Newspaper of The New York Herald, June 11, 1856, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated June 11, 1856 Page 2
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Vewbor,. **rre in a separate principle I wwefy distinct j-ortion, and couMoot well " X*o?eil-e*en it tirouci iatetwoor three pieces, since 5?fiugiwcta, like thu>? of a ilifMed worm, would be sUc ?? sustain *u independent exi-tence. A hetwr idea porhapo of the interior of the ship ?can lx'Vlined at the present moment than when -lie has p?tgresscd farther towards comple'iou. Asyou ti???WN* her mighty taok, Hush front -tern to stern, that rent c?>mp .rt meats made by the transversa a loo git .dmal bulkheads, or parti-willso; iron, appear in toe >hipe of a fcer*a?i>tralleU>grams?iKty fte. m length by thirty six in widtn; numerous doors t the walls of these j awning openings at ?veal thai it is Ltre that t!.e hotels of the steamshipi will lnuu<1. It we were to take the row boa., betoagiug to Mr. Mrt.i t and drop heut down one golf, uike "Faixance a'' and drop it down the sec m d, rake Motley s at t baring Cro-s and h. lt ,a^ third and adj ist the Great We tern Ho.el at I ad ding ton uud the Great Noitlu ru at ' s Crassmto apeihire- four and five, we ah add get s one faint idea of the nature ot th.- accommodation ' I no t-tea'. Km-tern will atT- rd. We speak of dropping hotels down the^e holes, ho-air e the separate compart ment* w ill he as dm' iri-rt from eaoh <' tier many difleieat L'ii..-es;? ch will hive its splendid saloons, upper and lower,* f do feet in length: its bedroo us c.r cabins, its kitchen and i s f ar; and the passen gers wil no more be at 11 wads from t ic one to the other than the inhab tatits of one house in \i est bomr.e terra e conltl communicate through the paiti-v.'tiis with their next door neighb rs. itie only process bv which visit'ng can be carried on will be b> means of the upper deck or muntbo rouelnare of the ship. Nor are we using figures ot Hpeecn when we c uipare cue space which is con tain.-d in the m w -hip to the united a ? :o:ntn >ila&lou afTGidtd by several ot' the largest hotels ini Loudon. She is destined to carry dO lirst cla-?. second class, end i.^bo third < lass passengers, nidepeaden* ly of the ship's complement, makiuga totil oi 4.0U0 A it Terence to ti. e longuuviiuill anil *rins vufft at wul explain her ictcmal economy ru< re readilv than words, the series of saloons, to gether with the steeping apartments, extending over AtiO lee'., are located in the middle instead or aft, according to the usual arrangement. lne advantage i t this dispobitkm oi the hotel depart ?en: must be evident to all those who have been to sea -no know the advantage of a suug berth as near as pos-iele to the centre of the ship, where its trans Verne and longitudinal axet meet, and where ot course there is to motion at ali. It will be observed that the passengers arc placed immediately above the boilers and engines: but the latter arc com pletely hut oft from the living freight by a strongly niched roof of iron, above which, and below the lowest iron deck, the coal will be stowed, and wih prev.nt ail so.intl and vibration I'roai penetrating to the inhabitants in the upper stories. As the engine and boi'er rooms are separated from each other by tmikLeads, in exactly the k me manner as the saloons, a peculiar arrangement lias been made t) connect their machinery without interfering with their watertight character. Two tunnels, of a snt fcient size to give free passage to the engineers, are constituted fore and a't in the centre ot the coal tankers, through all the great iron pirti-wults. By tliis sriangf meat the steam and water pipes which give li e and motion to the ship will <>e enaa.ecl to traverse her great divisions, just as th? aortu traver ses ?n its sheath the hnrnan diaphragm. 1 et ns return, however, for a few moments to the de.fc, in order to give the reader a clear idea 01 the of the structure under our feet. The ex act dimensions over all are Go2 leet. There are few persons who will thoroughly comorehend toe canacirv of these tignres. Neither Grosvenor nor Belgiave H-.nare could t ike the Great Eastern in; Berkeley S uare would birely admit her in its long dimension,'and when rigged, not at all, for her mizec-bonm vv >uli project some little way up Davies street whi st her bowspr.t. if she h id one. would haLg a 1< n? way over the Mirquis of Lausoovvne s gunlen. In short, she is the eighth of & mile in length. and her paeeeugtrs will never oe able to ?otnpliuu of being "cooped up, as four turns up and down her deck will afford the n a mile s walk. Her width is equally astonishing. From side to side ot her hi li she measures ? 3 feet, the width oi Pad hut across the paddle boxes her breadth is 114 leet ?that is, the could just steam up Portland 1 lace sciaping with her paddles the houses on eitner side. W.tu the exception of the sky lights and openings for ventilating the lower saloons, her tk-cx is flush fore and aft. However splendid this promenade might aprear with respect to those of other ships, we question if it is at all too large lor the moving town to whose use it it dedicated, liootn must he found for the holidiy strolling or bc-tw en three and four thousand persons, whilst sne ia careering through tiie heated at niosph^re ol the tropics, and not merely tor a few score bate nosed gentlemen, such as u-e the deck of the trans-AUan uc s'eamers for a severe exercising ground. The manner in whh:h this rawing city, rather thau ship, will be propelled with the speed ot a locomotive ihr. ugh the ocean, is uit, the least noticeable ot the arrangements conceited with her. Mr. Bruuel has, we think wisely, decided not to trust so precious a human freight and so vast an amount of vu.ui >ie cargo to any single propelling power, hut bassupplieu her witii three?the screw, the paddle and the sail. Her paddle wheeis.iiG feet ia diameter, or consiueta bh larg.r than the circns at Astley s, will be P1'0^'" led by four .ngines, the cylindere of whi h aro 6 feet " inches in diameter, and the stroke 14 feet, ihjt motive power of these will be generated by tour boil ers. Enormous as are these engines, having a tu-m" nal power of 1.0(H) horses, and standing nearly 50 feet high, they will be tar inferior to to i-e devoted to the serew. These, tho 1 argest cv^r eonstnicted tor maiinc purposes, will be supplied >vi:h steam by six boilers, working to a force of 1,000 horses?-be real i strength of the combined engines being equal to 3 (i0u hor-es. When the spectator looks upon the ponderous shaft of nietil, 160 fee*, in length and M) te ns in weight, de-tin<'d to move the screw, and tie screw itself of 24 feet in diameter, tuo lonr tans of which, as they lie on the ground, remind him ol the bladebones ot some huge animal ot the pre Adamite world, lie better comprehends the gigantic nature of the labor to be done, and the amine means taken to perform it. As the scrtw and tue paddles will both be working at the same time, the ship w.ll be pulled and pushed iu its course ike an in valid in ? Bath chair, and eich power will be called upon to do its b'H-. The calculated speed of the ship under steam is expected to average irom ntteen to sixteen knots, or nearly twenty miles an hour. We all know, even on a calm Jay, what a wind meets the tace looking out of a railway train going at that pace, and consequently it can be understood that sails, ex ept on extraoroinary occasions, would act rather as an iinf cdiment than as an assistance to the ship's progress. It is not probable, there.ore. that they wnl be ranch resorted to, ex ept lor the purpose of steadying or of helping to steer her. In case, however, of a strong wind arising, going more than twentv-tive miles an hour in the direction o! her course, she is provided with seven masts, two of which are square-rigged, and the whole Rprcding 6,500 square yards ot canvas. It will J>? observed by the {Ingram that she carries no bowspri', and has no spi it sail. We do not, know the reason of this departure from the ordinary ng, nnless it be to avoid her ploughing too deeply in the sea. Her bow is also without a figurehead; and this peculiarity, together with hi r simple rig, gives her the appearance of a child s toy boat. It oeiuty is nothing more than fltne-s. this form of bow is un doubtedly the most beautiful, and the Americans, who have long adopted it in their trans-..tlantic ?teamcrsnre right; but to orilinary eves it looks sadly inferior to the old fig irehond projecting out Jiefore the ship, as if eager to lead her onward over th? wave. Fewer hands will oe required to navigate the Great Eastern than her size would seem to de mand. Her whole ?rew will not exceed 4(>0 nicn?a third of the number omuoeing the crew of a three decker. The difference Is made up by wh it we may term steam sailors. There will be lour auxiliary en gines appointed to do the heavy work of the -hip, such as heaving the anchors, pi mping and hoisting the sails, lor the gigantic arm of steam will be im peratively called for"to deal wi'li the vast manses or Iron and canvas required to move and hold the ship ffbc-c engines will, in all probability, communi cate their power to a shaft running through an ppertnre in the upper iron do k, by which arrange anent motive power in any require 1 quantity will be Jaid on from stem to stern of th<- ship. It is obvious that some special means must be adopted to direct this vast mass of moving iron as she flies on her course, theatening by her speed de ntruction to herself and may cross her natli in the great highway ot nations. Thensu-l contrivances will not apply. No speaking trumpets, for instance, could make the captain on the bridge heard either by the helmsman, or the look out at the how, more than three hundred feet away Even the wnwineer sixty feet beneath him, would be !>eyond th?reach of his voice. As in the raliway we W to deal with distances which necessitate 'he use of a telegraph, and the tlreat Eastern, in thia respect, will l c treated just like a railway. On ordinary o> rasiona a fcmaphorc will, in the daytime, give the word to the helmsman, whilst at night, and in foggy weather, be will he signalled how to steer by a sys tern of colored lights. The electric telegraph will *lso he employed to communicate the captains or ders to him and to the engineer below. Thus the nervous system, if we may so term it, o. the vessel will l c provided for. fiuirting from the bridge, or post of flic commander, which leads li rrcllv from his apartmen's. located between the pad 5le boxes, as shown by the square space tignred wUhtn the circle in the diagram, the fine fila Zlwu w 1 1 e extended to the fielmsman at the stern and to the look-out at the bow, whilst n third thread will communicate with the engineer. Bvthis mcaus the captain, or brain of the slop. Mill be side in a moment to put in motion, to drive at full speed, to reverse the action, or to stop the ?JL? i ml. which toil day and tught tar out of sight liuuitlj Wdirect .hehelm M as to alter the vessel s course. Ihc foUowlng Ujagrtpt giTtf w> WGtiitot Wc? of the monster steamer and the progressive increase in the size of ocean steamships since the Great West ern, the pioneer:? to Ttuw'vtssi Sbctio.ns or tiiuuv Fuamas. > o. 1 t'poer t Mooch on niva dock. " 2. V ic-ip?i sal, n en da&k. ?' 3. fdde eJbln* *0't b jtb<s. " 4. Tuna? ? for enesoj and ?a'ei p pis. ?' A. Rclter. " H. Oookara. 41 1. -'j a-e b' wrt'ii akin# of nhi>. 44 R Coal buakar. " 9. I'tvlut,*. to p.iocipal salxin. " 10. cotka. ri r.T '.i iff,! 1 rilf r< \ Nr 0 i '!" ! Is I I IB II IJ nfl 11 S a a a II <50 U> S3 *0, 1 SB *o ? - * 85a 2 J5 y r? ?*-. 3- ? 0 T3 ? a ? OOi a. ^ ?s53?2Q ci co ?* ^ to HH'i O - : >: s 15 fa "?SSS 5 % 3 03 ? Xi W *-> Xi 0> 3 *3 - In most iron vessels great precautions are taken to avoid the incorrectness to which the neeole plac ed on deck is liable on account of the proximity oi attiactive masses of metal. The commonest expe dients to have placed high np in the mizenmast, beyond the influence of the iron sides of the ship, what is called a standard compass, and tvhich mar be said to realize Dibdin's "Sweet little cherub win sits tin aloft, aDd takes rare of the life of poor Jack In the Ore it Eastern, a special stage or framework will be eiested for this dainty Ariel, at least forty feet in Leight.and the helmsman will probably cither read oft the points from above as they appear through a transparent card Illuminated like a clock front, or the shadow of the trembling needle will be projected down a long pipe upon a card lielow. so as to avoid the necessity or the helmsman looking np, and to obviate the diliicalty which would occur in foggy weather. The experiments with respect to this important, adjunct to the ship are not yet concluded, however, and we must lie ewMmj to speak speculatively as to the plan which is likely to be adopted. t Tim anchors of this mighty steamer would, with heir accessories, alone form the cargo of a good sized ship. The ten anchors with which she will be fitted, together with their stocks, wi I weigh fifty five tons. If wc add to this ninety eight ton-* for her eight bundled fathoms of chain-cable, and one hun dred tons for her capstans and warps, we shall have a total weight of two hundred and fifty-three tons of material dedicated to the sole purpose of making fast the ship. It was prophesied that Mr. Brunei's first ship, the (?rent Western would be doubled np as she rested upon the crests of the Atlantic waves, and we all know how the prophecy was l'ulfiled. When it was made, indeed, we were very much in the dark as to the size of ocean waves, and It was not until the introduction of long steamers that they could be measured with any accuracy. Dr. Scorcsby, whilst cicssing the Atlantis in 0110 of the Canard boats, some year' since, < lonely observed the waves, ami bv rr enns 0, the known length of the ship, wis enabled to form a pretty accurate idea of their dimensions. The old vague account of their being " mountains high" was well known before that time to be an cxaggera'ion; but we do not think even philosophers were prepared for the statement mcde by this observer at a meeting, some vcars -ince, of the British Association, that they average 1 no more than iwwily feet in altitude and" rarely ex ceeded twenty eight foci. The popular impression principally produced by marine painters that waves formed valleys thousands of yards across, down the sides of which ships slid as though tlicy were about to be cngnlled, seems to have been equally erro neous: as the maximum length of ocean waves, according to Dr. Peoreshy, h six hundred feet, whilst in a moderate gale they are only three hundred, nr.d in a fresh sea about a hnndred and twenty feet in length. A moment's consideration of thee facta lc*da to U.( waUwton that long ebipa bare a great advantage over short one* with respect to the rapidity with which they make their jooroey, as it iB quite evident that whilst the latter have to per foim their voyaged by making a series of short curves- much to the impediment of their progress and to the discomfort oi their inmates?the former, ly ruling the waves with their commanding propor tions, make shorter and smoother passages. As steamers grow lurger and larger the curse of sea siik i ess must therefore gradually diminish. The Great Eastern, from ber length and the bearing which she will have upon the water, being a paddle as well as a screw ship, will, in all pubability, neither pitch nor roll, and will fhercfoie be most comfortable to the voyager, Her immense stride, if we may use the term, will enable her to take three of the three hundred feet waves of an Atlantic gale as easily as a moer would take a moderate sized brook. She will still have to encounter tt.e six hundred feet waves of storms, and there may be those mistrusting her length and tire great weight she will carry amidships, in the shape of engines and coal, who may be inclined to repeit with respect to her the prophecy which was made with respect to the Gieat Western. Mr. Brunei, by the method of launching which he intends to adopt, will, however, set these misgivings at rest before she even touches the water. Although the total weight cf the ship, together with her engines, which will be erected iu her whilst she is still on land, cannot be less than twelve thousand tons, she will rest en tiiely on two points as she enters the water broad side ou. No statement could give a more pove.ful idea of the strength of her fabi ic. The reasons which hnve induced Mr. Brunei to adopt this method of launching are given as follows in his report:? I auncbii y gi-n-rslly effci'el by bu'.lilag ths ship on t incI'Ltd plane. ?bi?bixpen#iee Has dsterin:n?i Bbou d be a', an ioc.ina ion ui anon 1 in 1 2 to 1 in IS, the it-ei of ? a? shipliirg Ui2 at iba< ungte aoc the Leal coai.9quev 1? ab've the s'ern ray 4-lStb of th? wb >le length otvbeehip. Id thep.e>eit ease 'hie won d hav. iqvjivou rtlslrg b? f re pan o' th? k-elar tbe forefjjt ahjUt for'y '?*i In the atr, and the fotesaa-.le would hive beja rcar'y 10) Ice', from the grjuui, tae w',f 1 eould have o??n idu svemge teenty-iwo feet higher vh?n if built co an e??n keel. Th* loci live: ItsDce and oost of building at sach a groat be'gbt abivegrovnd may bo easily iaiigiaed, bntano her dTIIi'-oJty pnrentiid itpcif wuUh a.mott uaranad to?a 1 rpoi-Mbllity aid which has be?n seasib y felt with the la ger vot-ele b:;he.-io iguacted. an i will probably. ere k rg. pierent .'autchlig loogl-.udiaally veieels of gieat length. The arg'e r'qni'ed for the ioellnefl place to e? tuie the vrrsrl uiomg by gravity being, say 1 la If, or evio if Clmicbhed by improved cinetrutt'ou ic wits to 1 in'.'S, is gu b, that the end first iasaened would besoms ?it?ib ne. or w.u d require a very g1 eat d-p h of water before t>e fee rare of ?be ihip wonli ev?n reach ths water's edge. Veteels Of 460 or 600 feet iu leagta wou d be difficult tblaucoh in the Thames, unleaa k*pt as ligat ? h p- intble; but our ship could sot be so launched, the heel of the sump-si btirg required fa be, as 1 before laid, ab n* orij fret below >h? level of thefora'sot; rotue mi igalion of tbe d lfisuty ta<ght be obtained by aniuiproted ecnstrno'.i n cf the ways; but the great lergth o'wvjsto be c*rrl*d out Into ihe river woalo, un der euy vlrcuuiBiauceR. be aserioue dlftieu ty. Torse comierati.nrled me to examine i ito ths prac ticability of lacuobiDt rr lowering thevessel sideways; tnd I found tbat such amocew.ald bs At'.eaded with eveiy a-vartige, ml. so far as I can s?e, it involve no cotn'.r.: vaillcg disidvuitageg. This plan has been ac con.ii jly ih-terrniutd upon, and tbe vessel is building ptralltl to the livr, and III eudh a p osf'ton ae to adjiit of tbe <asy construction ot an inclined plane at tie pro per angle down to lew-water mtrk. In crLBtiucthg the foundation of tbe floor on which tbe thip is btirg built, provition ie made at two poin s to ensure rufli sent strength to bear tbe whole weight of tbe rtip wbea compe'ed. At th'se two poiiti, when tbe launching bas to bs iflfecttd, two cradles will be ia txodserd. anc'the whole will probably be lowered cova gradual y to low wattr maik, wh nee, on the ensuing tide, tbe vewtl will be llca'e! tfl". The operation way thus te per'ortred ss slowly as ray be found vnvenien"; or if np-u farther eonsidrrstlOD, m-re rapid launching thould be thought pre erable, it may be adopted. Astonishing as are all the proportions of thi3 mon ster ship, of course it will not be supposed that mere size is claimed, either by the engineer or the company to which she belongs, as any merit inde pendently of the substantial benefits which accom pany it. Her length is not her only advantage. In deed, length in a steamer is merely n comparative term, and applies entirely to the extent of the river or ocean path she has to traverse. The Himalaya, for instance, would be an enormous vessel to run to Margate and back, but is only n full size one to cro-s the Atlantic or to navigate the Mediterranean. The Gieat Eastern, again, would be large for the passage to New Yoik. but is only duly proportioned for a voyage round the world. It is interesting to note the progressive advance of size in steam vessels tbnt has teken place within the last thirty year*, wliicb tbe diagram, together with the following table, will render clear to the reader:? Lg'K JirJih. Dot*. Nam?and Dttcrip'ion. jrtet. J-t In, 1826.. Enterprise, fculit express.? to go to Ir.cia, coiling at iate-mnlxte sta tions 122 97 0 1836..Tagj?. fur tie Medi-siraoeaa 132 28 0 1838..(irsat West-ro. first ship built ex rretslv .'or Atlaotit passage ?36 36 6 1844..Great B.-itein, first argesc-etr sbip, i nd r.t e largest Iron sbip then pro j-e'ed 322 61 0 ]863..Hiu?!ayB, iroi ihipior ihs Mediter tinean 370 43 6 1866..Persia iioa ?blp 390 45 0 ? Kastem Bleanub.p, ir;n C80 83 0 Thus the ocean going ster.raer of 1S5G is nearly six times the length of that of 18'2o, whilst the dit feiniec between their tonnage is still more in f.ivor of the last built vessel. The augmentation has gone on iu an increasing ratio, and if it is still to conti nue, we wonder over what space of water our leviathan of lb70 will extend. As our commercial s'earn marine i? in the bauds of shrewd men of busi ness, it can well be imagined that the reasons for tbi* progressive advance in size arc sound. Steam thtpbail3ere are, in fad, only accommodating the tonnage of their vessels to the "length of the voyages lhey have to perform, so that they may be enabled to carry their own coais over and above their due proportion of cargo. This the Great Western did, and succeeded; this the various screw steamers which have run the Australian voyage have not done, and consequently they have failed. No one can fail to have observed that within these last two years steam, in long voyages, has apparent ly s-iiiicred a defeat. Clippers of all kinds, the Marco Polos, lied Jacket*, and Morning Stars, seem to have recovered tbeir own again, and in the race round the woild, sails have distanced the paddle and the screw. When the question comes to be ex amined, however. it is clear that it is the want of strain that has caused the failure. Vessels, in short, as little fitted to make a passage of thirteen thou sand miles, as the Siiius, though by a lucky accident it managed to cross the Atlautic at the same time as the Great Western, was to go a continuous stage of three thousand miles. They have all the expense of the new motive power with out its full advantages, and, in consequence of their having to go out of their direct course to coal, they lose trom twelve to twenty days on the passage. The tortoise in this instance lias not fairly beaten the haie, became tl.e latter has wilfullv broken her leg. Mr. Brunei, in constructing a ship of such large dimensions, is only doing for the long Eastern voy age what he dia for the shorter Western one, namely, making her own coal bankers the bank on which she can draw to any extent during her pro gress out and borne, instead of employing from six to eight ships of 500 tons burthen each to carry fuel fcr Ler over half the globe, as the vessels at present running are obliged to do; a system which may Ire likened to the extravagance of a man who employs bnlf-a-dozen porters to carry parcels, which, by t-rc pea management, he could manage to stotv in his own knapsack. The report ol the directors for the year 1963 puts the calculation, with respect to her immense advan tage, in carrying power so well, that we quote it entire:? la avoiding the delay of eoallrg on the voyage. you* ships will bImj escape the greet oc.-.t of taking CJU at a foreign a'a'.lcn. Crals obtained on the Irdtaa ant Au?liaii?n rou'e, cut in tie average, iiciudlrg mete and dtterlora'lm, frur or tire times a* mash j-er t< n *c 'n ttls country. Rat jour ships will tak* tb?ir whole amount of octal for the vjyaga near the pit's month, at a ra'e not ex;eeitrg for the b?ft i,ua.i y, lilt. 10 14#. p?r ton. On fha voyage of ex iat'rg e'eani V?raeT# to Australia cr India and hone, th# ecnrtmp'ion ammnta Is from 4 (00 to 6,001) tens; th# *jt\ ( f which would fopply 16 to 10 i)00 tore 11 taken cn brard at aen:e port In imraeula'.e O'jtnuunijaUon with the coal field. bach of ihe e-mpany's ships will oarry, bed lea tha'.r en crat tpwsrda n? f.,000 tons n e?sare?nenf. of mer chandise, and will bave 800 eabtne f r paogeagars of thi h'gtest cltM. abb ample spa"* Io" troops and towar cltea pa'seecers. Tbe?e yon will uo* m'y hi able to car .y at rataa much err,all*r than those by any existing ftian ihips, tnt wi b an unprecedented amouat of room, o rnfor* and e:nveDitnee. In boa deter mldtg i he Mze of the ab'p?, your director a b# ie?e tla' ihey a.e n!s,i ebtain'ng the elements of a spaed b?retc,foie or known: aud ir bereafier coal applies b e to tbe purpofea of steam can ba tapp'ied from the cu te? it Australia, tfce ctrrjirp rapacity'bath for carg) k'd paasaogeni will te propor fonably Increased, lue gri at lercr'h cf tke?e ships wlil uedcuhtel'y, a?r.r<Mog to r 1 parent enable them to pus through the at er at a velicity of at least tif em ko., *n boar, wl.b a arr a Her rower in proportion to th?lr tertian* than or ftnaiy vessel* now requle to mike teu knots. Sp'ed Is, In 'set, another reault of great atz-?. It Is ba'teved ihit by'Ma rpeed, combined with the ab?#re?f f stoppages, tl e v} sge between England ?nd Ind # fcy'l.ecaje will beieiiifd to frcm thirty to tLtrtyth-ee dare, ant be tween K: gland and Australia to thirty three or thirty>Ix ( a;a. It may 1 e objected that the route by way of Egtpt, now that the railway is in progress and a catinl is projected, will prove u too powerful coinpc titer tor the trafllc round the Capo; but indepen dently of the inconvenience nnd tedlousness of em boiking and then re-embarklng. which will lie fatal to vessels containing such bulky cargoes as cumber the Australian steamers, it is asserted that the ! ocean path la the diiect route to the focue of Ann- J UfthpA (oto^UoQ wM? Europe, ihu? tUf navig* ble distance* from Land's End to Port Philip are as follows:? Miles. Via the Cape of Good Hope 11,619 Cape Horn 12,700 Gibraltar, Malta, Alexandria, Aden, Point de Guile, and Singapore, including transit through Egypt 12,031 Panama, including transit across the Isthmus 12,678 The General Association for the Australian colonies have indeed recommended for the mail line the oveiland route as far as Aden, aid from thence by way of Diego Garcia and King George's Sound to Melbourne, an estimated distince of 10,348 milts, which they fancy can be done in forty-foor days. If the Eastern Steam Ship Com pany have not anticipated too great a speed for their vessel?and we scarcely think they have done so, considering that the Persia has made fourteen and a halt knots with very tar inferior powers of propulsion ?this passage will be beaten by between eight and ten days without the expense and trouble of making a long land journey accrues the isthmus. Surely this, it it comes to pass, will go far to aecomplisti the Alnaschar dream of the Times, that the period will arrive when we shall be able to communicate with otir friends at the antipodes in a month. As far as the commercial part of the speculation gees, wc are of course incapable of giving an opin ion. The value of the exports to the young empire, which is springing np with such rapidity in Polyne sia, is, however, so gieat?in lfc-53 the declared value being ?14,500Jp2?that we cannot conceive there would he any lack of cargo even for our le viathan. That she will be par excellence the eaai grant ship, who can doubt, when we tlnd that, with all her splendid accommodation, she will be able to take passengers of the first class for ?65, of the se cond class for ?35, and of the third class for ?25 ? Her great proportions will indeed almost deceive her passengers into the idea that they are sojourning in some noble mansion. Let us imagine her saloons blazing nt night with gas, which will be manufac tured on beard and supplied to every part of the ship; let us picture to ourselves her magnificent sweep of deck tilled with gay pi omenaders, listening to the band as she sails over a summer's sea; annoyed by no smoke, for, in consequence of the use of anthra eife coal, none will be emitted from her five funnels: and distressed by no motion, as in consequence of her length she will stride with ease over the waves of the Pacific. We might also dwell for a moment upon the mighty larder of our leviathan prepared for her flight of five and thirty days, without a stop Sage, across the ocean desert with a whole town on Oard; or wc might draw a comparison between her and the Ark (which by-the-by had not half her ca pacity), as she receives on board her flocks and nerds to lurnish fresh meat for the passage. But we believe we have said enough to enable tho.-e who have not visited the rising edifice to realise the vast extent of this latest experiment in ship building. And as a contrast to this fair side of the medal, let us fancy her rushing through the night in full career ?an arrow 27,000 tons in weight, propelled by a

bow of 3,000 horse power. Can we, without a shud der, contemplate the possibility of a collision with such a resistless force? a line of battle ship with a thousand hands on beard cleft in two aa swiftly as the apple by the shaft of Tell. Every precaution will indeed be taken to avert such a catastrophe. The electric lignt will be fixed at the mast-head, so that in dark nights the ship will carry a moonlight atmosphere wherever she goes. In case of any fatal injury to herself, which conld not well happen, heats have been provided capable of taking otl her passengers, even if counted by thousands. Thus she will have two screw steamers of ! 0 feet in length, a paddle box boat, and in ad dition to these she will carry a large number of the new colapsing, or bellows boats, as the sailors call them. These curious structures, the invention of the Rev. E. L. Berthon, expand and shut like a Gibus bat or the hood of a carriage, occupying so little room that half a dozen of them of a large size can be stowed away in the same space as would be oc cupied by an ordinary jolly boat, and seem to ho as easily opened as a parasol or umbrella. It we mistake not, the success of the Great Eastern will constitute a new era in the art of aggressive war. We question whether Eorope during the course of the present contest has not been more stiurk by our enormous power of moving suddenly large messes of men from one end of Europe to another, than by any other operation which we nave performed. The Himalaya, as she steamed np the Eoephorus, filled the lazy Turks with astonishment; and the cloud of steamers and sailing vessels which < airied the allied aimy to the shores of the Crimea, has been dwelt upon as an exposition of maritime magnificence such aa the world never witnessed be fore. What will thereader say when wc tell him that five vessels such as the Great Eastern could bring home our 50,000 troops from the Crimea, with all their aitillery and baggage, in the course of ten or twelve days? Demolition or Uie Old Untied State* Bunk In Bontm. CONTESTS OP THE COlls'ER 8TONE. fFr m th? Boston Journal, June ti ] Tbis building, of late years occupied by the Mer chants' Bank, has been for some days in precess of demolition. The corner stone of the edifice wan aid on the morning of Monday, July 5,1824. Yes 'erday afternoon the massive granite pillar on the westerly corner of the building was removed, and a capper" box, containing coiiis, newspapers, Ac., taken from a cavity at the base. For a description of the contents of this box, which, we understand, will te unsealed this forenoon by the Directors of the Merchants' Dank, we refer the reader to the fol lowing extract from the Evening Gazette of July 10,1821:? U S. BAN'K. The ccrntr atone ot the building erestlcg ia this city for the accommodation ot the Oifics of Discount and De pniit of the Rack rf tbe United State*. wan laid on kt in day last. half past eight o'clock, beneath which ware placed t'ce fcllowlDg depoii's, viz :?' Enclosed in a g'ass case, a silver p'ate, 10 inches by 7, weighing 1134 ourcaa, with the following Inscription: ? m.vK or the united ptaie-s, Incarp'.rated by an Att cf Congress, April 10.h, A. D. 1810 : Jarae* Maoism 'hen President of the Uni el S a'es. Capiul slock, f An Esgle "} $25,(09,000; | aiancirg or a I j portion of the | I Globe, in tin j -j head, a tc.oll, J Nioh'n Bidd e -J beak, a tc. oll, J. Taos Wdson. with the motto, 1''EpuriPus I Unum." J Cahier. Ore glass ore. containing cop ser cofce e'gat csats, eoiLtte of 18*1; nix half do., coinage tf 180t; two cati cf the <'cn.iDonne?lth of MitiacUusnttg, coinage of 1787 and 17E8. Oi? giaaa bottle, containing a oopy o'. ihe act c.f ('in gress incorporating the Back, and the uevo-al news papers printed on the aiaMvetssry, viz B .noo J)*tiy Advertiser l'atiiot and Dtily Mrrcan.ile Alve:liter Cairmare'il Gazette, Courier end Statesman. The article* wars dspr sited in a cavity of the etone (retsntren by thirteen inchee, and seven de*p), by G.ia di.vkb Greene Esq., and the stoat plumbed and levelled by D. 1'. 1 arker, E>q., Chairman of the BulldtcgCem mittee. The cirectcrs and oflicers cf tha Bank, and many citizens, attended the ceremonies. MRS'TORS FOR THE J'LE-'KNT THAR. Nicholas Blddie, Manuel Eyre. Joseph Hemphill, rial wsllader Evan*. Jr., ? Dupont, Henry Eckford, Jaha McKim, Joshua IJjpincott, Drtiel W. C)X, Jauies Floyd, J'hn hotter, R. M Whitney, Thomas Knox, l.s?i?Cla pier. Richard Willing, Thcnui Cadwallader, Samuel WetbereJJ, Berj. IV. C'rowuiushleld, A'exander Heary, JUaielC. V*'planch. Wni. Patterson, John Brhlen, Paul Bs'k, Jr., John A. Brown, RmwsR L. Colt. Ihis build it g etee'ed by the parent bank for the ac commodation of its Offlc of Di?crunt and Deposit in this city of B e'en, A. D. 1824. Capital strrk appropriated lor the empbymcit of this B'Cnrh, l.COO.OCO doifsrB. William Gray, first President, resigned Nov. 8, 1823. Directors of (he Branch a', this time. (.ardlner Greens, Thomas H?nd?.*yd Perkins, John, John Parker, Dariel Pinckney Parker, K'ath'i Siletee tbTtd Sears, Dan'el Webster, (lAorjo Biske, Resin Devi* Shepherd, Henry Gardner Rice, Hortoe Gray. foirvon Wil'ard, Jtrchitulus Eltjlctun Cmslruxit Viiat Re*poh lea. rlazen Morse, ON THE BACK O? THE PI ATE This oomer store, laid July 4. A. I) 1824, Using the 48lh eni/ivetfary tf Ameritan Independence A glass ceie scatsinlog the folio clog describe! medal, pterin ted for tbe purpose by Mrs. T. ?1 Perkins, aad gold aid sitter coins of the United State*, viz :? Gold medal, weighing 10 dwte.. wrh the following de vice:?on* side, bust of Washington, encircled by a turel wreath; an outer circle formed by tbe motto:? ?'He ic li glory; the world in tears." On tbe rther tile cn urn, wit a the initials G. W.. ou'er ore f, B. F. 11 1732 G A. ARM. 75 R 88 P. U. S A 3D lire: clrc'e B 00 G ARM US 08 O B D 14 1700 Gold coins?One eagle, coinage cf 1301. Gnehal: do do. 1708, One fourth do. d>. 1801. Si'.ver do.?One dollar, do. 1790. One half do. do. 18;1 one fourth do. do. 1921. One dime, do. 1821. One half do. do. 1805. At a meeting of tbe directors of tbe Merchants' Ratk tbis morning, and in tbeir presence, together with that of many of the oldest citizens, the box, which bad l.ccn buried fur thirty-two years, was opined, ar.d all the contents were found to bo in a perfect condition. Front the original report of the directors of the United States Branch Rank, which was among the contints of the box, it appears that the appropria tion for erecting the building was : 100,00ft, of which h m l.r4,660 was paid for the laud. The two pillars were delivered on tbe spot at a cost of 6:100 each. The cootenta of the box were collected and prepared by Col. Thomas II. Perkins. The whole will lie re depoiited, together with additional articles, under the corner atone of the new edifice. OMintry. Mis. Mary Dim, widow of the Hon. Wm. V Firb, ibe (irei G< Terror of A Inhume, died at her reeidem in Dubai eoun'y, Alsbama, on the 26th alt., la the 69; 3 ear of her age. Fte we* * sattvu of Georgia, aa<j bl nudm nana* wag F;h?m, oo: Ootllmu of the History of th? Ahiwiij Trunin Coopuy, according to fllewagun Authority. TO Till EDITOR OP THE HERALD. Tie action of tht fOT?rnm?nt of Niouigut in r?l?tion to the Ao:?mory Transit Cbmpany has bwn the f.n?tfu| subject of oommeat end ipesnietlon, end hai given origin to e variety of opinion* regarding its propriety, in th* I'nttfd State* a natural fee iog of aarpric? ha* been the result of the abolition of th? company's eharter. Not onlj has turpiis* been awakened, but an nnmlftakable astonl ha ert a'io, that th? ebryaa'i* republic of Nicara gua should confront a giant monopoly, and expose its Iniquities, u a retiibnttre example, t J the world. A go vernment itruggiing for a proud and ennobling exiateaje ?a'rugg kg for the fraternal recognition of lndipeidenl naii.ns?struggling for the permanence of a Pacific reiga ?notwithstanding the shadow and the wrong kflioiei upon Its p or peels by the nnjoat example of the repablic of America, and notnitbstandlog lta reputed impotency aa a State, unhesitatingly vindicates it* claim to reccgni tion end reepaot by an act of indubitable sovsre'gniy. Rrgarulec* of the repnted wealth, the power and inlia ence by which the Inimical monopoly was fustaimd?regardhas of the flitter kg kduceorents and the IcTing prenhes wi.h which it struggled to forUfy ita ?xie'.ro:e, and defiant of the menace* which threatened the icteiraptioa of ita security, tbe government of Nica ragua, conscious of ita righta, anl in vindication of ita honor and it? fame, boldly aad learltasly strangled th? iwpect whose folds were entwine! about Its heart, and whore Tenon was aimed at ita vi-allty. The boHnsss of tbe act haa eicitcd, undoubtedly, a feeing of admira tion, while its jnetice fa variously regird d as a mat ter rt crntroveray, of incertitude and anxiety, Tr mo ve ibis doubt, and elera e the act in of Ntca.kga* above the reach ci calumny and toe reprrachfn cf ihe malignant, it is on y necessary to ex amine the tenure by which tbe Accesrory Transit Com pany neia its existence, and ascertain how its conduct ctnkiined with ita imperative o->,i*eiuj. The iinpor tsnre which this qnes-fun has assamed, nnd toe; it has universally awakened, cannot fail to Jjs'i'y a com prehensive review of the history of the company and the censes of the revocation cf lis charter. For years past the narrow isthmus separAt'ng the At lantic and Pacific Oceans has been a source <f aosorb'ng intei est in tie spheres of commerce and capital. Tae enterprise of coniectlrg the two oceans b/thsmpst available means, thereby facLltatiog the coarse of trade and more closely alfylng the nation# of the East, has been one the practicability of which haa exci'ed eager cunotl y and patient end repeated iaveet'gatdon. Not only wan the anxiety of foreigu governments and alien capitalists eniis'ed in the ccninuunaticn of so magnifi cent a prrjret. bnt Nicaragua, too, with a sagacious can tciousness of the advantages that would nesessarily re sult from the junction, through Its terrkorv, of the Ca ribbean Sea with ihe Paclfio Ocean, was willing to cinfer pri?i;ege# and make coDcetaloua of a unit liberal chtrAc ter. Acting tip n the impulse alike of generoei'y and Interest, this government entertained proppsitions the purprto of wliob was to effect the deeired inter-oceanic commucica'ion. A eon'ract was consequently entered into with David 1, White, of Ne* York, end others asso ciated with him, by the termB of which the government of Nicaragua granted the txolrsive right and privilege of cons'ructfrg a ship etnal across its territory. While the praciioabui-y of a canal rush as contemplated by tbe contract was in progress of ascertainment, the right was given and the obligation imposed to e nstruot a rai read, cr rail and cairisge road aad water com munication, between the (two oceans. Tne par ties to whom the above privileges were con ceded organized the meet res into a body or association of capi a'.isis, ueder the designation of "The American At Untie and Pa ific Ship Canal Company." A maritime canal was deemed a practicable means of effecting sp-eJy conveyance from ocean to cceac; and in consideration of the ctnstrucdon of such a mode of traueicover the Isthmna, Ihe right to an exclusive navigation of the In land w?te:s of ihe State for a given period of years, wee granted to the company. Tbe grant or charter defuiog the lights and obl'ga1ions of the Slip C.?aal Association rvetived the approval and ratifica'ion of the contracting parties on tbe H2d cf September, 1849. It was subsequent ly accmtd prudentUl by the aompariy to effect a modifi cation cf some cf the provision* of ihe charter, and con f rmably with nego'iations to that effect certain amend menis were mutnally agreed upon, and on the 11 th day rf April, 1860. th executed the grant under which the company derived i s powers and privileges. The govern ? rrent of Nicaragua, in its concession of rights tj a f' reign association, did not inhibit its authority to super vise and control tbe action of the c.mpeny. As a gna rantse cr security for the faithful fulfillment cf theobli garicrs lmport-d by the charter upou itg grantees, the government lerervei to itaelf tne privllegr, in the event of rcn performance, to ennui the contrast, and make tu:h other covenants wl'h other parties as might ecsure the completion cf the dcEired object. As soon as practica ble alter the execution ot the contrast, the g od fnf.h and integrity cf the company were exhioitedie ihe gratifying form of expedittcue actio:. Competent engineers?scien tific ami practical men?were employed and sent to Mean gna :or the purpose of exploring th* Isthmus, and maklrg suiTevs of routes eligiDie, if Dnwdble, for the construction of the pro peed canal. For more than a year the scientific employi'-s cf the company proveau'.ed their enterprising explorations and snrvsys, but wi h no Ltneficial cr gratifying result. Tne pcajticabllity ot the proposed mode of transit remained rudstsr mined, scd no effort, beyond tie surveys, was made to facilitate the completion of the enterprise. In tne meantime i; km esssntial, for tho pnrpose ot e n'ormirg with the intention of the char'er, to effect Rome facile method of conveyance across the Isthmus. The tardiness Incident to the sxtbra'ion of the canal route, and the difficulties ccnlltouug with its early ?m pletfoa, kduied the beneficlerie* of the grant to appiv to the government for additional reoiifiiatiana of t'aeir re spcueioiiities, th* object cf wbirh was to relieve them fr< m tb? oblfgatico of completing Ihe c&Dal contract and to substitute simply the more practicable right or ooa s ructirg rail and carriage roads, and establishing stexm communication cn tbe livers and likes of N'irarague. TL? p[tv<rnintDt, although uuwilliDg to absolve tbsui frcm the duty cf c-nstTuetieg the canal, wee inclined in a measure to fevor theapp'icatt-n, and relax the rigor of Its original exietioBs. In ccmp'tance with tbe request o." the Cetal Conpany, other amendments aad modifici tione cf tbe charter were omcludeu, and a new grant executed to the saice parties, who, by the new ar-arrg? mect, ssmmedihe title of "ihe Accessory Transit Cjm K,,ntb,?rs ,!ll1e t 14th day of August, 1E51. The change in the title or designation of tbe c rm piny wa? not designed to affect or alter lis ob'igVlona in relation to the cjmpietion ol the ctnal. Tina require ment remained in the charter as an absolute duty to be perfumed within the period of twelve yeira. The Ac cessary Transit Company was inaugurated into ail th* rgh'a atd privileges, ana subjected to the ?atne impera obligations cuucernirg the okaracter of inter cceanic communication that weie origlaaily contained fn ire cherter creating the American Atlantic and I'eci fic .blip Cacal Company. The rights cf tba gavernment, t:o, were in no wise abridged or dlnioi'hod by the new ccrrptc\ It reserved its original power ot supervision ever jbe action cf the oompany. and the antnorliyto arnu! |he ocrtiact in the erveat of ihs nm fulfilment oflts rendu ion*. With this plain and definite understanding on Ibe part cif the government aad the company, or their reciprcca! lights and obligations, the newly organized asM-civ.icn oemmerced th# prosecution of i;s legtUma'o Cuiies in o<nstructing ihs facilities cf traa&it commani cstlin be1 ween the two coeens. After tl e organization of ibe Transit Company, the sur veys and other labor# in relation to the canal wer# sas penced The ob.igation ot ocmpietiogthls desirable miie c. inland cmroucication, imposed by tli* terms of their O'njract, was wheiiy end kexeussbly dlsfegirded. The neglect of this essential requiremeat of thetr charter, at leng-h forced i self upon the attention of the company aurt in exeme or palliation of tbeir delinquency they urged the impracticability of the fulfilment ol thiir con tract. and strenuously solicited additional modifications c f their lesponsihUtUes. The egent, through whom mire libeial ccnoessfcna were eought to be obtained from the government, visited Nicaragua about ths mouth of Janu ary, JE6u The Chief Ergioser, who, with hts issisUnta and ercplojcs, bad explored the isthmus, and made re pealed fuivejF, had repre^entel iu his reports to the company that ft was impracticable to construe; a canal or greater dimeisi'ins than w-ul'l acromraodate vasaeia of eeventeen lee: draft. By the terms of tks charter, tbe duty wag imposed of completing a canal ofsuflicDnt width and depth to facilitate the transit "of vtcre.i o! all I'Z'i. ' Ibe misa'on of Judge Edmonds, of New York the egext of the Fhfp Canal Cjmpecy, was to efliet, If pi*. afble. a modification of the article of the ehxrter re quiring the canal to beof pu:b amp's c?pa;i;y a* to ad rait of the transit of vessel, of any end svery description rf draft. Th# application of Jjdge Edmonds was oon feuedly bas?l upon the ergireer's rtpirt. and mlccm liderabls asxie y was manifested by him te soncusd In sffeetlrg for the company so bsceficUI an a-iang rasnt. The gevemment, howersr, had been exseediaglv liovra1 tn conc?o;rg privilegss, aad su;ssqu?ntly ia altowior ttodlfieat.on* of the company's charter, and was re'nc tant to accord additional favors, vapscially the oae so ,led- ,ta pr!noipRl 0bj9.t in 'yielding the onginel grant wssto sxact thecjioinetian of a wo k that wou d renier iA territory the highway or na'.Um tnrrpgb which might, find convrnt-n: pawaga tlis mam' I, WP' T" '?tf r diminish the re tpcrsimiily which the cjnrpacy had aseumed origina"v won d bars b?en in cotflfc: with the ptala and well de fin?d pnrpcae ot fhe g-vernmont In eonfe rlaa the rrtvi ifgea tne company had successfully soiieiteT. The gv rtrsment, thsrefjre. dec ined entertainirg the p-opoei tion cf ihe ccnipany s agent, arid insisted, with luetics, i J on the fal'hful fulfilment of the condition! "nom!n*'e-l ?n tte bond " Th? ucsuccassful terminaticn of Judge Edmonda'ml# v.. nlo Nicaragua concluded the ac'lon of th# skip Canal r nifaty in relatl n to the prloclpal object of iu charter. Nom?amrehes been adop'rd cr moos employed t.j re vive tbe ?xperimtnt of cunttauciig the cnaxl, nor has the company tn at y mancer, sfuci that psrird. given ? vi 'fniv. cf i ? sxls'erce as an Organized bsdy, Th? an favorable repott ef the snirtcee', followed by the trial inrprn> Ion cl all exertion In tbe pren ires, and'tnc d've. sirn it to a diffevsnt chsnoel of the intended powein and cuital of he ctmpitiy, aie facie atd ctrc-imsfaa<ae wh eh admit cf no doubtful onvlction as to the entire ab*nd< nrrunt by tbe eompany ol the abip canal project. It would be a shallow spec's* of sophistry that wauli al vsnce Ihe ergrimnt that bvcaure, by the terms of the oh*tt?r, the pstl?d of twelve ysare was grar.tsd within which to recure the ncmpvtion of ihe coatrac', th* g i, thsraforo. is prec'uded, until the-'xpt.vion ?f thai 1ir #, from tskirg nny antaginla ir aclloo In rela 1 i in to it. A moiety of the term his already expire! 6nd do pr< g:c?s olher than unfavorable exrrorieimu* Iim ll!uri.iaied the aotivily < r enterprise cf the Sr,ip (;inal Aisrcialm. II the term ol tw-lv# ysari wu deems! re. qutr ite ty the grantees of tbe privilege, to enab'e them to fulfil the ccniltloni of their contract, the seme term Is none the less essential now, when the difficulties which existed then rsmein with super-added force. Admitting the work to be entirely feasible, tbe magnitude of It I wculd ueeeeaaHiy reqaire the expenditure of maar mil- I Um fri Kimt of u>* J seised bj tl* filt cf itoek In erest* la the enterprise. Tbe t vicenoe taken before the eommUeienere appointed by dteree of this [Motregann] government, or Feb. 18, 1866, eexulllrg tbe ocmpeuy's charter, exhibit* a total failure on the part of tha projectors or the enterpiiae to effeot a transfer or profitable disposition of any, or a very ln eonilderable, porlkn of the etcek. This consideration af ftc'ed by the additional c! rooms anceiof ihe elm oat insu perable physical obstacles to tbe destruction of the work, tbe fallu'e to reoore the desired modification of tbe charter tbe leJinqnUhEeat of all aotion in relation to the frth ject, and the enorraou': expenses lnoarred by the Tran- It Cemotny in tbe comp etion cf tbe present route serosa tbe Isthmus, reader the eebeme of tbe canal or railroad it not absolutely chimerical, at least removed beyond the practicehiiitj or ace mphshmeut within tba tint limited by tbe cbaiter. a The Accessor? Trenslt Company, as already stated, was or roposed of tba same individuals constituting tha Skip Canal Company. Each held lta authority from tha government of Nicaragua, and aaeh owed similar alle plarte to ihe grsnlitg power. They sprang into exist crce by t'ecretal sarc'i.n of the State, and In ratorn for tbe pmecaUou of tbeir privileges and the enjoyment of their r*ghts they at mimed obligations and raeponaibiiitiaa which we:e designed, in their fulfilment, for ihe benefit oftbeSta'e. The^ta'ehsd eempetant power to grant, and to exact as recompenre for its concessions, tha per formance of etlpula'ed cuiiea. It waa a commonwealth, endowed *i h -he attribute) of aovere'gnty, aDd could deteimlre by ita own action the performance or non-per formance oi the conditions cf a compact or eovsnaat en tered into as a gcvernmsnt with Individuals cf a foreign State. The powers conterred by charter upon tbe Transit Company were limited in their operations within the boundaries of Nicaragua, over which the jurisdiction of the gi.v<TLiLtnt necessarily extends. The oontroverey, therefore, between ibe government and the company la one whlcn coreerns tt em alone, and the justue or da merit of the action of be former muat be determined upon the precis which implicate the latter to wanton viola'lon* cf g' od faith and shameless abandonment of their pledged obligations. It* charter to the Accessory Transit Company im posed, am org others, the condition of carrying out tha object of the Ship Canal C unpen? In relation to tha eon rtrnction of that mode cf Iithmus transit. The organi zation ct tha foimer company was perfected, and it* grant of powers and privileges conferred, for the speella purpcte of faciUtatlrg the completion of the projected ship canal. The refusal or neglect, under the original charier, to prosecute tbe work, was canstrued withtn thai mealing and Intention cf the grant to be no less a forfeit ure of its pifvileges, than would be the effect of a similar remittneiB of duty under the substituted charter. lathis essential, the Transit Company, as already shewn, has of fendtd sgaiost its int*gilty, and by Its own wanton aet cf (mission has forfeited its claim to the protseting tegi* cf the govemmeot. If this had been tbe only transgression committed by tbe company sgalnst Its pl'gbted responsibilities, tbe re public of Nicaragua, in consideration of tbe ether faetlt tiso wi b which it has supplied tbe Isthmus transit, would, donbtitss, have hesitated before going to the ex tent rf the revocation of l a charter. But Use all aseo ciated enterprises, where wealth and power and intluenee give testimony of their success, it grew haughty aid ln soentini's demeanor, exhioited an utter disregard of ita obligations, aid a mocking defiance of the sovereign power which created it. Taking advantage of the ua let'lcd condition of Nica agua, of the civil revolution* that ?l:ernated power and embarrassed authority, the Transit Company has consulted for Its action no guide but interest, and obeyed tor its authority no law but impu nity. The late revolution, which resulted In the over threw et the servile, and the establishment of the Uberal government, has been tbe means also of instituting an in vest gsMcn into ths conduct and affaire of this farreaeh i Dp and wlde-rpreadirgmonocoly. Unlike the antecedent au.boii Irs of Nicarsgua, the existing administration has bad tbe boldness to exsmiue into tbe claims of tha company upon its gracious cmelioration, and opsaly ta secure it ct flagrant violations of its chartered privileges. Satisfied oi ihe reckless Infractions of its obligations to the Stats, the government has even darsd to oespise its promisee, defy Its menaces and destroy its organized vi talliy. The legitimate business ot the Ship Canal Company, as well also of the Accessory Transit Company, was limply the transportation of freight and passergars from ocesto to ocean, across the territoiy of Nicaragua, in the man ner already designated. Their duties were exclusively confined within the limits of the State, and theproftta of their enterprise were intended wholly to be derived front the receipts of the transit transportation between the Atlin'ic and Pacific oceans. I? was the intention of the government, and the original object of the company, te open a thoroughfare, net lor ihe aeeommodation of a specific ciasa cf persona, but as an equal benefit to all who might desire to avail themselves of its advautsges. For a ptrlod of nearly tvo years from the date of its organization, the exertioas of the oompany were directed in a legitimate ehanntl. its business was restricted folsly and exclu sively to the purposes for which it was creVel. Pas ser gera were conveyed, end freight transported, across the connt-y frcm ccean to ocean, in faithful complianw vtuh the intention ard provisions of the charter. The ocean past age, from either direction, was open fore world wide eorspstition, and passengers and freight, by whatever meats of ocean transportation, arriving at San J uin of the North or San Jutn of the South, were aeeom mo ated. without preference or partiality, en the transit line of the company. It rever was contemplated by either the makers or the recipients of the grant, that the latter should seize open the ocean tacit, and by aw arhi rar.v one of privilege, exclude campe itioo, a:d build tp an ocioue mcncpoly. The decided Ihvor and patronige ?xt?<ed U> lb* new route by the IravsJirg puhiic, ren dered it an exceedingly profitable sourrs oi revenue, and ? nJaigea the ambit i. us views of the prosperous advsn ureiK. Theprrjset oi purchasing or charteiicg with i the prcfite cf their enterprise a line cf steamers to con nect a ith each other st the porte of Nictragua, to and from the Atlantic end Pacific ports inTi.e Uni'ed Sates was s?ired upon as a practicable rnsans of feci listing their mere extended aspirations. By this arrangement all oher connectirg verse Is, by arbitrary exolu.ion from Nicaragusn ports, in in-ercicting to them t!ie traasporta lion privileges acrors the Isihmus, would be OBp'litlon pacssnger and carrying trade, and the steamers and other vessels of tbecompanv would ururp the entire profits oithe world travel tiroonh N.catcgue. Ascordlogly, after two years of legitimate ac len on the part of the ccmpary, from which it realized etormocs reveauer, a line of ocean steamers under the auspices of Cornelius Vanderbllt, of New York, mcnopo brsa all ctmmunca'ion between the ports of tula coun try and the ports of the At antic States and California. This nnncip.e of exclusion has been persevered in ever s.Dce that period, and the government, hitherto, oe ae.oout of the precarious tenure by which it has bean v.)' **? UI"shle and unwtliiog to provoke so mensyed power, by asserting its rights and ,!. c 1 * at-ihorlty. For more then three years the Ocean Steam end Acceescry Transit Companies have bans identical?so blended In naineand purpose and interest an dc ub less to have created the ccnviction that themlvl leges urnrptd by the combination were the orlgiual cm ?",0? c??u'Md '? *<?">?" Company's charter, ni If.i 1f'ac .v?CiM c/Poweri monstrous usurpation ol privilege, this lawless disregard cf every jail principle cf construction, oould not fail in compiling the goveS" pUr8U,t 0f "? J?&,M?a* bnslness, and notwith uv7.r,etarofl b*T,) 'waited fcta it? i. i.ito.nshioation with the ocean steam enterprise, it has most unwarrantably felled in the performance of IWs more immediate obligations to the republic of N'cararaa s " n f*"<d t0 00r"lract ? canal?not cnly has Ihi ffii ..' * oonwquenoe of the failure, to supply Ihi ?i. yi?i * n'lrr*d?not onlT Jweit failed toconform 7virei- ip ? .nsVli e,'t<>hja,t 11110 intenUon of the charter, in navltg built up a monstrous monopoly; but more intxcusab.y liss it failed to remunerate, out of its acquired opulence, ihe magnanimous government t? which it owed Its origin, i s health, its pow.7, and^oU? ctntyr, its Impunitv. It wai a condition of thv charter the turn o?uPn^L "?"?"J*? the government toe cum of ten thoncand cfoilars. and tsn tier cent of (Ha fhe e^mr.i*fi7 "I** ^ ** "'Abashed pending the c-mpletion of the canal or rai'read. The first obil gatcn has been reasonably fulfiUed-doubtless because of the insignificance of the amount?but the reailv essen tial remunerative condition of the charter has been ?tu h.Vh??" IL" dl'regtrdsd. Alsolis-^ri.d ^ ' annually to furnish a report ot it. t0 ?csount to the government for its receipts and disbursements, and communicate far r? ji.try a li.t of all Its vessels In' the State! TnesVlmMra! tive ooncitlots have all been disregarded, and tha ? lheIr,/u!c'"'ent, by the government at lesst, has been corsidered cf the ulmcst conseouenos ft it?.'4 tJ Cl^ the government was too tfrnsj! exaotfrg'it a*? frteht ?*ft9rmane?> ??though justified In Sffi ?? r,8ht. The compan?, shialdicw therasalTaK behind the disasters cf the 8'als, fauahed ft itw wJdS! rreniand exulted at their triumph. tven when the government has ventured to remind the company of Its obligations, and ask a Wr and friiK C ^eTirV'V^ Clr'fH'tbe tff",est to* been iosalUngly Ltneo, And tto claim ol icdebUdoeis with hiuahtr KW,Wk Wben '??^atmn hMTS soi ud to onbeoomlrg pretexts have been re lfc? fU'P3?e of rffedtiog delay aad eluding I l iv 7'. ler g'h th? matter assumed a eontro virriil ebarteter; aed tue charter provided tbe mode for t'2 thfct m!Sh' tr!M hetseen *nd .tL? c 'n???v. Btfore tbe exlstiog fvfl,kJo" 'ucceeded in elevation to power, and while ,;***'?fts brt rfi beteevn the se.vJe gjvernuient iincer Clamorroand ttellbsral contes'aats under Cu tuirn, a o< mm lesion was sxetuted by dfrec'lrn of the x- ucr auihcrtty In favor of c-enors Tejada and Laeayo, aw iLe reprri eats lives of that authority in the settlement of Ue disputed elafm. Tlie Commissioners proceeded to ? or*' Pre8*n'*d tht i: credentials, and aiksd for ? slo liar d'monstration cf w lliogness to adjudict's on the part of the compaar. The rvqueit was re<pon<l?i to be Ue ususl mtolfestatlon of iuditfo-eocv, and every trifl'ng 'xped.ent laid under c.ntribnMon for the purpose of nra ?ig t g ihe period of investigation. A: cut this time, however, a new element of d ,w?r wan co opera fng with the party opposing the Chamorro scrcinUtiailop, and some uncertainty prevailed as to tha rtabU y cf the servile government. This was pesullarlw opportunelor the com pans,end was seized upon sy then* s* a i'wrol pretvxt for holdirg in abeyance the a ljudica tios> ol the perplexing controversy, ihe ioternsl d'ffieul lies cf Nicaragua lial bhhsrto served ae ex-u?es or demceratl^ V1" rngress of ths liberal or C( JrieMrt. *a'Bucb a*}? the most probable of IMv J i-ai i ? J ?icendency to puwe-. Tne battle a". i!d and ,h? "i" element of power MeiimBd a prominence that foreboded v'vJ in f T '"? ""'?t'nued regime cf Chanrarro. tn?' m.7. /*'?? V*H K,",iufiusly vlndfca'.lDg itw ,.,i' tvL .eL rule of Nicaragua, uctees with which its endeavors were oon i, tnllr remnrcrated alarmed the Tranilt Company lor .t e I'lMd gstl, ? of Its proepeot of Impunity. Tha om icipmufifc c ft.})? ( hnmorro government were epaoloteJ. ftoa prrceM fd oi; their minion to New York In tae month Of .Tn y, 1HP, after tbe advent of flen. Walker with ass Arrei'een force into Nictrsgua, allied with thslibsra? fB fhfiktinstj toe, to (he memorable battle at l ivas n which the moral oiTejtof that alliance wan mcstrfgtal.y demonstrated. Soon a'ter the depa^'ore ot the Ohsnsorro commlMtonere, ths smitsitants cf tl?e ser TU* I' Ttinaea', ueeodtg tjppmselyei entiUfd ol gragMg 1