Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 28, 1856, Page 3

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 28, 1856 Page 3
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tassst : s. a ?? Iruiueut should met >iy oonln* i * aiUv 1UW( ?latum*, aul to presecvio* lu-a Mf 2a ?lete poitiee werti respectively k.own MfcTTS ? nt-U which designe ion tor a l|H ** ** *?* ? rvileanulibeei. ( uder a different MM Ik , I re striving to oarry out wli?l they haa f?U?v I D'Uilrll OMUlT. u,. I Tb? practical result of these oiiferences was <11 MlK . lie But* of ?*n Salvador wan ottachM to the rep Jt,tvA? lit jealoua of it* prerogative, aud, prwservng an o a B.iritof tivaliy agalmt t.uatemala, which the?nti-lioo ? .! tendencies of the latier bail couverved int * hostility, I i.l believing the 1'reeUent to favor the in'?re-t of t? ? ate rather than those of ha nation, io a uutnentot ex lieiuent declared that it MMUMd i a ugh ..s o ad seceded ? om the confederacy. Instead ?.l alluwiog the MM M* ? uent time to reflect and to return t> its uatar*l ?WtJ ? ileily , and , as U believed, contrary to the oplul m of Mo |i/an. the mont violeut n-easuje* were adop'^d. lh-??e, ? though ?uco6wifc.l m the beginning teru-luael unt ,r laiateiT Kor toe firat time liberals were opposed to ? U.rab? and there arose be ween them a UiueUab'e I ril? 'ilia aervllea, on the otbsr hand, kep ? f-eding the lime of disunion. and euoceeded In WllNf wide oreaci. ? ley pledged tl eir faith now to one aide, uow to anoltttr, ? scoroiog to dreumsanoea, exercl-iug for that purpose I I the aiilkty wr.ich they pMIHH* t ? do evil. | Men: wbij^ Moravian was elected ('resident of San aai ?idor, a:. a committed the strioue error of aenp'tng thu l?w oAM. Be the ciroumstaciyes what they inigot, liis w?s an eviitnt u-ur patio* of P?*?r w-nch I would be impossible to justi'y. The most ? at can be said in apology of hi* course la, liat here a<i in every otner instance of bis life, nWU I a* actuated by patriotic motlvee. In consequence ot I lie iriMiulatitj, Honduras ami Nlc tragus, following tno |<ampte eet by OoBta R!oa, seceded from tre uni.n. losta Kica repeated the *mue act. rue leder^ K**y?* lent then terceived its error but li I ead of rucediug I'mained btatfonary and irresolute. fUa Salvador tokfaf ? Ivanteae of thin irresolution, declared her sa<je?si in a Itcond time, and the repuoiic suddenly presented the Bieetacle of total dissolution, rhts. however, was ra ? ier aowaranee than reali'.y, fjr all tUe ?cn of separa IrrSSl The truth U, W th. Blotte i ttiia aieasure in order to procure a better settle lient of th-i affairs of th? n?ti n, and not from any IntagOEisra to the federal principle, wMeh thuy all I vorwf But they did not undtrnUnd that when thsy ? eaketei thm principle they ronie ed it aU tho more I'fficult t > rentora it to practical application. A nation l.mil'ar'ztl with scenes of bUod became cruel, anl the ? uetitifn at violent measuies guperiuduood aaarcny. ?he ruiu of tho country tw near at hand. The enemi jh If the republic were now fall of Hutinfaotlan, and no Imger concealed their latentlon. Tue libertlsi, app*I?ed |l Uw Imminence of the peril, soon abaodaoed their in lioicious esreer, and, abandoning thi-ir biuerenoe* o. IpinioB, took their former place in the con erteracf ; |udth? lederal governm*nt decreed the elec ioo ot a |>rgress that was to decids atl the uiueii that hid been |iade But a new element oi dUcardn >? m.ioe its ap leartuce. Seme of the smaller dta'es, JHlOM of uu?te liala (heir superior in p?pula?l'?u, aud, cons-^'iently, ?tore influential in the nati >nal co>gre??, a,ked for m |iu?1 r> o: I-. cutfttion Thi< qtlMtim hid l.wn rawed at I >e time ci the sepeiation "1 the states, and it was re lui id ttiat it should be accented belore proceedloit to an I .action. The republican lia lers. whose eyes wer* now IrK-n, succeeded In inducing tiuatemala to Intbuinlfd a cemand. But although *oint' of .ia?M I fee ted i heir elections, Cougiesa never a^emoled. I Other in* MUM we.e Then alnoussed, by which the i re Iktiomi of tit fedeiai govemu.ett wttu ihe StatrH mlgnt ?vMtaUialMi on * firmer tooting. A revMfli of can Ijnstituiion was proposei with thU vie *, yd 1 1 oners ?f re appointed t<i fbrtB ttie pnM) Wjlch le cubntitted t ) the approbhiiou of the ooun ry. I? ?void the efleoU ot the jealouty against Guatemala, the leat of the ceneral government was transferred to 3 *n Balvaaor, and. in imitation of tho Cnited S'.atea, a cus Iri-.'t ot 'en league? in oiicuicl'^rence, around the city , Iras coclai-d to be a federal oiaiticl. The government lelng retnoveu from the centre of the servili; intl awn v , Ind tie jt-siloui-y <>' the other S ates being thu-! lonciliaieo, it was thin propsed V> dlvi.e the into two or three distinct sovereignties. Inn l?eahure pr'tduced some uneasiness. The definite se. tie lient ' t teoujlb. was let for the future, and meau I bile affairs resumed the same course they hM pre liourt to *he mania for divisions which hsd MM pos lesrdon ot the oountry. More attention w*h given to ot> | c'h of m .lie good. The religious emancipation, which |>e have aneady mentioned, was adopted- and the eccie |iautical tithes, which had bean reduce! one htlf, were ? n tire I y e-b-lisbed. The psnal eode of Sp*in. wnch had Elr undergone slight modifications, was completely Ibandoned. The learned M. B?rrnnlia took charg9 ot |, leiottn He translate Liviigsion's or.cellent cede. Imi aith very slight alterations it wai an MBtUM tor Ibat ot Bphin. lie also established the trial by jury. |fhiek was hrst adopted in San Salvador and afterwards in liicarairua an 1 Gua'emala. But Btrunge as this measure I Jrt* appear, although considered as esiemlal to the I ubhc f-at.ty, H met with some opposition, dnoh au in I ovation n:?t being understood by the people In general, | -11 gradual. v Into disuse and was finally MWdWW. | The feenrg which at this time animated the liberal | I arty can be understood by the laot that the t |orgre?s ordered a general mourning at the d*ath of I eremiah B-ntham, whose worka were common among I he leaders 4 the party. .... I Before !olli.w:ng the course of events, It is necessary to Indicate one whith, tfM* of great and immediate impor tance. introduce*! a new aud terrible element in the I flairs of t!i? country, and was the forerunner of unheard If calamities. The decided mtasuree against the chlet I uinltaTles of trie church and against the salaried clergy , |iad not oirectly operated against th*lr Influence; but Ifhen it wah decreeu that marriage waj a olvU contract, I nlv rvquiilt'g the authorization of the secular authori l es and that the corresponding dues and tithes were set I .side, the hostility of the clergy reached its climax. The loncebticns made to strangers, and particularly reilgl-us ?be i w, alced it greatly in raising a general cry agains. |b- stiangers, the echo of which was loudly heird in the Inoun'auw of Guatemala. This ery had no effect up hi She educaud claes; but this class does not compose the loaioiltv The Indians spread throughout all the oountrv, |,i J in fcome diet r lets the onlv Inhabitanti quickly Inswoted the call. The hatred excited against the . lonquen-rs WM still alive in ^ their f h^ns, and^ a |>reath w.is enough to make It burst forth. Their hu- , liiiliatl ;n dated from the arrival ot the strangers, and j frith th' it increase they imagined that new mentions , Ind opptesaona would follow. Aa Is natural ?> | ?hey were b* cieti/ preparing, excited bj the clorgy: but ?heir sl^nce WM that which precedes tne sUirm. A vast , l^nepiracy was plotting in dan Salvador and 0?tbo3itt , lifjiilv 1823, an Indian from Santiago Nun ualeo. named , l^neHtiw-io Apri do, placed hunrtelf ai UsbMd, andafcer IsroclalDurg an indigenous government, lie imtneiia.e y littacked th<n neighboring towns, killing wnite?, s. ran- | Irers and mestizoes. But th? aov< rament. troops were loon brought out and defeated him at Son \ioente; and, | ?jeing captured with some of the piincipal conspiratoi s, , C was en. ft. As it was perceived that tne consoiraoy Etas 2?i ti.il hi ion* aU the native pjpulntion, and that It ps nSoMfiSn smother it completely, no sUung Bnensutes wer?- adopted. I rhe pert which the clergy had in this is-urrection | Ought upon them the suppression of all the church KoUdaysol the calendar except an.l th'- ti^- | teth a dm The great number of holidays was looke.1 tpon as a d'awback upon work UfOneraL How- | tvrr, fbie n -'asure was that of which the sory: d s made . Ihe greatest -se to cxcite hatred against the ? rev soon raited the voice of heresy an^ sacrilege, Wh .h loroe time before hwl been >?Ued agains-. the^n, bu ?which ban 'iBver been listened to by tbe fannticsl pub lic unless when troubled in their amusements, or ra-her In tbelr vices <!i:d exocs^es. The year 181:4 was no e<i for the want of harmony be- j tweea the fiv.eral authorities and those of Sal r?4or. an l ] lor the disturbances whica tlie ambition of inr.lTMuaid i Mused to break out in Nicaragua. In the bepnninir of i 18:'.5. Costa Rica, also, al:hnn?h with a population of ; iut 100,0.0 *ou1h, became involved in iutarnal ni-<*?n ?iona, occasioned by the jeuloiutien which existed between the old capital, Caitbagi'. ami the new one, i--an Jose? Smi hnuirr having extended the right of HnfTrago, which rie constitution grnnted exclusively to land holder*, ?warding to the history of the natives, It apiiears th it (tiere vise the clergy were the principal instigators of the trouble*: and there in great teason to b'ilevs thst In all Kftioullie* they will seek the meana to embarrass aad debilitate thu nation. In tbe begionicg of 18^5, the federal Congress having been transferred to San Salvador, published the new eonititution presented by the conimis?lon appointed to that eflect. It was baard upon that of 18 J4, with many liberal alteration? ; bat it met with the ebnstant opposi tion of the serviles and of a great bu "uber of the lib erals . and it was consequently rejected by all the 8 -a tea, with the exception of Costa Htca ; every one proposed ir reconcilable reforms. A peiiod of suspense followed. The liberals were in trouble, rnd as no progress con l<* be mads toward tbe e? UbJishnttnt of a fixeu government., all the year lfUiti. to uie the words oi a writer of that time, "Can be com pared u> tbe interval between the eruptions of volcanoee, wnotw emblem U the people of the country in whijh they are sitva ea " The government, however, did net re wain entirely inactive. It was convinced of lha aeces aity of increasing tbe European element of tbe pepula ti-.n, and it bad adopted several measorea to that tfcici. Vho Crmsti'.uent Assembly had taken the ini'.iatat*. and the subeequent congresses had done ?*?y with all oh ?tardea in oider to facilitate immigration. The results of flush a policy became evident in that year. In tag land a 3 rand colonial project was organised under the name of 'Agricultural and Commercial Company of the ka?t Coast of Central America." A new grant was mad*! i.f a certain quantity of lav..], with certain privi leges to all companies which, willj i four year* wonM ccionwe to th? number of two hin lrtfd families, or of one thousand within ten year*. The locality oh >sen win Hoca Vueva, in the department of Veia I 'ay, Slate of (Juatemala. 1 be projected town w?? named Abtatvtlle, which Dinue can oe louud on the map* of lh*t time. But the agents of theoomjiany were, for the greater par:. speculators, and although n great number of ftutfiM were wnt over, ard about ( iOO.OO-i) two hunirel th <u jand dollars wnre spent, the project, failed. The i'uni ?,!>nt8 were of the worit class, atid ttie climate and lo cality fa at to them. Many died, oth"r? re turnei, ,ifine went V> the West Indies, and a few remained in tbe countiy. At the end of two ye* r* no tldrj rem nint- 1 of the projected colony but a lew buildings in ruins. As Mr. Iiunlap ob serves, "It appears to he a singular Infatuation of Ear* ptaiw to attempt to form colonic.! in unhealthy locilifie* and under a burning sun, where the natives or other <8Jio>ee never enjoy good health. Had tliey chosen the ?bout) of I.akc Nicaragua, or the tahle lands of (loate ctiaIa or l*wU* Hioa, tb? Jute of tbrne colonm^ would hive |>4 en lery n iffevent. ' Thi.-. attempt at colonisation by the Knglish in Central America wn'-< characterised by the system of encroach ments which the authorities of Iteliite have always exer cised in tliat part of the conntry. As soon as thev had ea,U0LShfd the etlony which we hsve above mentioned in 'he territory of Cuatemala. they prevailed upon the Rri, tUh government to extend their dominions, and to make a cew attack upon tbe te-rltoty of the npublis. Th?v jireMtte.: 1 lietn'-ei've* to ?< sustain Che claim which Kng Un<3 lia" and can lawfully prof-, agninst those region^' assotdtpg to the memorial a idresstd ti I.ord I'almwrHtm <iu the *.?*.?? October. 18! R. But Mth'ingh they fw'ed In their attempt t,he Kritiab ngenls in Central America bare never abandoned the' Ideas and p: n^o'Ms. CHAPTER VL BEION OrTEBROR? WAR OV 0 AST 13 ? B A VAIL OAB KERA? DISSOHTTTON OP Til K RBP0BLUJ ? FALL Of moii azan ? anarchy ? 1836-1841. We ire now approaeuing the mart dliMtreas epoch ia the fat* tor ot Central Amttlet, the rUgo of aaarohy And barbaiism, in whiih tije most terrible elements ot oivli snl uncial dlncord inv Jved that u^iappy ooaotry. We have seen ho * the servt'e<, foiled in their a'faultj upon the rcpiohc, descended to a 1 specie* ol conspiracies and tieas a; how the prestige aaJ power of the general go vernment had bean weakened by am erroneous pilley to ward the States; how tee great liberal party had not on'>' become divided, bu> *ta atili at war with i tie If; how Bii'lait i&fl'ieiiee had operated against the government and again si ever/ lioeral teciieae/ of the eoaatr/; bjw, finally, the p?v er of the clergy, although diminished, had bru'ally excited a wat of castes, the moat (earful in which men cm engage, becau.erftis oat of extermination. Tae republic could still have overcome all these adverse ciroKtohtabues; it could have outlived toe attack* wnljh wore directed against it: it oould have stved the bod/ politic from the eviia which afflicted it, and cause the lit eral i rib ci plea to triomph most gloriously; out ia lra heart was a canoer, which destroyed with mire certainty tDan the aitaoks < A the clergy, of the anti liberals, and of th? Mtranirers atd of ail the combinations which o mid be devised it was "popular ignorance." Outortuaa ely for the repuhlio. the mass of the peop?, noiwIUuitaading t eli Hetties and impulses, were plunged la tae most la mentable ignorance. The support which the people in general had given te ever; measure of social p> < great and order, had been given more on aco lunt of the direst interest wkMh they bail ia those measures than in their c to fiction of their uii.it> ana importance, tor the government was like a weak rue der in a heavy sea. To be esioe-ated from ail kinds ot imptrt* ano exactions was a sufficient motive for the people to hall with enthusiasm iadeoeudenoe of the .Spanish joke. Incapable of unders'Anding the necessities of a government, taoy clamored against every c >atrlbu tior> ; and when the new code w*s ado p tel. and when prisons were ordered on a different p an from the dark and unhealthy dungeons heret >fore used, they only con sidered the work and expense which 'heir conitruotion would ocoasion, and opposed the plan most seri msly, without considering the advantages which hamaalty would ienp. Neither did ttwy consider the criii by jury as a measure of vital impot >auc? to personal -ecurUy ani to property, but rnly looked ttpoa ic as a new drudge; ami betides, the; had no faith ia the impartiality of the ju'Jgeo. Such considerations caused cbeni todes'roy the most important and prai-eworthy ac? of be repubUo. When livings'on's code of laws was pu'. int ? praitije in Guatemala, the inhabitant of ian Juan Ostuncaia, who were almost all cadvee, roee in a body because they wero called out to build the prisons, aod put to flight the Cir cuit Judge. A thort time after, a reoc >ntro took olace be1 ween the troop* of the district and toe inhabitants, ia which tnv l rmer were victorious, ihirlng tae fight taey oar- li d pieces of their ancieat idols, whisb, by advtoe of the ciergy, they brought with them to ai I la the vio lory. This ciicumstanw shows to *>iat extent the in habitants weie superstitious ai d ignorant. llu . the conHeijuenceH of ignorance were more sevorely felt, riu irg the following year, when tne 'jhilert for thi first time visited Central America. I'hysiuians were scarce, and through carelessness or bad creaitnnnt, the epidemic spread vary rapidly and caused gr??t ravages. A geeeral consternation came over th? country, which hail ti ever suffered such a cruel visitation. Tne govern ment, in contornuty with its duty, took the most active mes sures'o tri'iqate the rigor of the evil. "Not only ail the physicians of Guatemala," says a writer then re liou g in the country. " out the g'eaU-r part of tie meii csl r tudeuts were sent to r>la:?6 wheie their serviees were roost necessary. The poor Indians, who uied in gre iX num lere, wore completely terrified. The clergy tnou^ut this ?, favorable opportunity to put into execution their p.ans against tbe liberal, causing the Indians to believe that ttiey (thellboralsi had poisoned the spring* to destroy tbtm and to people t!ie country with strangera, present ing to thein as a proof of what they advanced, the ruing ci locy of i-aint Thrmas. The credulous aborigines who bad already b ?n excited agiitut reforms, and particular ly sgeinst the tiisl by jury, weie soon in re belli >a, crying fi' atn air?in?t the poisoners and the strangers. W Any of tne phyt-icians esraped as best they could. Some fell into their bawls and were murdered, or were obliged to swallow all their medioine-i and water until the/ died, in ? hich manner they proved (In. ir guilt." the insurrection became general In all the districts whore the Ionian element predominated, and to the hor rors of the plague succeeded tho-e of civil war. Tumult and disorder aod lawles-i moba marked the f >o*step* of the revolution. An ill-devised at empt to pwi'y a numerous band of the lattbr with n small forco, produced verv dis astrous results, lor on the 7th of June, 18K7, they 'were defeated by Che insurgents and the greater part slain. Tne matter was nor, in Itself, of very great moment, and like many others, might have produced somo irritation at the moment, and then been forgotten. But aa the engagement of Sabana Grande was important because it brought forward Uorazan, who was to cliangs his coun try's destinies, the destruction of the tro:>ps at Santa Kos* marks an era in the history of Central America ? that of anarohy and destruction. The chief of the in surrection of ?anta Ko-a was Rafael Carrera, whose name from that moment begins to figure in the annals of the oountry as the synonyme of all that can be a most terrible scourge to the people of Guatemala, where he soon exercised the most brutal and barbarous power that hat ever been known. The history of Carrera forms a remarkable contrast to that of Morazan. Both were sprung from tha revo lution, both held unlimited power, but they eaefc fol lowed a separate route. The one was the saviour of re publican institutions, the other their assassin. The liberality, generosity, and patriotism of the one could only be compared to the Ignorance, selfishness, treason and brutality of the other. The one personified progress and liberty, the ideal of a republican and well disci plined army; the other, darkness and tyranny, the leader of blind fanaticism and of disorderly bands, ani mated solely oy a love of plunder, blood and pillage. Carrera is an Indian, or mixed white and Indian; the latter greatly preponderating: obstinate, Irascible, bloody, unscrupulous snd persevering. When he headed the Santa Kosa disturbance, he was only 21 years of age; his business was to slaughter hogs and he could neither read nor write, but he haa some influence with the Indiana His relations, aud the pressure of circumstanoes, rather than ar y talent or ability of his, were the elements which raised him to * power which was sever graceu with justice nor tempered with clemency. Carrera hnnly believed the gross fabrication of the clergy, that the cholera proceeded from the waters being poUoned, and that the physicians, under pretence of curing the evil, were sent by the authorities for the pur pose ot Accomplishing their designs ag?inst the Indians. L'iged on by toeir sucoess at Santa Kosa, and fixing upon Carrera as their most fitting instrument, the clergy resolved to extend their influence in hi* favor, and to support him lirmly. rhey gave the Indiins to believe that be was the guardian angel, Raplinsl, who had de Mended from heaven to avenge them, and to punish those heietlcs, the liberals und the foreigners, ani that be wai himself to seize the sovereign power. Various allegories were distributed for this purpose, in wbnh his miiailfis were set forth. They placed upon the doors of the churches in the Indian villages a legend and an en graving, which showed the Virgin Mary commissioning Carrera to direct tlie revolution against the government, and assuring him of the Divine interposition in his be haii. These means soon placed Carrers at the head of groat numbers of rude Indian troops. Through fear or policy be always evnuled an engagement, except whan greatly stronger in nnmbers. His first engagement alter Santa Hosa ?a? uniiavorable to him, notwithstanding the ilns IRimn with which the It-oians l'ougbt, they tun ing been promised paradise should they fall in battle. The obstinacy with which they struggles was such a< to com pel the government troops to nome excesses in the hoa* 01 bit' lie. This rendnted all reconciliation impossible. This conduct conlirmed thorn in the belief that their enemies really meditated the complete destruction of the Indian*. For thi reason the buit. e of Mataquejcuiatla was cot decisive. Carrera tied f.ora village to village, bkwing the flume of insurrection until the lutter bocamo universal. The energy of the government wis spent in vain. Bands of roh'ierx and assassins infested the highways and attacked the helpless villages, and the whole country, with the exception of the larger towns, was in a state of the most (rightful anarchy. In Guatemala tbe <iueation which had divided its neigh bors with regard to the common safety, bad now reached its culminating point. The government was sur rounded by dangers and difficulties on all aides, and the anti libetal j arty found itnetl among tlie Tic. ins of the tempest which tbey had contributed to produee. In thin crisis the liberals proposed a reconciliation. The terviies requited the resignation of Governor Ualvez, one ot tbe in oh t decided yet moderate of the liberals, and the din.olt>t.\on of the Cabinet, and that all offices should be filled by impartial persons. Tbe liberals ac eer'ed to this demand, and the cunueqaenee was an anti-liberal power, which only increased tbo dangers of the State. Tbe new administration, under the plea that each mea."?res were ne irssary lor the restoration of p-iace, Kn*|*n led tie law of habeas corpus, and many other constitutional guarantees suppressed the lioerty of the press, and established a military regimen; in a word, ant on foot the meat reactionary tendencies. Toe general discontent was not a little augmented by the conduct of the military leaders who had boon invested with extra ordinary powers; and although these measures were to lerated by some liberals, as required by circumstances, they werv regarded by others in acta of open liontiUty. Many discussions arose, by reason of tlus. Antigua Guatemala, or old Guatemala, capital of the depart men; ot S'noaitepequer., pronounced against the t-'Yernroont, deelaring >t a usurpation, and placed Itself under the power of the confederacy. The governmeut, on the other hand, declared Haca tej.e ]u?z in a s ate of insurrection, and declared m?r. tlal law isaiust it. Similar pronunciamentoa, however, soon followed at Cbiijnimula, Salama and Vera fa/.. A part of the troops, too, became indignant against the government which betrayed tbe State, and arose in tbe cspita), demanding that the functionaries be restored to ofilce v bo bud resigned by reason of the so-cailed com promise. In this crisi". the factloas railed in the assistance of Carrera, and with the aid of his tierce guerillas, marched u|*>e i.tiatemala, took It, and plan d at the head of the State n i.isn named Velasquez. Tne greatest alarm then prevniled In Guatemala, because the soldiery of Citrrera acted with the most unbridled license, and comulited ?lirford<'is of every kind. The poople asked for his expul sion. *ldch ciuld only Ire effecttd with difllsulty. The h frerab1 were forced by their antagonists to place thera setve- at the head of the movement, in order that hey migh- benr the weight of ' srrera 'a hatred and revenge. They, however (the anti -liberals), remained quietly at home, and it is even reported that the^v secretly eon \eyed to Carrera Intelligence of everything that tran spired. The lieeraLs of the departments of Qoeraltonang", So lola sod Totonlcapan, where the insur>o3tion had not yet become general, erected (bono provinces into a iiew state, called l?s Altos, and asUed for Its amission iriUi the eonieilcraoy as ft sovereign State. In doing t.hU the liberals sought rot nothing hut a set ofT against Guv temsln, wl ero their adversnii**, lr stalled by force and leaguod with the aborigines, isrned the most stringent men m re* sg*lont orer_\ thli g that orpooed their au thority. At the h'glnrjng of the Guatenitda injur rsMioo, Iho Merat govern meet took no part In the disturbances. It douoted whether it would have a right to <1* io b?f >re lb# State g ver oment should be uoaoie to defend itetjf; and nioibuvbr It dia not pine*! at the tine the ueoae sa>y rotaos to interfere effectual ly. The other 9 ate* lit ewse fotebore loUiferiDg with others whose in 'cr eate did not din-cily ?ff?ct tbeira. Lastly, when Morasao was w mpelleo by circumstances and by the constitution to intei tote, he found very great dificuity in racing tue b?oe?a?rj troops. ana he ru compelled to m\roh at tb? heed of a very small >nak*r of men. Be soon teached Met*, toe headquarters of the rebellion, and al though he wis hucocnnful in every encounter, he was un able, af'ei a severe campaign, to ob*iu any decisive re ?ult. The new post lion of affairs in Guatemala contribu ted to increase bin embarrassment. The policy of hla pnlitfatl oppoi ents waa to continue the war. He iras, theitfore, obliged to leoair to the caaital with hla ex hausted airny , and the eoemy, knowing tbe man, offered no opposition. Their policy waa alravs to tempjriie and to dis.-embis ? never to Mt openly or f an ily . Tbe people, reaaenred by the intervention of Moraaan, requeete:) that the aata-Mb>ral officials should resign their posts, and these, with well feigned patriotic sinceri ty, gave up their offices and placed them in the hand* of Horazan Tbey thereupon proceeded to a new ale ition, which resulted in tbe appointment of Mariano Ittvera I'aa, a moderate1 liberal, to the pout of chief magistrate of .the agate. Tbe first meaaure adopted by the liberal pan j after their restoration te power, waa to proclaim a general amneaty and pardon for all political offence*, and to eali upon all the inhabitant* to lend their assist ance to tbe re-etablishmant of order. The Immediate e' fret ol this upon tbe insurgent* was favorable, and Mo rs ran havit g again assumed the offensive against them, they made proposition*, which were accepted, and entered into a treaty of peaoo. This waa, however, bat a feint on thrir pa-t, and they awaited but a favorable moment te violate it. The preeence of Moraaan in Guatemala waa marked by an attempt to corrupt his patriotism and to bring him to tbe anti-liberal aide. "This arrogant and subver sive party," sa>s a Central American writer, "received Morazan with apparent satisfaction; they nil surrounded and flattered bim. For a time they pretended that tbey were equally grieved with the reat of the coun try at tbe public calami: 1m, and haviog de ceived themselves, and believing that he wo aid consent to sacrifice hia principle*, they concluded by an open offer of the die tatorahip, and a ohange in the institutions of the country. This proposal waa rejected with the con tempt which it deserved, and tbey, mortified at their fail ure. resumed their plans of intrigue and iosurrejtion." While those occurrences weio going on in Qua te mala, the ether States were becomiug daily more and more dis organized. Ail the attempts ilia: had been made to form anew constitution had tailed, while tho objections to the old ore c< ntinued to iooreate. Discontent waa geueral, and the elements oi popular union wore every where beirg dir. solved. Hardly had Moraxau suoceoded in re rstabllx i. g an apptrent calm, when he waa called to Sni> Salvador to suppress new disorders; a man of inde scribable tepravauon and crnel y, Franoi.-c > Males pin, hua srouesd a commotion whicu proiuwd the most dis astrous results. The place whe-o he nell hi-t bead quar ters waa unknown, ana all his forces were divided into many bodies of small numbers, who acted only upon the impulse of the moment. Aa toou as Morazan left Guatemala with the federal troops. Camera reorganized hia Indians and re newed his uttacas with all the vigor that he cou'd cm? and He began by falling upon a body of trooj h stationed at Jalapa, under the com rnaid if Colonel BoiilUa; tbe^e he vanquished and pur sued as far aa tbe frontiera of Salvador. This su;cohs filledtlerknligoft.be insurgents with enthusiasm, and gieat y tended to ioc ease their numbers. Carrara had not for?' tten h'fi ignominious expulsion from Guatemala, ani wssburii'bg io be revenged. He therefore nurcbei agbintit 'hai s aw, ?nd was met by a small force at So nspa this, after a vulo elf irt to arrest hu march waa obliged to withdraw, and he continued his progress. He airivod at the city almost as soon as the intelligence of lis approach, lie en'ertd. without any resistauoe being offnf d, on the day followlug. It was the tntontiun ol the excitec savage to set lire lothe city, and he could ooiy be induced to desist wiilig.eit diiliculty. Meau whtle, he practised the moat cruel outrage! upon the literals, who were also a pr*y to the constant aud unra presstd attacks of hit soldiers. Tbe antiliberitis on the other band, enjoyed alt possible privileges, ani firmly cenientut their atlianre with the savage cuieftain. But while ho was thus revelling in tho int ixicaticn of his tiiumph. Gene al Salasir, who had collected together a body of soise bine hundred men, attacked hiji :<ta p act- in tho immediate vicinity of Guatemala, known as V illa Nueva, and complete y deputed him with a hea ry loss. More than five hundred Indians remained on tho field. Carrera, terrified at this disaster, ratirod with the few followers that were left, him to the mountains of Mita. Had this blow been followed by ano'.her, it would have unquestionably put an end to the insarroc.ion. 8alazar, howtver, was not in a condition to pursue tho campaign any farther, aud was obliged lo abandon his purpose and return to Gua'*maJa; and although steps were afterwards taken to follow up this first success, tne insurgents had already recovered from tbelr alarm. The indomitable Carrera made his appearance once more, and having inace an incursion into Ran Salvador, and taken possebsiou it Santa Anna and Ahua Chapau, he reiurned with great haste to Guatemala. There ne was once more defeated. A series of unfavorable engigemsnts subsequently began to dampen his ardor, ana when he discovered that M jrazan was organizing new forces, and prepa-ingto destroy him completely, he manifested a disposition to abandon the contest, and made overtures to the government Thus it was that on tho 38d day o> December, 1888, a treaty was signed, by virtue of which tbe insurgents were to lay down their arms, to recognise the authority of the State, Carrera to lie com mander of Hit*, and a general pardon to be extended t tbe guilty parties. Aevertheiess, Carrera, under pre teuce of defending the district, remained at the bead o considerable troops, which troops enabled him to be cotiie one of the powers ot the State, as soon as he wa invested wi'h legitimate authority. This of itself i sufficient to show the weakness of the govern meat, and Carrera found himself in a better position than ever be fore to carry out his plans. This circumstance, coupled with the growing excite ment that prevailed in the country, snowed taat ta - gtate and federal governments were daily becoming mor powerless. Neither had any resources, and both wer without any fixed common principle. The personal po pularity ot Morazan was the only element of stability that appeared to i ffer any chance of security and order. The federal Congress assembled in 1838, and Morazan made a frank communication touching The condition of the country. A decree was thereupon issued extending to the State governments many of the powers that had belonged to the lederal government, and left to the latter only the department of foreign affairs and the collection of the public revenues. Such a measure was a virtual dissolution ot the confederacy, particularly as Congress waa dissolved immediately alter ward and did not oome together again. The legislature of Gautem&la, dismayed at the prospect now offered, followed tbe same example The other .States remained abandoned to their own re sources. If they bad been inspired by a true sense of patriotism, at. this critical moment they would have sa crificed all tbilr private ammositios and feelings upon the altar of the publis good. But scattered over an extensive teintory, with inferior com munications, they were unable to understand one another aril to provide Tor Uio common safety. Some, however, endeavored to do so, aud called a con V'litionat Nicaragua to revi-e tlie constitution. The great difficulty that then manifested itself was to define the powers of llie several States. Then Nicaragua pro mulgated ber constitution and declared herself independ ent, rtccgnizicg, however, the federal principle, should the republic be reorgaiiiied under a confederacy. Hon duras followed thi- example set by Nicaragua. C>sta Ri ca was being revolutionized by Carillu. who deposed the lawfully corstltutid Governor, Manuel Aguilar, and as sumed the dictatorship, which olliee he held daring a pe ritd of tour v tirs. Nevertheless his administration was highly b< nel'iiial, and under his inlloen :o that little State inai'e considerable process. At the i nd of tho year 1838 the republic wis in a state of alrcoat complete diHorgr.niration, there remaining but tin ee States together. Mora/au was tho only mau who represented the national i rinolple, and on the 1st of Feb ruary tnnuiig his term txpirod. There was attbattime ntither 1'iesioent nor Ceng i*ess. aor unity ot action be tween the StaVs. Morazan, still actuated by the hope ot leoigauizing tbe lepublie, and deeming it a duty im posed t.y clictimstancei, determine I to retain his o(B:e lit. til the election of a pnccessor. He was still strongly d nvlneeo that tlie literal government alone ceuid sus tain tbe integrity ot the uidoc. A great part of the li jo rals had btci me opposed to him. Ihese foime l a U ague with Nicaragua and Honduras, with wbith he had bet'ii at war for some time past. Nevenbtlean, witli the assistance of General Caoanas, one of the best nud bravrst oflicers tha', the country ever produced, he defended himself for a long time. San Salvador wa> invaded by the joint troops of Nicaragua and Honduras' bat the latter wete defeatod In several encounters. The federals, having pushed forward as far as the latter of these Sta'es, were in turn repulsed. While fortune was tnus uncertain, however, the liberal | party was daily growing weaker, and a reconciliation be coming more lmpoi sible with their rivais, whose plans were becoming more appai ent. Morazan being in a very precarioun position, they en tered it to a league with Caneia, and induced the cruel Indian to proreed against Gnatemala with 6,000 men. The rmall garrisan ot ?00 ir.en made no resistance, and be entered in triumph into the city whence he bad been twice expelled. Ktinar now undisputed inaati>r of the place, bo itpeated many of the outrage* which had called forih so much inoi^natiou on fomer occa sions. lie became a sel.-cou.tituted dictau<r, aud oommencod a system of bloody persecution against all whotn ho considered suspicious, or wbo were distasteful to him by reason of their past ccndnet. Ills reign was a reign of bru aiity and terror? hia sword was the only law. An assembly of anti republicans was eallod, and declared tbat the S'ate se ceded from the confederacy, aud that henceforth It re sui-iied all its tighUas a sovereign and in<>|ienil^nt State. This, therefore, was tho third triumph of the enemies of the union. Their victory being attested by the ruiaa which they had uinOc, a triple ullianre was formed be tween despotism, lb> cleri y arel barbarity. Agrleultare and commerce disnpi fare.), as well as the public trea sure. All the liberal .!.vv? were annulled, and they re turned to a system w rse than tlmt of Spain. Hut no one was un.ru anxiotut in this wcrk of disor ganization than llm clergy, who at onoe soiiffh'. to obtain the re-estafclishn-ent of convent*, of tent lis, and tho icstoration of all their property; but the Indian kne.v ali that the oiergy wa* capable of, "and saw that the p>wor wh ch was thus sought to be increased might be u.oed

against him, and he gave a peiempiory refusal. What, tten, mils', have been tho a ton rhment of the servlles, when they ft.und a master where th y hail thought to find a "lave! Mi anwhile the same clergy promoted an Insurrection at Us Altos, against thi liberal or federal author! io*, and re- incorporated the Stat> into Cuatemala. (iuz?an, the Pies Mdnt, nod many of the leading liberals we.e captureil by Carrera, and all the municipality ol' Quei 7*lt?nengo shot. Many fled to San Malvador to screen thtnitelves frc m the a'roeities of that savage. Tliis last mentioned Stole was the only one that re mainrd faithful to the federal principle. But Morazan's t>i pes were failing dally, and he now determined to try r re last effort in favor tbe cause to which he bad de \otod his life. AlHiongh snrroondisl by foes and hy timid frtenils. I e sucrnnied in raiding a smaii force, and march ed nj<m Goalenmla. In twenty elglit n.inntes ho look tbeiitv. r>n the 18th of March, J*40. Brit the popular spirit had begun to fail uui'er such se?e -e trials; innn/ of h's friends bud f?)Vn, sn1 "fherii nere > xpet'ed, fo that ha found him** If alone; his trwop* did uot ntmtw can thou k? n<l men, while bye times that number of mei, under Qarrera, surrounded him U> every directive. Kinl log, then, that >1 >u loet, and wall awa-e that tin jag t bit in ihere exinttd no idea of civilised warfare, he re solved to brtak through the line that surrouude) him, ana withdraw. The cinteat wm terrible; the majority ol bis ofl'Cera were killed; thirty-three of the more dis tinguished of thoke that remained in the city took refuge in the house of Mr. Frederick Chitfieil, the British Con sul, who delivered thetn op, and they were out dowa in bbt houce like dogm. Those who took refuge under the Aug of France were 'he only one* who escaped. When Morezan reached San Salvador be round various parties leagued toother against hint, and had take a ad vantage of Li* misfortune* to aeize the reins of gjvoru neat. Set!ng ttut all was lost, and without a spark of hope left, he departed one dark and stormy night, wlih a tew cf his officers, quitting wiih profmitd grief that oountry which he had twice saved from destruction, and to whose service he had devjted all his effort* and all his ability. Such was the ead of tlie Presidential career of Marxian, who remained two years at Valparaiso with those who had accompanied him there, Canrera , finding himself without a foe in Central ime rtea, and eicboluened by hi* triumph, thought that he could easily master the whole country. With this object, he raised a numerous army, and maroked upon San Salvador. He mei with no resistance, and he was able to perpetrate the gieatest atrocities with impunity. He plaotd the sovereign power in the hand* ot one of the fsotioas thai had joined him; hut as Honduras and Ni caragua had formed a league against hlin, and as hit Indians had bee me of little avail, when out of their mountains of Guatemala, hardly bad he returned to Guatemala before the people of San Salvador deposed the authorHien that he had left, and placed other aul legiti mate one# lu their stead, CHAPTEK Vn. OAKKKIt A ? KKTIJHN OF MOHAZAM ? BIB DKATU ? AT TKMI'T AT FOKXIXU A UX10K- 1H41 TO 1851. In the year 1811 the national spirit wa* completely gone, and the republU was divided into five separata Stales, each one jealous ot her neighbor, a prey to in terior fasilons, and to the opposite efforts of the differ ent parties. In Guatemala the member* of Carrera's Assembly soon discovered that they were nothing but Instruments ol his will, he haviig assumed all the powers of the State and taken them into his own hands. He well knew thai the a nti liberal party had only joined him to further their own secret and private views. The ignorant butcher cf Mita had sufficient experience of his associates to know that he must look to his own personal seourity? therefore it Is that he only adopted and carried out their measures wheu thsy coincided with his osrn ideas; he conformed u> the law when it subserved his interest*, and he acted with discretion when it suited him. ?' Senor (ieneral," said on excited member of the Assembly ono day, in full council, "you possess the phyhical p jwer, hut w? rely upon the moral power of the country.'' tune a ?-.mile no reply, hat immediately wiUrlre*. Within il' teen minutes he teturned, and tire huadred bay one i? uurrounued the rcom. Carrera ordered that the coom should be opened, and raid to the irritated member, 'lisreaie my IndUna, wheie is your m >rai power f" The cl< yy hastened to procure a return, not only of their cori; .Ktei property, but also a re- establishment of their tcn.ai ana otter percjuiMtes aoolished bv the liberals. Canera assented to soma o' their domiads, but prohibited the Assembly from obliging the people to support the clergy. " It iny one wj.n-.it to employ a clergyman. let him pay him." Costa Kica *as btili 'inoer the orders ef the dictator Can il.o ; out having received a new and pro pereun im pulse by reason ot the Introduction of coffee, the ooun Uy reinitiate quiet. 1. was euabted t> cootrib'ito its i-hare towards the payment oi t.ne nation*! debt, and had a surplus left, which it devoted to objecu of public utility. Nicaragua, San Salvador and Honduras, although with separate governmeu is, were all anxious for a nati >ntl union. Alter liaving disposed of Nome preliminary dlffi cumeri, tl.wo fthSPiublnl at Clilnandega, on the 17th of March, 1842. a Congress tor the purpw-e of ebtabUahiug the baties cf a new constitution. This Btep was apposed by Carreja and the ami liberal party ?< Guatemala and by Carrillo; but the representative of the SHt.es above nam* <1 formed the banes of a national govern men' in these words: J'T iata supreme maturate, elected by the majority of the States, won d be the Executive power that a Council ci State wou d be formed in the same man' per; that there would be a supreme court of j until*, and that each State would cuvern ifelf by its own peculiar v."V v ?i<*,OU87 anJ m^trust ot a central power, which had beta in the minds of all, after the dissolution of we confederacy, again opposed this project; besides a govemmect with unliitittd power, and without any means of ixistttice, could ouly be nominal. Still. this attempt? though without any result ? served te snow a disposition to attempt the formation of a union and the friends of Morazan, believing that all personal hatred against him had died away, thought that by re turning to the country he might help to revive the irde raJ teeJiugr. He was therefore urged to return, and aasuied ot a most enthusiastic reception. Full of hope, he set sail troiu Valparaiso, with all hi-oflicws. ja March, 1842, anj^n April loilowing reached 1a In ion, In San Salvador. But finding that the nlan tt the liberal . had fri.ed, hererfMUld.?S Costa Rica. There he gathered together a tew troops and marched upou the capital, where he deposed c/r rill? and raised the republican Hag once more. Th? le gislative houses appointed him (jovernor and recalled the decree in which the State had withdrawn from the union. This result, brought about in one of the States tha' h?d been most hostile to the union, naturally inspired Morazan and hi* friends aith great hopes of being able to re- establish the federal government. Taey believed that the other States would follow the same course aa testa Kica, and aid them in their operations. With this view they prepared an expedition to Nicaragua. The Assembly decreed a levy ol 2,000 men, and a loan of SftO 000. But the people of Costa Rica are averse to war ui>d a peat part of the men flew into the woods, so that it became obligatory to take ntrong measures to enforce the recruiting law. This insuired the people with great hostility, which was encouraged by the emissaries ot Guatemala and the English agents. At this moment a latal occurrence came to the assistance of the latter. An cfficer named Molina, belonging to an influen'iai family, seduced a young girl from the house of her pa rents, for which crime he was arretted by General JUvas. The former considering thtn an insult tailed tbe troops against him; he was assassinated! act Molina was taken to Calderas. tried Wore a court martial and executed. This occur renoe created considerable excitement. Some of the troops tided with the criminal, and even attempted to prevent tbe execution of the sentenoe. To quell the dis order Morazan sent General Sazet to the spot with bis troops and remained behind with a small e-ooi t m* enemies seeing him alone, took advantajre or toe onnr tnnity oilered to attack him; the people with flioir -y-i fickleness jtined them, and he was assaulted by afteut 6,1.00 1 men at San .low. Morazan, with roue three m four hundred men maintained bis ground for two days and two nights, broke through the line of his besieger*, marched to tbe city of Carthage, where he was ulsgraco fully betrayc-d. was made prisoner with fell t*n sons aud some ol hi* oilicers, taken to .-an Jose on Uie 15th of September. 1842. and immediately shot. Thus di*l the most able and purest man that Central America ever jnocuctd. To <Josa Rica bel-.Dgs the odium ol having perpetrated the moat abominable crime, in accordance wi h tbe Miggestion of the anti republican party. Wlientbe intelligence of Morazan 'h capture "reached Hie w att it was hardly er?dlted: nevertheless, (Jenoral l ttbi nas. with a miaU t??dy of picked troops, went to his resc > ; but he had luroly started when a Spaniard calU-l Kapuiac, who prof^iiiiii frii'DdKhipfor Morieui persu&aed him that not only wai hr in safety, but that ie was pro liably by that time near the coast. Having been deceived in this way, Cabanas returr.ed to Calderas, anion liw arr.val there heard of the atrooity that had been perpetrated at San Jone. Ihe friends of M irazan were I. lied with terror; but although without their leader they 'remained flrm to tfeir ptinciples. They embarked in Different vessels and proceeded to San Salvador, waose ports they blockaded aming several weeks ; finally, they landed and were received in a friendly manner by Males pin and took part In the affairs of the State. Malespl* had formed a plot against Morazan, but having been ac tuated by the latter, bad been obliged to letre the country He afterwards returned with Uarrera, who loft him at ! the head of the troop?., that he might put down any at tempt of the liberal; but ho soon saw that although these were divided they really predominated, and he co alesced with them with a view te insuring his powe; ? tie even raiset many of them to omco. This course on lit* part, and bis conciliating measures towards all the adhe rent# of Morazan, alarmed Carrera and his friends und they determined to striie a blow that would destroy him and his new allies. An expedition was therefore orga nized to invade San Salvador, at the head of which w*s i.encal Arce, the lirst Resident and ilrst traitor of Cen tia! America, %ho had be*-n reduceil by his crimes to the tHxuuon ot an adronturor. The expedition wasunnuc cesi'lul and Carrera punlahod his w re to bed Bh?w,a disapprobation of the attempt. But Malespin did not let the matter rest there, lie io his turn raised lorces to invade Guatemala. The move was well and vigorously executed, but the troops had no very grrat affection for their commander, and offered tho wiBMuand to General Cabanas, a man of a kinalv ami affable dispoeitim and great courage. But Cabin**, out . I'm*. . , (',on'miin<lor. reftuwd the profTsre.1 post, and Jlalespin, indl;rnant at such a proofing, .llssolvaj WB forces and returned to San Salvador. A iter the death of Morazan, the Stales continned, not oolj separated, but actually opp,.^i to ea^a other. J aiiy f|iiestion* bad now di*appear?<l to make room for struggles *fter the supremacy o\er the rest. Ihe result wan frightful knmchj. In (iuatcmala. tut we Uare al ready .fated Current exerci?e<1 unlimited power. At ho j Malespin had no control over public affairs. At Honduras one Terrera was the nominal but powarlesa fiesit.ent. At Meaiwgua there v. as Casto Fonseca.known :if i >rand Ma'esahul ; and one Alfaru presided provinloa ally over (.'oeta Rica. While the ennntry wm thus disunited, while every at (=ni})t at rationality Jailed, the hngltaJt a^ent* at Belize took aoTtUitage ol the opportunity to carry out their ?le ^igna URainnt the Honquito cok^t. (Ailonel Macdrnald, a superintendent, ma<le a new iu CUr?ion upor tho c?aat, uriiv?d at San Jnan de Mrsra gim, t(.ok Qe.ijano, the administrator, a pri?oner. carriel h jn off ni his vea.p], hnd committed everr kind of out rage. He afterwards viflted Knatan, Ihere give his or ders, ?ml returned to Belize. This new proceeding was not dli approved; on the oontrary, wh?>n uie government ot Nica:airr.a preferred it* claim, Consul (liatfiald cut short all discussion by saying that lie acted in eocformlty with the c irestirns of her Majesty's government. Tji's fl-st st on was consnn-maied tbe 10'th of August, 18f>0. the i^lsiids havlrg then l>c?ii deolsred lormallj ann?*od to the niperiniendi nce of Belize, under the denomi nation of " liay 1-lands." Ihe Krg'h h a?i*re?sioris are thus re sapitnlatcd br an I'ng l-h i.nthoi ? "The Mini trial of our ac>|ui'-Hion< in Central Ac.f iii?, nclkdir/g the ? m? 11 Islands ? Ruatan end Ti?i( r--ls '4*,isio H()iii?ro miles, or .'18,704, 0H0 ac-es, over wblrfi we ! ?v? iiiidisfiuted authority, t'iU being alini ht ene-thlrd ol Nlcjirtgua, and e<|ual to two thirl* 1 'if 1 1 f'-nt ll'l^a'n " The <1 ''ai's r.f the sub-avjaenj dlKwltfeg vm i g Uj* STatei sra wtth.-rt .oteceet; tfcey I pnw-jot oovlimj but coateats nictated by parwiil I jealousy U'l (rintt interest*. Thf iiott In portaai tnnb are ib? uni'.u between Hoaduraa and Sau beltade' HfkluM Nicaragua. md the tovaai>a of MaJespln again* < the latter, ia 1844. The olty of Uoa op posed ? furioal lesistanee to thin. This city wu 4b tended wilii eXV'aoidtnary pen*v?rta*e for two months, and it waa on y after a most otMtina e siege tha. ! it yielded to sup? nor numbers. Thi* war befug conciu I ed, Nicaragua rrniaim-d at |>eaoe. TUe ooiy duturbtn ? was aa uuKtrroetion handed by a man named Chel >u. This wan promptly quelled, and nothing further occurred until the taking of .-an Juan by the Kuglith, ia January, 1848, and tile commotion of Somonz'i, in 1819. Another attempt at federa.-irng waa maoc by a con vention held at Nacuome, ia 1H.:7, bat only Hindu- an. Nicaragua and San Salvador sent representatives ? oil! these Uid down the baata of the new conatitutiin called the " Nacaome agreement" which oaa ac.-epted by neither centralists nor federalists. When Mr. Hire went to Guatemala, in 1818, ao Charge d'Aflairs of the foiled S aui Government, he waa instructed to leclate to the State* of Central America "that the policy ?>f the Americam government win not to interfere in their affaira; but that nevor theless it earn' stly (iesired and recommenced a re-e*'.ao lishment of the confederacy of Central America." Tae name lnxtrucuoDh were given in 1849 to hi 4 aucoeasor, who stated tne desire of the United States, and the renolt waa that the delegate** of Nicaragua, Honduras and San Salvador again asi-orc bled, ander the title of " National , Representation." "he agreement then proponed waa simple enough, and Invited the coooarrenoe of Coita Rica and Guatemala. Only the first named State* ao- [ eepted, and on the 9th ot January, 1851, the National Representation came together, Mr. Jose Barrundia having ! been appoirted its l'ret-iJent. Upon this the Nicaragua ! GateUe exclaimed: "After ten year a' devastation, Centra] 1 America n once more lettered to the hope oi pr wperity i and peace. May God, and the experience of the pant, guide uh in our future career: and may we wisely follow i the example offered us by the great republic of N'orih j America." The Defeat of Sonlonque. (^Correspondence of the Pont.] l'orr au Pbinci, Dec. 27. 1865. 1 wrote you on the 15th respecting the tuiron of the ! army to the East. rhe Emperor has been gone sixteen ; day*, and as yet we hare heard bat little from him, as nothing ia allowed to be m?<le public. A tew fort au Prince people have come back, anl only a fear, but a great many have baen sent out by the government. Ab near m we can learn the Emp*ror baa reaohed A/ua, but ha* had to tight the whole way. Business h> at a dead stand; collections are very bad, particularly among tae speculator*. The retaikrs pay better. I do not want to see any more arrivals of provi sions until the preeeut critical state of affairs pause* over; and when it will do so, nobocy knows. 1>*< KM MB 30, 1866. Since the foregoing was written, news from tne army has come in more ahundan ly, and it Is bad enough, i will give you the imrtiuulara, an far ai I cu gather tnetn, bat you know the dfflinully of getting at poliiiia! ftvtt* in Hav'l. Every Hay tat n feels au if every ioua word he utlers on any matter relating to the government, wilJ cu lUt own throat ? ao 1 have collected what (ollow.i by whispering with one and another. Tne army, aayou know, left hero on the 10\h of the pre*e.ut montn. It conaisusdot the troops ot the South united to tboae oi Port au Prime, and these wer* joint & at Mirabel&ls by the troops of Gonalves and St. Miuc, numbering in all about 2;t,0li0 men, independ ent of the anny of tne North, coiutnaudoa by General 1'anl Dncsjette, ot Honte 7,000, whlon reuueav jused at a small town near the lines where they still remain, for all we know to the coutraty. From Mirebelais a detar-hmfent of about four thousand waa ordered to take a southern road, with a few peevt rioDB, and to rejoin the lvnpeior niur Aiua. All we asoiv ei them further is, tint aoon afier crotisiug tae j linen, they were met t>y a bocy of Douiiulcatia, when the ; regicieat of Jacmel, wtiich was in a&Vunue orul.e at the , tlrat tire, ami precipitated theoiHelves on the rear, which | ca usee a general rout. I'.iey were com Handed by old G?r>er*i Garat, oi thut place, said to be the best cavalry officer in the army, wuo, with aereral of tun officers, waa UlLed in the spot. The ti oops have g .me where they p(?*?e. Hut tue great mia6?rtnue wa? with the main body, under the fcoipeior, oonsisung of ?t>out eighteen thousand men, wciiih took the road to Los Ca mas W hen near this place, in nn open field, but near a piece of wootia, they came upon a bony of Domiuican* of about four hundred men, with a cannon. The older ot march oi' the Km ps rot's troops at this time war as followa; ? The adranoedguaid waa cummtnd ed by General Valentine (a Domini wn refugee,) with ol.i General Tbirlonge, of Port au l'rinoe, on the right, and the Aux Cayee troops on the left, in ail ab jve 2,UOO men. In the rear of these oamo the ICmperor's elite., with the Kmperor in person, his staff, all his minis a, h'a treasure chest ; after these came the main body, the advanced guard continued to march forward until within gunshot ot the Dominicans, when they made a halt and cried "Vive l'Kinpei>ui I-' several limea, and were as often answeied by the Dominicans; but for whom the lat ter hurraed, uooody seems to know. Tne Dominican commander then advanced in front of hU troeps, and Va etitine did the same to meet him. After talking some time, (what they said is not known,) they separated, each returning to bistroopa; but ou the way the Dominic an tired his pistil, when the Aux Cayen troops com menced firing, without orders, on the Dominican*, who returnee the 11 re. An offieer of the Aux Cayen regiment, whose name I j forget, but the same who shot those prisoners in prison i at Aux Caves a few years ago. then mounted a horse, and called to the troopa to follow nim; and they did so with a rush, throwing themselves back on the main boiy of the Hay iien army, which was at the same time charged by the Dominicans. A considerable number of Hayttens were killed, and Valentine and Thirlonge were both wounded, but escaped. Meanwhile, the Aux Cayea troops, throwing away their guns and baggage, contiuued their retreat, turning and carrying along with them other troops, until finally the greater part of the army had taken to Sight, leaving the Kmperor and hia ataff almeat alone. Valentine and Ihir- ! longe now came up, bard pushed by the Domini oanJ, { when they and the Emperor and all with him took iuto a by-path, and finally succeeded In getting clear off i thi ough the wood* and eecaping from the Dominicans. But the old man ran a narrow chance. They fwere once within a few teet of him, and he waa only aavei by Thir longe and other officers of hi* staff, eeveral of whom loat their Uvea. The D< minicana pursued the retreating Haytiena some miles, until they were finally checked and driven back by ! the baroe Kutaonale of Port au Prince, commanded by | Robert Gateau, the auctioneer. The army has lost e\ erylhlag. The Fjnperor Ia said to J have had with him, in his treasure cheat, tT.,000,000 in cur rency, and $80,000 Sp&niah. All this ia lost, with the gun*, ammunition and provision*, aud other baggage aud money. The retreating troops have thrown away their aims. The Kmperor ia Raid to have reached Bonheur, a small place some sixty miles from the Cape, with about a thousand men. The Aux Cayes troops, with aome others, have arrived back at Ism Caobae, to the number ot 1.600. The Ivope-or has sent them order* to join him at Bonheur, woich they have refused to do. Whether he will morch against them, or they again*! him, doe; not yet seem to ba Net tled. Wnere the rcat of the grand army is, no ono know* but themselves. 1 his ie about the amount, true or false, of what I havo gathered from one and another who have returned. Soycuseethe war is at an eud; bet how tilings are | going to be qnieted down again 1 Oo not kuow, but 1 hope lor the beet. Busineea is exeeedlrgly bad, other prospects worse. T%e gieat irisfcttune to commerce is, that the war was got up so suddenly that no one w?s piepated for it. ( listen tor cargoes ami goods had goi.e forward to hurope an*5, the States, and it w?s too late, wlion the mirth l?e cauie probable, to onnttrtnnnd theia. The conse ,u tao^ i is t>'at the Custom House, wharf and harbor are fall of 1 ! goed*. and there are no sales ; und on irooOa th it, havo to ' | be .orced on the maiket there must be htavy loiees. Supreme Court? In Chamber*. Ilefore Ron. Ju<?g? Whiting. FINANCIAL PII FICUJ.TIR8. Jan. 26. ? 1'hmea* 7. Sat nun a/U. Orson P. ifunn, frtdetie): M. K'lly, Klihu J. TbiMMend anil K<iw:l. Stt l>Kfnt. ? Mr. Cutting applied on behalf of Vhlnean T. Bsr uun to the Court to direst an entry to be made on tbe oocket of a judgment in the weals ''secured by appeal,-' the effect of which is to suspend the lien of judgment upon the reel estate of Mr. Barnum, who states in his affidavit that a judgment was entered ani docketed j in the Hpeoial Team of tbo Court in furor of the pHintiff, .igains'. ?'ef( ndant*, for the sum of $10,074 ?K>, on the 2.Vh I August, 1866; that he appealed from ttie judgment to the General Term of this Court, and that tne name Is now pending and nnheard; that an undertaking requisite to stay execution has been given, and the inrnties there >n have duly justified on plaintiffs exception to their suffi ciency; that the said euretiei are Nunon l.cland and Abraliam B. Ml'ler, both of New Yori, each of whom culy justified in the nam of $&),000; that be (Buruura) i during the liuit week sold now# real eetate, and was j to have completed the sale on the "Itb of January, Inst., and the purchaser, in order to cariy out his contract, tiaJ sold about $80,000 worth of stock at their present low | and deteriorated price to complete his purchase, bat j when deponent came to close his contract he was sur prifed to find ?bat this judgment was a lien, and the pur ofca-er would not, ot course, complete hU contract until ' such lien w*s removed; thit if deponent cannot c.irry out | his contract it, will subject both himself aud his pur- I ohtteer to great loss and serious iueonr-mlonoe. I Connael -? ths ept>o?ite side oppoiwi the motion, and 1 submitted that if relief wcto given it should be on addi- ! tic. mil secnritj ot real eslate. Hie Court would look at the papers wi Ji a view to *ee whether it is a proper case for the exercise of the discre tionary power vested in the Couit. THK MAN AND WOMAN 01' It ANT AJ.IA8KS. Margaret Connolly, alias Corgrove, silos Ihivai, and her husband, Wm. Connolly, alias Coegrore. appeared be "ire the court on a writ of hnl>eis< corpus. It *i!l he imsI. lected that these celebrated chsiactera, ?ho hen ?*<: * ) censplrtiou.'ly on Judge Mnarts trial ? tf* *nc ,t? % wit n?ss acd the other as being unfavorably ?r-oVe.i r>f~ wers recently arretted unu cbsnre of ex;crt?ng m Ke< from ? weak old gentleman in Uo?-?n. and ware cir-m.t ted to tbe Tombs, lhcy are h?*!<l on a requisition a! the (,ov?<mor ot the Statu of Massachusetts to irorern ir (.Jerk. Hie answer of Margaret M. Connolly and Wl'iiam Con nolly to th? return of John (Jray to the writ y h*W? corpus denies the legality ot the warrant attached rhere to In this, that It is not founded upon a suftiel'nt eha^e of crime against the laws of Massachusetts or New York that the proof of the alleged crime, a' stated in the peti- i tion sad wit denied l?y the reinra, is nit sufficient to warrant their ooatmitmcnt , that the charge 4?e< n->t aj>j>en: to have been made before any magistrate in Mas sachusetts qualified to hear the name, nor state* that the partie* me fugitives trom jnstioe in Ma**aohnsetti nor dcee ( he commitment state th*t the parties were iltily examined before him upon tbe alleged charge, per ?uant to ptatute; and to the paper purporting to he a warrant ot ?b?' Movernor of the State ot New >?rk .le pi tients say thst ths ohsrge contained (? saiil warrant Is rlfTi rent ni.ni that stated in the alleged ohargs ani commit n ent. Tlie Conrt reserved 'eoiston until Monday morning, j Tie pri, oners wore in the Meantime re- committed t > the | T?nrh*. Our VtMuto Cm wywrfwwr, Omasa Citt, N. T., J as 10. I88S. Bum n*t* n? the Nebraska LtgUiaiurt?Tk* Bmtk ing Syttrm qf Iftbratka? lUmcmmi %f th* Capi tal? Death at a Gambling Tabl*?T%t Wea ther, fyt. The Nebraska Legialatare is now programing ia business somewhat mora briskly than heretofore Some time since the lower Hbose admitted a twea ty-eevantb member; whereas the Governor, in whom the power wax vested^ prescribed but twenty-six. Ha watt from the Half- Breed tract of country lying south of the Platte river. There has bean constant oppo sition ou the part of many to thia, and consequently business to quite an extent was kept hack. The Council entered a protest to this act of the Haose, a tew days sinee, and thin, with the member's good t-em-e, promoted him to resign his seat. Work now moves slowly on. The legislature has but aba* fourteen days longer to sit, and the code has aa rat been but slightly handled. Tiiere is too mnch of a disposition amongst the members for self-aggran dizement and self-advancement and local tenure. The public good ia too little heeded. The bank question has been for a few data past a theme of general interest. Home seven charter*, I believe, have been on foot. To-nigtt they, or at least some of them, came up oa their final passage in the Council. The Territorial Bank of Nebraaba, or rather the bill, was indefinitely postponed; the Nimeha Valley Bank at BrownviU* passed; the Bank of Florence passed, and the Platte Valley Bank of Nebraska City paraed. I had givea the Nebraska Legislature credit to believe there was too much good sense and good democracy in it ta pass any bill establishing these baseless shiupUstor concerns, and had even thought their good sensa might prompt them to repeal the charter of a oae home concern here, now issuing what look to be bank bills; but if a member gets his name on a baak charter, and sees a fair prospect of some diaaee ahead through it, no matter how odious the principle of territorial banking may be to the people, in he goes for it. It ia folly to' at tempt to establish a bank in Nebraska oa capital, for there is really not enough here oat side of the United States funds to start a respeota ble show in a broker's office. How much of United States funds is already employed in a system of banking now, I know not; but 1 do know that when a member wants to draw for his services, instead of being paid by the Secretary out of the government gold, a chcck is given hiin ou a Fire and Marina shinnlaster shop here, and over he goes and gets a bandfbl of their piper. A bill is now before the Houp?, as introduced bfr Mr. Decker, of Nebraska City, to re-locate the capi tal of Nebraska. It is well got no , and the plan ia really commendable. The substance is, it locates a town called Chester, near the mouth of Salt Creak, ou the south side of the Platte river, emptying there in, and about 2/> miles inland. This t >wa is to be laid off and platted. A board of live commissioner* take charge of affairs. The lota are to be sold by tlie*e commissioners or their agent, and the pro ceeds of such sale to lie upplied to building a Htute Houmj. The wde of loti no doubt would soon build a suitable building. Can the plan or removal be effected? you ask. I think not., for theae reasons: A bill locating it south of the l'latte river would not pass the Council, unless perchance tha name of that thriving town. Fontenelle, on the Klk Horn river could be inserted. This bill may pass the House, and indeed could a bill for a removal any where be effected? as a majority of the people I verify believe earnestly desire ? it wcnld l>e vetoed by tha Covernor, who, I am informed from the general goa sip of the Know Somethings lu ie, is already bound by the company who owned this place, (for a valua ble consideration they sav) to exercise that power ia the event. He'll do it ? I know it. This would throw such a bill back upon both houses, and it wonld thea require that which it could scarcely obtain? a two thirds vote. So the people may howl and rave, the speculator are around. Four men I am informed died in Council Bluff city ?just acroes the river ? last night, quite sudden; one from being poisoned from eating oystors, and three from the effects of liquor. One report is they ? three of them ? died around the gambling table. The particulara I will find out and report. The cold weather has somewhat abated since last I wrote. The Indian ponies ure dying off. and indeed many of the horses of the settlers. It has been a winter thoa far remarkably bad for stock. The Omaha Indians are now mostly on their reser vation up in Black Bird Hills, and are on friendly terms with the Ponka and some bands of the Sioux Indians. Iu. Oar AJubama C?n*?pond?nc?. Aubitbn, Ala., Jan. 20, 1866. Emigration to Kantax ? Mineralogy of Alabama ? The State Legislature ? Democratic Convention ? The Latt of the Temperance Party, d'C., A large company of men are now being raised la this State to go to Kansas. Contributions are being made, not only throughout Alabama, bnt in Geor gia, to facilitate this enterprise, and a degree of en thusiasm is manifested truly remarkable, and con vincing to my mind that the people of the South are not afraid of the Sharp's rifles sent out by the p&udo negro lovers of the North. Willing for Blavery to be directed and controlled by the natural laws the Great Creator framed for it ? soil, climate, products ? I have not the most remote idea that the people of the South would have ever thought for one moment of forming emigration societies but for the intervention of those arch-agitators and dis turbers of the peace of the Union. It may be a trifling matter with Massachusetts, and a relief for her to mnke Kansas a Botany Bay to send her cut throats and criminate to, and it may be some satis faction to her to know that the South U compelled to send her best citizens ? those identified directly with her institutions? but she may yet see that she has sown dragon seed. She may yet be compelled to acknowledge the baleful fruits of her own fanati cism und folly. Late geological surveys prove Alabama to be rich in mineral resources. 1 learn from an adjunct of the State Geologist that marble of the ilnestand most beautiful texture, "in which you may see yourself M in a mirror," capable sfthe iinest palish, and in in exhaustible quantities, has been discovered in one of the northern counties. In another region of the State a vast mine of the lH?t bituminous coal has been discovered. In Tallapoosa connty there is be ginning to prevail a gold fever. Judging from a numl>cr ot specimens I have seen exhibited, there seems to be some local cause for it. 1 have seeu, also, on exhibition some curious mineralogical speci mens from a marble quarry near this place, called by geologists "the dendritic formation, ' which has a beautiful likeness to the marble <)' trees and shrub beiy. The forthcoming rtjioit of the State Geolo gist will doubtless be very Interesting. Our legislature seems to be doing very little just now, except quietly enjoying the "loaves and fishes.'* Gov. Winston proves himself to be a regular "trump," an " Old Hickory" genius. He ha? made pretty free use of the veto power against bills for State aid to works of internal improvement, and also against a sort of special legis lation which has got tows a grout nuisance to the f?('i?le and a very heavy tax. He urges upon the <eg ttlatnre to dispense with it by general acts, but this they have not chosen to do, and the bills are passed over the Governor's devoted bead. The mem bers had a spicy time of it last week voting for a Supreme Judge. Twenty odd balloting* were had, oc< npying several days, before a choice was cflbcted. The democratic convention which convened at Montgomery on tho 8th instant, to appoint delegates to the Cincinnati Convention , large and respectable as it was, furnished us something to laugh over. It was composed of old Jefferson democrats, van-guard wbigs of other days, State aid and an ti -State aid men, and last but not least, by the regular come outersof the American party. It was a perfect con glomeration. What name snould be given to this body of hybrids? That was a poser? a ease outside of common nomenclature. After a very racy dis cnsMon of some length, the omnibus name of the Democratic Anti-Know Nothings wa? adopted, and I presume none of the members will backslide on account of the name. The temperance movement of this State has fair ly dk it oi.t Its accredited o- f-an has been discon tinued. The amaaplisbed editor retired by remark ing that a temperance man in Alabama would be a great curiosity. At one time it was thought this part v was very strong, but it was soou swallowed op bv oilier issues. Macon. A Youko Ladt m SnuneratLD Kidnatpkd. ? The Springfield Rrpulihmn says: ? A party of three Shaker* from the Kulield (Ct.) settlement- a man, a * ? >man and a girl of some eighteen years? were trading ..t I'lympton's dry goods store, when ano ther *nm*n and a young man ? worm's people? np in and spoke to the Shaker girl. They appear od to 1* remonstrating with her and urging her to atvoDinauy them, but she declining, they forcibly seised her. and. after a pulling and hauling struggle with the shaker man and woman, who resisted the taking off. in which the wonder w?* that the objeot of potwewdon was not palled Umb from muh.tbey succeeded In earring her off, and putting her on the c?rs for the Fast, just then starting off. And in that direction raptors and captive were carried on the wings of steam. It seems tlK t they stood in the relation of mother and daughter and brother and sister: that the yoang woraau had been beguiled, hg her own weak ne*s or the arts of others, to join the disciples of " Mother Ann;" and that her relatives who lite somewhere to the east of us, took this me thod to rescue her. The Shakers are not disposed to acquiesce, and two of the patriarchs came to town in tl'i* evening to take rneanir<vs to pet girj hOQ^.