control or man age ?r any length of tine. Not only did it annul tbe nieasores of the liberals, bat it evea prr mu ga ed the most gtrirgeit meaenres in reference t . reliKioua mat ??ei- v,CTr* he burning of all bo k- onauthotited iALl I jiV'J0'' <lr>ct ?t?i" towards the re-?M tabllf hneet of the inqui ition. It direct violation of the V'\a?d*T'0f th* count y, it had already re toised he Bellie sieve*, and by this and o her aats of ireafon had sustaUed ihe JigU-h au'ho.i,ies of the eouBtry. Evety character 0/ public meeting was pnhibi ed, a rigid censorship ot tbe prefg was e?tahii*Led, atd a body of salari-<l wSImmS*^ Vi * WOTd* ? mi i'ary deepotiam was oijanlied. Al three were annulled by the triumph ?T l^o) aian: but the ie es ah'ifhment of the servile no ?er If ??*hi UMB b*ck iD ? existence, and they i.l Mr v' L . I *7 n"w tl*',d; Bonnmente of an ' V '>,BBDT %hl<-n i? that unhappy ccvctiy di^giicf ibe b?b.o ot a re pub tc. ?!'?l A merit an writer haeeketched with coneWera re eltSwt.V1?. ^e'ST' * *dT"nt of aaan and the Te tMitj'ti mfnt c.f ibe republic. ' ??"" le ????. "*PFearfd a man wbo retmed yet* by 1'rovlcence te save als couutiy. Bis 01 c ent the bone* whi:h fettered ler Uh^rtj and re I He?J i ' *'? Tv* #t Vb? he4'1 Cf th? e,Ti ' ??uncil ?? He was a jurge ?,f human nature, of tbe peop e. W the w?,tt.kt T*" *'?'??'? attach n- -*1' fp: osulon ctsap, eared before ?e ?'?teitd trr m vio'ory to victory nnti. he bad re store-- t e c? nrtitution sad re eetablrshed he *>jthorities. Be never s ed ene drop ?,f b:o d >ave . n tbe fielo ol bat ^ tiV T ? ?"d ? ,he *'?** "f posltc government, ne liheriy of the rr*g? was ie e*'aMi bed. In a word, 2? .?, C'nsrltn'l n, ords- and republic." V *"d t?'t?'",?'nee rf..t,e single man mfficerl to wojk tbl* cbhtige, and ihat m?n wa<-- U rH7?ii * u,?' .}?"?' y |e lo a d -be petlod <,'f a hi' frit.mjh offered the be-t mo e o, ? . f? , . ?? ? 1., r!.5 Ci" he** C fO'ibliMn irstl titl'tf, r 0? hie poiio ?as of tbe m st i?fg ttned c^iar *Be *" ^ ,tr rt" l?Bd,d to '!?? eovan-ementof his ci tt ft js iBft vtst Aitti ugh 'uiiy e,..| y|.jB.(i thn' ipv' -V '?u 1 " a"" iilanr.ing , f ? P' " , r c .ifit ri' i> h? rever Hhairt. 'V/ ??>,'??'?? K?- Te most ex-eat ed liberty cf n,mion .xiste^. he <p m* ttoe t, ?as Pr - c s.n ed ard pj. -ee ?d. /II nd. i.t, wi-b nt disilnctiin ? 1 C?S*M eolcr . er j. -ed '?e p.l il.ge.r ibe -ai.ot K.t If law." > "T ?fe"; "hl? !t' ? "'d art' -be riKh * ef haw as eoi>i,? and rr<al bj joiy be. an - th- n e ilve.fe.tr, .iren !he peV.) i . e -a. ,,Z>t a,d n.ouli.ed m> rul> it e et ui 'ty *1,(1 ibe > ge. pv, *,.? .j,... I tltnie. rived all the gtten l.n.b elut.re.e ve/?"d ^ 1?rn 01 pt>b lei. s-mc'i n *a> In'.rooucetl ahi h or->rtu.?r m.rere'Ml, ,b.n ?.,t ,f a?y ,,ber ^ Vo me^s ?.? ro-??iiel pM,?e?s wer~ ii'g eeec Ne* r- als .,m' I etrki ol juole ??i!ity were e> mr> er eed ? fUrve> *a^ n aretertie Mca-,g, ? cnal, and a ve^'a.'ws.uL'n, t'pit"a,ZrHW.r k,"n"h- "* ro,,r(rri?,r ret aMbeugh tbe government tt en r<ey, ,<| ?be adv'tftc ?ti* 1 1 rhei-.ni.tjy u,..?ir?' r. olr xw.t torn a deaf ear tr the publ-c vol P. "4 i.udiy for the ,.nt Jshn.ent of ibo,o ?n , ha.t di^tor red ai.d ovir-hriiwn ibe republic, a rvc.?? was pa**M in ? eesidarcewirb tht publ'o tentl merit on the V'M f A. ^?182P, bai iabii g ,be ArCe and %H -be 'e..<'ejs 1h?t bsd foll. v.d him: thi* i.'< .1 extended t.. the Dic-a-or c.f Guatemala and tho*,?hoUd r.en associated wl h h r.i In tbe sdmt. i-t-a ioo It was ? Iso .t- ei.dibat, t'ey return -be st.ms wuish h-y b" ec?lv?d ?ror? rhe pubUn treshury ty w.v n, d ^V'?i "y "? & ?trt 10 M Ibe Irjurj ?h(ch they had1 causert, ?,.d t? ttf ,h/'. lemee ot the war A' h-n gb tb|. measure wj srric % jnst there can be no doubt of its IkIdr imiKtlitlj a/X ir.eire^i.rt, it hsvl g given rife v. a Msrem . f tl< n wHcb bs* since b.e? t?)oi,,e(? by o,.th ?de.a n ore or less fXtergv.ly. legal proce-dlr*. ^,-e also talen pgairst the mtirderPta .f l?lore. at Ooernltenango, ou" pvZb'Zm0 DUr>er0n" thAt U b^^uln impobrible to Arart f/oert Ih'g sacr Ifloe to pnblle sentiment, the 11 4. . v !v7U1tr,d 0 * conollinto y oourre wl-h t> rir adver.a Ics. hneh cf rhem ss were nf c ent rn) ael' j ai,d patriotism ?ere called t> ..trCe f,t ? molt rr.entani responsibility. N? htndr?,Cfl oro^t eic was put In tbe way of those who wbhe,t to foJIcw the repujltcan standsrd. T-.at excetshe liberality was a misfke -arnot bed'uhce, ano -ill vet y f o. n be shown. The **rv|!*s inr? ' "i appr eciatlBg the generrsl y wl h whlrh thry were f?a ?d ac.epted tie po.itions wl.i.b weie offotfd them b.,i' withoat ahendening tleir design*. ' 1)111 At the itnie pe/lud a blow wa* deiJt the cleric* jxj? f oin ablen it tu never ikcowwI. fhe poop * ? irtady lor' i?u<h </f i seiiteeui tor it, and tie firry * wbieb it nad r*eu idectitied tKiog ceatroyed, it OM uii to i*rry on diw ennapira :ie-> .njalt-as the repat The rle-gv vsiy toon din yerel that id prep jruoi Inful piioeip m aho Id b* tnjre widely spread, tl 0*li lntlu?me Dttt < imiiiirh, and that the tmao-id^: ol 'be jua would be i-a rata. Bai their intrigi which Achbi-h p Ha men Coaana sought to Ckrry i *ff?c', we o uoin known to Uorim Being invei with fuil au'ho ity to take all Buch mea?u/e? as wera cen'-ury to the pi carnation of order, and beiog luliy J Hoadt-d <ba there wan ne reconciliation possible bent the el* >gy ami the reuMic, be preferred a decided b sure; an, during the night of the 11th of June ha crdt tbe ?rre<t ot h? Arofbialiop and all the priaeiptl flr of the <>i dei o' Santo Doaiingo, S?.n Fran&aeo and oth ai.d i-etit them wl'h a powerful eacort to the por- of b?l, wh?rt- ih^y we/e shipped on board a vessel, f iars that weie left raoeiv.d order* to leave the wraw Thl' dec'siva n'ep wan folic we i by the suppresakM cwentsgri n'ed fey the State of Guatemala; their prap? was rtvo-ed to lie furtherance >t education and work iiu^lio chaiity. The Santo Domingo convent waa ehan iuio a p? utentiary, after the model of those used in Ut-ittd Bix ex; anoher became a public school, and t a b< hp'??l end s> with the ?wt. The nana were relet t.cm -heir clusters and allowed to reside where tl inclination clctated. They were prohibited, bo we' i>otn ttkii g th* veil In tatuie. On the 7th of Sepienc ?p lowing, not cnlj "ere tbete measures apprived, bi 'aw ?a>- pa't-ed atvill-tlng all religious orders thri ogb he if public (hi* decree was sauciioned tht>ug^ual ihe?t?r?f.. The Archbishop was pronoun-ted t*i*\ tenecceii to jerpe ual exile, anil hit property 001 rated. Other meaaurea of a similar character ? ad< )><e<i at the game peri d la 1833 Congress deoo that all religioun cen urinations should practice tl ti e? without being distur ed, which decree w-? recei with etitbus'aam by the g vein men ta cf the fttatea. i iniur*i confluence the svirilei endeavored to clog em "at ass t? ea? measuiei, though bearing the mart ?vlflt nt progn s< nnr enlightenment, and they lost no csi'i' n tf a i uin tbelr enl. 'lb* State ol Corta Hica., rep<ra?e d from the rest cf coutitry l y g- ogiaphicfcl position. took a leading par pup'ii- klbi in. On U e 1st of April the confederation p actical y oifs ived. Costa Kica declared that drilled to b>eak oft from eery engagement; that ?no d tl er?-ff>re peaceful'y separate from the rest, tbat i bf intft oed to piesfrva the strictest ceutra '1 he txr.it, th vgb uuav<iiOuble. adherence i hat was g to the hocts^ii n of this State was to exerjise tnca'cnlable intlnence on the duration ot the un The ie-pec>lve p iwe>8 of the general goveti-nent un t.t e bla e wn e ii >t clearly defli.e', an we have befo-e i mated, and 'Li* f?et could not but be used as a powe and iLdced decinive argument waen thus question lit at bioacbvd. At tl e c< nclnkion of tVe ynr everything was f?v ble t<> he cause of the lineral^, and BitjHUc'.ory to loters <frepubicaD inutituuom. An unfortunate curaMai ce. bi wever soOb threw a gloom over alL rtvoi ut? o' Hot auras, in *pi e of the utmost ec.no w*-ie inrufficent. and h pecuniary strait waa immio li e cutiuti \ had c< nt acted heavy deots in the re-es licbn tnt of ibe jepubilc, whi- h it wai untMe to sati Tbi cii'is it ouced the -ta'e l-e^ihlature to 4<>eres a u)on p operty, and Lais, although mrde ate, waa g ral j jeMMec . A pimiUr at empi, attended with nlj tecijl s, waa trade at Guatemala and San Salva Am ng ib? cau et which baa been most potent in it ?reiog the people to a der'ara ion of independe: was tbe pri roiee of re tei from the contribuuood wl had net n ?1 tug oaid tu the Spanish government. 1 bar Mm he practice during the early periods of thl pun ic belt re the country nad b??n rained by the viiet-, ano its i entire** B'lmndvred and lost. Bi three n en tint lUd the standard of disorder, the St, sad irvei ties Buffl ient to meet their reqnireintnio to lepit* upon objects of puerile u'iuty : and of the grt&ie*' e?i iB with which the country can pron.'b th'B taction is the lamentable condition in wl it lift its fui'Ott; this is a cancer that is now ea a* ay is .ile The necernity of impista, wl tbe nasi-ea cc uld not ualers'and, cot led their thufia*m ior the republic, and their friendship beci if notav< wed mmi'y, at leant discontent;. This, m thai) the intrig <es of her foee, destroyed the on Wholly eiign eaea in attempts to rafae money which ?br^Ju*ei) iiMdfi, tue governmeut became nuaU ?l?v te anen'lon to aoy other object, while the a watii ol' tre?nx csnstd a suspension ot all the useful i su-?s tbat had b<-en uuder'akeo, and atnongut ot a'lcwed be cauee of idacation to tali intc neglect, the hope ot betieiiog bo embarrassing a situation, couite was bad io tLn d?s^erate measure of ellectu 1< an. VJoi.ey w an obtained in Kngland, at tha m^i oibitant iae-if Interest, and with it Cfttne the grea mi for'wi'ea that, could aflest the peace prosperity inteidlty if the country. Kngiish intlatn;e rece new atrtng b and aflected the affairs of alltheSta ihtn ot-gon u iHu*<ierstaudlr>gD, blockades, aggress: and a c>atei>uiic policy of piracy. rbe?e var.ouscira s an. es u u t. not be lo-it >igit of by taose who wc fairly aupn ciate the events of these times, for It is < bj lemeiineiing them ttiat they cai jnatly eft.mi.te e'lrcust o' 'ho?e who sapjiDrud Uberal prisjiples tbat of ih* it antagonists. CHAPTER V. BRf.'JpAn 1NFLCENCE? KI .FJtJWTfl OF DISCOR t r1,VRIO',8AMm? THE hbkkai l'alf 1BuoPl?CT8 TH? KKPOBLIC? 1830 | lb. j e? 18 <0 fcund the republic in peaee an 0 the , !*' py nn,e<1. r"l and exercising all ita pcw? furthered of h? welfare of the ooumry. The fed government a.a mtered into a treaty with the Ut ; tatee, am -ho la te. had a Charge d'AQaifg la the c try. Aith u?h Eng <ind had rtajgiiied the Indea euce o Cental Aiue.ica audaoo-edindpub^e ugea'e had jefu-ed to enter in o a treaty of amity and c merce. At this period, however, *he proposed u> <?> into one; and nonithataudiog the irrigation ibe peremptory aud extraordinary demand made a jears oelo-e by the authorities of 3elize, ?a the ret of the slave*, the proposition <im favorably recei Ihne wan ore obstacle, howerer, In the way ?f th;i its iu por'ace wa* not orerrated by Moraiu. This ?he possession of au indefl&ke tract of the territory , tiguots to tke tract where the Ko^.h authorities % empowered to cut wood. By the )a*t fc^ty with So tte tvljerU of Ecg and were allowed the privilege o'f ting wi.Lin certain llmi a, with an eip-eea cr*nHi.n on their part of the territorial right, or croan. .ud with a prohibition agi.n,; th<t aaii. n ?l auj p?ri^aD?nt eMai)linaaieut, rh s te-ri floii* i'utfd t art ot (iuateraaia. end whenaehtneerf, wih*Vhta "? ellec ?;,> f'gbtfully reverted to tbe rept w.th te . l.r (r and to treat for tfce prokueatfr the j.rlvi . g, cor.teotd her by Stuin. Tbe B.-i i?h /ov< am-, hi w?er, rm not Tie* ft inthi ? tight: t*sU >sni*^e ot c rcurbKUcoea, it procreaea arbitririh m mo lie limit* i, fa quasi clooy, wirhout reeegnl Tlt"^. 1>,"Vb- rep',b'1''' anr1 ln defiance of the lj fi e Mbe'?l<. but voi ai regarded ho ira^rujjt, a ut ?! Z } d ?*"n a!>le lo fl* UP>? the pr polioy t. r? puiKuer, their antag)ni.ti am takiig tbei, place. lbet>" oetTg .ne.iued to C **T?: J""*0'"*11? allowed tue .murpat A. the time th?t the treaty was prop >sed, ho verer g wj.mtit iu tte hand* or Morazaa. Ths la Zu'L"r'. ^ * "eb'J> uP?n '??lttdlu- ? *b*t its Brit . cim wru d i* inv?u vo oetermining the Hunts ?nA t ? tagbib Wrre to nare the Mot, tit of pHii. h jitTKfgK. bkvingal'eady oet*.-mmed that 8 Ht. ul. L??e ? ? v'vtr. i-p and imagining that the w. n?hh el .he . fpub ic w..uld klwaya allow them io enc.-t ,? ' I. lJ)K''?b aatlioiitl^H looked nr. n t> fi i tTJt f dlaple?sn-e; and conn. "tit rir^T int rr!l.\ .h? .ev,:rJ tODKjderatjon of <1 It ?i rt ?, V'11, Preafih?'' '?n't fos'ered re LtV I V. It will app?.- in?redl , 1 1 1 ???> tin? that wheu tii? ?t' I iehi'enr, !e? itg the loldiery, "ought tor ?n nnrlnr he h u,* , ? Ur Sl.jr.iy-H Genera?, ^ ??iy ?ih rh? ui-t leciivffl, bu: wa? ru. e.v re.!n ll:z\vu 7 ;,,p . < ? ,1 ' 'a ihn ? '' "a " l*Wl j ;!r: ? ;?u/ "7 mi". 1 , ' 'h-it r' ' *e<1 the -e-e?-*i-l (?id u . ? , ! ii *? ,'lc,.tr< ' " k'n"H wk" MM, ?u la. Ill L* l,ht > A,"i *?iCiCJ4taOU, IW??W ? m 0.1 . I ' Wh,r" ??r" 'nterpoail 1? ;:!^,i:,v r ?; ????". Tw. ne/un? I , ... I . . , ' *" ^?l*ador, ?D<1 rn>. at U il, , , '! , ' " ?" *al in ?"'":?'D^a, ?nd of 01 ' ' " ?'""N* 'npottan'. Ruurioi of *a?Uh. ,, "It * n 1 *? I ,T' " to ?})? o rductlon iif mv v ? 1, ;** " ttfctei.- that of in llg ., fo- ivU, ?'?? " 1 . ai. a?v .11 r h> d la I en a* low a- UJOO rf, hn ).m > ! i,b .1. 7. (.UO. ' 1 1 *11 oil: il..' .in ct. to futppone, however ibn . <r?tiiei, n M? Hf.nolln ??!?. quiet 'nd *,;>> -i<l. , .? ifer i , 1t.11 g.. Cor.Hpirarie*, ?enrf, bnt^ ? . e jet 1 1 i" 1 I. ? U?u we la, wbe-? by r?,? n of "er .7 ' *'a" 5 ' f ,h" " ,er*N wh bi,l glfcB t ' ' . <"?B"'e facUrty to car.y out tti? rd^< J iv.ru , o. ? veol, granted are alwav. J 'r f : r r*" '^v-w"^o^a.ar^ rr^ .... <?**** >:r r?" "?7,,n< '. iituo l.( uli >i.;kri<> * ne *n<l unr. i.. .o.,?i no..- w," .k!, rrieuor t?'** :::; t*..' 'v ii-.r-Vi" ssi 1 1,. ,(. ! v* 'r' *>ro P'OiapUy qnetl?d. 1 ?.,?). ?,<), r r? H00'1"l?aicedi inspired m. (.. di r I e liV. ? e"t' tempt for their ennm ?1 - 1, 1 .? . t p<;a*iMlity of dange. ? a I. tlln-.i!' ? c .''fK *0 ff ich th?y bad fo t?l t>t> lean Uot.'iniiliis ^^aoly inclined to tv. ?.tIeM!ar'.r.LTr.''ll00|d nfe? "ferrate iu oj r in 1 Lii'iu * '"'e wi,PD tbe r.iajwl'y ll*el J fit,, w"; nL ,Vm => ',cyt ?'?m et 1..H ? .nff<"nw'| I" prnieoce of a oorns dc I , ,l n v *n'1 crerl joked for t ft y ,u aid *" t0 bfc"H", ,n<lre anpamuT h ? ' f. ap^araoce m-i, f.-nne.! ta . t-ar ' t,lf "tcxalf, which j>arti?* became daily n.