Newspaper of The New York Herald, June 28, 1857, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated June 28, 1857 Page 4
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2 wcure a passage are obliged to go by land, which, till the railroad to the I'ra-wau fiontler is finished, is u tedious and fatiguing jourfe}. Besides the usual ploatmie ?rip? to Hovel. Hapsal, Helsingfora, Abo, dike Ladoga, Ac., a steamer is advertised to take patw ? gen* to Torneo, a small town in the north of Finland, where nt this time of the year the sun never dots, and they will enjoy the spectacle of an uninterrupted noon. Those who are prevented by official or other engagements from undertaking longer excursicue retire to the dalrhi or villegiature in the neighItorbood of the city, and only eoine into town f ir a few hoars every day. In August, however, we are to have great doirgn again; the imperial couple and #Ka ll.vH.? ? .l.J a ^ ? *1? a.%_ ? a. ?>? nuil'irm aii'u'n nr M|ICi'ICU I" (VlUni UJT IUH4 tune; and the nuptiala of the Grand Duke Michael, the Emperot 'a youngest brother, with Princess Cecilia of Bad- will be celebrated with great splendor, after the bride has been tint admitted into the pale of the orthodox rhur< h. I fee it mentioned to the Preach and German pa pera that ti>e "onoe famous Prince Menachikoff" is now travelling in Europe, and had arrived at Paris. This is a m*. take; Prince Slcnschikoff. the ex-A m! ?*? -ador a- o cx Commander in-Chief in the Crimea, in I'ring very quietly at his palsce, the same that was fonnciy Occupied by tfco Board of Admiralty, and was presented to Lim by Alexander II. soon after hu aoct'fV i<?u to the throne. The traveller is his Hon, who is also Aide-4e-Ciinp General to the Kmperor, -d who is as mild end iuoflensive a personaa the (?tht. is haughty and imperious. Vtir Bullion Movement In Buropr and Asia Bt'lTLT OK GOLD IN FRANCE? ITS EFFECTS ON THE lhTSKKSTS OK THE l'KOFLE?TRADR IN SILVER?, OF THE MMtt TO tbx EAST?THE GOLD QUESTION IN INPIt?THE BANK OF FBANCB. The following interesting information respecting the extraoroin&iy movement in bullion which is now taking piioe from the different countries of Europe to India and China, is extracted from our latest European and East Indian files. The efforts made to fix a stanoard of metallic currency in Fran re, as well as the remits of some recent experiments in quartz crashing in England are also noted:? bcttlt of gold and silver in france ?lcfkxcrs on trade. wages ann the cost ok food. Until r tuis head the llcvue Contemporainf, of Varit>, iu i last number, publishes an interesting paficr, in wtiirh the author, M. Levaaaeor, proceeding from statistical data already brought under the noiice ol the publi; by various previous writers, arrives at the following preliminary results:?1. The general rise in the price 01 provisions and merchandise proceeds from four causes, two of which, viz.? war sua bad harvests?an transitory, while the other t*&?the devclopemeut of manufactures and an inert used .-opply of gold?are permanent in their i-fltcts; It. The rise chiefly affects provisions and such articles as are produced in limited quantities: 2. It is much leas perceptible in manufactured ait:ciea, 4. it is greater in England tnan iu France; 5. ii itumo. ku ucjuuu m riruuu lnnu, hi wuicn 11 is stopped by competition, until price# d end to the ftiuu Wt! among all civilized nations; 6. Before this limit 1. attained, the rise is for some time artificially exaggerated by the retail dealer; 7. The rite, m France and England, has been favorable both to the merchant and the agriculturist; 8. Salaries do not increase in proportion to the price of provisions, consequently tf;e rise has been detrimental to those who live upon fixed salaries; and 9, t.iose, therefore, who liv? upon fixed incomes daily become poorer. As a set off to these evils, the author remaihs npon the benefits arising from an increased influx of gold, and shows that, although in theory an article of commerce might be expected t<> rise in price exactly in proportion to the increase or the circul log medium, such is not practically the case, because this proportional rise meets with its check in the stimulus given to production by the increasing demand consequent npon a greater abundance of tin ana. The difference between the influx of tne precion* metal and the amount rise which it has prodnoed, therefore constitutes a real increase in public wealth. Thus, in England, deducting the effects of the scarcity which a:e tmuaitoty, the largest rise daea bo* exceed ' 25 per cent; in Frapoe, where tuo ee;; of led ha; i cats have boen most nevcrtiy lelt said may lie stated at 75 per cent, the jine attributable to the influx of gold r* also limited to 25 p' r cent. Now the influx ol gola has been upwaroio* 5u per oent; therefore an addition has! Ik en mode to ibe oeimanetit wealth of the eoi ntry of at lea*: >.n?* half of the new amount of gold in- | troductd. V ether. and at wlmt period, the civil- I iied *i" be *aiurat,d with theprecious m t-d, M ncvasscn <3** s not undertake to decide; Imt he think- fba' period still far distant, and that the activ ty of our manv.twturea. The ltami ac increase or out couuoeu ial intorrxnve and the civilisation w:i1cto, through the iostn: mentality of gold, hoa so lapidlv sprung up in California and Australia, will enable us for many yeura to come to absoro the produce of the gold fields without tieing made ftensvUc of any material depieci <,ti*>u of the currency. We will not tollow M. ljevasseur tlnoagli the uumero*is stat istioal details into which he subseq ientlv eaters In order to explain the great phenomenon of our day, viz.: the disappearance of silver in proportion as gold flows in, a circumstance more severely felt in Franc* than elsewhere: but we cannot omit to state that in In opinion it is to the arbitrary proportion of value legally adopted in tha latter country 115| of silver to 1 of rold.) a proportion permanently AJPiM <i iKtwroi iwu Kwvam uir remuvr faiuv ui i wn?ch ie eabject tj constant change, that "France owes the melancholy privilege of alwaya being a richinmeol apfulution, rum r for her gold or her silver." The author now it quires which of the two metala ought to b? cho"n for a standard.' The French law, inde d, est. ol laity five gramme* of silver at iMntba a* the unit of vulac.bnt it also HAiwtioi. g< 'd is a legal tender; ?. \<l which ever of the two metal.- he preferred, thJ?; prefer, ace ii sure to give nn unfair advantage to tie holdei either of gmd or. .lver, a? the ? wo may be One of the great aigcment* against gold is ita pit * .L d?t.-relation; but wiio c to tell whether silver may r.n*, it no very dist tut pet:od, undergo a similar depre utioti? The iirouurtmn of gold appears moxi ai. i.lle at present, >ut on the other hand, lis not M. de Hum Welt predieted, from pmona: oh^'rvationand positive sowntiti' data, that a day * Id come when tb? silvern.nut of America would be worked along a lie fir 12 (MKi kilometres A a rt, Ujc production of allrer depend. on that tf n.<rciry : What if nee m...'". v' t'jH nir-tal. hit'jert-r manapected, were shottl/ u.ueovcred? Sinn the di-noveryof miuea of n rcory iu Californi. Uie priie of that substance tus fall" i from 7 ft. 4 >. to 2 ir. UJc., equivalent to a fail ?1 a x per rent in the v*ti<e of atlvrr. Hon e there is no reason to c m lude - ,iat atver will always retain the atahif'ty reqoWte fir a standard of value, r -t even now i? 1 rajtv t till in a condition to die lave the law ? not the commercial interest already dechoed in favo- of gol.i ? Sin e l*!* the minis n4 France have coineo 2.24.1 millimsoi 'runes nf gold, and the quaiui'y is daily Increaaitur. Hee e 11* quest.on U t." let r er a n atter of ? hoioe, and commerce alnoe will c nplete the rev a'l .n of Unelf, unl.isnthe .-tate at l<-ngih rear Iv to legal:,re a state of tlitgs whir.i la already bejend ita cant -ol. 2 ER OOI.D (Jl r.-TION IN IKD1 A?ADIVKTAOK* OK A ooi.o evaluate r. | from tb** Boabar Tlrv"., Mar 11.1 The questkn. of a geld currency for India is of daily in ceasing moment. The "fdlowing table ahowr. the exrew- af our importations ore1 exports ol bullion since the year 1*50- 61:? r. ff?i Yrart. In.por t*. Export*, of Import?. 1R50-51 jP,Nll,HO'? ?541,2m ?3.270,540 1*51 61 ... 4,62t.f>77 7lr>,32? 3/?l*,361 1652-53 6.282,.UK 2?>fl.!?36 6,07.6.3*1 lfc.3 .? 4.906^73 1.0H7.MH JH54-M. ... 1.965,360 'KJft.THX'. ?9?,ltS4 Jk'5-56 11280.317 1,559,510 9,720,870 1866-57 Ten to twelve millions. Daring tiie K.4 erven years Indii ha^ thua drain id tin w?.ild of nearly four hundred mdliou* of silver rupee*, or forty millions of pounds sterling. fun.aUr^ oortlon of Uita amount has ungues ftiomibly passed forever fh>n curroncy u?e, by the absorptive pm? ess of corvrwlon into ?ma rnrhts, and the rpiertion of coarse rng^ests ilnelf, if tins state cf maters la to last does the annual produce of the -live mines <>f tne world a irrant the belief that imiia may continue to appropriate to beret If s ih B?*<#es of the metal without creating nertous trcrrenteuce to the rest <?f the world, and rTentuallr for^n* It to a highly ft tttious value7 We may take it for granted that India is rapidly i. creasing tier wealth. Hhe is yearly raiding prodvf 41 1n A miif f err Atr r t ft lit than ? !?r? ri?miifi*u far !>< rnelf. mm! afu-r pajtn; by the nirplus for her im portation ol fwtt uv good*, there ia utill a large bn lance. that ahe Ml far bullion, whi<-b ehe SI* r?7 aa oat-Hal. 6be ban an unhappy propensity I ait a good deal of it by in the moat unprofitable shape of ornaments end board* but there if the fart, and sntll a mnrh higher atandard of living amongst t;.< million* of her aon* lead* to a larger expendifrr? upon fotrign commodities, the wjrld must pay bei he y"arly debt which it Incur* in the precious r-p<*1k. Now the miachicf of a ailver currency In Intia ia tbia, that it males her prc'er silver to gold iu the lament of this yearly balanv; end the row* otwnc* i* that the western nation* are in a < ramble to procure it tor ber. Bnt for the introduction of a gold eumncy into France and the UnHrd State*, during the laat three or four i?y which an en-j mous amount of silver (40,000.000 In Frame alone) wan rendered available for the purpose, we should have aeen the price of silver enhanced to a degree which would probably have forced the gover nment of India to introduce a gold nwreorv long ere no* . and to have issued It at a very heavy low against the silver now in the coontry. The government, we believe, will be compelled to adopt a gold currency eventually, and it may have to do so by and bv, at a heavy coat, if it is unwise nongh to shut its eyes to what ia going on in the world at the present moment. We have repeatedly advoctVd the introduction of h decimal system <>f coinage into India. The ease With which its adoption might he effected, and perlect (irrtou Ifi-a J. ia.piyeaUucc wtuicur, lui as (o hope that the day is not distant when our present arbitrary divisions ot value will g> re place to the simple and beautiful system of decimal coinage which naa been so frequently advocated in oar columns. We shall here simply give again the denominations we would ooin;? ; Gold 10 rupees expressed decimally 10. 0 do. 5 rupees do. do. 5. 0 do 2 rupees do. do. 2. o Silwr 1 rupee do. do. 1. 0 do. * rupee do. do. ?. 6 do. 4 rupee do. do. ?.25 I Copper the decide do. -do. ?10 | do the doganee do. do. ?.01 uur oniy new coins woaia dc we copper aecime and tfct doganee, and as we ahMli retain th' present pie for the convenience of the poor, it i-i impossible that the change could be feit to be inconvenient. Drain or Blli tr f ront Kuropr to the But | From the Hitnbv/ Timro M iy 4 J Immense as was the import of bullion in the last official "year, it has already been lar exceeded in the nine months only which have elapsed of the carrent one, and we shall be within the mark if we estimate the quantity of bullion retained this vear in the country at 10,000,000 to 12,000,<>00 aterfing. Now, if we take as the starting point of the recent demand for silver the year 1R50-1R61, aud compare the average of the seven last years with that of the sixteen preceding, we find Ml for the former we have an animal amount of the precious metals retained in the country of 5,500,000, against au annual accumulation of only 2,000,000 previously. Ia other .words, India ia wealthier to-day by nearlv 40 crores of rupees than she was in I860 in the precious metals alone, making no account whatever of her increased wealth in landed and personal property, and in public and private works or improvement, thronghont the vast extent of her territories. It is well to oppose facts such as these to the angry misrepresentations of men of the Malcolm be win stamp. The world has never before seen a conquered empire governed with the wisdom and the honesty which characterize the English rule in India, and if we sometimes speak sharply for the interests of the people, it is not that we believe ourselves honester or wiser than they whs have the reins of power, but that the press is the legitimate stimulant of oar whole social and economic system. The resources of Scindeand the Pnnjabbcgiuniug to be rapidly developed; the immense demand tor produce which the Russian war created in this country, and which Is now permanently established; the marvellous growth of our commercial relations with continental Europe under the enlightened lavs which invite all men to deal in our markets on an equal footing; aud the growth aud prosperity of the cottou trade in the last few years, sufficiently account for the state of matters on which we have to congratulate ourselves. We make no mention of the introduction of rail ways, for, although in the process of their construction they are enriching masses of the laboring poor, their day of triumph is yet to comc. and a glorious one it wiu assureuiy uc lor muia. vioverumeui may ao much to hasten the comiDg of the great future looming grandly in the horizon: but these miserable wars, on which millions are heedlessly squandered. must cease, and the question of fpublic works be taken up In earnest. Ttu. capital of a public works loan, whenever laid out in ludin judiciously, would be sowing silver to reap gold, and he is the enlightened statesman who, grasping the idea, will force it into adequate expression. ?e hud intended to make some remarks in further advocacy of a gold cunency for India but must defer them for tire present. C barter and Privileges or tile Rmk of K ranee. The Paris Monittur of 1 lib of June contains an imperial decree promulgating the new iaw for the continuance of the privilege of the Bank of France, | as follows:? Art. 1. The privilege conferred on the bank be the laws of the 24th Uerminal. year li, the 22d of April. 1WH>, aEd of the 30th of June, 1^40, the *erm of which would expire on the 31st Pccember, H67, is pro1 .ged for thirty years, and will noteui before the .fist of December, lrii*7. Art. 2. The capital of the bank, represented at P'o.*-nt by ?1,?50 shares, will be represonted in fu t:ui by 1 sit,500 share,-, of t^e nominal value of 1,0001. each, cot including the re-erve lund. Sri. 3. The 91,250 r.cwly created shares will ex disiveiy assigned to tiit> holder* of the 31,250 now existing, and they wilUjave to pay the price f the flMM, at the ra'e of 1 ,l? li. per share, into the coders of the lank, ti quarterly instalment , within the term of one year at the latest, dating rom the promulgitiou of the present law. The per'odof the Gist payment and the conditions oa which the shareholders Can be perinitled to anticipate thk further payment* wul be fixed by a decision of thi bank. Art. 4 Trie produce of these new shares will be applied, until tne completion of tbu w hole amount of '. 1 j'lfiO.fHHlf., to the formalInu "t *Yir CafftltO Ut-Voimined by the second article, and as regards ttis surpl'is, to tlie augmentation of the reserve fund now existing. Art. 5. Out of the produce of the said shares a sum of one hundred Millions si'1 be paid into the public treasury 'n the coarse of 1-159, at such periods as shall be agreed upon by the riuance mitrster and the bank. This sum wiD he set apart for the diminution of deGcits in the trcas rv. The finance minister is authorized to ca i?e the insertion in the great book of the public debt of tho sum of three per cent rentes n ?ssary for t'ue employment ot U.c atid sura of oue hundred mil ion*. ' A sinking fund eqnai to one-hundredth o' the ] nor- capital "f the "-aid rvntea will 1 c added to th. dotation of the sinking fund. The rent M will be tianaferred to the Hank of Fiance, at the avcra';* quotation of rhe month prelug each paym< n . but this price must not lie loiei tl>au 'c veuty fi.e tiancs Art. 6. t >1 the r?nt? s ic-cri' M at th? Treasury in the name of tli^ ir'v >.: ; -uu stork, ?i-] proceeding i from the con.H>HJation of tie reserve f toe lintiu fund, there ?hall b< erased from Mi grrV lvok of the public dt U a aani equal to that ?.f the rea'.es crcrued by the |>m cdiug article. T!: rentes will be driiutrely cancelled as to c?. )''! 1 and an'irs, dati. [ fi m I lay when the DtW rentes shall be traortern d to the beak. Art.7. l'<e facultj acc'nled to the bin1 fnu'ciog advenes on -'rent'i pub'ifi ?toek. 0.1 Freneii milwav shores and debenture*, and on debentures of t'?e (it/ ol Pari-*, ir. extended to the debentures isav.ed by the Cr-'dit (Vincier Company of France. The general regulations tonehiug the mode of ir r ,ng r ut toe preceding paragraph a^s to l>e approved by a decne. Art K. The Hack of France, should rirmmstaiicos rci-are, art-'; to above > per cent the ecale of an counts and the interest on its advance*. The profits accruing to the hank from the ever cise of this power w'll he deducted Tom the Bum* \ arly dh ided am'., g the shareholders, and n e to be added to the rto.k fund. Art. 9. The bunk of France trill he allowed to reduce to fbfr. Ibt minimum amount of ita notes of issue. Art. 10. Ten years after ?b' promulgsMon of the present law the gnvommen' May require the flink of France to establish a branch bank in the d partiLcnts were none exist. Art. 11. Tee interest due from the Treasury on its running accunt wMlie regulated after tic ?~alc fixed by the bank for the discount of paper iu tue market, but must not exceed t per cent. Art. 12. A regulation of the government will'determine, with re*pe< t to such shareholders as are In(KMibleof rai UL'tlc wool? or th*l ?- . i s. what mraMircH ?h? l be requisite for tbe execution o. the present lew. _____ The Comtirrtc ami I'rogicas of Kr?m ?. (>rom U>* ixmdon i\?t, June If) I'nder any circnn.-touoe< the e<>odition of our nearest neigtPors. the Preach. oti4 lie a mutter of moment to hngland. Intimately allied M we are, and have been now for several vcan, to tbe great advantage of both countries?indeed, wo may *ay. to the advantage of the civilized world?it fc. the du'y of the statesman, the politician and the Journalist, to make himself acquainted w tb tb" commerce and general condition of our alliea. The t i?k into a willing stadent by no mean - difficult. A nut all tbe great public Jepartment-i in Pans publish large blue books, in wbicb may lie found, admirably arranged, statistical tables, which by the aid of prefatory remark* and annotations, are made elear to the understanding and per egtiou of that Urge class of tbe public who have a distaste bor dering i-n disgust for everything like figures. From some of the.<e tables we mean to jot down a few farts as to the foreign < itnmercc and general condition of Frnnce, which are this moment of considerable interest. Tiic fnretim rr mmerre of France as 0111 reader* are probably aware, wa< ?omewha? affected in the \ear* 1H53 and W.i by the war and the indifferent Tiarvesta. Bat no sooner was there a prospect of peace than the retains of 1855 exhibited an increase of 5C 4,000,OOOfr. In I >3 the cmnmircr rrttrimr amounted to 3,740,00? "OOfr.; in 1*54,to 1.785,000r tx?0fr., and in 1855, to 4,327,000,MOOflr. The man time rommerr" of France in 1 *55, v compared with 1?54. increased 16 per cant, and the c miner e not ata bone t> per cent. Wy tar the largest portion of the forngn?nr. aa it ia railed, the external -commerce of France is c irried on with Fngland. From the laat retn ns, this commi ro amount' 1 to 712,OOOi)OOfr.?an in< reaae of 12 per cent on the retnrna of 1854. Toe United Rtotra traffic with France < omes next to that of flreet Britain, amounting, aa it doe?, to 517,000,OOOfr. Belgium and Rwltaetlnad are in the next rank- the former reaching a figure of 412,OW.OOOfr.. tfce latter a figure of 33j,r nn.ooofr. The progress of our m i;;hbom in navigation has lieen aa considerable a* their progress in trade. In 1850, comprising navigation inwarda and out wards, then ia a return of 31,02t vessel*, ineaauring 3,735,0O0 tona. with cargoes mined at 1 .'455,000 francs, where** in 1055 there were 56,757 ve**'*. measuring 5#13I,C0Q (OW, Ifitil k> 3,103,509 NEW YORK HERALD, "S francs. thus proving, in the abort 1 paoe of Ave yean, in iucreaae in the number of ve* in of 16 per cent, in Die tonnage of 43 per cent, anu in the value of the carRo of 59 per cent. It will be satisfactory to our countrymen to learn from the last returns, that of the 21,402 foreign ships which visited the French ports, 11,504, or considerably more than one-half were English. Nor is this an accidental fact, for, for some years, the nam her of English vessels has been steadily on the increase Tnus, in 1863, among 20,425 ships of foreign origin which frequented the French ports, 10 482, or more than one-half, were unddr the British flag. These vessels were principally laden with linn, cast iron, steel, coal, wool, woollen goodi, Ac. American vessels came next to our own ia number and tounage. From questions of commerce we will turn to a subject, wbich, owing to tbe British and Tipperary Bank swindles, has been very much on the carpet of late?we mean the subject or extradition. From the authentic returns published, we learn that the number of extraditions asked of France in 1858 was 60, and 46 in 1854. Of these 46?16 were asked by Belgium, 8 by Spain, 8 by Sardinia, 7 by Switzerland, 3 by England, 3 by Holland, and 1 by Austria. Of 121 accused persons whose extradition was asked or granted, M were proceeded against for robbery, 29 for murder or poisoning, 26 for fraudulent bankruptcy, 21 for fraud or coining, and 9 for different other crimes. We will now turn to the French army. The effective of the French army in 1864 amounted to 472,734 officers, sous officers, corporals, brigadiers, and soldiers. In ls53 it amounted to 361,468. Ou the 1st January, 1856, tbe active army of France amonnted to 555,289 men. Of these there were spread over France 375.231 There were in the army of Africa 64,893 In the army of the Eaat 104,692 In the army occupying Borne 19,473 The extension ot railroads in France during the last three or four years has been wonderful. At the period of the revolution of Fobruary, 1848, there were only 3,600 kilomeires of railroads in existence. For three years Afterwards tbe works remained stationary: but such was the energy subscjaently applied when tranquillity was restored, that 1if the 31st December, 1854, concessions were granted for 9,236 kilometres. In the course of 1865 Lvons and Valence were connected; the Normandy line was opened to Caen, and the whole line between Bordeaux and Bayonne opened. Besides this, many important se> tions have been opened by the Compagniesda Nord, de l'Est, da Grand Central, and the Company of Lyons. In 1856 Marseilles and Paris were united by rail, and on the 1st January ol the present year 11,250 kilometres of rail had been conceded, of which 6,500, or more than one-half, were in operation. These are certainly important facts for France and for the world: and we can only express our fervent hope that the prolonged continuance of peace may enable the Emperor and government of this great and civilized people to improve and extend such peaceful conquests. Distribution of Property In Kngland. [From the Lon<1 ?n Chronicle, June 9.] On Saturday was published au interesting return, moved for by Mr. Moflatt, showing the number of persons in the United Kingdom rated to the income tax, under schedules D and E. according to their respective incomes. We subjoin the table as regards Great Britain:? ICUEDCLK D. Incnrn'm which Itwn'-rr of the 8k'v is pernmt in Ohtsef. charged each clan Under ?100 a year ?1,019,069 90,916 Hm ana uaaer a ina 11,.ni 110,1 vo 150 ?' 200 6,r04,928 40,300 200 " 000 7,224,'.*# 32,Ml 500 " 4JO 4,772.654 14.04S 400 ?4 600 s,oir.,m 7,17" 500 ? 600 2,786,585 5,414 eoo " 700 i,8'>o,f)tn 3,oei 700 " HOO 1,455.081 2,003 800 " 000 1,303,901 1.70" OOO ? 1,000 752,400 804 1,000 " 2,000 6,798,070 5,271 2,000 ? C.000 3,188,100 1,503 3,000 " 4.00C '2,576.230 781 4,000 " 6.000 1 012,048 434 5,000 " 10,000 5 251,125 7?l 1O.0CO " 60,fOO 8 210,558 445 60,COO *a<l upwards 3,559,M2 40 Tot*! 5.645,3 M ev asoci.K i. Incv i "rp u \ ick Xv m ber of p.<* duly ii p? - mi >n OTa*;**. ehmrard. ea.h rUiit Under ?100 * ve*r ?1,021,061 17,117 10*1 *a 1 under 1150.... 3,216,263 31.W4 160 ? 200.... 1,827 032 11,222 200 " 300.... 2.743,931 11,495 :>00 " 400.... 1,554,434 4,f,7P 400 " 600.... 900.89) 2.259 f>00 " 600.... 633,649 1,202 COO " 700... 409.059 1.159 TOO ? sou .. *11 890 " >00 24". 471 ute 9C0 " 1,000.... 175,096 H8 1.000 ? 2.000.... l,786,8!i. 1,4 J 2.000 " 3,009.... 5,5*4,944 1 61 3.000 " 4,000.... l.'H.B'-" 40 4.000 ? 6,000.... 1203122 27 6,00") and upwmrd* 499,246 04 Total .83,720 Hallway Speculation In Rn|Und> f From the Lo idon tat Joot P.] A formidable array <.f railway 8har?bn.Ucra waited the oth<T day upon the Pres.dent af the Hoard of Trade, with the view of ra'ling u? attention t j certain grievance?*, of which tt.ev lr-mily complain. Tb< j truly informed him that they r< oreaente i property to an enorinou-t amount, namely, upa-arda of three hundred mill! una lenng, tud tbal therefore they were well entitled to tx- he*ul?a proportion which cannot be disputed. We shr.ll not go through th< r.itjlogue ol their comploiut*. Kaffir* it to s-?r, j that the point: whkU th:y chit fy fresseJ upon th? 1 con i teration ot the MioU'cr were?Crat, that their property had been greatly depre* jted in value of recent years; and. secondly, that it wa-* unfairly ! taxed. They ccmulained. too, of the operation of Ixuti i Campbell's'excell* at act. wi.i h piToetoinp. naittun 1 to the relative*ol persons hilled thrigh the ne*; 1i gence of rollway * ?? **panics. Hut m to reiuedici ] tlicy were v holly ilci.t. l/?rd Htari y of Ald< rl< y 1 wa- n. j loi.4 to 1:now the view 1 of lie deputation ! upon this e- >nt al p .nt, hot iie 'ailc'ltuelicit from ' them anything like u , Ian. Their otyict appan.utly ' waa to icl the 1 grieva tei lie known, uid to . ive it | to the I itgiela'Tirr t) d< vim. a re m? iy. That, we fear, will he no easy nuttir. But h >wever u'flicult it may le to satisfy the !?-,y ab ire b jittert, it in not difficult to'indieat the *ause of that Oeteri"ration in the T?'':e of 'ieir pnpertjr. which is the oni. ?.? sta tia! gri. vance aa it apnea.> to us, of whi h thtyhateto citnpNn. That hiarisen from * ciuse ao obiou1- tiint must be per ceptiMe to mryliody. It U nctoriom that Hritinh rail*a*> pay wo > than those of an. dim ojh ilry. It la wvww. < ei/ina #* wli i !n t liA irrc it ,iif ft .nao Ill ?~ UW IVMI" " IT I WMI lur ft"* -V nn >* a I.IIIV/' and t'-ermany pay i ti per cent. an1 frepieuUy more, to t'f < >^ink- sharr r?, few. *tj. of oar own , pay ha! that amount. Mtuy pay t oUifcf at all. T> reason of tbi* *tr ViPC di^* venae is at moe expla neti I bt a reference to the Ji'' -rant rlmrogaacae tmder which railways wen* conWn.. tea in thh and in other oou-.tnen. Mere cvrrytb ng was lefto indirtjud er Urpti-e. while on the Continent n itling was don i without the sanction of the govern nen. T.?e rewiL in this country waa eviewmverotnpetitan andspccni lation, aa evervtwdy tecollecta, act wr many to i their coat. Rirti companion sprang ip on ever* iidef lud rival lines speedily intersects the length ana Uie breadth of the land to the ace profit, in ' moat instance#, of their projectors, iki to toe no i l<-s certain loss of th< !' dera. Rail way attorneys, counsel an t engineers tcquired for furies with a rapidity urw ulled sine* the dm or the Bunth Sea bubble". Tlw successor tie few stimulated toe tore of yam n .nc the many and all professions ami all ranks were for a time imitten with the intoxicating desire of suddenly bediming rich. How the delusion ended we need n<t tell. But, unlike other delusions of a similar (ind, it left something sul>stautijl behind it Athough our Riout'ary system had lieen seriously i< ranged, although thousands had been ruined xrtb in 'ortune and in rharacter, and the oatimal mora itv had t?een ?endhly tarnished, we had, iev?rthelf *s, In the interval accomplished a (peat prpose. W.; had covered the country from north to louth with a vast network of railways. We had I v? this with a rapidity which would hare been im;>of>ible in any other country, because no other c mnry paasr-ises such e combination of capital and rntemriar aa fits, lint we discovered? at lea', we now .licover?that wc had made s great mistake in rn<turaging too ar the popular principle of >mpetitioi. It la true hat Lord Italbonsie, with th t saga* i> which has ever duninguisDeo hi* public iindnu, propped, when he van at U;e head of the lUtlwA)l>epartment of the Board of Trade In 1K44, *hit thegevernment hould restrict ?hi<? principle, so far m c^arded the mmation of railways, in order to pnvmt the con* yi-me*, which lie then fores >w. of n e?<ure ? irn petition. But Sir Roliert Peel, unfortuiate.y for the taihrny Interest and for bis own reposition for fore?ight, took the opposite view of the question; and 1h? weight of his great authority, their can he little doubt, led to an aggravation of thom evils of which we now hear no much. In France and in other rout mental countries the government interfered and interfered rircessfnlly, to prevent the occarrenee of such evils. 11; preventing cxceaeive emnnetiUo i a great wiving etteeted h the construction of foreign railway-. This la one mason whv they have paid hotter thanthe Knghdi line*. But the principal reason is nadtnls-dlv the absence of rival lines, which, in this couatry, abound on every side, asd which always dimiti*i and some times annihilate the profits of the shareholder*. This la the master grievance of our railway interest, and we naturally ask, in reference to the recent deputation whether it Is one with which the l,*gi*!a'nre la competent to deal? That it might have effectually prevented it by a timely intervention luring the growth of onr railway ?v*tem is obvious enoogh. put fcof t9 99WV Vic pvtchief, now \\ U tone, UNDAY, JUNE 28, 1857. is a very different matter. Indeed, we rannot see that the I legislature could now interfere to any purpose. The onlr remedy, such as it is. appears to be in the hands of the shareholders themselves. ITrw AIMran Colonisation for America. [Horn the Lendou Times, June 12 | A deputation of goullemcn connected with the West India interest, beaded by Lord Shaftesbury, bad an interview with Lord I'almorstou ou Wednesday, for the purpose of calling bis attention to various circumstances tend ing to show tbo increase of slavery, and to make suggei tions calculated to suppress the tralilr. The gentlemen who formed the deputation were Mr. 3. W. Taylor, M 1'., Mr. Thomson Hankey, M.I'.,and Messrs. John Cater, I,. R. C.lns MUnh.n W Uu-kMnn uit W I) Oh) 1.1 Tbe points pressed upon Lord Palmorston's attention were the violation by Spain or tbe treaties witli Great Britain, the Increase in the trade in Cuba, especially during the last three years; the further impetus to be dreaded from the high price Oi' sugar; the depressing influence jo the prospeots of free labor; the serious obstruction to the progress of the negro population; the necessity for negro labor on tbe plantations, and for the influx of such labor in almost all the West India islands, and, as a consequence, the supply of slave labor to meet such demand, unlaM free labor or the same quality is provided. Lord 81141-tkbiicky, in introducing the deputation, referred to the document which had been previously sub.nittel to lord l'almeraton, as containing an epitome or the views of tho deputation, and of tho evidence on which utich viows

wore based, and proceeded to tonch upon tho indisputable evidence which unfortunately now existed of tho flagrant violation of the treaty obligations on tbe part of tho Spanish government In all its department;, leading to tho oncour agement of the nefarious traffic in human beings He further observed that tbe trade was undoubtedly on the increase. and that there seemed to be a preponderating weight of authority in favor of tho plan of closely watching the Cuban coast, for which service, as ho was informed, tbe despatch gunboats wore specially alaptod. While he trusted that her Majesty's government would favorably receive the suggestion to bo ollbred on that occasion for increasing the elliciency of the cruising system, he Mi that there was much truth In the next proportion to be submitted?namely, tho removal of the mixed commission court from Havana to .lamalca. All our experience bad taught us that Ihcro was much difficulty in securing the efficient operation of such machinery in a slave country, and the more active our British officials bocame the more they were opposed, and liieir lives were even in jeopardy. The fac'. of the actual slavery or those uiifortunate beings who, from their title to freedom, were rtyled emancipadoa," also called loudly on the British nation to insist on the removal of thoee negroes taken rrom --.sptured slave i-hipe to a country where slavery was unknown. and tho Spanish government wero In express teims bound by the treaty to agree OH othor means bolter adapted to secure the complete attainment of the object proposed. Certain suggestions would also bo brought before his lordship for further consideration, having in view not only the suppression of the slave trade, but of slavery itself, through emigration treaties for substituting the free African for >he slave. Having stated thus far the general views of those with whom he was associated, I.ord Shaftesbury intimated that a few gentlemen would enlarge omewbat on eaeh point. Mr. VanQOB submitted a map of the Island or Ottbh, and pointed out the usuul course oi slavers aud 'bOHO portions of the coast on which slaves were landed, lie then suggested the stations on whica the despatch gunboats should cruise, lu connection with two or more larger vessels. Hn ex|>erleuee enabled him to expre-o a decided opinion that the class of vessels be bad specified would bo in every respect suite ! ftr tho work, aud could be so titled no (o ailord every prospect of health to the crews. Mr. Ijcosard Row* Va it expri ->ned hU own regret that be found himscll the sul.-utctc ci GaOMa Hancock, K. N., as that officer was unable to atti'd, though cordially concurring in tbe work ihoj h a in hand. Mr. Valpy submitted askotch, show iu4 the k UUvo position* of tbe islands of St Dom ego, Cub*, and Jamaica, and the curie of vessels raUtog from tlie north side of St. Domingo to tho north or south coast of c .Ua It wax the opinion of Opt. Hancock, after several years experience m command of a cruiser, that most ol ti;e slavers ran along the north coa-ffi of St. Bomb go, and that it would be adv^able in lh3 tirat instance to hare a close corlem stretched from Crooked Island Pas-age on the north bearing soutn to the northeast of Jamaica, no as to cut o IT that passage. In other respect* tbe views or Captain Hauivkk,ln a pouiiarly striking manner, confirmed those submitted by Mr. Cater, atil hi." testimony was specially Strong in favor of Iho class of vessel proposed lo be used. Mr. Sn-nn-ji Caw then urged the necessity lor the removal of the mixed commi tlou co irts, enforcing by a clear statement of lasts tbe general views expres sed by tbe loble carl who headed the deputation Mr. Wiliiam Wviatss MAChie*j.\ sub untied fbat alavsry could only be rooted OM n . mig- i .<>n trc ities. Hektewthe objection* which would be started, but on rtlieclioo tliey would be found to be ground!,:?. Ti c plantations muil and would be cultivated, and alfboug'i H bad lv<?ii said by a high authority (!*>*<* Ptinerdoo) Ib'it the planter* were slaveowners at heart, ha submitted that ihoy were only aiaveov-no.3 in CiS, becnae tbero was uo other available aourtv of labor. The e^pt twe of the sieve wasenormjua, and if f>c- AtrlCM labor ? w?op plied tho |>reeent slaveowner mish- be^r-e a r. nonary at heart Ruth a piau mm! he mi venial, for if restricted to the British colonies ?? ihwM be charged with self In te: rated motives IT Franca were not .1 ?ined abe would import the fri? black heraolf. and to spein and Portugal we muet show the advent lgea to be thes ootainol. But ho admitted that emigration tvuet be acc-mpanitd by eraeneipaUon. at Ireenr.i n rmivfnot be landed lu e slave eountry, lint, I ke the emar rlpvtoe, they bemmo alavo. Such an omgratjo ehould bo regulated bv ? ro.sed e?m mt>-ion in *, ui xem would bo founded on vMunlarv cooiraota, free passage and out It, with return pa*r vee or grants of laud to the settler. Hy meant of the ?. <>i ,/ittoo ot the w*e#t India with free Mni Ike at I zatioo of Africa might he advanced?emigration and missionary boards wecld work together. In addit.on to theae KWtemen.i a m-m.-lal ha J beea aubmitlid to lord Palmertton, proving the violation of the treaty which came Into op. ration lu the year 1829, nn4 Tom-log the bean or tho auggtstlniu mafo for the eboUiHo of slavery. Reference ?a< medo to a-i art I de is tie T rinof May 1st I, which said, "If wears t> belevethe general evidence of the world; the (lavs fade goia on aa vigorously as over." The New t o;k Jcv-ial of Conn < in l'-ott e? d, "With'n twolve inrutha not l.iiri tlian tlneea fevers hid been f '.eJ o t a .d der-jiv do' lo th w ?t of Africa from New York alone, and a commander of at */or who was Imprisoned In thai r ty dcciael tbU, In his ?i?u on, there we< .n one year aa i uny aa thirty lire." According to the evidence of an inter; r -t?r ou bear' a a'av rtiken Into Jamaica, two vernal* departed weekly | with from 600 to ?i > alares ot boat.l. Another ati'.etncnl ,n the Tim*i was then referred to tn the wmorlM, hi tue I rllect that ai counts from Havana to the Mb of Mar tati 1 that the slave trade waa flourishing. A ii.ltlab tb'p bid landed ACO Africans at the Sagu:. la tlrao 1 \ and was then burnt to tb > water's edge. IK-re were a do-Vtn ve>*4> n the port of Pav<oa for sale as 'nvers. The oourrc ot act.on mi*?. <ed for the abolition of *!avefj-coniprbc.s tho ie'.oa ng point- - - ng and cc , ttr representation* to Ice 8panlt>U government. t;ra.'l *trc*? ta laid the e< edlency . r".t. tniug despatch gunb ml* on tuocon i of Cuba, wh"': plan tt Is remarked usirofgi, advocated by A I -it rial ' i. <: I'ccball and by Captair (faiiMn.a, I.. N It I then n?.u.: ou >d that tho opinion* of Uio-c re ; ' ;t in tn v.. t* fiMV'v exproaaud by tbo c Hp .n .r d the IV - v/h'\ vi - so lab- aa i <t of l"r>7,?ayr "if It ia rcnlly 'nired to atop tb. iral', now so ,v t in Cuba,!-! a a til .ont force oft i;a : * ent o<it to-'.nd / ^ntry ort Cuban ports, and p a lu-lgbt I.. - ont oool th. r?and creeks In wb alt* r?. n old lie lik'.ly ?u r w'. a portion of the r wr u-I.ed . j-go the b..rror? oi site mm'Ji paasage may let ... ? .th r ct to the t' ccc tful op-rstl..a of Uicm acrew .. ->, ' he boat ,p m l i.-l <n e, m - authority that t'cy are K. p. I>- . r c i ' t fart, tuere are tow two in tl.j I'aM I die-*, act 'ley can be mac f. 'aVefnr a *i rm <' v \--.> > ?; in the a. co in. v'V" r of Hi. e ' at. b - i r . ti r. ii-ir draujlit "I a rum ? til* v< ?t . < r it un fey r .n tin if I ^ ? - For I II aped the r-'Vin *1 f.r. ? but at mole rateorh. ?|?? 1 ycmii -arrv cm t-?r tw-nty day Win-nth' - r i- . i about two It ire required to ret np -tei .j. . i . u don tlio Cr art-. ,kod, only from . T tf? l*f.u m tr?4 romi - I -rn .. im maiia ,r tLn mrtm *1 ton*tat> neeolIn ti>e Niw York Ifriutt) April leal. w ir'i rr 'ion* \ il facta lonlin* to ' ow the noor?-"y of tneh etblic oo the ronat of Co be. Tb< following i?re th< .(jeetiotM tnade for aboiuh.tig Invery bjr Afrt< an emit rati' -u trraliee ? Knppre?ek>ndfoUier? tuelf, not the trade alone ttronrfe ?m> T%n >n trea tee. uj . n* the free black African inr tkr nU<r KmlireHna milt be ttnlTeranl. If reatrlcted te Britiah Colonee Britain m'fht h> rtiaim with later Med motlrea. If Brat.cebe not Joined. abe win toon import the free black by I herwlf. To Spain an 1 rort'igal It in .at be ohown to be Uieir iB'errat to jotn l.mtrraiion m iat be vornpnnled or followed by etnanriga lion, free black a moot not be npor'ed Into a el are c itintry, lent, like eman'ipadna they hew>m? i'nvea Bmturatboi may 1 e rejritab I by a mlted rommlaaton In Africa, lie abjerta there*if to be? rolnntary emitra-ta, free peerage aad -mint, a ,liable r-aaela. return paraaffea or granta Fmt?rat|on In Men of alaeery la for the Inlereat of Cuba. < ontpare coal ri alare. f7no (?1401, with tha' of free buck emigrant. LI 10*. a keod adnltai Hlaeery fnral*haa but a t mporary O'lpulr of labor by Indtrif tiata worked to ' ath in ten ri-ara ?h''" etrlp'ratioii girra n perm n>-nt .!? by #<t , a*iioc In 'ami;ten. How em .ncipVon ! to be effected In Cuba. ?An tatmedlaie Syaniah law tor t'tonarpetinn in a limited period for pare knee of ahitea through loan* guarantee i aa lo Intereat b> Britain, If ner aaary; br Inurat to be m ' bra poll lat an*' animal tar on cmlgraeta, and tar oo e\pone. Kniigrelioo to be the bonne for oteanctpetVir Telonlratiou ol the Went Tndiea with free back* wi't rl-. llire Africa by conataat eomanntcaUoa Uirouyh an rtnlfr<ulen blrh way between 'he African trll.ea i.nd eirllired nation* T i-etnl rratlon and m aeb tiary bo?r*la will aid ewh otlier Nome- me em t r hi aia'lnne, with a tied mmmlgoten mH epen > tioe wli tnwtil confidence everywhere wiig aioa will lend to pttl down Inleatlne Afrtran wire. Th" normal atale of Africa io war followed br eaptlrlty. r?ir merc? and rinilraHon mnat ronl out war. Kaeh new emtfrr* tlon iepoi will be a l oad for peace. The rmigran'a wjl br a* need com lre?men, nol eaptlreo. Irtrd fk I mm too lietened moat earnestly to the remarke msde by loose ycsllemeii wlin addressed him, and thanked them fur the snyy est ions they had oflered, ard ih? practical form In which their slews had been hb'idIW. with refermr-e lo the wide subject of emigration. his Inriahip expressed his doubts whether the time had arrlred fer such treetiee, and alluded l> rarious oh,e< .tons which mlfhi be raised. For the present, therefore, he could not testify to his approral of the plan. ffis lordship then ?tated that her Majesty's gneernmeot were most anx lous to do til In their power to repress, tnd, as far as possible, cm* the slatre trade. Ffe admitted tba force of much that had l??en nrged as to the probab'e sneeoes of a r isdrnn ft the -oast of Cults, and was sled to ba able to ?ute that row there were eoneels at liberty for auch screloe, and proposed that one or two gentlemen should wait on the First lord of the Admlra'ty to confer with him on the snbtecl. His lordsh p also adm.tied the a (vantage to eccrne ir^rn s transfer 01 the mixed commission court, and expla'aed the positieo In which the grviwnmenl wrrs placed is connection with the treaties. Re would, however, further examine Into the sub|eci. and assured the deputation that all the.r suggestions sbou'd rscelre full consideration. flHpptr I'oston In Knjtlontta ! mt*r?v(? its th* Mvnnroot. arcitawo*? ATTWBtHOI OF P14LW W ItRSOI.UT IOX? iwimn. |! rom the f.leerponl Times, June It ] Testrrdav afternoon a public meeting of merchants and others intereme I In the question of the cotton trade was held la the cotten sale room, Kictuof* Put! Hogs, far lh? ? - purple of taking Into cootdderattco the pr-went deficient rapf'lf or cotton. The quotUou of the recent deficient gupp'y ot coUon having assumed r&thcr a serious novel in commercial affairs, involving aa it does a diminution of labor In the msnuracturing districts, considerable interest was ms attested In the proceeding*, and at an early period a very large number of persons weie present. It Lad been aucouncod thai several members of I'lutuwoui were invited and would take part In the butiueur, but unfortunately their duties in the House prevented them from attoudug aud giving uUerani to Itieir sentiments upon a eubject well worthy their consideration We -ogret, however, lo state that that waruatti of feeling which was expected f rom the cotton merchants was not so t ally exhibited IVI IUC llTttl rUB?HUHUU ? ?* ow?i vui; more than been declared carried, wh> u about half ihe audience left, and aa the business proceeded (he uumbor of Ihe remaining listeners dwindled. The speeches were tot' i >ug and too many The following resolutions were adopted ? Beso)"eri. Thai this meeting Is deeply seaolble of the Inadeqnaey o( the present supply of cotton to meet the require men * ol mnuufaeturing Industry; that sucb supply tonus almont eitirely from one aouroe is and prrear'oua lu quantity and unduly fluctuating in price, causing Hereby loas and inconvruieure to the couaumer, and endangering the stability and future prooperity of ibis country. Reaclved, That iu the opinion of thla meeting the colonial dominions and other riependenoiea of (treat Bri ain afford amnle rosourcea for the cuitiyalton aud derelopemeoj of the cottou pi&nl, aud that it is the duty aa welt as the interest of the Briil-h uat'on to aid in the promotion o' 'hose tneasarei by which the growth o* colinn may he established and extended. no! onh In the British dominions but iu all acceadble countries. Besotc, d. That this meeting has observed with aaUstfhtion the formation iu Mancbeater of a Cotton Kupp'y Asso<Nation, hsTtDf, tor its object the more extended supply of cotton, and this meeting pledges ltaeif to reuder to such association every support; ald thai a corresponding committee In oodjunction w t'h tlie I'oMSti He.pply A iao< istion, conststing ot live and is hereby established in Liverpool, for the purpose of cnntl '.ing members, receiving subaoriplions and con ducting si; bimiueesconuected therewith Mr. W. Barak, an American merchant, urged that, by the pacing of Ibo resolutions, il should not go forth that a foregone conclusion bad beet alhrmed, that there really was a difficulty from insuiQcient supply. From (ireful Inquiry, be believed that in America, at the pieeoui tluie, there w as the same relative proportion botwesn the slave labor applicable to cotton cultivation and the general populatioB, as existed la lSliO, when there was a great scarcity ; aud while the number or staves in Uio cotton growing Sides bad thus been increased, by their removal tbither iruin other parts, the health ol the slaves had gradually improved. A little cessation of work oc tuo part of mauu facturere would relieve any dlillcultiea that might exist, and the energy of the United Stales was great euough t) meet any real coil for extended cultivation, although ho did not mean to say that it was always to bo depended upon. Mi. CugrriAM replied to some statistics given by Mr. Barber, us to the stocks at Ihe cloee of 18d9. What he (Mr. CliceUiam) was alarmed at,was not so much the low state of the i. toe to 1st Christmas, as the steady declining tendency manifested ever since 1816. (Hear, hear.) Sugui Speculation lu i On rope?African Labor In the Colonies. | rrom the London Chronicle, Jone 10 | The ^.xr'.tement in the sugar market increases. It has beta singularly active to-day. and the largest sale For n any yean* has gone off with considerable spirit at a rise of Is. tt> Is. Gd. per cwt. for the day. The stocks here arc small, and, without reference to the supplies, lie consumption is expected to be unusually large this year by reason of the promised abundance of fruit w'huh will be available for preserving. Speculators are operating upon the strength of this anticipation, and prices are running up. The holders pud importers of this article will realize immense profits this season, provided there lie no sudden collapse in the market. We would now d ect attention to a subject of some interest. The popalsien of this and all other countries is feioadi'y increasing year by year, and consequently the consumption of colonial produce inciecsca 'D prxpoition. We find other countries compefi'M with ourselves in the marhet. of supply, at the some time that the production -does not sensibly in(icsse; indeed it is in many articles, from one cause or another, diminishing?and hence, with other inHuen'-es of recent rate, a high range of prices is being established. An effort is being made to encou. rage the gtowth of cotton in districts and countries where it bos not yet been cultivated. Might it not be equally worth consideration whether it is not advisable to promote the production of other articles which, if not directly connected with the manufacturing interests of this country, are so indirectly, and certainly inseparably united with our other indnst :,.l nteiest*. At the present moment supply and demand are not equal; the latter exceeds the former, aid will increase year by year in a nit .itt dcgiee, unless endeivors, be.-.des what u i/li | rircs engender, are made to meet the w-nts of the mnltitude. In carrying out shy practical system of this kind, two es?eotiahy ru^cssary aids will at once present themselves?an adequate supply of labor and capital, it will be won*; than useless to supply the one without the other. If our IVtst India Islands toer furnished with a sufficient supply of Chinese Cooti* iabor, or free Ajrxca:*, our supplies of cotton, su^nr, coffee, turn, and other articles could be multiplied fourfold We trust that these remarks will not l? without their use, nous? "" 8 *?? ???t confident expectation mat sooner or later the fact will force ibelf upon public uttent ion?that if high prices are to be kept down, and the wants of the people supplied, some i! i --i..n must i>e nuderc! to promote the extended cultivation of those products which enter so largely into the cousuuipton of the people. Unity of action will add force to iudividual ertoits. Tue Milk Crop of Southern Kuro|>e? Its Re. ported Kullme. (From tr.e I.union News, June 12. ] Tl.c advices from Southern Europe unfortunately con ur in representing that the silk crop has again Jailed, th? yield bring vnronsly stated at two-fltihs, am! even one ha f on'y, of the ordinary average. This would represent about the same amount of pro* loce as list j? ar, when the consequence* were felt ?o severely in the sill; districts of France, which had in audit, m to injure the privations arising lrom the inuudutiuaa, the deficient harvest, and tho failure o! the vlutige Although there is happily every proepict th-t the two latter element* <>i suiferit>g will not exist this jrar, the failure of tho silk crop is In itaell nn evil of no ordinary magnitude, inasmuch. M it f KM almost the so'e I* e of a consideiaoic nimiier of peraons engaged in rearing t..e tull.w srms, the cultivation of .he mulberry, .sod the n.-vparation of the silk, aud is more \er of vital impottancc to t ? prosperity of Lyons and Ita d. km population, e* gaged in tho silk niu'i ifactum. I,or do the ucronus* al> >?-c qiuted tuily represent lite ex'er.l of the r-.1 unity. The niiiulN r of rges put to L '* h this sc./' n wi largely beyond tire a v rim. and yet the yield of p 'k does not exceed f Q3' or list yea;: showing Hint the disease, so far from being check d, wo ild apptwr to he even more violent and gr nerah The price of eggs, which aid ' een al>out fuues per ounce, h?d riaon to liiben francs in Is 0, and even a higher ptiee l ss 1 en paia doting the present IS'a -on for those proerrcd from localities ? bet* the disease had not shown itself. But notsiUis'ariding the expense thus incut ird in the hope of seer ring more rig >rous m.-Ir, the result has l<een tlie Mini ; nm y oi the i rn failed altogether; othc s pridueei worms which, af'er undergoing one o 1 wo i hanges, were < red n"i the fatal guff me, and a email |?ortion ; only t> >mirc to reath the cbrjaa'ts -<t\te. M reover, [ toe n i ibs from three atir, iustecd of being vain Me f"r the eg?s they produce arc only a source of lutn.e anxiety, tor an intelligent silk grower of the Fcccnnes has remarked that although tnc first generwt.on from a new and healthy bee,.d of moth* may l* II..-. ....I r.:u -fc.n. -- partially. Ilie malady wonld therefore appear io be local, were it not that districts bitiiertoimat tacked by the diseaac have shown token* of its presenc e, the conn* of the infection being as unv ouotuble and mysterious as that of the Tine or of the potato. That so dire a ealauilty should excite the aoxie'y of the government, and tha? in puriea into the symptoms and probable causes should lure lieen actively pttr?ned. ia to be expected: hut h'therto no HOC3MI has attended the encleevers to pnnidea remedy. In the departments of the Khone and liar J alone it Is estimated that nearly two hnndre 1 thousand peraona are directly or indireetly engaged in the preparation and mannfarture of ad* ai the c hief means of their subsistence: and io tbeCevmne*, the land, nearly valueless for other purpose", and utterly incapable of supporting Die population bv agriculture, reaches ennotirnr* the price of i.-oo per acre. The loaa of the silkworm Involves at the at too time the diminu'ion of the revenue fr tu this hnd. that the ??trifles of capital represented by .\ NT* a mortality aa that whi b has occnned during the lest two years is something enormous, /.s regards the silk mamfaetnre, it was hoped thet the defleiencf of raw mi ferial might'rr a great degree tee supplied by China silk; hut this hope has been onty partially re ih, J. It may he rocollected that in treating of this sntyect last year we qnoted the opinion of a Lyoas miuii facttirer, totheeUM that the looms of that city could not advantageously he employed in working p Kastern silk, inasmuch a* it would be impossible to compete with Kogland In the production of the l?iTtirular clasi of goods for which that ailk sr.liable. The secriilltv of l.vnn* is thp munn'i, lure of those rich and coatly fabrict for which the 10ft elo-i?> si'k of Southern Fnr?pe ia aban'ntcly es ential; and it in now stated tha' general dlsiattsfaclion la expressed aa regard* the g ?>da manufactured from China and Rengal silk, and thai their employ, tnent I mint lie nlni<>*t discontinued If the l.vona mannfhctnrer* are to retain tlieir moat important ,md profitable oinrtoirer*. The demand lor raw allk, conwqnent on the failare of that of K'trope, ha* nevert heleae rendered the Imixirtatlon of ra*t q"antitie* of thoae Reatcrn allka ibhointely necessary. and the price hi been greatly fnhanced, not only by the inre*?c4 demand, but by the neoee^ity for paving foe them in ailver. The aat adr1< r? from Cnifta. moreover, a|*:.k of a failare inahefirat rron of Cantou Ik.and a consequent ihort eopply on hand for alnpatent. The Impor tance of tl a"demand which he* been created may no the red from the faet that the shipment* of ?llk rmm the port of Shanghae alone during the laat 1 ?ix month i of 18,*ft amounted in value to more tl an Co.R40.00O, and the lnij?orta of specie to ill.'i.r.n,0(W?. 1 Mnoe tnat period not only ha* the pdoc of ailk rt**l, \ Diitthe exchange ha* become "till more nnf i vocable ( to thia country. necessitating the anipmont of a i arger amonat of specie to pay for t-Iie qnxuti | * ty of silk. The war, it it may be called a war, iato 1 which Sir John to wring has so iugeuitxuily contnr- 1 ed to blunder, adds to the difficultie i of the siik ? question, wince it appear to have facilitated the ope- I rations of the insurgents in China, who are mteroept I mg the communications, and in some places render- I ing trade with the interior impossible. But in spite of all these drawbaoks, the ailk trade of England, im- a; portant as it is, has less to sudor from the enhanaed price of the raw material than France, we har ng ' only to do with its manufacture and not with 1* , production, and being moreover less dependeut on | the particular quality of silk which has aufiferedjmost, from the spread of the diaease. But the necessity for importing larger quantities of Eastern Bilk at a ' greatly increased cost Beriously aggravates the monetary derangement occasioned by the extraordinary drain of silver which has continued for so many months, reaching at length the amount of ?4,380,000 since the 20th of March, to which total about a' million more will probably be added on the 20th instant. Much of this silver is drawn from France, replaced, it is true, tea great extent, by go,4; but in the purchases of Eastern silk made by that country there is no return of specie direct, and the high price of the commodity of course necessitates the payment of an unusually large amount of ccin. It is true that the French crop of silk furnished a comparatively small portion only of that consumed at Lyons, but its failure is not the less important, coupled as it is with a similar deficiency in the otner sources of supply; and we look with some anxiety for.the final results of the grain and wine crops in the Booth, a failure in which would probably lead to calamities of which the history of Lyons unfortunately offers too many examples. Th? Atlantic Telegraph Enterprtaa* PHYSICAL tiBOOKAPUr OP T11K 8EA?1THBOBIM OP MAUHT AND OTHKtS?THK ATLANTIC OCKAN? TKMI'KHATUKK, DEPTHS AND CCBKXNTS?KKPIOTS OP INSTANTANEOUS COMMUNICATION ON TKADBANH CIVILIZATION. (From the Edinburg Review for April] THEORIES OF MAURY AND KXRIIAU,Kt?CAU I'LATIO.YS OP OORAS DKPIBS. Acqulesolng fully in the name and distinction of " Phy r>ca1 Geography of the Soa," we may add that we consul* Lieut. Maury a worthy 1 alt r pre tor of the great pheoonuo* Included under tliis title. Attached as Superintendent W the National Observatory at Washington, ho has used tho' honorable position with much real and high intelligeow in forwarding objects of singular Importance to hts own country and to ours, and of general Interest to all aiUooi of tho world. He published some years ago his " Win. and Current Charts/' a valuable precursor of the proeear volume To his assiduity working through and second* by his government, we owe that conference held at B.-us scls in August, 1813, in which wore found representative from England, France, the United States, Russia Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Belgium and Portugal occupied, at the very time when war sternly tm ponded over Euro]>e, in organizing plans for tho* co operative labors on the ocean, those methodical rt cords of winds, currents, tidee and temperature whim provide, for the peaceful interests and progress of con menial navigatlou over the globe. Austria, Prussia, tb Iianse Towns, Spain and Brazil subsequently oflhrod thai oo operation In the same groat scheme. With observs ttons thus multiplied on every side?the log oven of tfr common merchant brig being admitted to its eharu in th work?tacts will s{>e?dily bt-come numerous enough t yield results of the bigheet certainty and value. Th method of averages, now so potent an aid to all rescarot has especial application here, furnishing a secure roal I conclusions which no detached obiervations c->uld react Tliough lieutenant Maury claims all Reas for his pn vince, the larger portion of his volume is occupied wit the great ocean which separates the Old from the Ne World?a very natural effect of tho supreme importune of the Atlantic in the commerce of cations and of tb greater kuowiedge thus attained of all its physical pa nomeoa. It will he seen that we have given placo on ot list to another work, by Captain Philippe de Kerhallet, < the French navy, having more especial relation to th ocean?less scientific In its character than that of Lie tenant Macry, and lees animated and vigorous ;a its d scriptive part, but nevertheless containing much that U great practical value for navigation. We come with more satisfaction to the logitimate obje of Lieutenant Maury's work?the great waiery empire the globe: the aspects and phenomena of oceans and sea their various physical relations, as well to the continea and blonds they enclrele as to the atmosphere Incumbo over all; and Uiat farther relation tbsy bear to the t Tor of human im'.u try, intrepidity and sk\U, which have re dered the most di tart pa'hs of ocean <yen and assured all nations of the earth. The Atlantic is the especial obje of our author's labors; on I accordingly we find the tii parts of his vol.ime occupied almost exclusively with U ocean. Though we may explain the preference, we cane wholly acquiesce la 1; as preliminary to a physical histo of the sea at la ge. The subject requires to be prefac by tliore more general vtewm of tne aitiriuuiiou ana re tire coLOgural: jb or water and land over the globe, whi form the very foundation of phytic*! geography, and a rorti: - In c irtou; and Important t inclusion*. Facta who If stated at all, are loosely and Incongruously scatter over the volume, ought to have been put before the read in tome connected form, as indicating the uatnre and mi of the object.* concerned. I.ieut. Maury rimy him at onsc into midnoean, without oompaas or guideL over Ut world of waters. A greater familiarity with t *r wiittDfra or Humboldt, Kttter, "Von Buch. and oUiar t thorn, principally tiertnan, who hare done so much f the study of physical geography, would have furnish both model and materials for a preliminary enepter, au as we desire for a work bearing this title and dealing w ' object* ao vast and vnrioua in kind. We may cursorily atalo here, in Illustration, a few those general facts, to which our author might fitly ha given the priority suggested. Firm, the proportion*of t lo land, determined as nearly three to one. or, in otb words, that three fourths of the sortaca of the globe la < vored with water. Then, the tact (important in its at gestioo ot a disparity in the forces whjrh hare acted I the two hemispheres) of the great exce*s of land in t northern hemisphere over that of the southern, being the ratio of 11 to 4; from which condition arise the ( rious rest its that ool> 1117th part of existing land has la d.amctrir.iily opposite to it in the other hemisphere, s that the line or the equator, as It girdles the earth, rests tbo ocean for five sixths of Ita length. Another mole estimating the profwrties and local relations of land a sea is obtained by baiting the globe longitulina on the meridian of the Canaries: when s nm larger proportion of sen will be found on I western half or hemisphere no deflned. than oi the es ern Ti e main tact of the great prodom.nai t of waf >r. it e urtace of the globe being thus proved, sad mean depth, as we shall see hereafter, approximately ( Krmiued, we reach other cooclutiou*. of Interest a.nioal every ]>art of physical silence. Wo will not! only one of tbeae in which ge .logical theory both past a ; respective is more especially concerned. The mesa e ration above the sea level of all the land on the globe island.* a w "I! as cm,, ,-nts, mo-.otaio a* well as pan# W rstlmalcd by Humboldt ut somewhat less than 1,000 f? The mean depth of the groat o -eana of our planet is oali liitud l>y I it | luce from the tides and other phenomena be at i-ant I ,0U> loot. Tim -, all wli ir lull margin for torn, the entire submerg ncc of the laud might take plai h aving the central solid lusaa of the earth every whe deeply covrred with wee -a?an sllipUcal globs of ore# moving still under the governance of the same stibHt laws which had btfere guided ita path through aurrout tag space craiuirrs *vr> mtrrv irt ss oi t;is i -tw trrm sw V Is ta snoagh to show a hat we should ha ve desired a foreground to the topic* ot' lieutenant Maury's son Thern is aadowbtadly much to int. hi. tart'*, for lbs Atlantic as a subiect i'or IllustraU and w> shall follow his example by limiting ? r emir Irs stib more exclusively to what concerns this grovsd ?a sotiiMe Itself ta the "physical geography of I sea " Huiofd o ir author devotes hi# flrat two ctiapters a rtsgle ntumnt of the Atlantic, but this r.irreat, under t E if stream, includes plif# - nnbtion* remai' 1 thai ?r cannot blame the priority thus git to Ita history. To ass Ma own worts ? Tb*r? la a river In the reran. In lbs trT*rest drough r nerrr fai's. and In lb* mlf hilrst ft rods It overflown, uanka end its bottom nee o( sold water. while Iw rurrant warm. TheUulfof Meiico I* Its fountain, sad it* nontax the Sn to hens. It t* the gulf stream Thrrr is in the w1 ,i ' ! ii. kamii>"'? ? , rr? I i i ?rri r I mSTS put ibna tse II uwinsippi or the a natron, ant lis vn'oae <n< than a taooaand tie rs xrrnler He waters, as far out fr> Lbr Uulf astbe I'aro'lnn r.aata, are of an .ndlgo blue Ta ? ..--v., ? - 111- I? J nncoon win Iiaiwii tea wild m<\f be traeed bf the eye. often nor h of the reweei may be piroetred floating in gnlf mnwun wa' while the other hn'fln inf mam wniarof tbooaa. aowharr the line and a urh : he warn of enmity between theae wnte noil enh, loo, lite rwl ' U'kw no ut apeak. no the ptf of th of thn gnlf Mrt'ttn Ui mingle with the euwmoa water of ' Mi Thin ointment pnwaage delineate#, In term hspp rboren, suuie of U> t mont striking features of Uila t nd fbl ?tr<-*m. Rat Uiero are yet others to ho noted; end nholi dwell nnmowhhf In doUul on a t, Mural phonnm 'o Hum remarkable. one, morooror, In win jh we, tho poo; of lb# Brltieb Ulee, bate n directand niimentoos intnrr u well In reference (e nommatv.e nod nsngajon, no in certain nod t annua inline* eo on ibe climate uu lor wb we lie#. The general description of the gnlf stream, apart frt any pre.eot ipieatloo a* to iu rourree. I* that of a vaet a rapid oronn current, IwwiiBg frt>m tlio ba?ln of the Meslc flnlf and Carthiiean Hon, iionbltng the soother# rapo Klorbia, pr erring fbrward* to the northeast,to * line aim iwra. nl to (be e'nrrinan rtwei lo'u li . nn the a>"*v 4 leu 01 the -and ll'U'ka ul Newln ,n I m l, ar ft ? * rearm- phrti illy punning orcr Uietn; llicnre, with i.i^r, , ng whit i atd dUTuntaa, traversing Uie whole brcndtl the A-taailr, with a central direction I .warde tho Rril 1 Ink*, and finally iUOlf, br ntlll wider diiVomon.j hr lift nf Pursy, on our own shore*, and upon the |0fl line oi be Norwegian coaata. tta Identity In bbysi | r*-i re la prr-erved thronghni.t the many ?hn"m mile" e its cotilinnotia How?the only change nnde'r w ? that of degree. AS Its waters gradual -ommtr glo wlib Uinoo of ibo aurrotinding eea, their difl biuetlm dn.i'nee, their bigh lemparatnre dintiomner, rp-ed wttb wb't' they preaa foreard r'mtea. ft I likfl the stream 'n *Ut tola' mono, It well warrants the rif MtMsti ofr*ir witbor, and the nw " heb-M ws jJ it of **b rtrwr la the pceon." This opl'hef Is. ? t*ij | rut i j i"|7r?n?r7 Ml "I'M VgH? COr(r|" . . , ? ' 1 *9 r nattnonnp ia lut on I m rtraniflf tielachrl fr* Ihr jreat mace of oreoi water*, whlrh, **->oilaf cleft aaunder In aim path t?IU firat Impiirt, are fat at l>r?aalt>( npoa II. fi-aduallf .rapalrtaf In fitroe an t daalr irg It* Indivldnai if. The marlmvim of relorHy, where the atTCaa qv'U I narrow t bannel of Beminl, which compitaaea iu efr' fr> m the fntf. >. abont tour mile* an li > -r Off Cape P leraa.ln *>er?j Carolina, where t ha* famed a breadth lerentf flea mllna, the relootlr la red' red loth ee mil On the pi allel of the Newfoundland bank* It it farther doeed to one and a Jialf ail lea an hour, and t j-a-1 ?l abatement of fore* la continued am the Ai'antic. The temperature of the current undarf ntnilar change. The hifbeet oboerred La about W d I ah. Between Cape llatteraa and Newfmindlan \ thm le-*ene.| in amount, the rarmthnfthe w-i r write, dill 8ft def or .10 <t*r abore that of the orean thrie whlrh It flow*. Nor ta tbta heat whillr l<wt whe# rarhea, h: f la ? id orer. the rot at-of Northern f rope. The wale.ibna conaunllf flowinf to ua from t, Iropicai region . br n? warmth, aa well a* abundant m% I re. 'o r ?I1 I in I Ire'and e?,>e lUlf, n#e ? , llief mnrft eri'r mp'-iae, donMleaa ' 'rirea m irii t parol t >' r mte. u mo Cnra, yard, re, and aVm H