Newspaper of The New York Herald, May 26, 1857, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated May 26, 1857 Page 1
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4 TH WHOLE NO. 7573. OUR CITY TROUBLES7~ The Police Question in the Supreme f'mirt anil r.nntmAn. rjuuwil. v v1,? uiiu vvuw?a vvuuviii Opinions of Judges Roo*eveIt, -Mitchell and Pcabody. TIE CASE T<0 0 TO THE COURT OF APPEALS. THE MANDAMUS AGAINST JUDGE EUSSELL BlPbUTiiVT MESSAGE OF JIAYOtt WOOD. NEW DAY AND NIGHT WATCH, w^/'.vvw^vvwwvvvv^ CONDITION OF THE STREETS, * Ac.p 4c? The thirty-tight black republican Cossacks of Governor Hieg, billeted open the municipal prosperity or this city by a hungry parti'/an Legislature, make but small pro gratia id uitur ?mrmiu| campaign ugsiust uie uuarierou rights of UtcdRf- of New York. The noiso, mischief1, and nefarious character Of their proceedings have, indeed, created an atandauia^arm and excitement, but the chance ?pf their galrjog aar prsctioal foothold rapidly reaches the certainty of their reduction to a well circumscribed pretence. The more pertinnciona and dangerous squad?the Police Crmmissff-ners?encountered two mate rials checks yeslerdty. The members ?!' that Board had in the most unscrupulous and selfish manner forced upun the men of the Police Department of the city a movement towards Ibrestalllng the decision of the Supreme Court of the State? that Board a/ould make them a sort of collateral Jury? and Insist that their roll call should not only be n exprcsstnn ef readiness for duty in their precincts, but ?Jao a divisam upon the question ss to the constitutionality of n new and ext raordinary act of the legislature. To day that question divides three ot the sitting Judges oftho Supreme Court, and tho strictest construction of the opt wen which supports the new Board does not actually more than make a technical decision In their favor. the two Boards of Com mist loners took no action of an -official nature to relation to the Police Department, yeeter <*"7- Those officers and mrn wbo ha>l been dismissed from the municipal service took formal leave of that service, and surrendered the city accoutrements, where they had possessing of any. Sergeant Johns, of the Broadway squad, surrendered his star, Ac , and had a duo receipt therefor at the Chiefs office. The now Commission had a tneetinp, and caused fresh orders to be drawn up for distribution at tbo station houses, these orders being prepared upon some relation to the decisions In the Supreme Court. U would appear from every indication Ln the hearing of the members of the Albany commission that they will take their course more ln vton of an appeal to the iAgtilaturc again, and a reconstruction of their bill, than rely on tbo (Jourt of Appeals. They give up pretty nearly all hope ofachieviug possession and control of the department and its appur tenancev, and will take tholr measures with an oy e to a call by Gov. King for a special no onion Tbc action dt the City Council last night carries tho proposal of tho Beard of Aldermen for a city watch reorganisation of the police, to a stage which not only leaves that to be merely a matter of a few days Celay, but it indicates Ihs close of tho entire campaign in its bearings, ujam a speedy and regular payment of the men and ttie regular attachment of the municipal from the State organization. From this action of city government, from the appended decisions, the able letter of the Major to the Common Council, and all the other matters which can bo regarded an bearing upon the issue, It is evident that tho polico campaign must now resolve Itself into tbc establish sent oi two independent police organ!radons. We will have ttie nuuiiC4|ial police at the expense of the city, and those of the State at the expense of the Bute. Such is the interest wl.b which tbc proceedings against the city ore regarded by alT rtas-os that each day brings tncreai-i d e\ idence of the tremendous record which is oc cumulating In the |>opular resentment agitnst those who tiki jmrt wilt the enemies of oar municipal libertiea. .aetlevrnlrg, atauotber mooting of the citizen volunteers, Henry W ilson, their commander-in-chief, was summarily deponed, and AMerman William Wilson dec ed in hi* r?<-a>1. The proceed tugo oa tho orcaelon gave a atiU more Marked exprornon of the municipal apirtt of the citizen voluitteeni, and Uielr determination to aland by the chartered right* and the executive otBcers of the city In the present imasgenry. A full report of lliotto and other matter* of like bearing will be published to-morrow. Supreme Court?Uenerwl Term. Present, Judges Mitchell, Roosevelt and I'eaboJy. The reading of the decisions on tbe constitutionality of the new I'olice law attracted a crowded and noticeably In telhgsnt audience In tbe Supreme Court room yesterday. Jadge Mitchell delivered tho majority opinion, Jndge Ruofccvelt th# minority, and Judge Psobody reading hie last Tbe greatest interest was apparently manifested. jrDCR mitcitkll's opinion. In tbe argument of this case there was scarcely any (If any) differWM of opinion as to the rules by which tbe ceortitution of our Slate Is to be interpreted. Tho rule under the federal constitution Is Inapplicable. Tnat instrument was framed with the view to confer only certain defined and limited powers on tbe general government. Central legislative power was not glTen to Congress, but special powers only, and those carefully ouumerated in aerentecn subdivisions. This alone would have limited It to those enumerated jioworit and such an were nores-ar I ly Implied from them, but, ttijealoa* were the |>coplo at that time dt the federal government, thai among tbeaaiculwiente proposed at thu Orel session of Uiiigrettv under tho constitution, and afterwards adopted, * a* the one declar lug that " the powers not delegated to tho United dutes by the conrtltutiuii, nor prohibited by it to the Stales, wrro renerved to the stales respectively or to the people." the reverie rule applies to tbe State legislature. There mint he somebody in which a power of legislation ehaJI realde competent to meet all the varied and changing wants of the community, and unlimited except by auch restriction* aa may be apeclally named. He, therefore, who would nuatatn the power of Onngreas to do any particular act. murl And In tho coastlMUon of tbe t'ntiod ttaaea the elauro which give* tie |iowor?h it when a law ta parsed by the State L<ugialatnre tt la to be presumed valid, until aomu clauae in the cooatli ition of the Nate is pointed out which forblda it. Tbe language of the Stale constitution leads to the tame result. It.tr (bat "the legtflauve power of IhU State anall Be voated in a achate and assembly." Tbla aloue includes all power of legislation without restriction, except auch aa ta found In the name Instrument, or retulu from tbe higher authority of the federal constitution and of Congress In otriala caaea. The restriction on the power of tbe legislature may be ewtirr express aa In the prohibition to sell the canala or the rait springs, or to give or loan tbe credit of the Slain aa tn other instances?or it may be implied, as when It la declared that "the executive power shall be vosted In a tlwveroor"?the.legblature cannot takeaway that power from that ofllcer or rwst It In anothor. So when It la deckred that "aherills. clerks of counties, itidud log the register and clerk of tbe cHy and county of New York, corooer* and di-lr|rl attorneys shall be ohoeen oy the eieriore of tbe respect .o counties"? no art cl Uie Tcgul dure can aanction another mode of election or appointment to these offices. And ecoord* tngty h cacnnt Bo and was oN disputed that tbe elause providing that "ail county clboers, whose election or ap amtnimert t n?t provided Tor by ihi* oonstitution, shall bo wiected by the ektrtor* ef the retpactlve counties, or ap. pointed by tbe boor da of *e per visors or other ooqpty atetb<Titled as the lsgtdleture shall direct, and that "all city, town and village officers, whose election or appoint ibMiit is not provided for by thu constitution, shall be elected b) Urn .lector* or such Clues, lo?rn? uml Tillages, or ?f eome division thereof, or appoints! by such authorities thereof a* tl?r? I cyl"laltire shall designate tor that purpose' i Art. 10,??er. T>--"by rr^uiriD? such otlirors to bo BppaibU 'l or eleab'd by tha local authorities, neiratrared the power of tho I etalature to |*eecrtt?r any other mode of olaett./o or appointment; and it would follow, It tho olflrert appointed under tbi act now un ler consideration are (as the olal-iO/l rontrndr) rounty otlloera and do not roar within Iti' next eUunr of tho same section of thn oonMitu Won, that U. ir appointment in rotd. Tbat section la at foI tow"All eUirr atlcnrs, whose election or appointm-nt K ot provided for hy 4fit* constitution and afl or all other sflloers whose oi'hr hray hereafter be created by law ihad be elected I T ^ l^opl'. w apt<olnt?d an the lagtsature may direct. Th.- -.iau-o expressly re euabli-diee in he Legislsti re full poaar to direct the mode of appointnentof all niotvrs thus# election or appointment Is ten rovtded for by th<" oaretltuUoo; and also of all other dhoers wlior olfces . tunaii be thereafter created by law f lha IVilloe (ommlssi *e?. are not oonnty olllcera, or II 'he offices which they have been created -ince the uadtMiloa toclt ePoct, rtfid dii not exist before, the I stare bad un.|ue? onaMa pcwar to direct lire mode of heir appointment as it saw C*. WhetJicr the liw be nr uient or Ineriwdiew', thn Jodiniary cannot inquire, but nuat obey it M *n cillaeae xnuet Thus far. thoro le robahly no ditoreity af optuioo. It wan nai I mtho arm tent by one the counsef, but not pr?ased, that the jiolioo atrolmen were to he apnoioted ao that certain persona mong them should be the pnlloe for the city ot New <*rtaln atliera |. >r Kwijx county. certain hers for lUchmotxi, and < .*i tain othrre far weatrhesior runty, and hence It was a,'fiied that the police were unity "fllrera H it the art Is at >t - it < IW'lec one Metro !? ** ??nal?Unf of tlioae four contlc nmia lih If"".' M.'v r'r'.T "v* *lommia "onert of l\du*e, wt.o, . l l u..)Zi ^r,l*",,f Vn" V"rk ' r-'klyn, ^ ' .. riot o ",,r0 *n'1 aMb'"o,.c the Board t.. fx? x:: : sr"; 1 Police district, and ? , ""-f Will regard to . . ^ rin 'Unf,n U Is local about thg fyro# L ^ * co"n''T A l 'vrv? a that the Bu^i of r iparri E NE ors of the county cf New York 1* ti determine h iw msr.y shall he nppotnted us a quota of tho patrol force, it be paid for by said county; the Common Council of Brook lyn how many shall be appointed at u quota to ho paid hy that city; the Supervisors of the towns of Kink*, excejS those of Brooklyn, how many shall bo appointed at ? quota to be paid for by thoso towns, and the Supervisor* of Richmond and Westchester, respectively, how many hall be appointed as ft quota for those counties, and to bf paid by thein respectively. Rut tho whole centre of the whole police force, llie designation of the per sons to act in any part of the district, and ol the number so to a it, ami the times and places when, iondor the control of the Ifcurd of l'olice, and jf their So perintendent and other olltceri appointed by it. Sec. li, The district Is to he divide into precincts, without regard to county or ward boundaries, and one iHipertor or captain of police and four sergeant* are to ho assigned to sucti piecmet. Sec. 10. They may he assigned from day t umj "i iiuiu iii1 miin m uioiuu; luey are uJi spp uuic-i IJX a particular precinct ; they dike military officer#) are a* a gned to a parti mlar station, to remain there ouiy bo toug as ihe bead of the do|>aitin< iit may see tit. Each count; is to furnish its quota of tlie fuud necessary to )>ay the body of |Hilice, but is not to pay it to or for any paiticulai part of that body, but it all passes into the truwnry of the State, and is thence to bo disbursed for the general purposes of the act. Sec. 'J7. It iu true tliat lh? duties to be performed by this police fence have heretofore bee a per formed through county,or towu^or watd officers. Hit there is nothing m tbe constitution which prevents tha I/! glslature in its sound discretion from transferring the jr-tfontmuce of tho>o particular duties from one class ol officers to another. At common la v, and at the time of the adoption of this constitution, in moa'., if not at the counties, the Sheriff eras, in some sense, head of tht police, and it wis bl3 special duty to preserve tbe peace. Hejis an ofllccr who Ik recogilred by tbe constitution, anil whoso election is there specially provided for, yet thai part of his duties could unquestionably be lakeu frcra him and be performed by nthere, a? l?y the Mayor of a City, ot the head of police. Nor does the constitution declare 01 necessarily imply that duties appertaining by the law as li then stood to a jiarticulag office, should always remain either as appurtenant to that office, or to some other office ol equally limited local extent The office of Sheriff eouhl not be stripped of all its duties, and tho?o duties be al transferred to another officer, but tbls implied prohibl.lor applies as well to a new officer within tbe sume county a? to a new officer whoso powir should cxteud over revera counties. Iu neither case could a transfer be made of al the duties; and it is as much within the competency of tin Legislature to make a partial transfer of thoio duties t< officers who shall have control over several countits, aIt Is to make It to one wbo shall be limited to a slngh county. The language or the constitution was not adopBi by the fhimors of the constitution without dlscrlminatiK as to the words they used. It is, that "all county otllocrt ?all city, town and village officers," shall bo elected or appointed, Ac., by the local authorities. It in not tha all toe duties theretofore performed by those officers shai be thereafter perfonncd by county officers. But knowing and intending that the legislature should regulate the du tiesol oflicern as it should find expedient from timet/ time, the t rainers of the cong itution left to the Legislator* unrestrained tower in that reapec-. It might be that lh< conductors of railroade would become so negligent of thf safety* of passengers that fines and penalties would become necesear) to have a public officer accompany eact train to see that the needful regulations were observed, It might also be that the property carried on iboso rood* would be ho frequently stolen that it would be expediem to hare an olllcer attend each freight train. If so, II would becomo the duty of the legislature to afford that meuns of protection to the citizen and bis property ; and the most effectual means of accomplishing il might he to organize a police force, to be appointed by commissioners, with superintendents under them; and it sou id be necessary to appoint them BOt for a single c fusty. nor by the local authorities, but by some body nl men who should have contr >1 oror toe whole route of the road, as per the Erie road, or our great Central road, 01 the Hudson river road, or the liar em and Albany roul. A similar necessity might arise on our canals. Kivci thieves on the waters around and In tho vicinity of thecttj of New York haze Ionj been complained of. They mnj extend iheir depreda tons (and It is said that they have) to the neighboring counties. An ordinary rol ce force u insathcicn again.-t them. The most etllcicul means U overcome them might bo a force ol meu appointed foi New York and its neighboring ounties, with one bead and equal power In every part of the district. The couati tutiou shows no design 10 cripple th* legislature of iW power of a lording such a remedy. In ail taeso c.isee th? force would be, aa this u a |?dice force; yet It would nol be unconstitutional, although the officers were not appointed for or bv local ruth iriiln The rwv.r wore ni nun (line iu /ported by towns, ihe overseers fleeted or appO'ntel for those towns. Turn responsibility was iu MOM cases shiftod from thj separata tonus to the wtiol< county. As yet It lias not been extended further as i general rnle." Can It bo tint Iftt should become expedien in some iBMaiicee to constitute t?o or more countioa inU one district, for tho poor of those counties and to bave thi overseers electrd or appointed for the whole district, thi; could not be dune? If the power may boexerciaed in anj of these caaes, tbcu officer*?for new districts com 10-ini several counties?although prrformng duties fbrmsrl performed by ull'.ocr* of conntiM and towns, "are o'l.-.er nbsee cftlres are created after the adoption of the oou.-ti tattoo" within the meaning ot that instrumeat, and the; anwy be elected by the people or appointed, as the Legtsia tore may direct. Thun in in this case, also, txere beiui otlicerit lor diabicU not before known, although perform wg duties formerly |*rforiued by oo inly or t ?wn officer* may also be appointed as the legislature boa dlrectel Tbo Illustrations that have been produced (and mor< m'gbt be furnished, and others are referred to iu the defend ant's points iu arts already [sirred) show thnt there weri good reioom-why this power should hare be?n allowed to the I<egi.- lature, and that It la thus either Die prohibit Intent of the constitution?and aa the power is within th? express snd Idieral words of tho constitution?win hap plies to all ofllrfH therein created, and this office was thereafter created; it follows that tho letter of the constitution concur In au.-'aluiug the law now under consideration. The journal of the conrcntion which framed the presenl constdutHm, and the address made by the members of thai body, have been referred to, to prove that a car dinal object of that Instri ment Is "to reduce and dccentral iso the pal roaage of the executive government;" and that accordingly, in tbo language of that address, "the must important State officers arc mode elective hy tbo pooplo of the State, and most of the officers of elites, towns and counties arc made elective by the voters of the locality they lerve.'' The address thus speaks of the constitution as it Is, and refers t> i. to show in what Instances tin* principle Is carried out?and speakof It ss a limited, not au unlimited, pritciple? it ap plan da tho constitution, not fjr any implied restraini winch it contained on the power of the Utgtsla lure to erect new officer* and to control the raod? of their appointment, whether hy tho Oovernnr ami i Senate, or by districts or localities?but for IN clear nn?l unambiguous provision* by which It ?u e* pressly declared thai certain ufllrers who wore name I ir the constitution should bo elected or appointed by tb> local nuthorltie*, 1* referred to those thus named, and called on the people for approbation of their tabor*, bo cause those special p'ovl'iou* wmo made, and not under the idea that having provided for enmo cases of doccn trallxation they had thor-by Infuttd into the constitution n spirit which mint evtend I. to others. They acoordtngly dlstlrgairh, ard in the claiire last quoted speak, not of ail but ot most 01 the county,! ran and cly ex, an I " their b< rug elective. The framers of thn eon-vltntion, In specifying the instances to which Una principle was ap plied, acted on the wise and c xiirary rule of changing Ui? elemental law In f articular cases, the effect of which war plain to their i*reoptlon?not on some broad theoretical idea, whewe extent with IU sequences and results must be left to time or rbance to tli<oover. The appointment of clhoers for dUtricis smaller than towns or larger tbtn counties they left at large lo the Legislature, In the confidence that in a republic the people may rely, with safety, upon a hegtslature, ooe part ol which l? annually elected: or will have the remedy in their own hands at a succeeding c ecUon. It Is sai l that the law attempts to transfer tin* police property belotigine to the elties of New York and Brooklyn to the new Board of police? (Pee. 1*) If it dii, that would not avoid the whole ait. The section (Ififh) in whlrh this ?nppn?nl trsn-Vr is made Is a dkstin<-t and separate ooe, and may be rejected, and yet the rest of the act be effectual. The case ol Warren vs. Toe City of Char let-town, fit tlray, IM,) states a sensible rule, which Is, substantially- 'bat when the parts of an act are so blended together that the unenn stituUonal |?rt cannot l>? struck out without thereby leaving the act In siirh a condition that it would d?f?v the intenti <n of the legislature, or wlien the unconstitutional part w is mamfsMly the very object of the law, there the whale mutt fall together. 8o it would follow here, that if all this law be uDCon'Ututional but tbe part repealing statutes in conat dent with It?that repealing claim* must fall also Bui the section aa to property l? a comparatively uuliu porta*t part of the act. lie great object evidently In to obtain a new and efln n nt oiyanl/atlon ot police for I'io new district The 1Mb scc.lloo, however, egpreasly If naree that the ownership of the |iro|ierty referred to and tho uae of the name ahall be according to the ordinance* of the commow council* of the two ritlee respectively. If that property I* held by those ritlee under an obligation or I met to allow them to be need for police purpose*. It may well be that any pollee force that may be acting for tho benefit of|thoee clUee may be entitled to aoch uae of them. Tbe Judgment of the epectal term In favor of the de fendama abould he affirmed with ooeta, to be paid by tho relator. OFjitiow of Jtrcoi ntaaonr. PtanooT, Jrsnrn.?The claim of tbo plaintiff* her "in Is, that Ibe defendant* hare usurped the offices of IVti w Com wlsalnners, and are exercising the powers of Ui oc ofllcea In certain territory of the State, in violation of law; and they nek to hare them onetod therefrom, by tho lodgment of thl* court They aloo aak to hare tho relator adjudged entitled to bold the office of nuch Commissioner, which he did hold nntll removed by the usurpation vf dn fendanM. The defendant* answer, that purs want to an an*, of the legislature of the State of New York, passed Aprl 16, 1*67. entitled "an act to cntsblhh a etrepoheaaP* lice district, and to pmvtde for the government thereof.'' they were, by the Governor, with the ooosent of ths Senate, appointed Commissioner* of 1*0110#, and thereby be came and Hill are authorlaed to perform tbe duties euj-i,M I by said art To this answer the plaintiffs demur, and to sustain Uieir demerrer rely on the unoonal'tutiooality of the art. TTtcy ray mat the net, in Ita general ioo.io and elTS?ct, I* at variance ?ith the spirit and purjioroe of the conrlitu tlon ? Firat? That H le an In creating a now dlatrlrt or division of the Kate, unknown to the conetitution, Tor government pnrpnac*. Second?That It conflict* with the aplrit of deccntrallitv tlnn which |>erva?len the constitution in conferring on thn I %i ri.ti v? nl' tbn Stair til-- (ytwrr of appointing < ommn rloner* to theee ofltoee, comparatively lorai lu] their character. Third?That Ihn act la nnoonetitntlnnal In giving to the cm of (ho VommiatioBor* the public polloe property of the w -y o MORNING EDITION?TU r ct'y or New Wis, which U is sni.t in the pr.\ .to | rojxrty > ol i Itu ctty. By thi-i net the wmntlee of New York, V. !im > I mi'l WeWhestor nre confUluted 4 " th-liopol t in oli l trtct," mid ttu< riovertior, with tho eoii.ont of in -''nito, I U.IUUIIKU "?' .' held by the defendant*, whose duly It halt hi Ijim charge of the police or raid dUtrmt, an> >< at and re m iv 1 members of the cor pa, aui generally u> iak? euur" < ?.in am! direction of the admiuvtrailoa of [Kiiice tin .yh jt 11. t?*rrItory constituted ?mh peine district. Di ujth lav crcctg, it ii raid, a now goverincmai di-Mct unknown to tho fundamental law. I'll" r-i lion havtng recognizee all the nrtl gorer mental , districts of the tate, gave them, It l? argued, perp.?tudy i by ltd sanction, and by ?e tesrary implication ti.rh.tdn " lz'gwlnturo to erect lor any purpose of c vil g'i??r?'T< -m IH'rtnauuiit distiiuK iinktiown to It. nieonnd.ti" >n haw t lu true, reoognb ti certain governmental diztrioia iT i i; ...? in?ktlmrie>iiitli?^. it doeaihi* Incidentally, inroil.wi. nee. : does no morothbn recognUe them, however. li done not crcct, or crprr-sty sanction thorn They "i; t 1 j - ,r to the OO11 tituUnu and were not 'h-turbed try It, ti it a ore : r cd to reman as tin y bad boon heretofore Th. ? on tlou. therefore, liai bad nothing to do with them or the I'm * of their existence, except tllently to Udcralu them, and per tups provide for the alteration of gome of them under certaincircumstance*. Thus* district-, are count.s-. tie*, tow ud and village". They c.vnted prior to the cenantut.on, und were by it ielt. without other sanction rh.in wh t* nWy | be implied from exprek'toibi no more alga leant ."tan j mere reloreimn to them by g ?o"rie terms '.a the d..-tr? j bulien of the f 0 trAi3 of goveriimeat. Nothing in the > modo of ic.'eix.ii.m iielwalr-i that they mil t remain j as u?ey we e, or inai inev may 1101 no a.. iPu o ire :r form or extent, or that tho territory which then ami stunted one of the?o districts a couuty, c ty, town or village wan oxpoi io 1 tn coullutie to. On llio Ci'ul-?ry, xi to come of thom, ttin po vor to niter them Ik raoagn:r.e 1 -a that fundamental law; and as to the others, ttierc is uo thing on the fact] of that ins'runieul to suggvt the impropriety or impracticability of alterations. But sup|>?).? that it had enacted, and re ^retted u>e3e dt?tricts of the extent and proportions they i >\* p<?iaiw*; and supiiuee it ha I gone further, and ordained that they should remain Intact, and as they were made, until altered or abolished by roiue power of equal dignity with that which on?cU?l litem, and that no luch alteration had been made; when fur ronie purpose, to acquire some benefit, or avoid soma evil coiuum n lo two or throe, or four of them adjacent to each other, tliey unite, or are united by legislative euactment, f?>r that -.Ingle purpose?to supply a want peculiar to that jarticular nuJIlon of territory embraced in them; would eu-,h a lnw be in valid, as violating tho sprit of the constitution, by infringing those divisions they recognised lu It us existing for general governmental purptv os? The four counties embraced in this district are certainly peculiar, in embracing and lying contiguous to the great mntropo 1 lid or ttic wcfcU'ru Hemisphere. from urn uiKuiit 'iiiun, t if for no other, they roust have wants and rotaradi pncti I Hag to themselves and oommon to them all. Their sttaa; lion in this respect, it Is apparent, must call for au admini -tratinn of police, which woald bo (Jut to unbccosary i and inexpedient in most, and perhaps in all other parts of i the S'ate. The counties, as such, are not dissolved?aa i . on mica they still exist tor all general purpose*, end ttio ) governmental departments sanctioned or rcnognued by the constitution are not violated, bnt remain in their ini tegrity. A law appllcablo to the territory embraced in four of them is ttinue to supply a want at once common i and peculiar tu tbem alone, of alt the State. Indeed, aa I Ibe constitution recognises tho divisions o: ihn Hate into l coiirdtcs, and is said thereby to nave sanctioned tbem, so I Jisjh tills act recogniso tho districts of territory om braced in theso counties respectively as 'jaa3iltntlng I the samo governmental departments us before, and 1 in this respective it may be said, in tome s--u-e, to lead i its sanction to their existence and continuation for i the purposes lor which they wero crested, certainly ' to refrain rrom any disintegrating invasion of them, i Suppose some other local subject of legislation to exist in several contiguous counties?a taluaiile tl-:hery for lnsiance, which required legislation for Its preservation or management?it weuld haruly bo claimed (as is claimed hnrej mat a Icgislativo enactment on thai ' subject, applicable to those counties alone, was hostile ti I the spirit of tbe constitution bseuso it wax so applicable i to moro than one county and less lhau the whole .State, ) but we are unable to see why It might Lot b-< claimed with equal propriety. This act provides a system or po I |m administration for a certain section of Ml State, in w hich the Legislature have decided that a *aoal ar l was required. We see nothing more than this In tho act i nertim-Li to the objection we are now eonsldciiug. The i fact that the section ot country thus provided for lies in one or luore counties, or embraces the whole of a county. or more than one, cannot, we think, bo important ui determining tho question rawed by this print. Tt i t not pro tenth d that there is anything ojprtsnert in ho cnnsU'nt.in lnconuttvtit in tbt* respect wittVTho art in question. The claim ?if ihe plaintiffs is only that the constitution, ha.iug racugmzca ami thereby sanctioned curtain governmental dlvbiour, or unties, towns, oltirs and villages, k : , other dlvi-lons tor governmental purposes aro inconsistent with it- interest, unauthorized, and by Implication forbtd den hy it. This argnmont would ttoctn to have mure I'on o if the con*taction had aasnmed to divtdo tho : iatc tor general |tnrpoae? of admlnLtratlr n, either by declaring new, or erprtraly ratifying tho eld districts, lr might thru be aiaucd with more force that tho people, wit It whom is the sovereign power, hy their convention had entered on that field of duty, and having established or declared certain ilivisions of their territory, must bo hi I I to have Mboasted the subject by making or declaring all the dlv lalotia they ileemod expedient, and that a negafve, or restriction on the power of tholr humbler servant* tn? legislature, was tbcure to ho inferred. But litis they have cot done. Tho constitution does not enter en that field of labor at ail, cither to originate divhioot or declare those alreaily made. It does tu t take tin the subject>r trea nicijt. or lieat it nt nil; and the fact tli.it in t!i? di-tri butiou iif |tower', by it certain powers ol' !<* al admim-tralion are conlirrcd iu thoio divisions, and Ibe dlvhiont in Hat inuntior re op tilred, and perhaps sanctioned by it, aro not rtilllcleiit to nutliorlr.n tho inference of a r?ttriction from making arty ether diriment not in their own namro potillvely consistent with tho-e oxfstirg. But we are una ble, in any view of the subject, to consider this act a- creating a new governmental district of the character which would Be ilconH-tetit with any general division of the State. Tlioeo div Ideas are general, aul fbr general go vernmental pur|*ees. A cot.nty, for Instatiiv, l?a quasi corporate'U, and, as such, hit- many powers of s.-Ifgo\ cri.m- i t. It is one of several division* ol' Hie sains en ?racier, all of which taken together make up and compose tho State Tliey aro members, so to tqienk, of thermic A co.iiity is ati attribute or feature of tbotftate. It box, bv virtue of its own character, Inherently, many cU- e.< of powers Many of ihe attributes of sovereignty by our law, are vested In counties as such. Tho Uivhuui of lue Stale ml icounties la not for any one purpose, or any parti cular numb -r or da s-'s of |iun*> o*. It is Mr the gonorul purpon* ot govcriuneut Tho origin and history of th.s gOT< rtitn< ntal oIvimud, as well us modern legistart n, have given to 'ho term a definite meaning, and wherever the jurisprudence nf a country is derived from tin) common law, Ihe tern Is believed to be in familiar use, and to have i ? rigiii H'ivn <?/ """ " "?? ? = Tlii* ftatnto, on tho contrary, so far from fronting any Dew governmental division of tn? S'at* for genera pnrpnros, (which It I* said the tr-gislatu.-a I* not autlio i riyvoil lo do,) merely enact* a law ?>n oo? particular sub ' j ct, for a district of terr tory rmbranril in fiior uoautie, , limiting It* npcration to that district. If, from ths goo? ral spirit of I be cutout tin n. a negative w to be implied, 011 i the |*>wer of tho legislature to make now irovrunvnlnl aitm. r.i . -r I ; I. ' t 'in ' ' ' is n ? i application to a care like this. ThU act I* not i hio th? i ?|iti it ot tfcc argntnent on tnat subject The d; trie croat I d t?y It la but a aectloh of larritory of the sum designated I and lilating'irhi it from It* oilier territory for tint p<ir|**m t of the application nf tils law, and lu no just reuse a general Kuverum u'al dubiet, a Inch la the only kind gfdivtatM to which the reasoning of tha plainttfl la applicable. Tho reci nit objection to tho cneatilo-ionallly of tho aw? that tiAso l on lh? ld?a that v"tog tho power of ap p intttcnt to these office* in U>e general executive 1 if the Mao Is contrary to tho spirit of leeontmbration yervadiog that instrument ? has been carefully c.u ale tied. Inat spoil dor* appear, on examination of tbo Instrument, to havo been active in giving direr lion and toue lo the l-g slstion embraced in It. As to l?s"al office*, they are very generally Ullcl by election or an pisnttiieDt in tbe locality for wh rt> they ar* constituted Tho<e for routine* are generally fllled by appntnimnat nr rles-tinn * iitim the county A county I* a general govern mental division, the largest known In imr flute. It has appropriate officer* tor transacting |t* no u huaium*. Its elerk, supervisors, sheriff* and other oinc.tr* am ready for uee, for tbo pur pole of ondiietiug an election or making an appointment. It baaa regular permAnenioegsniM. tmn for lu nee, for purposes of the kind generally, ?lion ever action by it in snr.h matter* ts ca'tod for, and an to etich rtlrtrlrt*, local election or appointment U practicable and convenient It has always at band tho machinery tor making it* own officer*, either by eloctioa or appointment; nil the rntiMHulion, In a ttordance wllb Its general tone and spirit, provide* eipreeelr (Art. 10, tec. li) that? All comity etlicsr* whose election or appointment Is not pro Tlfl.el foe hj ltd- ronstiiutlen shall he elecisd hr 'he elector* ol Ihe respective counties, or Appo nled hy the hoard* of st> rerv'su**, or she.r oounty authorities, aa the l>ecialal'ire shall flits it. Without pursuing the Inquiry an lo the extent to which Ihe rocetitntion rantrs the theory of rtenentralt ration, and without suae "rio* tbe queetlon whether that spirit, as e?hltvilcrt tg mi\ Mnmtnnr 1 w In r/tnfrnl h?rrwir4 |K<? lattoe olh.it, Ifllkr llwi'nw of express provision no Una subject, tbt l.egl?lttnre wno'd ho inhibited by it from conferring the prwrr nf appointment to srr.h an nfllre those on thu r\rr.iitlTi, n'tlie ."**10, ?n proceed to in express provision nf the lostruiii 'tit^wliH li seams In us to ooetrol In tbiii point. Th^ la?t t??i?o? of article to, taction 2, xfler proriding for city, town and village oil.con, proceeds as follow* ? All "ili?r "IT" ers *hose election Or appntn'meeg I* nntproV lord f'*l l?y lies nm^lHull'tri, not ?ll olHtrrl w !><> 'tlllor, mot bwrtnrr be Created by low, shall b? elected by the peo pie, or appointed aa the l.e*ls.iture mar dir-ft. . .ere Ufbond express authority tor the legislature to determine 1* to all otllcore. whose offices slxnild bo created by law, whrthrr they shonl bo pleated or appointed,and we Hunk author ity ftirihor to decide how they should be ?o ricrted or appointed. Now, if these nfflre* harp bran cfialol by taw, since the adoption of tho oanptltnnon this prori*t|*i authorizes ihe I eg i*'at u re 10 direct tho tilling of thorn by election or apivlnimrnt, at thotr pleasure Tho art lo question tint?11 a law leu years nfwr tbo adoption of the constitution The office* i:ro*to<t by It, there-fore, oust have boon creao-d long after tho data of the CJWtltutioo But wtHe, a? haa boon ?ald, It la rrry certain that these j office* harn bcrxi 0-rated (If ihey hare any raiiit exwt ence) lines the destitution west Into cltbct, It 00m* equally clear ibat iboy are aot^ty, town. >r village effi"es, within tho meaning or thooe terms, as need there', an I that tin ptm tslotis In regard to nffier? nf Hiss ek?w Itisre fnte coea not apply to them. tVbat particular a ijecttve 1 would expr ?* ihe terrtiorial extent of their jurisdiction it la not, petvery easy to say, ami it I* not at all Ini I p it taut for us to tleterm na. aTbn provision* of the cons t i tnlion Just tefbrred to teems to 11* as broad an I ounpre < benrlve a* its to-me import, and lo embrace literal y all I office* created by lew, after the cceebi4?>D went low 1 RK H ESDAY, MAY 2<s 1857. tBt<-t i 4 n a?Mnt >-? > ? * N? H I im?u Of, ?*4 iIm Irra? m? im I****, ?'t Wif iii<aitta ??* ! ? ?? ? ran for trxn al It* rfolMW. fo?M <tal for . foora foraaarl*?r arr i*4 !- **< ? wM rhfo* aiy .for* aarfoi ><?>? Ihr W nf'X <4* a a>lu.? lUa raara va<i4*jr ?< fo> ? ?*?, WJ -Jw Jrvl.4 a U? I* r?al at m.* * h.-M 4?rrfoo< HI U,?- ir i4. a * | r*aar4 all fo- arfuirfo, foal for all itiiiarr ?4 lt? ?4?. a la ?fo prr^rrH a .?ani?| fc-ra. fi flHr|mrr. ,4 fofr , ?,l|. ' fla.fo'1. I Ih? r'taMNlt Ala pMM fen aM-?a? mnMy MM j

???r?4 lit- SMihPf , art ?f iHm ?? . ??. a aaaa>4off it.. if"-% , -, .... ..Pr wn| rial * ? .1 ? rraatM *>y ? <art I tiku imm ?r tfea atuaaa mI ?fe* ?tu? ?atii"i wif r tSa Hi law.** almai'/a u.m .< i?i? w?.|W ?afca kcal, ?*4 rtamr naaura >ht!> aife' ur k??l ?MgtuaM?? aaal?a??i4f; I Mi fcltiV.U laM.lM lha ?!??? ?4 1fW?M ?*<> 1 ' aiuiiiial ?u? ?j? h iimiwua il .aaxi* tm.tal ? mi a. am a ni ah. Mai tM imi ua i. c'imm of It. a *lana M fer at aim of p rfi an ai mo immHji txaa tatrupl'4 ta Wt e< lily of ka Mm ka naai. liir rr*. I* I l,.r f warrtt TW- M oaa*i*f ta tba .* .'Q AM'i>d. n n?trt?u otal ?* afei ra #, aa4 uvU. i* lb Ibi Maiura <4 p*?K?, am% rraiara Na *J arnirtj I* < n rti VHtal) nr \ tiaril) tonal, m Ha?n ! fe la tfeo ommj ?a aaaav Ivirli* ffefefeifwlai**' I acvaiatfRij t - r* >?.f?l ?t i. nprrb?a?* ta -la .?aia MWroitu^ Ci.? IjI, af |i a oratra tb-> paara Ifef* tatiaa' )?? tcrt tor), >( Mfewn W?, ag tfea nafeat aT ! jtruna ac t |aa?wr??. c*m*a 'Ha ptVk baiiY^ra l?rv ir|: im Vi ?i? i<-f ' ,?"! ta* at bar n.iaa f?aa Jatiai provt."."! T"'i> "i M,u I n j.4uoJ aa tr.r.a Hoar* i A11 IVIrra, VI Umm 1 , Ma, 1 v'aafetaar, A; tt riflfe i rltc ! ) la? n.U of ik* aaH: ? , ?! </ aaofe r-'iaou, " M | rcarofeaa (bam tfea aalla of hah". ?"*** .aartgbt (Itrixfiy >i|M?lha M>*.roi, i f->wrr, ?i>4 th?t r? t lhalifea I itatu has t"i ti ai oi iIi.m pr-feart na, An ( prrlnrai lb-- ?4"u.i . i i.r ,-tty aint thrnurh lha n?ari i mrr.taM-y of M?unl? r * >>iariaMt<, 4aaa an| >lii*?ui i lilt ur ?Uu* Um mil ?f |uaa a ?.? 4?U Ailuit 4lr? Uj taliru, l'i na ) nilgai i ta, fe hwAMMaa aarawry ar aayaOaai Nor t* tho amy rf ?^r -aw" in iU ?iti.aaa, aajr mmrrn U*a ? " " "/ v? WW ni-HTi'iow I'? ?ii?TTi*r|ri wj reply ciwfuri ib j <? id il?|?rtMMi or tftfU n lb?<rity to perform it If (hey (ml |? perform 11 i-roperly (of which the '(lite a'orm U jllgc), It ! Mi? pla>a right, fix writ v the duty, nt Km smui l? inter lere, nod directly (by <u n*n right turn I' wf?ry) alter! it" e i.iz'-i - the piotrctco ..ad murtij! wbmb, ?? cimiimiirailoij fur Urn ualoral right" Ui y a? tadtvidmla n.rrcr.l.r, and (I..- pNwIvy and mher burlhem th?) *sunur by beccmiug mfject* and :rie nbcre of it, it ha* ua de. taken tn guaranty ttmni. Tt? oUmr ihjrriaxi to the law, ivlaliiig lo Urn pro,*rly or the my in um for pofcre purpot ?n, It In not Uccoihary In oonndar Tho validity of the mi ? fnr tho pnrpmee of thi* < ?. ? dnea im< ' pead at all 011 tb<f vialnlity nf It u that partii u ar fratarr If It be la vallitlo rcH|>o.'l In that prnvalou, the real of It l? ar> lillle dependant on that, and la ro e.ipahte of being enf * 4 beneficially wiUuotit, 1 hat the rtlldity of the act (" *rally would not be enntrolleJ by a decUlou of the attention, as to that particular pert of it, cither way. ntecwielu yioD, iborefore, is that tho net in question, n it* general features, U not ra^ignnt to the cwtltutinn, aad Judgment for tho defendants on the demurrer moat ha affirm*! DISSENTING OPINION. Rooskywt, J.?"-TIh9 J<egl?lalure at IU laet Mxaioa, urged no doubt by cooatderauooH of what wan deemed Bound public policy, deter niiued to make an entire change in the local administration of the city or New York and ibethroe adj?.seiit countlra Tbry accordiogly paused aa act. the general nbjert of which It well eipretend in IU UUe ' To ctftabiirh a Metropolitan I'oUce DUlrlct and lo prove la fr?r ttw gartn?ltbervo .m And the fMrikl u, ono the Llglelnwre under lue prevent coinlitiiuon, by it MM of federative uruoti, provide lor "the govrrnmenl" or toe i itbw And counties of the .state, through ihe.lnterveouooor oommiwioecrr appointed by the central eicc.uUva and by the aiit of deputies ami subordinates ap|>oiiin?l hy such com missioncr*. A preliminary difficulty will no doubt ?ug gost iwr If to Fomr mind* not laminar with our legal hutory, in thi* Necuimg appeal from the legislative to the jodietary department Th? point, however, baa been long *lnc? mil b-il. < tiUHliuuionx, it ha* been betg, aeenomp* w or contract* ; the partli-e to which are th? peopW, in their coverfigrty on 'he one hand, and the people'* Ic'-g sled func'iet uru>*, ihrettgh their oath of office, on the other 'llicy nn' nI*o powtw* of a'lurney conferring authority but ronrmng It* cnrdM. A* law* they are aupremi- -they are the i)ir<*t will of Itie peoplo. Au 1 a* a uouscpwn *?, they are higher than the will of the people'* repruaeota tivee. They arc a law unto uie legislature iiaeif m well M the individual citizen. A* contract*, therefore, a* dele gaiion* of power and a* statute* higher than aou of ordi i.iry legi-lHimn. ibey are the nuhject* of judicial conetruc tion and of judicial act on. The judge*, too, are ?pecut ly gworn, not only to Interpret, but to "aupport'' thorn-1 might alnwet ??y right or wrong With the wledotn or ei padtency of a couhUlutlonal pro* wood the judge* have no concern. .V'ut pro rulumr wduntoi pepuli They are pa to i l Iv an I i iiipm daily to teek out Un intent, an 1 when found to give n i il'rc.l, rven if it b me uc<:es*ary U) over rule a atnteie. IfWlM iMMlM in nil yield-and of CO'irne the Vr.?t to tho higher law And a* Willi the C?n?l tulioo ho with the etatiMn, the 1 Court Iris nothing to do with iu ltui?**. The question, In cither a*pect, I* not nne of jo*tire, or etpeiiiency or abstract right. <>n all tbuje eotudderahoua the decision of the people in the conelltution ao l of the legislature In tho Malul* was dual, uod without apjmal, except to the ballot ho*, t he Legislature, however, wen> further. They riUeo a question of oooaututlonai nompe tcncy, and art idert It, a* they had a right in do in (ho ilrst lo-Uiu o, iu Hour own I'avor, but aubjeet to appeal both to the h*ilrt and the bench, .-'ucu an appeal t* now taken H I* In lhe t unc of tho people of the -talc, and is addroe-o 1 to the Supreme Chart id the Slate. The Amcoey tfeoerml, r|?kiix *r wvi ? ryur "? "? ill" |?-opn\ cmiwo n tli.it Itiu *1 i- mi ciiooonitutiooal uaarpali'Ki, mi l domtadt that it bo <1 trim < d null and void. Tbo third article of the COBMttOtU n declare* tbat ? Hie leytrlallv* po? it id till tint* Hi vine nndlreet d?<hil:nn Of 'J.e lurmi ahall be verted id a flrnaie and Amal?ly. Sui li a Kraut, kUudiiig alone, all will admit to be *nf fi l?ntly rr tr. t "heart ve to warrant the enactment of a bill aim; If cre.it.ig a board of Police Commt-reloner*, proa rib ' . ir mode of appontment, acd delltnny th ,r |n?rr< aid dnttee. Hot the grant doea not ataad aU d It >a rocompauied ?r followed by nnm iron* reatrhitloim. riproaa or loi piled. And here it should boob a. ived that tort not ions do not nece??arlly re pi I re the n-e of iii ywtlve b rina. A pu- 'ive direction to do an act in a paiticular maun<-r Itnplic* and rariie* wltb It a prohibit! >u ae*in?t ibri e tbe act in any other or ditfereet m inner A m not I thing <>r Inter* and syllable*, hill of pteaa It i> to bo liberally rnniirnod with a view Urauh atannal oh ,nr.?, and tho ronventton that fram-d It la not to ho trmied aa a mere fnrmuUirnm. The j idy<?, In particular, htmld seek nut and oul'or w the ?|drli of the B i ll to-lament of winch tln-y aro made m'ni !" . Am in.' the impUed -e-trlntion* of the ronatllotion ar t Ihote l uulaiiic.l in the pith nrticln, which declare* tbat all city and county officer* who** election or appointment la not otherwise rm*titutk?ally provided for, Khali bo choieo I'ircclly by the elector* of the reapcctive ctiee and ooun li~, or apjannteil by "authoriliea thereof," aa the Icy latum may direct. It will lima be aeen tha (lie Tcyi 'alum, although allowed In aome cave* an o|i>ioii between a direct and an indirect appknunent ot tbe i 'tirem of ritlee, waa prohlblteii from tranale-nng Iho poerr to Uio central authi ritee of tho itlate. In the enuim-ia'ed and of n.nr*e nwai imiwrlant instance*, they nrrt cot a lowed even thia limited option. ?hertfli, Clerks of Codtitier. inrludir r the RegMar ant Clerk of tho city and routilf of New Yutk, Coroner* nod District Attorney*, 'half ho chreeu (<ay* the lame article) by Ui* elector* of the re*|>rctive counties." Itecsaarahaatlm, It will thu* be ie?n. wbelter wlae or unwl*e, li the principle rb arly mtablbhsid. atid ita opposite aa clearly repudiate1 Hot the Icy. latere, || i* contended, are oaly restr* led in lb" caec* of county, city, town and village otBce*. they may, bylaw, create othi r office* "?office* other than . tho-e en nreratid and apecially provide<l for, and may direct, id *uch ra.ee of created offices, that the incumbent* ">htll be rieilW hy the poop e, or appointed," a* they, the Icy ^ti .re, may deem mnat eipedlent Sich, un | ' lar?M if? of the cwniiliti'O *n1 I i '?? th r . Uie i|ueaUon whether ibe newly rrcan d Commwsinoeie and their appointee* are or am ins created In ihsdaaoa city and roontr officer* * Tftb<>y t are, the I eyi-.atnre ha<l on power to lane the eel- i?? or l apt*'i ot merit from Mk the elector* of the city armatf and lie "suthorlttee thereof " Aa orhriaa ly i*trortne?d, the III I, H I* admlUed, war obooiion* hi tb * objection. It | aa rotifined etciutlvaly to the city of New York and yet t -t a::: . fin IlK. Alt tw??r war** let ha ma.Im hvr thm i .rtf bur ul iLe Su?ie, ?In), elite nigh in one reurr *n authority of fha ri?y, i? rieat ly not en in iheaeb'n of the nuMUtuiion That l>i", however, ytelbtng to the cnarlitulloeal dittkully referred tt. wv abandoned by Ita author*, a**l the pen -ml, Treating a Hoard with JutMlrlion over a dlttrb I of four bum lie*, auiuliluted in it* pla<e And the quart inn m, rM a bill Ulna onnfnan illy framed to avoid cotirtluiliontl il'fhruhinr, of, a* tbe plait)tiB'? onunael contend, to evade r< n?l inllnnal loj inriliat", beauaelned by tho court*' l? |> a rl' 'tilled rrlneiple, ?* already ataled, in Am*rtr*o jiirlapri ^Tc", thai where a o a*tlt ili<*i and a rtatute ara in conflict tba latter mnai j laid to tha fbrmrr? I bo lower to lb* bghor lav; and it la orgually wall eeultd. an 1 wm J to li eg b. for* thr adoption nf ttie couatltuUnti of IMT, that , an apical in ?nr4? aa?l in audi oaaaa only, lie* from tho Iff wlaliva to the juuiciary 'trpanm-'iit Snob no apteal, I it it pttann.ad, cannoa betaken away, even by raan i mart nn tit. Kor. although Uta l^egUlatiwn under thn natr mm l it n lion have powar (Art. A) to altar and ragdlata tha juriadicltoD and |>rucaa<linga of tha court*, it U only the 1 aame power in that reapect an they heretofore po? ?w?ad To trM, then. Uta validity of tba p-aarat bill, lot na tn*e aa ti an lilr.rtraitnn thr caaa nf a Sheriff The O ivrrnor of the n stair, it niutl br i "needed, could not bo author i? I by tba a Irgitlalurr in appoint a Shrrtff, oiihor by that or an? "thar n name. <*tiailH?, rata tba cooatltatlon, shall ba chnaan by II tho akatWir* of tlir rwpnetiro otauitle*. An enactment, n therefore, that Sherlffe mould from thenceforth be called a marital* or romnoaaionart, and that aa martin la or com- h nutfi.'oart, Utry tnould be appointed by tba Bovnrnnr, u aoiild be charly told. Tba mora ceremony, baatftf n high and however aotamn, of n now b*ptl*ro. by the p IV i ate and Ar-emhly, would not aara It Tbt Con p Mliution Inirniird mmethtng mora than a ntma It n required that rortaln functiont of gorcrnmanl ahuiid tl br dirt barged hv certain local otllcer* of local or*ln. tl It did not intend that tho elector* of the county ahoold n enjoy the barren privilege of clwwwing iwo aylla I' birr. What thee, in tha year HI7, war the legal ant p ? . II Iindrrrtood acceptation of the U rm Sheriff f Sheriff*. fi or shiro Hoove*, m the* wore ooco < aiio<lt are itefloo.l tn rt I In* I'M law ? "?*? In ho the chief frill -ore, ufi'l ?r the Ij of Ihrtr ri|>oolifr? ehlrc*, ha viae the o.wtmljr, kee;>in*, ai oonimnml anil fnvernmewi, In eamo aert, of the rMjieotlv* ll kaaliuc* romniilteil fn their cb?rg?, aiUi |"'? ''f t? ?or*e rl ?, to r. inral Jnrlea, In make Monition, *n l U> keoji tr iho|?*co (r..|t? lit. 1?, Halt . Sh , A) Anl t<i Mm w mil ihof m *hl amMM an many dejaifoa a* they nhonM ai Ihlth prnprr (1 II. S., .11* ) a<ich, In getier;?l. were Iho ( 'inctxn? nf fhetiltij an?l am h, Iherefiwe, in mirilne lhme ll tllwr* elective l>y the people, wore iho fun. mm* arhici. a ihe constitution Intended ehettM be <llerhar|*il t>jr the Im U m?<llat? nomincce of the local elector", a* iieungimfceU ? era: o n.< r<-r< uicta rrctp of cAutral patroamrn. Do, I u?< . u? .1 Hi' I wiy crimi'i; .ton appointed ro( . I. i <>rran|ioail, tu their nut?-t.?nc? and ir ?ith IIkw .ilH'vr ilra'-rilx'd *h ronstttutiiiK ? l' \\,th tlf> exeoptlou of rein-1 ii- > (-? ii I nrv.tr civil procewr, there w in tft. yrirrn ?ttr tu t, no ftubetMtiil dlmmw. Nor ' i y a- to thn power of appointing deputies, h - ??i? ?i t interior, regular and ipecial, under the t it'- "i ir>- oier, for the whole of the aald, the w- 'Jiim I -?<i Th^trauthorUy , It U true, U not r.f a- i >.i L\f " and the depot/ of one ma/ . i a ?rr i'i th. \ r I 'ltilie*. lint it will hardly bo rat. i no -nat tin' |< | - latere mntd ron?i*lently with the art in ,i n Uk. cm tl.e p. opje the election of ?berlil>, .rely hf rrMltif ?h-r t!< for two, or three, or oven ft.nr aonti ire, n trad i< oae, and theu rallin,: them C'lm n owti.,' <f<ni .Mi' a<'i olrimtiM in?t? * I of nberitt'4 iM >ft' i " i ?*< | i < y rii a mode of ova tug a private ' a \tt tnl if it he "the duty ut iart? of iei.' *, ??the rev! ted vta'.utM declare it *fta la he letrui' -a "f every private written coiltra-1 eviatlPf eat/ l' - lei real eolatn, to carry Into .r I ' i.l.rl'f t! t i: .< * i.ti mtriil cm be co. i? t i* at the wind# i imminent," how much nitre U HIT. I .111 -own II nnnr mill fllluri 1I1|J IUO re. at r*niri. i wln-ti c?|ir<-Ma?i Hi" ink at of tho ik>oif'" end Uii' obiigviou . of llu-ir rv|irt!rti the other, in regard o ihn entire gov< >: ni~?t of the Udy politic? I have referred iuiIic exunf:? < .:#>! W tb* <?*? of ahertlTa. Tltoy are ic tperly elective <,r*. ra nf <wi 110- m<l of fig ci'J of New York ouly * cn oty Th? iliji U.?a ateted will equally apply W lie of f ty of ?m m ?uch?llio Mayor, Recorder, iVy j?.i(o pi J CW of Nie*, pad their iibordlnate*. rtw ?' I IP . ia?fiaa, po Mr pp It WMa U> |??||. e edmiulal/aitoo, aebetaatitliy mil'tao* Uinn nil. It itfuores tho Ror.edrr bp I??-y 'noye, place* five Cnmtnlralouera, appuiut oa by Hip 11 over tier, orrr the Mayor io outvote him, and .op. i #top theCbnf formerly appelated hy the city ' auiboia ?* by *i ?h*r i hwf ailed a (rouorml Huperinw ii.u-rt, ' t? be i poipto i by the '.'overnof Comiuowionera. The t? Bt.pt. tl.iey morn then simple evasion?it I* Bienfiw- po."t?. a .m of the "electors of the city" end of It* - eethor*t?e thereof. ' It la a sort of political docnpl lac.-a of ' fh the people and the iwopie'a f'laciionarlct. frtiin M>e Met m?el ug of the uee Hoard (fc. 31) all the l?iwar at A authority Iw lore conferred by law upon the eM Hoard, or upon the Mayor, 1 lac order and City Judge, a- Itnlioe fnatpMraen, or up* the Mayor, ai b<?ed ef the 1< !?? Iviwniurnt, or relating to |?>lioe govern n.ei-t ?|i|?iiiiimeiiU or J'.adplino ib eonferrod upon and ef ovrie, traaaferret to tne new Commtremners of l a ie n?ral poaer Ml the auliordlL it? polb'e nil', er* MM My, iMrefhre, from the MWll iapei iutrndrnt ui iter ih' fotnitt doe a lo ibe humblest doorman, ? ila - - n the B*fre(aie amounting lo miiro than a mill. a of de'lera, an I var> iog from ilireo thouaand each toaapiauy hundred*. ipadewt of beie.' appointed. If ap apioen d at all, by the author .in* ol the city an dire-ted liy Ho- > < not ; itioe, are henceforth hi receive thctr couun.? bmm -o the bat indirect ly l Mm Kaeeatlvo of the Ma e. la win r word* th y ere pi i..,>*Co Albany and not to New V < rk aa the iwurcc uf their pdnioal viatcnoo. Tlio au thmttiea <4 Sep York?the eulborttiae rhwsen bythavotea . i ra f New fi 't-fha Mayor, Hocorder, end IMy Judge d< (Bated by a previous c-n liltiliooaJ ataiuo lor thi porpnae nf wehtpf ell the-ub-^.tinate Bppst.'m. iils la the |?bce de|?rla"Pt ef th? my, are Utruat aaide and lh<- if * die f the muiral |nper ttptalled la their etead. If, by llie mere lanrivatii e uf a j iitctio* of laro rieinlt.w, ?.r cvra of ..#? ooaly and the laiaubat pn-.tble fraffmeni ot ariithrr, each a reeult n..y be eiciaaylMh, the lwh arth la of the eiaMifiitoip, an pre/nant wah '.be epirti of the whole m-trumcnt, to aay BiLbiT. of other lead. Ii.- trovi-emi, bit oitmw a dead I. tier Ac I why. by the tame prooam, nu*tii d>k tba eairr thai of Um ebtrf Stele ott.ceea, IU Secretary mi State, CMwplrtUrr, Iraueurer ted A Horary (taaafwl, be Ukeu frote th.a people at the Male aad cooterred, aa many tbtnlt It ought to be, >|ce the < ?oeernor of the Stele' A uehloet Bight ba oread ?ed, rewrtntiiig of a Pre?hleol of the Usiani. a wet Mtnwter of the Tr< atury, a Stele Iknkor aad a soifcitec tiewarwl ?ail lo tie appointed by ilia K??*u UT*, ami all to |i wiiii together powrra nominally dif ferret Iron, bet natly equivalent te, tbaee now vetted bp law in taa electiea Mate dhwti aaaad tea eaaaMutioo. Tbiee ou t < i?. m ruber tbetr official aatei. would, ftw t?er???itjr nf >'<??, rmaw, bat i*ly to ?ay ?f Ih'meel v??. "What Vt.i..if *i. I what rhadnwr a- |iur ' tod wli-rr.n would audi a tew, w far aa prtacipte i? concerned, differ from tba ?oa under reviewv I'ntebt in lb>a, tltal it auaM, in a oonetitnlHdul point uf etew, bd Ibe lere 'A'jeotienuhle nf the two, ae only trmwferr og tba appo.ii.rg power I rate th* peutde of ih? Suite to owe of the < leidi d aulhorit.-a of the people of lb.- Sui , whreeur the now police tew not only trau?r?r to tb? ceatral I teeu live tho appointing puw jr of tba people ef tba coanuee, but of tba " aether that ' darted by tba people of tba rounUm. It Iriwtratea, If vltectuat, titd <>ue,Vut two Ww-tlnp i-urpoww of tUo 0(Ni?titiiaon?it UAli ceuiraii7.ee an<t depOputelUue. Th? whole one* Ihew rreelvee ib-elf into a *111410 11*1 dry?If a on van- mien 1 arm.-, by uuy Lift or oatrteatea, ex ade tin- tawl il will of tba IA-y wlaturv. call tba leguttet ir* It-- If. by any Uke hlfl or cuatrlvaare. however <leorabte tba ub/tU way ba, uvttde Ibe cxte'teat.uaal Will ft tba penytla, the aav-relgn alike <4 the letM ttui' aud of U?o coiiruT I do n>d mean by tl.i<* ioit|ivtiou t<> intimate that tba amabme of U>a He nab -tod A?*xrul>ly, m iwlopliog the new Itelt-e lull, h.el ntiy artwal internum i f evading Die Implied pcrduliWiot of llie i cawtitetica. Judge*, I know. have anui' tiiaoa (both In and out of the T egtaUlire lull*) bo a b*rg"d wilo that in, itnd the bleb ry of Kngli-di ulalntery >iri?pru lenre. i ..Ida 0* *eraral H<a? -I eaainplee lo llbimralr the mvn dial Jtteticn of th<- an matron. Hot no urh oteril ran J.ntly l?o 1 to puled to l?>'Utebir*. We may my, however, without vlh lire, lli.tl Vie arte- t of the ai t uotler coum Jeration if varried out, ami ,f the view* I bat a e^>ie 11 d ire correct, would be the mtne a? thai of an interne autl ex a-.on, and Would nwler Ite *l the |roOolitlil arte ! Id the eiaMtS'l Inn. to "ay I.' Ill tig i.f tbe in'ire < ? ! e ?n r >4 >( fie whole iii?If ili til, ui IxUrr Ui*u t>ll? lurmulary?mu 4 ; rr^rrta nihil. fonci r?ioKP. Flrtt The gei.eral p'irpiKc uf the new tn .< In populartxc, v far M practicable, and la every event iu d< rentrali/e K?*in>l. TI.e riv nt of Ihit purpoea, m the <Hni lut'a ? MOtel admit, and lit'- manner in which It M to be Ui on l?'t iff defined l>r III* ! *! nl lb? na*Ut .lion Ueelf It n akca the great dtalrothci r? < tartive l>y pcaeral ticket. ii n.ec ? tl.e entire leglrlalivt lurc<- uf lb* .hum etoeUre. ' It make* tli? entire judicial force <4 Itrftili tlrcDr*. II make* ail tbe enurtierali 1 rmutf/ idV -ri elective and all county md town i lbc. r* n<4 roun.ciaied, elective . e\ rept as the Icgi-Utuie tnay direct ibeni to be %{<f*ait d by 11- I i . - ,i i all villain an I ?i j cer* |o be rbflid at lar|f? nr l>r dtvtaueaa, if lo he epimutt cil by local authorities a-> tho Icr !%t*ir?- m y din* l Third, Tli? runatltutma dies nut >ay or inuud that all ofltoora whose iWm toay thereafter f>" created by law, bull be elected In Un' people or appointed a* the Icyi'la tun Inn. din 11, WIltftWDW "Utlf 'linn town and Tillage ell tern, and "other Uiantbe tally enumerate] Male oUtear*. Although, ib*r? fore, the leyMalnrr may bare the power to clonic ,i new county er city ore*, it baa nut the poeer to render auc.h i thrc, when . rcatcd, ih* aubrctaf earc*. tire appoii.lai. tji. The cm. - Motion i p*rcm|%if . that 'all" audi ofbccra thai) ba eiibnr elected by th naera of t'?e respective localities, or "appointed by the a .iWit.ua thereof." fourth. The Icytrlatire department, hke an indtrtdual cltlrea, aaaot do indirectly that ?inch .t w peahitokr t tret .tcaano'.bv waning eauu' ?. tbe aiitboritiea the reel " of their r awl ouoaal leriadiehun and tranafer It, under another name, to Um corneal Ktace live. Much a inarnllJatinn ? at variato with ll?a lei or and with lb* Whole ioope and a i or it of the uauatMuWaa, the favorite perpiee of wIm*m> trainer* ww# or uaeio aa lo erect ml a ouoaobdated but a aort of onafadanOed t . i; u The XlaiHtamiu Again*! the Cttyr JuAgi. run raotia u.r ma aanamir iW romno w.eiu v*. laua o. m wait, im truia. The Judgment of *|Wi lai term la farer of defendant, iflrutd, with i?eia to ba |*.d by tbe rriatar -Julge Unnerved diaMUling. Tbe mandate .a la Ihe rmme caae, retoraabto at faner%i erm, waa aim afllrmed in fa tot of too italbtidato?Judge inucvett dtaaenuag. Boanl of CeunrtlaKn. rouTAWT *? ??* mow run **!< oh ma a*tabmihubht or a pat a*d mioht tifca?am OTTAHMI* rka1m llttici rgABttpr'a l?M*l j* am I b oki it ("Ml'IOH MO. jo* r * IMOIMI ttl b<> a hp ** TO tbi JCTTIIl't MlaTOBT ? UAPOKT Uf tiib araciAL cokmittrb oh tmb rajroann miw HUM at-reti. MMM ? irit tub MMmawoi?count no ino* tan* tub citt t**rfc to* o* rim WMM or rut erurrre rrKHRSCB 'with TH* BnARnor ALMthUI* I* iwpoktaht bt-OLtTIO** ' ?* * or CM hcilua* jov** O* TUB r*?*K*T c*l?t0, IBB, BTgb lb la Hoard met Wet ereniag. pureeaa to KiaeriaiM, iiwepn N. Pbtlltpe, I><| , Ifealdert, iwaai tiag Aa ? >! a the taiautei at Ibe prerloea atreoeg wera read aid a,, irorejl, the follow log reroaago from ba Honor th* Mayor aa read ? lai nwrjrr meeimranoa r*ow two math*. Kit1*'' ("wr, *t * Tmw, Mar AA, W4T 'n ma IlneoiLtaia tub imin * On wri ??* ? f;?NTijm> * ?Kvcry (mlitn al "namuaily aboel-t hare ear | aln inherent rtgbu of dotnealV puoce. Uniepee.leai nf any < 'her authority whatever. Imteed, thta may be aat l lube i Irea'ly an e^l.ib '.i.lpri <rr*r*Uwwt BV niiBlcipal pnrpnee. rrivting in a I mom errry muiary ait icientljr clvlli*e-l and llhetal to acknowledge Me rwatmtnt I f law In Una country It Ium alway < bera umrerealiy met i eded Tbe tndependenoe of tbe m i aid mdty In the per i iOod of ita local potlre waa tlrmly tied, er-e nder Hie coioaial yetem? aal tbe change a lore liberal ryatem of gorenment could m na atr tboec rlgbtr. MhilM nonnttea delegated nartato nwera to the mate* In Uie fnrn ti . n of the dtate or,rem lenw. and wbllat S?l'i l?k?ata<l r?rt.itn f ??>( to in pcnroal n?rern?ant for faUaral |>-irp??a<, ia oiiRioal cl.artara?t prlvllafaa of rHi?? ra tatnad Intact. I know of no l?<tao a in (ha r.itad Staloa whirn incorpomtad ridan. a?1?tin? na aueh rior U> tha Rrrniutkio, wlih rhartara rmanntme <ttr?a?'? nm I ha crown, haw* loot that portion of (hair anrtant |hM nkM fhi o Ikm iba oontrot of (Mr own Mktatfvn r rotnaatte roffnlnttono for tha pra?ar??ii.>n of tha pan * n l for lha protection of lifa an?l prnpartf In Mi Maaa ita la emf-haUrallp and na>|m?ltnnahlv true. Tha one ml < iiartarw of lha riltoa of Now York and Albany (anrantad I I tha boil tea |m||tlc of each cartain prlvllafaa which % < rXhnan.aitd.ln mr Judgtnanl nuinot ha taftaa awnf hf < ny aria of tha l>-awlalarc, withont (ha anaanl of t? r? la, or the properly rnn.-<titnta?l anlhorltlai raprcaouaf iam Tha ft rat written rhartrr of Ihlt city now ?vvat ' aa rantoit bjr .lantea II.. in I0M. u? Thomav iwwan. ?an l.ia tenant i.'owarnoa of th" prtrrlaca. Tni? wan ra Brutcd W JOiU liwntfomar a,|with 'arfa add'tional pnrl LB. PRICE TWO CENTS. Ipr'1#, In 17.TO. TbMfl h?ve *:nce bo?n recognized m one cliurl" r. ami aro known iw tl.o Omnfan *n<l Mont^nrr'Ttl charters. Until IfciO, just one hundred yeara after the Mcntgo men* (.'rant, ami tii'ty years alter th<i Kevotutfcro, uo chungo, amendment* or alteration* in thorn worn m.ida or tbo ght of; nor was it supposed that tho transfer of U*a government from tho mouarchial to tho republican had impaired lo th? leant ext< r.t the municipal guarantee* tlum vouchsafed to ttie city of .Vow York The -fato had twice altereil Ha cm solution, adapting it to its improving commercial and more liberal political con I llrn, hut the charter af lilts city woe kinked upon as an almost icro I ih trumrnt, not to be touched, even though the neoemity for It, In many rocpacta sector I ho apparent; and when in t*'? tho legit lature adopted c ?rU;n additional provisions, tbejr wero only iub amendment* to the Ikmgan and Montgomorie charter*, the ptincipal elements of which were reta.oed at their original force, with all tho "franchisee, K'?nts, powers and privilege*" loft unimpaired. Tho subs*, point acts in 1Mb and U.".! were also amendments, and the charter Just pasied, tho gh it repeals all tho previous ones, re utllrms in direct terms tho Dengan and Vfuntgomor'o charters. tlum has the Iicghdature rer.ognU d ail our apctrnt chartered rights, which through a series of legislative enactments, for lil'ty years, hid boon frequently Inter! eroi with, too often hy pliant yielding upon tho part of tho peoplo tbcrnselrt*. Under this graut, now re alhrmed, we tin I rutttclent authority for the oi'y or New York to regulate Its own police affairs Independent of Shite tnterfurcncc or control. Upon a cIoho examination ofiu provisions, aided by the evidence of ita able commentator, Chancellor Kent, it Is Impoisible to come to any other oonclukion. Section 14 of the Imngan and Montgomerie cluirlers con fern u|ion the Mayo*, Aldermen and Cotnnotnlty.aml their Rucccmors forever,the mostamplo mid exclusive powers, useful or necesiuiry, for Jb" good rules nnd government of tho city. Uinucelloi^'Wiit says, (tee JHHh tote, Kent's nottss and Illustrations), comuieotnig on Uilii uectiou, " it would seem to contain a grant of ample powers Riiltlcient for all tho purposes of a wnll ordered police and lor ttio good government or the city la it* complicated concern* " Again, in nolo 31, lie nays ? " Whenever and wherever the Htatuto provisions do not apply precise and adequate an hority in tho given instance, the < ommtin Connci I can always resort to We never railing jsiwer under this charter, which gives brood author ty commensurate to every case Tho charter powors bave been so frequently and ao fully con firmed, denned, enforced and specially applied by legislative acts, that there seems to be no want of Jurisdiction from one source or the ether for every exigency " But the power of the Comtcon Oouacil to establish municipal watch or police ia clearly conferred by the twent) second section. It grants to tho Mayor, Aldnrmon and Commonalty of the my full power and authority to license or appoint watchmen, by warrant, uinter the common seal of tbo city, and to displace thorn and put otb< rs In their room, aud to add to or diminish the number 01 them. Tbo duty and power to pav tbo persona thus appointed is incident in the power granted to appoint. The twenty third section rives them power to order tho persona thus appointed to arrest and take up all and any rogues, vagabonds, stragglers and tdio and suapteious i>enons. The learned commentator already referred to says that "tho Common Council may appoint and diminish at pleasure all such poileo agents. Ttm control and regulation of tho city watch, like the appointment and regulation of cartmcn and porters, is a vary interesting nnd valuable deposit of municipal power, and one oM-nt'al to the peace, security and good government cf the city." If thi r *w?lnn* do not confer nnnn tho Common Council the po ?er to create a municipal police, then i know ol do word! In ibe Kngltsh language that con confer such power. Tb'-re < .ttnoi tx> doubt on the subject. Indeed, this power k* fully r? cogLlx-d and continued by the charter recently parsed, Independent of it* re enactment of the irmgun anil Moatgomerie charter*. In the Dirt section of that act it It declared that " tba Mayor, Aldermen and commonalty of tho city of New York itiall ooa inuc to be a body iwliuc and corporate. In fact and in name, by tho rame name, and shall bare perpetual tuiceetion with all grants, powers and privilege* heretofore had." litis |xtwer and privilege of ths corporation to protect and defend Ue per. n anil proj*rty of its citizens is now for the Aral t me called In question. If any complaint has been mode against !h< m, It wai for not exercising their power to its falls*! extent, for the 01 .<tion to exert its authority rather than the want of it. The Ix eton aad Moritgomerie charters now occupies a higher peoiuoa In regard to the city than it bits occupied at any t]**e since isvi, and may bo regarded as the orgai.s' laa? the Magna (l.orta?of our ctty, whereby tho bb? rty cf tl.e ritireu ts protected. Hie repealing clause of the rbaiter recently passed) In the first place repeats nit the < harlots and amaadmenta to charter* previously passed by the sever*' legislatures, so that anything cont a.ned ta theehartem or amendment* thai In anywise affected, mo lifted or repealed any part of the lkmgan and M.nlgni, .eie charter wm removed out of the way. ta tho second place, 11 repeals all laws or parts of law Inconatstrnt w.lh Keell ; and any wction contained Within itoilf would its .dearly 10'imsuitenl if It dbl repent, modify | or in ai.r mant.er affect the ituugaa and Mowtgoinerlo | ebartsro, Veeauee the I ogltloture In it* lost dying word*. , ?hm eaattinr law* for the go-. ernroc i:ts of this city, declared tt at not I. ing la its own enacts enl should he coo trued a* repealing, modifying or 10 any manner affecttnt? the I a (>g .* an 1 Munlgotn. no rharter, and U>e art further dec.'art* Uiat raid charter rha.l oonut.ue at.d rr main in fall forte. It is clear, thor'f'r?\ th.it there exists sulfa lest power nbefem in our own <'t.ginal act of Incorporation, which has ti<4 been repealed, ruNCin<ie<t or given up, to establish all that is required for domestic polleo government. IYo is quire oo Mate ie-p?l?tl<si focivu u* tho authority. Wo iso eer il *<S owl* without S ite nerm srion but in ile. i-anne of iw enactment* to the contrary without our conaei?C It t? m anewer to ?ay that Uht charter and Wetro( loan l < billa rae? oily tarved repeal all lava Incon?iat< M Willi Ibewt, ar thn fWrmer etprrnly ro af I r?? lb* imnnn ant M->tiWerii--rta charter; Out even i' it did not, ll>? " !?!>.i-t m'lit of a rity day au<l night aalih a twd ir o- -b nl lb Ihn MolrofnUtnn Cut too till, which it* a thora declare la a tain and not a loca muii? |*i law if lie owifinwoo?'r* are city or county ofll<-ern w r a the anatuntaan of laa ooadit itloo , if they are "Hali or J -tint oil "era, their .I'll,, a are cot "icorw. - ten*, * 'h tl ? *h h may devolve upon iho bead of a day aad t fid wati'h for thta dty. *? havn authority and I rm rural for two poka organ.Mtmna of aalmllar character. In 1MI tin leg .at r? pv?rf an ar' e*tahli<hing a folw* drfnrtnont 10 thtc rtiy, ihn Act tecnon of which at- -hea raw wat- ii depirtni -nl c- Ihrn organized, aod la B?0 tbnrtcf rr-wud a po K* department Thin eeetiori n no war derogated from tha power of thn U-mmnn Council In wdahiith and organ we anothnr watch depart 0 rt i-r i, t iwi potion, h it on thacomrary, thn validity of lha lam U? ending th? police di-piftru-iit, waa tnadn <i faat?ul miit>a< nptaatm by thn ['umm Council of tl.winy. Tim O oini-n Otuttoil rrfuard Ite awaat, denying thn right of Ihn J rgkr latere ft pa t anelt a atalntr. ar -I It rtma.red a dim I letter. Thn Com n < !. I - ' l. - ,11- ! '. . -or 1.'. ! r it.- y-i,ral ywrrx i onf< rrmt upo them hy the l*?igut and M'Hii/onn f ? i barter, to oryani-n a muni opal poll ?, and an - fdu.anee to Uuat rtfort waa llnally adopted. (Ve vol Itp.'J04 pfomvd n(*t f i-orniiiin* cetnoil.) Hub ??<t" "t.lly tha ordiuawce w ?? r*fwal?d ami toe t?w pat?>-d 1 y ll?e efw tat ore ai etdrh. that art baa threw anverat now a aRiawdvd, reweraily a-cor ling In Urn a->ir(nation of it we who warn at the head of lha poll a, for the purpn-o >4 adafdtrg it twnr* aearty to th* want* or li?n city, aad to perte-t la |*ov ! ! ? . a* <u pattern a ftnw tuna to Utro printed ant ,ta deft da The t'wln r law ar IMJ, at tha nr.# ?f la are >puncw by tha thaw ma - an not I, war ft?- r.-l In ha daftcuva in Mtnt if iw wmhiwi, <? 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