Newspaper of The New York Herald, August 20, 1856, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated August 20, 1856 Page 4
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.NEW YORK HER/.T.T1 ja?i> eoiDO? mmn |IVT| EDITOR AMD FKOrtlCl 0ft. 0rt IC1 M. w. COMBI Of MA*jaaP u| ftTLTOM "Bflfc Tt.lt -""*<* a***? ?<*. l'M? fcXttF IffiA/tLB, I'W'" ^ nwv.tR prr ?nn'ML rS? WAXAX 1 If HKjQX), rr ^ Smftrr-lwy -c <*, rMk fw ee? ? ?*? **r"l mm fHtian, %tmrr aunimn, la wlp,ir(?6mK .iMWtXorf# !? ?ny uj lit CortSUwiK, loA ? I"" '<*??. vOLVNTa*,y co* R??r -osxf/t <?,? .r?. ?..! new., any ? nr. i*t .</?*? irer/4 ? (/' b?<4 ulC 6? fcfetaUy ]iaM/or Mr ? PettWUM ( 'OHHSHrtf!1! OB* t? ARB Ta Rmr- tui m Aui *u. l*m?a *>u raoB 'jOB tr?" Jted with Matrs*(\ chttipmm aitJ de? 9?AV f fftOTSSMXN VS rawAi ?t,iV Vtlamt No< SI31 A*vs?*tsrrs this kvenins. ?WIC'B OART>W!? BrM4<r%f? M& Krvrosi NisuT? Ybb Biassan Baby. BOWERY THUTRK, Bcwery-Urs a* NSW Tots*? BUMjr.ta? Fo-ca bsb tab. CHINESE BUn;DlN<J, SS? Hrantwif EtmOBil Tn MK i)(U, IT in Ciiritu Mi.ibtbbxb. ?ck York. WcdttudB/, Aw^wt !W, ISM. M*H? for ff.Bnf i. new rvn Hive vn> ? inmw for kcropr. TM CunarJ mail steamship Aste, Captain Lo<t, will U>'? p?rt ti-wosormng, at *ea< clock, for Liverpool. T>a European nails will otese ta this city U eigbt ?'clock it. it, o&orntag. 1k? Bauu (pr nled in neUsb and Vrenoh) will be pabbahed at at <' o'clock la ttoe ?naorn-.ng . angle oopaes, Ib wrappers, BW^scce. BubecrtpUeK? and adTSi tie sweets tor say edition at tk? H(w Tons S-nuu> will be vosciTed Bt lbe following places in Enrcpe:? liWDM Am. * European Knqpnen Co., CI King Williams*. Pub do. de. 8 I'lace de Ib Bourne. Iwnm ? do. d?. 7 Rumford street. Lrrmrooir-jo&Q Banter, 111 Itehange itreet, uut. The cecvcnte of the European edition of tbe Hsniin will embrace the newt received by mail and telegraph at the .>Bee daring lbe prerivaj week, and to U>e hour of publication. _ The ffewe. We publish this morn*# details of the news from Mexico, to the 8th in#t. Wen. Gadsden partook of a public dinner on the 2d inet., previous to his depar ture, the proceedings of which may be found in oar compilation of the news. Tbe government was going on with the utmoet harmony. A new article had been added to the constitution, guaranteeing re kgioos liberty, and at the same time it ia reported that hundreds of prieeto were being expelled from tbe country, and the confisca tion of church property continued. Active measures had Uen taken against Vidanrri, who it was believed would soon be compelled to Bubmit. The gov ernment bad adopted the Ramsey route for an inter oceani railroad between the Golf and Acapolco. Tbe charter granted is said to be a very liberal on r. The a ail* from New Orleans to Ban Franc is :o have frequently been carried over the route in twelve j days, and with the facilities which a railroad wil aBord no doubt the time of transit between the two points mentioned will be reduced to eight days. The starting point on the Golf is to be Vera Cruz or Anton Lizardo. Most probably both porta will be connected with the road, as they are only distant twelve miles. According to recent accounts it would seem that hostilities have re commenced in Kansas. On the nigtit of the 12th in&t. the town of Franklin, inhabit ed by some twenty pro-slavery men, was attacked by a party of two hundred free Bute men. who, after a combat of fonr boon duration, succeeded In capturing the place , robbing the Post office, and firing the houses. The assailants finally retreated, carrying with then the cannon belonging to the Sown. The jeporta as 10 the loss of life in the en counter are conflicting, one stating that fonr pro slavery men and six free soilers were killed, while another report estimates tbe free soil loss at seven teen in killed and wounded. The day after the fight a detachment of United States troops, num bering one hundred, occupied tbe town. Three hun dred of Gen. Lane s men are said to have entered Toptka. By tbe arrival at this |>ort yesterday of the bark Kate, Captain Oliver, we have dates from Buenos Ayres to the 2d ult. There wa* nothing stirring in tbe political world of that place, except a rumor of a Free b expedition to Paraguay, on account of some alleged ill treatment of French colonists lately established there. Freights were nominal, with little d?ing for tbe United States, owing to tbe scarcity of produce. Our ' orrespondeut at Guayama, Porto Rico, wi iagoothelMh alt, states that the cholera wa? ?ommitting fearful ravages at that place. Tbe iuva&e up to that date had, with occasional excep tion!. been confined to the blacks, and the mortality had cau-cd such serioos loss among plantation bands as to interfere very materially with the proe pec's of tbe fotnre crop. The epidemic was more virulent than usaal.and had awumed the character of a plague. Elevated localities, as well a* habita tion* uj'OD low ground were severely attacked Fvery exix-dient bad been resorted to to prevent the epread of the contagion to other portionsof tbe I Mud. The Know Nothings ol the Seventh Congi eiwional district of this city last evening revoked the nom> nation of Mr. John Bollock, mad* Rime week* *inoe. and selected Aluarman r.eorge Brifrtr* a* their can dictate for CongTesa. The Ptorm last night interrupted teletTTophic ope rations ft nerall j, tad we are, therefore, without oar BM.ai quaatity of news by that source, ft is feared that the kmc contianed rain may hare oc wioned considerable dam.ige in various j?arte of the coon try. The Scientific Congress meet- at Albany today The letter of ?or correspondent, detailing the prepi ration^ for the afiair. will be found interesting. The Congrer- will coatinae in se?eioo throughout the week. It will be seen by a statement elsewhere ia oar columns thst no additions! cases of yellow fever ?ere reported yesterday under treatment at Quaran tine. Tbere is still, however, some stir among the Castkton villagers, oa account of the alleged wtpo mire to which they are subjected from the man ner ui which yellow fever patients are brought to the hospital, aad from parties living in the village being permitted t3 attend upon fever patient*. Com plaint is made that the vessels anchored at vnaran tine are poorly attended to, and that should any thing like a ?t mn arise there w>uld be dtmrer of immense lose to ships anl their cargoes. Sevemi interesting < tHs were before our Court* yesterday, of which we give reports. The examinv thm of Chariea Spencer, charged with the murder of e boy on board tbe ship Mary E. Balch. was com maaced before Commissioner Morton. From tbe testimony it appears that Spencer knocked tbe boy down with a martingspike, aad than coo ly pitched him overboard Tbe ease of alleged malpractice of an oculist, which has been before tbe Marine Court for F?veral days, was one laded yesterday, bat tbe decision of tbe J ad re was reserved for tbe present. Tbe alleged case of smuggling, ia which Madame Rondeau is imp'icated. was also oncluded. Com missioner Morton reserved his decision. KUewhere will be found a statement of tbe cleat i nation of the emigrants who arrived at th)? port daring tbe eleven months ending July 40, 1*64. Within the period mentioned lQftjoT emir runt* arrived, bringing with them Of the whole mimtier S,tAfl were booked for tbe slave f>tatef aad the remainder for the free States. Cotton was rather mors ative yesterday, the sales having embraced aiiout 1..50O Unties, which was rhirfly tnken by apinners srlth a part for export The market close*] Arm, at about life- fc*r middling Tplaada, ft was suppose*; that the crop near tbe coast ia Louisiana aad Texas bad suffered < insider able injury, though probably confined to too limited a J si? BWlfcpp V* henskm an to the gtneral result of the crop, should other i in na?>mii n hereafter continue far vorahle. Thfa ia the ft-itical month with the ootton crop. It k bow-so T?x advanced, that should UJ unforeseen injury 'be inflicted It will not he able to nearer entirely from it. Owing to the extremely limited receipt* -of floor down the North river? being about 732 barrel* in the pneeiing twenty-flour burn? there was a alight reaction, and common to Kedioa and extra grades of State and Wetftern bmnda recovered about 5c. a 10c. per barrel from the extreme decline of the previous day. Wheat wan more 'active, with sales of Canada old white alt 91 60; %juthern red at il 50, and Southern sad Western prime white at $1 55 * %\ 60. Corn sold pre'iytreely, for sound tots of Western mixed, at l 41c. ? 61 jc., delivered. Pork was steady and firmer, at ft 9 50 for mess, wnd H7 75 a (18 for prime. 8alw of sugan were confined to 500 a 600 hhds., at Bloody prices. Oottee was qsiet; the total stock in this market is estimated ?t 113,307 bags, of which j ?bout 69,807 aw Rio. Freights to Liverpool were : rather easier-, wtth shipments of grain at fid. a 7d , 1 in bulk and ship1* bags. Our Old Mgfei on ^ectl*iHd Partlw? Tkk' IWnUi af Hktury. Quite a number of our old fogy politicians who have foeun thrown up high and dry by the demoralisation and disruption of the old whig and democratic parties, have Buddenly discover ed that the great danger to the Union (God save the Uuioa) is in the formation of sectional or geograph teal parties. WHh their hands uplifted in pious protestation, these superannuated politi cal parsons cd the old fogy school hold out, as a general warning to their countrymen, the so lemn admonitions of Washington in his Farewell Address against the quicksands and breakers of geographical party organizations. In this view, they shrink back with holy horror from the new and popular Fremont party, as the very danger against which the Father of his Country has so seriously warned us; and over they go to Bucha nan or Fillmore. We must remove this disguise from the faces of these markers, so that the country may see ex actly who and what they are. Washington has warned us against the danger of sectional or geo graphical parties ; but why ? Because, towards the close of his second term. Mr. Jefferson. Mr. Madison and other leading Southern men, had ac tually organized a sectional movement against (he policy of Washington, which was the strongly marked federal policy of Hamilton and Adams. Jefferson's policy was to strengthen the States at the expense of the federal govern ment; Washington's policy was to strengthen the latter, and Mr. Adams, being identified with this policy, was elected as his successor. But Mr. Jefferson, with his sectional movement, had been at work. Washington understood it thoroughly J and leared the consequence, on account of the French revolutionary ideas with which the minJ of Jefferson was so strongly tinctured. Hence those farewell admonitions of Washington. They were the work of Washington and Hamilton, and their immediate object was to etrenthen Mr. Adams and the old federal party against Jefferson and his strongly defined sectional republican party of that day. At the expiration of the four years for which Mr. Adams was elected, he and his party were superseded by Jefferson and the old republican party; but from that day to the end of Mr. Madi ' son's administration the war between the fede ralists and republicans was substantially a war between two sectional parties. The administra tion of Mr. Monroe marked an interregnum known as -the era of good feeling," during which we were 4,alJ republicans and all federal sta." With the election of the young er Adams in 1*24. *>7 the House of I Representatives a new opposition sectional movement was organized upon General Jackiou. by Mr. Calhoun and other leading Southern politicians of that epoch. These ultra Southern politicians were overruled by the broad er Rational ideas of Old Hickory, or Martin Van Buren would never have been elected as his suc cessor. It was not. however, until Mr. Van Bu ren was pledged and became known throughout the country as the - Northern man with Southern principles. " that he was considered acceptable to the controlling Southern wing of the democracy. The financial crisis of 1837-'8-"9 resulted in a general revolution in 1640 against Van Buren. without regard to sectional lines of demarc ation; but e%en in that campaign, the democratic politi cians of the fouth fought Gen. Harrison as a Northern man unsound upon the nigger ques tion. In 1644 the democracy discarded Van Buren. Fie bail taken a somewhat Northern view of the question of the projected annexation of Tcxa and wa* ejected by the two- thinl* rul" of t' Baltimore Convention through th" evrtion Robert J. Walker. Ronulut M Saunders and othci South' ! 'i -??< t':0!;:il politicians. la l-l-.by a North'1 rn sectional opposition democratic move ment . Van Buren had the satisfaction uf defeat ing On<-ral (. *-?< ami tin* ?v>-niii?>r -out!i"V.i factional wing of the democratic party. The re sult vu the election of Gen. Tayloi. d-nounced liy :li? *'ce*i< a ultras a? a Southern man wi-h Northern principle*. The compromise measun* of 1W0 resulted in a t?mp?rary armistice u|*>n tr.vr- awl strongly were the mwi of the people. North and South opposed to the reopening of thi 1 ?ore of slavery, that they rejected almo't u;. . mously the biave ol<l -?>l<l;>*r. General Soon u]*>n a bare ?u-picion that if . . t- <l 1, tm^hi possibly itecome an instrument in the hands of W II. Seward lor the revival ol a *ttional agi tation upon nigger* and slave territory. The consequent triumphant election of Mr. Fierce was hailed as the harbinger of another " era of good feeling:" bat never was there ? greater mis take. It if useless to recite what ha- followed. The results are before onr eyes in tb<- general party demoralization* dissolution*. revolution and political chao? that have come opon u*. Tu.j f.rrij. ? ' th" old democratic party, held together by th- cohesive power of the public plunder." ha? b?*?*ti seized upon by the mo?t ultra sectional Itody o' ro' ti in th" history of the country, and placed, with its candidate. a|x?n a platform of two plank? the flr?t of which is niga-er- and the second u hhliu-t.-i ing policy f..t luoie n:ugei->. Thus stands the demoralized democratic party of Uie present day? reduced to a mere nigger party ? wfcott policy i* nothing but nigger*, com prehending the security of nigger* ? increased price* for nigger*, and new territories and new market* for nigger*, including a prospective re. st oration of the Africau tiiDic in niggr*. As n sort of tender to Mr Buchanan and this nigger party stands Mr Fillmore, his Know Nothing lantern put out. but still with certain strange mummeries upon bis Up*, in which the Tope, the Je*uit*. nigger*, abolitionists, sectional party. Fremont and secession are confusedly blende<l together. Againut Mr. Buchanan and this squire of hi*, thi* *ece**J?n Don Qnixotte ftning man Fancho fan/n fbif d'.so crtUic lion and hie Know Notking jackal, stands 1 Fremont, for the U'aic the Oonstitation, the right* of tl?c South, th.e righto of the States; but oppoeed to that Wan* ;h of the democratic nigger movement vAkh c outcmplates making a hlave State of Kansas, (.f- air and just though it may be,) aud opposed to tb at other branch, which propose*, right or -wrong, to " wrest the inland of Cuba fipom f^-ain, if we possess the power," for the purpose of get Xing more niggers Thus it apj ?ar? that our p&or old fogies who shilrti in alaxm from Framoni because he in M?p porK'd by a sectional party, are either playiug the hypocrite or the ignoramus ; for their view of the subject is exceedingly stupid. If there be bat one sectional party before the country it if ' the Buehar.au nigger party, and not the Fremout. white man's parry. But admitting that both are sectional parties, where is the danger ? Have we not shown that such parties have existed from the time of Washington. and that, excepting a lacid interval, or a revolution here and there, the South ern sectional party has had the lion's share of the spoils ? And in the teeth of secessionists, dis union ists, Southern fire eaters, border ruffians an J Northern abolitionists, has not the counsry pros pered, and does not the Union survive? Tie truth is, we think it just as well. North and South, that the thin disguises of nationality which have heretofore been used as the cloak of sec tionalism, tboukl be thrown away, aud that th< ? contestants should stand, as they do stand, ho neetly and openly before the world, as the North contending against the South for the supremacy in the government and the spoils. There is no danger. Niggers or no niggers, the Union is safe enough. When the fight is at ita maximum, the peacemakers, as usual, will step in, and there will be a compromise. While the interests of the North and the safety of the South are locked up in the Union, there can be no disunion; and the cry of secession raised by Buchanan and Fillmore, in the event of Fremont's election, is nothing but the mean and contempti ble trick of frightened and shameless politicians -A sectional party I" " Washington's Farewell Address !" Will these old fogy whigs, Know No things and democrats never understand the rudi ments of American politics ? We can't forever be teaching them the alphabet. The Negroes and Ntgro Charwtcr-Aboll tlonlam? The South. Just tmck of the Slave Coast in Africa is a ricb and fertile country, called Dahomey, which until recently was but little known to Europeans. Its government is a pure despotism, and adminis tered with unparalleled ferocity. Here, in one of its freest forms, the negro race exists. perfectly removed from all the influences of white men. under no vassalage but what they have created for themselves, and with a natural bravery that never permits them to shun any danger. Here, if Nature, that goddess worshipped by abolition ists, Fourierites and infidels, had any inherent grace, we might have hoped to see its vaunted results in the greatest good of the greatest num ber, in the love which the generous heart indulges towards kindred hearts, in the kindness of in dwelling charity, in the voices of the mirthful and happy, and in the peace and tranquillity of unsophisticated life. Here, if anywhere, the long sought Utopia might have been discovered. But what do we find? A demon despotism which ornaments its temples and palaces with skulls, constructs its pavements of human bones, and feeds its pools with human blood. Our readers were doubtless struck with the testimony of a worthy Wesleyan missionary, recently published in the Herald? that of Mr. Beachtnan. who has just returned from a mission to the slave and gold coasts. Not one of the early or barbarous customs of these horri ble negro races, as he informs us. have been aban doned. Incessant massacres are taking place, in their wars, and at their feasts and funerals. When a husband dies, his wives arc buried alive with him: when a chief or monarch, his wives not only are doomed to the same fate, but they are sacri ficed by hundreds, and as they move in procession to the pits where they are to lie butchered, be daub themselves gorily with paint and mud to give a grotesque horror to the scene. They march along over headless trunks, over rivulets of blood, and apathetically submit to the sawing off their hands and their legs, aud to be pounded to death in the reeking pits in which they are tumbled. At the death of the late King of Daho mey's brother, tour thousand victims suffered in this dreadful manner. At some of their festival* every noble slaughters a slave at the gate of the enclosure where the usual ceremonies take place. The king's executioners rush through the streets, killing every person they meet, and the very trees groan under the weight of the skulls su?pendM upon their luanches. Every word of this is con firmed in a recent work by an American naval officer, who has seen service in one of our arme<l vessels on the coast of Africa. There is but on<> other race in the world at the present day which bears any resemblance to these savage negroes and that i? the Dayaks. also a colored race. In the East Indies, described by Madame Pfiffer. It may be said that these cruel propensities are exceptions to the general tendencies of the race, and that it is to counteract these, abolitionism is honestly at work. But we saw that in Hayti. after long years of the civilized and benevolent sway of the French, the natural ferocity of th blacks was in nothing changed. The atrocitie* practised by them on the whites filled the Christian world with horror, and e?capc from the Imndftgo of a mild servitude has been succeeded by a miserable and more degraded submission to a monkey despot, a thousand times more tyranni cal than their white masters In the British West Indies the blacks arc going down to the lowest animal type as fast as they can go: and If we might reverse the infidel theory, that th<? human racc began with the lowest forms of ani mal lift, we should say that the negroes of Ja maica were rapidly returning to their original brutal type. With these undeniable facts before us. how it is possible that any American*, practi cal. earnest and sensible as they generally arc. can for a momcut advocate the emancipation of the slaves of this country, is the wonder of all wonders? a perfect paradox? a most astonishing folly It is not possible that any other condl tion than that in which they now are. could give them as much contentment as much tranquillity and as little suffering, as now per tain to them. If they were all liberated to-mor row, th <7 would lie incapable of self-government, they would become the prey of designing head men and chiefb? their natural propensities to cru elty. their thought lessor**, their disregard of th filings of each other, their want of internal an. I filial affection, would be prominent in all their actions, and it would be utterly impossible for even the most philanthropic whites to fraternise with them for a moment, or to lead th<m into a career of humanity. Wby n toit country to be ftglta'cg ite centre for so* a race? Why Is stub a race to be fbiMt forward to an equality with the whitest Ttoe answer is plain enough. The movement of abolitionism is not a humane oue. It is the mere cover to the derig? of political agitators, who have no other hope of political success than What may be gained by fratricidal agitation. This n the true intent and meaning of their pteudo philanthropy; and for this Kansas has been made the tbeatre of bloodshed and insurrec tion. The Southern States perceive clearly enough that their safety, their independence, and their welfare are in danger, if abolitionism obtain* the ascendency in this government, and that a servile war must follow if its policy is car ried out. We cannot blame them for making common

cause with each otbtr in the presence of a com mon danger, nor in striving to maintain that balance of power which is constitutionally and conventionally their right But we do blame them for the manner in which tbey conduct their defence. We are surprised at the indiscriminate censure of the North, in which tbey indulge, where ? in spite of all the noise made by fanatic fools, (both men and women,) by the Sewards and the Stowes ? they have a large majority ol true friends. They are also grievously mistaken a* to the objects of the moet patriotic of the sup porters of Colonel Fremont That movement it against the corruptions of the party in power, and if tome noisy and empty headed declaimers have joined the masses which are flocking to hip standard, like the followers of a victorious camp, that is often the misfortune of the best of causes. The Kansas question settled, all further agitatiou would cease; and that it will be settled on some honorable terms wc will not, cannot doubt We prefer that it shall enter the Union as a slave State, in order that this balance of power may be maintained, believing at the same time that ii will be of no disadvantage whatever to the slave population or the free States? no infraction of th< laws of God or man. In these sentiments the friends of Colonel Fremont, as far as we are con nected with them, cheerfully concur. More Bloodshed in Kansas.? By a tele graphic despatch received yesterday from St. Louis, we learn that on Monday night last a party of two hundred armed free soilers attacked the town of Franklin, in Kansas, which was oc cupied by twenty pro-slavery men, that a fight ensued which lasted for four hours, and that four pro-slavery men and from four to seventeen free soilers were killed. It is stated that the attack ing party robbed and burned down the Post Of fice. and withdrew with the cannon of the town as the trophies of the expedition. One hundred United States troops occupied the place next day. It is also reported that three hundred of Lane's men bad reached Topeka. Thus wc have the melancholy fact that Kan rag is still the scene of internecine bloodshed, and that the war has recommenced. The public were flattered with the idea that the difficulties there would quiet themselves, and that the danger ot further disturbances was past But if these re ports be true, they have only just commenced; for now we see that the blood of the combatants is up, and defence has become attack. And who is the party responsible for all this mischief but President Pierce, who, in order to be renomi nated and re-elected to the Presidency, thought to make friends on the one hand by the appointment of Beeder as Governor, and then to curry favor on the other by getting rid of him. It is this wavering, pusillanimous and treacherous policy which has destroyed the peace and tran quillity of Kansas, and afforded a spectacle for the enemies of our country abroad to exult at and gloat over. It is his miserable infidelity to his high trusts that has brou^t this misfortune and disgrace upon us. and it is .^.disgrace that he has neither used his influenc ? Jbr his power to avert the consequences of his fa?c steps. Calmly looking on all the misery his duplicity and in efficiency have created, he makes no efforts to reconcile the contending parties on the basis of law or justice. What is to be the result no one can yet pre dict. No one can tell what the President really means to da The people look to him for counsel and for action. They get neither. And now the question arises, whether this state of things is to be continued under the possible succession of Mr. Buchanan ; for if he and his supporters are to get into place and power, with the retained views of Mr. Pierce, the voters of this country had bet ter seriously consider whether they will run a risk so great, so dangerous, aud whether any Ostend filibuster or champion of bludgeon ballot ing is tbe conservative politician he has been represented to be. If the free soilers have com mitted an unprovoked attack, even on border ruffians, let them be condignly punished ; but in tbe name of truth and consistency, let us not withhold our indignation from the men who have brought about this fratricidal conflict. Occi ltation or JirrrxR ? The Expected Go met. ? The occultation of this magnificent placet by the moon took place on the 18th Inst., at 13h 5m. mean time. Although a very pleasing sight it is not regarded with much interest by astrono mers. The occultation? obscuration or hiding of a fixed star or planet by tbe moon or any other planet ? if useful chiefly for correcting the lunar tables, or fixing the longitude of place*. In this last instance, the method is very simple. Two observers in different longitudes observe the oc cultation at its immersion. It actually is seen at tbe same moment of absolute time by both; but according to their clocks respectively, tbe time will not be tbe same. It may be observed at on ? place at 1 o'clock, at the other at 4 o'clock. Tbi* difference of three hours, converted into degrees of 1ft U> the hour, would show a difference of lon gitude of 4ft degrees. If one of the places of ob servation was at Greenwich, which is now the great meridian of tbe world, and the other to the westward of it. this last place would be 4ft degrees west longitude from Greenwich. Jupiter is the largest of all the planets, and. next to Venus, the most brilliant. It is 1,300 times larger than the earth, is about four hundred and ninety-flve million eight hundred thousand miles distant from the sun. Nfci is accompanied by four -mall moons which help it to its light; it is twelve years in revolving round the sun. ami turns about on its axis once in ten hours, which gives ft a velocity at its equator of 4,6ft8 miles in a minute, or a speed two thousand times greater than that of a cannon ball. Its axis being nearly perpendicular to the plane of its orbit, the sun is almost always in the plane of lt? equator, so that the days and nights <k Jupiter are nearly equal, and the varieties of tbe seasons not scnrfble. Over its surface, curious belts or tiands are per ceived, generally parallel to its equator, varia ble in duration and in sir,#. The moons of Jupi ter have enabled astronomers to calculate the lon gitude of places on the earth, ami a1?o tb* of TM* lwt discovery was made by Roemer, % Danish astronomer, in the year 1675, and has since been verified by other modes ol computation. The first recorded observation of Jupiter was at Alexandria, in Egypt, oa the 3d of September, 240 yeans before Christ. During the present year we may expect the return of the greatest and grandest comet de scribed in history. It was visible in 1264, in the months of August, September and October. When its head was visible in the east on the edge of the horizon, its tail stretched past the midheaven more than 10 deg. It disappeared on the night of the 2d of October, when Pope Urban the Fourth died, and the superstitious connected tit two events. It was again observed in 1556, and its elements having been computed by Dr. Bailey, Dunthorne,Pingre, Bommc and others, it is calculated that it will reappear during this and the next two monthB; but if it should be perturbed in its path by the united attractions of Jupiter, Saturn, and tome other planets, at the tame time, its appearance may be delayed to 1660. The expectation is, however, that we shall see this astronomical and historical wonder during the present year. It would be quite a fortunate circumstance for the Albany astrono mers, if the Dudley Observatory should be inau gurated by the arrival of this ancient and splen did visiter. Imperial Gifts to American Citizens. ? Whatever exceptions may be taken to Louis Napoleon's political course, there are two virtues which his enemies must concede to him. He ne ver forgets a service or fails to reward merit when it is brought under his notice. His gene rosity in these respects has recently been employ ed in the instances o f two of our countrymen. To the Rev. Mr. Stewart, chaplain in the United States Navy, who defended him when his con duct whilst an exile in New York was brought into controversy a few months since, he has for warded a magnificent diamond snutf box, and to Mr. Francis, the inventor of the wagon pontoon for crossing rivers, which was lately exhibited before bim. he has also sent a similar mark of his approbation. These are acts of graceful mu nificence which cannot but win partisans for the donor. THE LATEST NEWS. BY MAGNETIC AND PRINTING TELEGRAPHS. From the National Capital. THE COURSE TO M P0K8CID AT THE OPENING OP THE KXTKA SESSION OP CONOKE8M? USN. QUITMAN'S DIRECT TAXATION SCHEME, ETC. WAxiiiNtiiu.N, Aug. 19, 1866. Wise and discreet members of the democrat! 3, republi can and American parties, acknowledged leaders of both bouses, express their determination to resist any attempt to go into any legislation at the extra session, save on the Army bill or other great public measures. The mem bsxsare exhausted trom their excessive labors, and pain fully anxious to return to their homes. The probability now is that the extra session sill not last over the ww k, and may end on Ihur^Jay. The twenty Orst joint rale tays:? Alter six days from the commencement of a second or snbsoqutnt CoLgras, all business shall be resumed ami acted on in the same manner as li an adjournment had not taken place. Thus, the first business In order in the House is the proposition to rocede from their amendment to the Army bill. If the joint rale Is not Suspended, nothing can be done for six days but to talk os the President's Message, (whxh will, doubtless, be sent in on Thursday) and rerer natters to the several committees. II the joint rule is suspended? wliich, of course, will be the case? it (imply does away with the six days' isterrognura, and the regu lar order, as already stated, comes up. Unless by a two thirds vole, it Is impossible to change this course of pro ceed ngs; and the voting yesterday demonstrated the im possibility of getting that number to take up any but the regular business. It is equally certain, from the votes already recorded, that the previoua question will be sustains 1 upon a direct vote, thus cuttuig on debate; so that, If the joint rule is Si.spmidcd, it seems almost imjossible to avoid the con viction that? a quorum being present? the bill will be disposed or on the Orst day, as there was yesterday a majority of foor in favor ot receding. If the joint rale should not be suspended, then the same result will follow on the seventh day, no other business coming up meanwhile. As soon as the House recedes the President will sign the bill, and the majority of the Senate have already determined to pass a joint resolution lor an immediate adjournment. If the House sees Ot not to agree to it, then the President, under the thiid section of the second article ol the constitution, can st once adjourn both houses. It will thns be seen that a factious minority can In no ?rent delay a decision on the question, nor can even a majority of the House, after that question is settled, pro tract the session beyoed the time which the Senate may designate, and the President approve. The republ.cans feel badly whipped by the procla mation. But very few of the members of Congress have loft the city, and thsftmpresston Is that there wlll,be a full attend ance on Thursday, aad that the extra session will close this week. It Is General (Jsitmaa's Intention, at an early day next session, to move s consideration of the propriety of sub stitotiBK direct taxation for the preiost system of raising revenue. Witk this view, the General s oall was made lor information as to the entire cost of tbe present tystesi. Interesting llnri from Kmni. 8t. LttCM, Aug. It, 1164. The Westport Btrdtr Ruffian. In sn extra noied ou tho 18th inst., ?ayi ? I Ait Monday night 200 free ?? it lent at Uckul the town of Franklin, Kansas, in which were only twenty pro-slavery men. The fight lasted four hour*, ?ud Tour pro slavery men and sis flree eoilers were kill ed. The sssailants robbed the Poet Offloc ao<l then set it on Are, and Anally retreated, carrying off the cannon belonging to the town. Later reports My that seventeen lYee toilers were killed and wounded. One hsndred , laitedAatss troops occupied the town the nett day. | Three hundred of Lane's men have entered Topeka. Csicjgo, Aug. 19, ItM. The Tsllnwing news I rorn Kansas was received hers this morning The tree sellers bars discovered that the organ) wd plan of ths pre slavsry party is to ooncestrate Ben, arms and ammunition at different points of the Territory, for the purpose of making s suddsa and general attack im mediately after the adju irnmest of Congress, sad expel all the free Mat* lettlers. Twelve fortiBed block houses bare been erectei at different pro slavery points, whlcb are well supplied with cannon, r.des and ammuaiiion garrisoned principally by Missosrtans. On the nig tit of the 12th inst. a oompany of free Mate men attacked the fort al T rank I; a fur the purpose of ee curls* arms, when a flgbt ensued betwees them snd the forces stationed there, whloh lasted four hours Oas free < Slate man was killed, sad one seriously wounded. Three Mlmourtsns were wounded. *te free Mate men capture.! a block bouse, took one oanasn and any stand of arms? the Isttar included maay of tfee rifles *efsed at Lawreac. la May, by the pro slavsry men The MH?ourtaa? re treated to Camp Washtsgtoa. southwest of Lawrence sad It is feared there will be farther disturbance between the parties, although quietness now sMsls. An estrs ol the Leavenworth Journal, on the 14th, has a call to arms. The border towns ars grettiy excltori. and s general mustering of Mlssourlans Is demanded by the pro-slavery leaders la the Territory. Before the attack on the fort at franklin, the lYee Mate men applied for the dispersion of tee pro slavery roroe that had gathered there, under the proclamation of Gover nor 8 ban n on, which was refused A Isrge meeting was held at Kansas city on the 16th, at which It wan resolved to send 2,000 men immediately Into , the Territory. A meeting was held at Lctington on the 16th, and a resolution was passed| that they woold send their <]<iota of men to help settle tleir difficulties, by tbe first boat. _____________ General Case on the Stwntp. minaows. Ang. 19, Hi*. Tbe democrats held a Isrge mass meeting hers Isst night. General CMs was the principal speaker. Ron. Beverdy Jobnaoa was aamed as ths IrtR vice PreeMsot, hut did tot take part la list Bftltnf The Meeting of the American AmocUUob to* the Advancement mt Science. Air a?t, Aug. 18, 1?ML To morrow, at 10 o'clock, in the State House, the testfe annual meeting of tbe A mem an Asaociaton for the Ad vancement of Science will opes. Peculiar pains bar* been taken to render tbe event an interesting one. Son* time since invitations to be present were lent to several of tbe leading scientific men or Euiope. Application was made to the owe era of tbo various steamship and tailing; packet lines Or passages; and Mr. Coilina, Mr. Cuaard.. Mr. Livingston, and Uus agents of tbe Bremen, Edinburgh, and Liverpool and London packet lines gave each from< four to two passaf es from Europe and back again. Armed/ with these, Messrs. Gavtt and Hpetcer, who were sent to ?Europe on a tour of inspection of obaervatorlea, visited' all the European capitals, and sasr personally tbe greater portion of tbe men vt science. They found that many were bound by professional duties, which they coald not. shake on : that others had associations, museums, and observatories to look after; that many were old and) infirm; tbat some, in Germany and Italy, dreaJe I a voy age across the Atlantic. Some again were bound to cor 'aln Kings or other authorities, and could only leave the sphere of their duties by permission from them. In fine,, cut of a large number seen by the Albanian travel'*!*, only three or four promised to come here. All espreeied* themselves delighted. Many were amazed at the libe rality oliered them. Several ol them promised to come my future year, if they had twelve months nuice. Bat, as 1 (aid only three or four ventured to give Mr. Gavit a. pre mlse to be present at tbo meeting at Albany ; and all if there have tither broken their engagement or been, unavoidably detained at home. Not one of the foreigners invited will be pr<aont at the meeting of the association. Jt is some consolation under this disappointment, to remember tbat tho tame of tho association has pervaded Europe thoroughly, and that it has done so in a way which cannot but give foreigners a favorable opinion of the American chara:ter and the tendency of American instl tut'ons. Acother year we may do better with regard to the m<a. J do cot apprehend there wi'.l be many papers read, though there may, as some do not send them in till the last. In connection with the meeting of the Association, the State Geological Ball and ' no Dudley Observatory arc to be inaugurated. I visited the lattor this morning, anl was struck with Its handsome itpjiearance. It stands on a knoll, itself on high ground, and commands a beavtifuJ view of Albany, tho river and the adjacent country. Tbe building is Email, but large enough apparently for Its purpose; the chamber of observation in the do mo is all that coald be wished. The masons and builders are still - at work? strange to say? tearing down instead ol build ing up, it having been resolved alter half tbe work was done, to alter the plan so as to enlarge the rooms in the wings. There are no instruments there belonging to the obiervatory. The heliomcter. which la being made in this country, and several valuable instrumenta which are being Imported from Europe, will not be ready by the inauguration ; their place is o.cupiod by others, borrowed temporal ily from the Coast Survey office. I shall have occasion to allude again to this building when it is inau gurated. That ceremony is to take place on tbe 28th. Bon. Edward Everett is to deliver an address. Gov. Bunt will pay a tribute to the virtues of the muni/Scent gentlemen to whose bounty it owes its existence. Tbe State Geological Bait will be inaugurated on the day previous, the 27th. Mr. Seward was to hare de- , livered an address. but the pressing character of hla du- < ties at Wasfctngion has left blm no time to preiwre, and i he has been obliged to decline the task. Be is to he re placed by Trof. Agassiz ? who will read or speak on natu- ' ral history, probably In connection with foaailology ? aad President Hitchcock. A preliminary meeting ol the standing committee ol tbe Association takes place to nitfht, at tbe Delavao Baoee, to arrange respecting the reading of papers and other 1 business. PCIUIIjrlTkllU Politic*. FkEVONT MASS HKKTINO IN PHILADELPHIA , ETC. PtULAIlSI I'HU, Aug. 19, 1W6. A Fremont meeting was held at Nation*! Hall to night. , The Hall was crowded to iu utmoit capacity ; orer 2,040 persons were present. The original place of meeting, Is- ! dependence iquat e, * as abandoned In consequence of the i rain. Vs. D. I.*w!p was called to the chair. He returned his thanks Tor the honor conferred upon him. and said he wished every voter to understand that the coming con test was to decide Id luvor of freedom or slavery. Numerous Tice President* and Secretaries were elected, A series of resolution! endorsing the Philadelphia plat- j form, urging that the election of Fremont and Daytoa would secure the maintenance or the constitution and , promote the peace and prosperity of the Union, viewing | with horror the attempt of demagogue* to sow discord i nd sectional strife, commending the action of the majori ty of the House of Representatives for resisting the pas sage of the Army bill without the Insertion of Ute proviso [ preventing the use of the publlo money to enforce the begun laws of a p etonded legislature, and condemning the action of the Senate on the same bill, were passed with immense enthusiasm. After It bad been announced that Senators Coilamer, ot Vermont, and Trumbull, of Illinois, and the Hon. Mr. Bur lingame, of Masrachnsetts, would spesk, the tiles Club sang the "Mar Hpangled Banner." Mr. Colmhs* said the Issue presented was, whether1 ; slavery should be extended over flree Territories. The I i democrats bad repealed the Missouri conqpromlse, and the 1 Cincinnati Convention endorsed that proceeding, and Mr. * Buchanan will sustain It, If .elected. Vie republicans, oo the other hand, opposed the repeal of the Missouri com premise; and ir Mr. Fremont was elected, he wonl<S carry out the measuree or the republican p!a>.lonn, and . prevent the ?p-cad of alavery In Territories now (res.* The success of this measure depends upon the as lighten - mi nt of the free people of thi i I'mon? the working peopls; Where the laboring people of the community are ser vile they have no voting to do, and are kept in a state of degradation. If that section is allowed to shape the whole deettntes of tbs nation, can the laboring people of the North hope the aid of government In enlightening the I people? The present Issue was made by tbs democrat? repealing tbs Missouri compromise. At the last PrssU dentin] election all was quiet. The cries of dissolution off the Vnion always came from the Couth, and especially from South Carolina. That Mate seems to think that the only business ol the North Is to ooax the South not to dls^ solve the iLion. It was folly to let sncb a cry ha/e asf effect. A *ong vu now ?ung and three cheer* given I or Jsssld Fremont Mr. Tm *Hru Mid that d<-m?fogucs were raWng f?l*0 issues to mislead the people. He gave ? history of th? ?lavery question, and contended that tbo policy ol th? fatter* of oar country tm not to tproad slavery into th? territory ceded to the Union by Virginia, where slavery vu excluded by tbc ordinance reported by JeDorwon? yel at the present day , the man wbo dared to Mt in a I'btlsdaN I hia Republican Convention bad been driven out of that ?ami Virginia. He examined at gnat length tbe Kaasad act, tearing to plecea tbe argument* la favor of it. H? demned the measure* of the border ruffian* In driving out of Mauu the free State emigrants. He read th? names of the speakers announced for tbe democratic meeting, laying every one of them wai from abroad, and were old lino whig* and Southerner* The republicans are called sectional, because tbey bare no Southern speakers He thought tbe democracy were equally mo* tioral, becauac tbey bad no Nartbern speaker* la con* r I union he asked whether the house should be sustained In Its resistance to tbo appropriation of money for ?? forcing Itogu* law* at the ]>olut of the bayonet. He mu<J the election of Fremont would secure a free ccnttitoUoft to Kansas, tlx construction of a railroad to tba Pact 04 brougb fr?e States, and (scure free Territory. (Immense ? nthuslasm ) Mr. Bhutoisis* Introduced amidst the wildest enthusiasm Cheer followed cbssr, intermingled witlj groans for Bully Brooks. When inlet was restored, Mr. uringams alluded to the progress of slavsry aad thd effects upon the section of country cursed by N. He com pared the South with the prosperity of the North, blessed with freedom He excltad much merriment by ridtouliag the threats of Mr Toombs and others oC secern loa aad disunion (Is waated to know where the munitions oC war or money were to oome from , If the South should |4 to war. South Carolina nullification buttons cam# from Connecticut Cannons, rtfisa and muakets can only be made at the North The South could only furnish generals or colonels, hut nothing else. Moaef could not be raised on slarcs that might smite tbetr own er* or run on. He alluded to the elsetlon of Ppeakef Bank*, as the appointment of the Kansas Commission, and tbe admiMloa of Kansas, a frse Stats, on tbe part of th? South, with Uie Topeka constitution, aa the three great triumph* of the session Just closed. Tbc same nobis i* *i stance to the unjust demands of the South would b? continued snd crowned wlih success la tbe specitl seastoa about to commence n?*penned numero * objections te Mr Bucbaaan, one of which was his bacbslorism. Tbd proof of his (Buchanan's) sectionalism was, that hsa?TSt wa? la fkvor of the Union Hs ooacludsd by calll* upon the mm of all parlies to Join la ona sffertnal hhns tor the Uakm- aid tbe true interests of fed whole torn* {