Newspaper of The New York Herald, August 21, 1857, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated August 21, 1857 Page 2
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2 fo, when lh?? yrrael Ut al Niri'V a?<l ??? ? command I of me ihp ?h?n ihe Spanish wa' ree?'l the Dmaa tf?rta \ 8eou?<*4 wa* ri<Mtrr>) ed b r an eaideatoa Owlag to hi' rrteenoe rf mind and prompt!ow?. and tbe energy of hli ft Tow i flleer* utne lire# were ??t?1 The ?c?i? wae one of the mc*l bo- hlo that could b Imagined, the rowel toavtog Ult ltl< raly blow c to ptccee, -no the deck of 'ho Maria wbtob Hblii ? f?'? feel of lb' wrick, bei g coTcro.l wiiaiw fifniA. in ogled ?Hh tb? ui illiv i remain* cf re III f?ie.1 errw. nnr ISO of whom verb killed Tbr daieo' Own em?d?r Pe-ioock'a entry Into I bo emae i> lsvi. mod from teot lime to the prcaanl hb hoi been mr u*t?en jeara ataea TirB MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE EXPEDITION. The maohlcerj which hu been ,nt up on the noo ta o drphcate of tha< on the N'agora, and b dewtp Moo of our will therefore one we- for both. In addition to tbe ?tndtnj In had po>ln( out port of U th?re U on engine of twenty horee power, which la always to be kept In* should It l>e found receesary to n*e II la taking np the cable, an operation the Biioceee of whioh, oi bo* been hinted, la regarded o? very doubtful. T1IK PATIMi OCT MACHIKK. Tbla portion of the machinery has been the aubjeel of ery yevere crUlr'tm, ond it but been aaaerled in a I ranee of tta trial in It la too hrary ond too po rerfnl for the nrora for which II woe ci?>truoled So for tbe experimental trtol boa been cuocemfol, and from the admirable manner In which It worked the greoteil ho;?e are en'ertalned of tta a urnem la the greater trial ro wblrh U 1? eoon to be nobj-ctel. Tbe new nIns ia com pored of four V rheare wbseli which are ind'eated in the followtnr enrrorltg br the let ton a, a, a, a FIGURE I. TATINU OUT Ha Cnlti'B. The cable paaeee oyer tbeee la Ibe manner exhibited la It' Afnrea, ttrtt ea er mg the groove or ebeere la tbe ecoad (heave wbe-1, laving over uid under It. It then piaeee over the Oral (heave wheel, and takiaf a turn over Ihr rnfttee ' ' l'? ren:'0?ry. i? OHrra ?o in' iaar*a, trot which It l? del tmi to the third, pining Unhllyfrom tb*t to (be *e?ve *tee! hi tbe fttorc, nad over tbftt ftjV.n 111 e the or no The b-?be wheel*, wh'eh *?* ftbown hr the letter 6. hr? la*?ed by ? pint 'P,k In the ?lndlrj mftohine end renl. e W'tb er lent/ pre ionioned to the elm of 'he thence wheel*, tech o* w Wb ii fleo fert tn diftmrter ? b'?he Wheel* ftre ?cted onon by wo>1en b!oc?e, ecrewed |o gtebei ft* repreten<ed In the nrpr r , n*ln? (Fig S),?sd woee e>tcpio?M>t not theiieelrc* up * the leeer c, ehirb ere Conner ted with ibe tndioetor d IbU LttulCftlor ihoirt the ttrftlc on Ibe onble FIOrttE 2. FWCTTON UUI OJ " riYIht OCT" MftCJlM. to \ P ? 1 rf'-J! *?'" fj :*!? : r rK hji. I V . J&Mnii ' l; ?-h4i | '<Sj . The liThke Is worked t nnot or the bnnUe * ttaown hru I tad betlce ?ki, L ih?. , " IT" toiintd to ?i*k II wlwi> n<j ,r?l Tbe la-iloBttr It In.iltr to b pBfot turinf wiiie *nd /, ft |, ?ip<y lint aud mtpbl to krrp U frito Ixtog iiiu.t-i out oT tu place hr tito BOtR'D uf lb* toviT mi wikdi*? mctnsi AllhtHifb H It t? bt boptd VU (tort will b> 01 orwtlno lorfteoMof (hit oiacblo', J" II woill be a ttt'pBblt till Of Itweelf hi to bare B'pleded provt?IO| ot* Tor each Of to* otl'lt rbipa On* of tbo moet tarton* dlfteollee tot. If b it to b? apprebe* I'd In to' work or pa-lag out u |i.M wbitoi trlrtt from to' Hov np ofto'caM* Tht n^q tolib ohtob n we* oollert on (At Niapara?frequeotly Mtbe r?W o? Ul*Or Rlllto OB l>our, en<1 ou or.'mm.. w tt toe r*W o* Are tt' #?wa# cn.lrlr m'?t atwpllout a?d pro tot?t*i fo to' tootot* or lb' deal opcati n tbere ?? ?f> ttroio, on toodeoe; Unk, end 'lib (ho eiODptlon of Illfbt (wltt w hi' h wool' b' pemepUbleereD to B Cir^od tobat. no wood' from a .pool bert wot noto'ry (o ,ut(lfy II.. fttr Ibtt lltorr w .old b* ooy obtto'W 10 to' wey of tt>? toore tf ?l oooompUfbiortol of tot wo k f'0? tuob t oettoe P-'U. 01 bot btro re'd, It wooH here to otlpoble to tot or pit' to (o bo't oepiewed b mak* prorwino fb* tw'i to Otoerpooy fbt WtDdlop machine, tlbor^k It ad-U to (0* wrtybt of (be nw'iit ' ? fbr pOf'M >?*. * conrdtop to to* op.ntor ?f ibt wnplewrt onnf tod with ?*> ta "prW, tt ntmiart tod PpM It It OCtoM potottly I*. fto*l<?wlo? ibt ?e-k ?bcb It Mr (> pwrfbnB the r*W?wetal? plvet o oorreto riew of It, Bad ? "piBooitoo of |he rorioat par*, will reodtr It ? 1 lle*rw to the popular aDtciteadtDc thu in unaided rerbnl dMortpUou ? FIGURE 3 THE MACHINE. J ;> \ ! A A are two grooved drumi about aeren feet in dlame ter, halt? five groove* on Ihe periphery of each. The cable li wound round each drum five tlm ?a, pausing from one to the other In auccenaion till ail tb* groove ar niie wheu each revolution of both wheel* pay* It out to the hand* of the n en ' ho aland ready to ootl It aa it la taken ap f-om the ocean. The obj?ct ?f parting It ro in<! theae drums au often is to render It aa?ler for the engineer to cheut It b> the application of the brake, whloO ta Indicated by letter E, and which la presented more In detail In fl<iiro 4. FIGURE 4. FRICTION BRALI OF WINDING H10QIXX. iuBJ rr~^? l II The winding machine :? no oooetruoted that li oh be nade to i?rtorin the *ork of tbe paviaff out machine eboald It be found necceenry to employ II In Ibet way In the ev it of It* being need for net I purooee the b-ake b iohhi abtolui- ly neo> atwry to roe train the a je> d of tbe c** ie U going on; over tb< stern Tbe g-ooree a'# fo tbe i nrpoee of keeidng tbe cable from becoming entangled or rather fr>? crowd! ig and cowing tbe outer wire, wbich "nit be ?er> Habit to oemr rrre tb? periphery of the drum perfectly naL Toe Are groove# are ec-en to advan tu< In figure 6 tbe letter a apocrine tbe irroore in which the deep valine re?te and tbe lewer b ibai in which le represented 'be eborc cable, tbe eed scCion* of b *h dee j ta hue at dehor# cable bring represented bv propor t: batety alied black circlet, the Bret of wbl,.h (e) fl la up ectj aptutof a groore. and the eecond (6,) the whole of one FIGURE 6. a a t L |UU*4t| Oe the ??rr.e nafta aa the froc?e drutne ere the apor wheel* C 0, to goer with the ptn'on pieced bc'.vxsa t- esi. end which I* Indicated by D fbt rheft on witch ion p'ni >o t* flxed al<o carries the brake alluded f>, and which, a< bu b?eo MM, le ooly ? ? be a?ed wbno tae winding mwhine t? employe 1 la |?ymi; oot Figure 4 pmrnle a deli led ore* mg of thle ee*enuel pa*t of lee machine rbe two I roe lever* A A bold toe oi ?k* of woxl i a t > the brake wheel l> B- tcre*lng the out c, walnuts ejo arcted wltb a right end left band earcw, the le -ere A A are preened together or the *h-.wl 6, which ?topr iheie ?? wheels, end by which ofoouree the whole meraioe liatnp ped wbrii euWdeot prervorc le em 'toyed 'here ere two brake*, one ot watcb t* Itemed ate'v behml thoo'h'r end cannot, therefore. be reea II le not pnbab'e the', toe extra I rake will be repaired, but a p-ooe- precaution, which Lee bee? manifested In the r me rjctma of other par'" of the wacotaery, has made the raise pro<ialoa la thle < roe to me*e any emergency the' may near. ?i mat ter bow fmprobahle It way appear The whole weigbt of the winding ma b ne is about Ore I>er The iroored wheels, It I# rakm'ated, will roa w lb a re Icetiy of tew rero minor to the ninutw. end a', thle apeod will wtad ap the e?b,? oier It wpeO at lha rtera at tbe rau of three milt ao boar tbe pejlnr e it li rogt leted ta tbe awe wap?that la, for ere 7 three mllerif Ui* cable peeeeti o?e? tbeae fro ired wheel' t-> the wheel at the etwra aad frum II do we into theooeea each of tbe fronted wbeete will Bate lee e?oliUoo? a m'ouie la the wiad ic( up of tbe cable, whlsb la a m 10b aiowar piooeea thaa tee j>( oat, ea aoc teat of tbe treeter awaln produced bp the operate*. tbe length of oa'ce liken la will n"<t e* eeedoeemiie aad a batf an hour, an t Ji* rerolulioaa will he reduced, therefore, ti In per ulauie Oc tbe atme abaft wtib tbe hrakea ie ripr^eented tbe tbird Urge rpar wheel I. which fevNM bp a pint jo driver bp the engine TBI BPLlOtb'0 or TBI C4BLB. Tbla le oae of tbe mat important, aad at tbe atme tine ooe of Ute atwipleat eporaM <ee rotianrtel wttb the work af taping tbe cehia Froai the great fledbil'tp of tbe deep aee Mae, It la thought tuat there will be bp oroeitoa to per forwt the operation, but ahwld It be reeeaaarp, from k'abtag. It will not teener m r? than half ai hour at Ibe nta net Tba prmeni map be dlrldad lain three diet!am braecbce?the Jelalrr of the r >pper core or (f>edu*t??, lb - laeuUtl n with gotta neretit. aad lh? eplr.tng of the outer pnnectlBg wire Whea a klak oec'iri ih? brak a*a Immed aleir p?t oa, an ae |p arreet the defecica por tioa rf the cab la befo-e II peeirw over Ibe etera. Tbt ororel tr that top-*d aad that part of the I ae wh're the kirk l? obrrrrrd I* aerered Tte gntta prrcha le oow ttrlpped off tbe eonJicier to th? length of about two tact ea oc both cade, which a-e lal I over eaeb o*hae, bonrd with confwr wire, aa la eeaa la figure 4 ef the an atied aogiaiing ? (3H8S5?Fl* SHBS ' T t .1 r?? ? , 4 B?^\??ai Dr?r tl in *f*'p ' '? '1 *" ,>"" " '?? '' rir "Hud Utf ud Ibe ndiMrlac rwpwrtdd, ?o tut tb? pwrl which 1 JEW TORE. HER ALB, FF tpHc* by betrg th?t strengthened to made stroeger then 1 an 'tber. This donble binding la seen to ttgurtu 1 au<l 6, the erde tvlng been previously prepared m they app or Id flgares 2 and 3 The great advantage of th manner o' *i hctur will be at once peroelvad by reference to itvr*0 which sli'?w? that In the event of Die ropier* of the pure the ooem-ctlnn la el:II kept np by Uie single wire, ablcb In this care being In cntaot wttli the ?ever*l ends pretervc the eleei'loal ooettnuliy. Should there be any at asep'irai rs to dloellere this. It ought to be sufficient for ibtm to know that were the wire eleven t'mee smaller than tin- small strand ?<se?en wires which form the oore. i e power a* arwnooetor of the e'ectrlcal current Is redaoed Onlv one thirl< e 'vei th par In a Whole mile. The spllclug tt competed by the tnsulat'ou of the core eltt three levers of pt'fa irrobs. each of whl h Is about as thick as ordl oa-y f? heap. layer after layer of this la laid on till It Is brought to a nulform sur'ac? with the rail of the gotta l?rciia In-u'atinn. after which the outer orotecting wire is tald on and hoand In n somewhat elmllar maimer to die pltoing of thy conductor. THE COILS. Now Ibat the fleet which la entrusted with the all lm collect duty of laylrg the submarine cable of the Atlantlo 'oug'apb Is fslrlr on Its way, If not very near our own oM, It may be Interteting to review lbs mode In whlsh the grdhl table Is coiled on board the Niagara and Aga rcDin; and the means adopted to preserve It from sect re's by gelling foul of the *-row or ru der during tho I o sinn of pe' >ng out?accidents to which It mar he noorlj subject, and which tu a raw ammonia might render ' ? worts of month* valueless. POSITION OP THI OOIL8. the followlrg is e corrected engraving of the coUe, Mrh were made under the superintendence of CafA Kelt, Mr. F gett, tallmaker, and Mr. Webber, thsg'iB&er "f Uic Niagara ? H g ! h fi \ P ? i Yr===* * 1 Sil \ 3 V. . 'I \ ? Sii \ ^ >f D * Tyv W J| I m a * ' -^irt-- r g js.xp; ? ii" x r g fl j Piiifi I ; % I ? * ? | / o> ~ 05 1) 1 \ t ; CD B ^ ' V p ^ 5 Tb-> r?rl??r oot Md winding In machinery It ahoin on a ?Ui*li meb. I?tw-r a, aod ifce e *ia by Uio Noa 1, 2, 8, 4, ft air. 0 arbicb ajto praaaal the nrdtfr ta arbieb U?ey a-e lo be |?i(l, K0 1 btlac tto ten i/illw ortbe ahore ca be U-tie t i* a eliuilar aaeara ?b*#l lo iaa? over tbe ttero. end ?ill be i#< d tin It beeomee anaiumi i lo ooia^ucoce ofaaaieiorttao e (be oabla te the bo?, ao at lo iti bit the vta?al to team up aaatoat tba alao a* n acuhl aetUabijr b" T>rt*eo oiberaiee. Tb't botUer allt^oly be oeceaaary wbaa tbe (ale la (-oa um> teal w?ru Tu leiirth or mllee Is tbe diflerael colli no boor* the Niagara, Uu> ren?inler brio* an biard tbe A^amemnm, la promoted In the following tabiea? Miin Col No 1?SiwewMi 10 No. 8?Deep aoaoable 130 No a do. do J *>? No 4 do. do IK1>4 No ft do do ?... 8&3 No 0 do. do 307 Tol*l 1,39414 Tbe rhore and deep tea cablet will be patted to the pe/irp o> i machinery ore? a teriee or amall alzed drama, placet. at regular Interval! between tbe coll froai which It la taken ab l ibe machine arriaRA^cK or a antoLi coo. Tbe cable in wound ap la one moertroua cotl on tbe Age itcmnoa, but from tbe cna?traru<>a of our frigate, ibe Niagara. N aa fon?d eeoewarj to divide It lato all no la. ib-re e which a** planed for ??rd. about a bnadred anl twenty feel fr- m the now no tbe <lecka one ab rre Ibe oto< r, namely, tie bold 0 mr. the orlop deck an 1 tbo berth Di ck Ue tnreo nolle are 831 re Ilea o'cable In toe aft imrt or the irl a e aeventy feet tram tbo atari, are two er o?i< . located m Uie bartb and oclrp dceka, an- a-ra-'i-ny 417 mile, n * cab'e. making n all tbe 1 I , Vila- allowed tu tbe Ntarara, and weighing near I; aa man/ tnee. Tbe anil it formed mand n oned made of atrrnf plaak top, aa ma/ he aeet, b, refaroace tn tba aebj lo?-l mgrav mg, repeereaurg 'he front view and lateral motion* ? PRJNT TI*W Of THB COIL. /Wr'. l ATlRAL fKCTTOK OF Tbn (If re A frm (bo Trtmt rtow if the c;?ll, wlia u>tapof Ibe tatemel onee appearing ?*n?# it, anl thla ??i C'-ctatF* ?M lopa oI ?he cahln, l? thirl* Are real <a dlaaaa ler. eight feet blrb, awl about 4H0 ml la* l-rej II |? lat I n? ifce nflii floor to the 'nra nam nf iba ?Btp, aail la thj aifil of lb*1 fl -a Flfi re B rhi # tna lalaral taction ?> ih? cm aoil ?ui?a, tba rabl* being l?i 1 np again*! tba alia n act re .re acalBI the tavrnai onoa PROCESS OF COIUNO THE CABLES ILLUSTRATED, itrre *re iwi other feature* of the work which ha*e e?n yet appeered In p*?t, *nl wbtob fire an IHo* fwU<B of the htimorma |*rt of It the proeeaa of eUtr* it might # I bo (opp-mH It i nm todlona opo HOB, hot the eab>e mm of the N'agara wore Ike m m?e> ha-h Tatlay't, oM o?mr ?it m ?t erodlta hlr nrde' H-oirr^ionf*. b\ w?e|1 bare damned lie or dor if aay ?*her hoop f men Tj? wrf|? of ootldm, a? ihet rrmr.d the rlr? pi'tof u i flakon* fl tke war' mj-o Hhe a toctal OB t? ae emb ed for amnaement than a body of o.e roil re who hao a monitoorma ?nf r to pe-fi'tB They amused U> raael?ea with ooauadmai* bo h (rood and oud tM?i aroeaoi ar m the im ntop bow lloe, aad latghed at Jniea that that had board for the <? rtteth Un<e Rut withal there wae aa ae 14 IT If ?hme won on imrwl'ij f IT tn-re ?o rl?bt and fe* eiyM t morn ill'the t?ea*f t t d?r ?a? the I art nv ? rf it pia *1 on board Nr?r'y ?o half the time too, they ?"* etnc?i to a etooptnc r<atore. for, aa the nmla lo-reaied In height, the enaoe be?wae? th' i ? o* aad the beaut of <be dor* orer bead (rwdnailt dlHalahad ?o aa to rowdar It lai ma.iblo or then) to ttaal, or ooon ?tt upr'jrbl In ir-? Miwm'ir they reaortod to a bontrrasoe whloh wee no leoa ?oral 'IDAT. AUGUST 21, 18W. than It waa Ingennoa, sal which afforded tfce.vantnei t hat alible fand of mlrtt and bimor Tw opwdl'i *lw a travelled round the el de, paying out the eabfc wWeb he hauled down through the oprulcg above bin m obliged t by the Increasing height of the ceil not only to stow Mhe a hie fellow workmen, hot waa coir pel led to go Ibwn urpew e hie leads and knees. A* M waa hauoastbie. however, 'or li him to 01 e h<? kaads while open oil-thorn, It became booow- a earj to devise another wey of peyfcg oat to ibe oolleru 1 The Invent've faculties were now coiled Into play and the a result *ae the contrivance whloh la reprotected In the a subjoined engraving:? c ooihihu sonoi oh >oaa? ?a niaqaba* ' 7H | jJfi ,, |i ifeal jgBgU ^ is A belt, It may oe observed, I* fastened round hii body, and lo Lb La again is attached an Iroa ring through which t '.e cable passes, and by means of Which U la Vhna paid out to the operators When this Ingenious oonlrlranee was Introduced, It was welcomed amid a sbowor of Jokes from every part of the circle, and when harnessed to the "payer out" the prororation was so perfectly irresistible tfcat from it at time to the end of the work there Were enough )arm spun and stories told to makes dozen such volumes as Baron Munchausen, with a whole library Of Joe Miller's t"> boot He eras called " last boss." "a bobtailed rag," "a full b'oodod racer." Ac , fcc-, &o , and small beta were dlered on bis trotynr rouno lbs coarse lb less than 1 wo forty. "Hey--get along there ?wbal're you about?trot around, my Q:iy?jee up now and abuw your training," and inch like exclamation* greeted aim as be prccecded on all fours ronna lbs cone *t*ve me a grip of j our tall, old Joey." " Ttaore he nee off :r a canter?tea to one on his pacing," and ?> the fun was kept np the fast nag himself o?aaiooally Jrtmag In wtvh the oompaay. On tbe catslds of the ooll may be petrel red some specimens or high art, performed by that | universal gerlua. " J Smith," with some ahstrnie arlth metioal calculations, and a tlil'.e private set to between two retnatkabie *wrd*men Take tl altogeJjer thoro never ?u ?uch ? omnbinailoa of hnmor, rrom gfnlui anl *n, a* was to be fband In tbe *ul marine cable circles of the Niagara, and If ibe circle* of the Agaraomtoa bad only hair a complement, they moat have been a* J>Uy a m of ftlioaa u ever aaeembled oa a Br It lib mtn of war. | THE GUARDS FOR THE CABLES. 1 One of the moat Important parte of the machinery which ,t r?<,utred In the laying of the cable, are the guard* for the propeller* of the Agamemnon and Niagara, and with cat w*ii< b tte ecroeaafol aocompllahaeot m'gat bo defeat ed, these being absolutely aeceaaary f? prevent the fooling or the eo.'-wa.'lne cable ta the event of the Mlp being obliged to b>vek .,ut of tbe wav or Iceberg* or from other 1 cause* It Ira pi dot to which the grealeet attention ha? vrry properly been given, a* the breaking of the table af er eevrral huwdre d inltei of H had been p*dd out, weold pnetpeae Co oot.ft'oiet, of tbe enterprise fnr a year, In ad I dl loo to the great pecuniary loae by which *uci? a dimstar would bo attended It was prepeeed n avoid eocb a dl* aater by rsrrontidlm the r?rew w??h a cage, wh'ih would e(! r ually present tie cab e rrom i imlng lo oontart; but a* the t?<> hmcIi or? diiicrontly eonetruntad, and aa It would be abtoluiely Etceaaary to pfcte the Niagara In dry k brfore Ibe ( age ctirl I be fastened to hor, It em de clued to abandon It In bar c*e<- and lo ado it a guard In lie bad Tbe rage ban, therefore, only been ueed oc tbe Agamemrnn, which wa* dirked for tbe pur pom. I rom tbe *uljoined dravlrgt tbe reader* o' the Hnaaui will perceive at on< e the difference between tbe two oocLrl

rate**, bi.ih or which are very Is gen I out ? TDK BTBILN AMD RCBM AKIH1 CABI.g Or AM) Of TO MAO ABA. a ? Hor.e .hie r itfd, #?Section of fnard and b?Vartioal br?<a* radical braoe. C ? Horizontal b'aoen. r -WiUr ItM . In ibK drawing t? will ho aeen tb*t there aro two goerta of Iron b<rh '?i?p round lb* Aom of ?h? Nltjrira in the fi rm of Imml cire'e or borwak w, nc otlac both ibo propeller and tbo rodder, lb* lower being about foot bore the voter lino, and tbo other at an alermtioa of noma eeren or eight Toot fro* It. At lb* iblp will draw Ukree or fbnr foot when loaded vitb IM oabla, tbo lower gaard will, of oourae, bo anbmergad to a norrwt ponding depth, forming a All! bettor proorUoa whan 'a the no-ma of bai king, wbinb, after all. may bo entirely avoided Thlo guard It placed about three *aat trom tbo fltcf* tf tbe terew. and bote eon oloron and |w>|ro from the ride of Ute redder pool, eo Uial It* fall dlaaietnr at tblt pc.'nl it from leerly two to twenty foar foot Tbe l*ngtb Of tb? | erp"ndlro?ar bare yarleo from ?eyo? tofnnri??i? fen. end tbe whole preamttro email m?t* to tbe notion i "CI*>c wa?er and to eo wall fart"*el with bolt* aa I acrwwa i tcit II le et peeled to reel"I all tbe prewar > W> which li m*y \ be "objected tltber rroun tbe Inelde ? oubfde to tbe caec of the Agnoiemaoa, lo wh eh the cage hn* been a plied, aad of the at^m of wblcb tbo fblla wing it a < correct drawing, tbe dilf ireaoe will at raw be aeon wbei i ?om tared wltb the Nlngh'a Tbe co-intc or ua ler r >ind , it* of tbe rtera It morn nearer to the water mark than 'hat of tbe Niagara, and to tblt came It ot'nt the differ | < ere in the open apace which it ao apparent In a compart , ton of tbe ate o? r.fb th ahlpa Till BTBRM AM) ?C*W AlllN* CA*L? Of ABC 0? TUB < AVAirHNO*. tTTtaTTTr.e ' ' * rabl* pro UK* prMfMM la till drawing ta, IWo-allf fraking, a caga aiadt of bar* oftraa p4a*?i a*maa* at rtgte? a?.gt?a ?Hb aa* otbar.aad lo?t?a of wbioa thn craw la oboarrad. u daaoaaia batawtba watar mart, MMM I ?' he perpend lou Jar ban, of wblch th*re are two on etch Me, being aorewod to tba ooun'er an ft the keel or the hip, not mere then three or feer feet of the whole cafe icing vUlbts above the eurthee oT the water. Thu borl iontal ban are rounded oat ao aa to fores a section of a trcle, the diameter of trkhbb about t renty foor feet saving a apace or about two fert and a ha rbetween them ad the a weep of the aorew. Tbo hi'lr >ntal bi s ta this u aoco, lnate<d or b>lng brought round the rudder are err wed into tba mdder poet, a?l the whole oags will be uhj"e?ed more to the aotlm of the water than the guard if the Niagara on aooount of tie deeper aubmenlon. Both he guard end the cage ere the beet that cull be deeteed, md will no doubt pro re err ry way efflotent for the par wee Ihsy were Intended to subserve. CABLES, BUOYS, GUARDS, ETC. In the above aooount the read era or the Hsaauv were otty pooled In regard to tbo oable guards, which lave been put around the etern of the Niagara and tgmmemnon to prevent the oable being out by the iropeller In the event of backing of the ahlp from my obatroctioni, auob aa lceherga. This guard la d tea ted by letter b In the drawing showing the past Ion of the oolla. In addition to this, and for th> atlll jreaver aecurtty of the cabin, two Urge buoys, each oapa Dleofeustaiolng a weight of Ave orsl* tons, have been pat i>n board the Niagara, ao that ahould she bo obliged by itreaa of weather t > slip the cable, It may be attachsd t > ihts. This will be effected by mcana of a srtre cable eight ?r ten ml let In length, one end of whloh will he secured to the end of the sub marine cable and the other to the buoy, ' thus taking the great atrala off It. DANGER OP KINKING. The greatest difficulty anticipated ta paying oat the Im ' mense weight or cable la the danger of ita twisting, or < kinking, as It Is deposited In the ocean It baa been observed In deep sea soondtcg that the lines bars a tendency to twtat-probably la part due o the apl- ' ral character of aurfhee; U Is usua', thereiors, to attach . swivel to thnm: the oond'-rtlug wire doea not admit of j such ?> appliance. The smooth and unbroken spirals bf he wire oable affording an easy passage to the water, It la to bo anticipated that as mile arter mile or this cable goes down it will Iwlst, the turns will follow the ship and accumulate But this prejudicial result msy be modllad be outline the cable on board with reference to the resulting turns; and this application, which decs not appear to have been reconciled, makes useful dUpcattion of those coil turns, rendering It unnecessary to complicate the arrange mint of the cable on board by attempts to avoid or destroy them la? CBWClOr VV UJC UUI TP ?-? WJ H?0 ?mv<? v? way U the bottom will depend upon toe Telocity of Ita descent and the *peed of the abtp. If the oable vheo 01 tended horizontally upon the water strks fatter than the thip rnna, the convexity of Ita curve will bo towards the bottom: the upper portion, nearly vert cal, will detcend mo-e dtreotly, and therefore more rapidly, toward* the bottom; the lower portion will conie (|ueot!y be deposited In wave*upon the bottom But let u* enppoee (bat we have a cable whlcb, wben laid horizontally upon the water, will descend lew rapidly than the eblp advoncea. That we suspend thla oable vertically from 'he vo ael, at potltlon 1, (aee diagram,) Ita lower portion fl ied on the bottom at 0; and that, then, checking the oable to prevent waste, the ahJp movea off at perhapi the rale of tea mllea an hear:? ?It la obvlona 'that aa her dragging Torse la applied at rlgat nog lot to the vertically auapunded oablo, the roe 1st once of the water will cause It to anume a curve (0 2), Ita concavity towards the bottom. Now aa the veeael runs on fiom poritlon 2 to 3 and 4 constantly chirking the cable to prevent Ita running right down, the angle will become lew and leaa until the dragging Toroe of the ship will be exerted nearly In the line of the table itself (0 4). Tnen tbe gravity of the cable earning Into play carries It by thla line so thai Its convexity la towards the Vu ?m (0 6) But the upper portion of the cable, whlcb U being coot nuaily paid out from the ship, sinking with a lower velocity than the ship's rate, will still present its concavity toward* the bottom (0 6). There will he a ware in tbe cable and this wave will exist, whethor we start as supposed, with a cable iuvpended vertically or flmpl) Inclinod?so long a* It Is checked on board the ?hip. And this checking cannot be dispensed with except In the cam of a cable muoh lighter than that or the Atlantic Company. This wave wo~.ld, under oortaln conditions, caure the ex hlbtdon of elngular variations In Intensity or the stra n upon the cable. If, for Instance, the speed or the ship be reduced more or leai suddenly, to leas than the sinking velocity of the eable, the wave? will travel towards the thl >, and the strain will be rednced In an extraordinary degree: but a moment tfter, the cable, assuming the catenary 0 0, will exert a tremendous power. It would then be neceasa-y to Ir create the ipeod of the veasel, wl ho it attempting ? arrest the cable, until a considerable portion bad been laid more horizontally upon the water, and the wave thus reestablished. THE COMMENCEMENT AND PROGRESS OF THE ATLANTIC SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH. This gigantic enterprise was Oral conceived in this conn try, and was commenoed.abant four yea-n ago, by a small company of American capitalists residing la oar city, la lacs of all the objections that were crged again it It, they persevered with a determination that was proof tgUnit all discouragement II was supposed by somo that the laying or n cable across tbs bed or the Atlantic was an utter im possibility, and that any attempt must enl In discomfiture and disastrous pecuniary loss to (hose who ihojll engage In the attempt. But the New York, Newfnunlland and loodon Telegraph Company was composed of men who were not to be drier red jj inch foari; and b tug oodb co.tvlnc d of the pmctloaMltty of the undertakiif, they entered opon It with a will and an earnestness that no cbstaclea could overoome The> octet, led that If It were poaaible lo lay ssuomarme telegraph between Eog l ad and Krance tha , With pro.wr mean* and ianiniei the same could bo duns between America anl Europe, and those means an 1 facilities the; asset ed were si their disposal. The task which the/ bive rcdertakes Is, It must be confessed, s ilupu doue one; but so many things hsve conspired I j favor those who hive undertaken ?r that there la little rtaeon d?w lo doubt of Its uitimatf auoeatn. Thv company o ?n lets of (he following gentlemen all of whom have boon oocaccted with It since Its incorporation ? OFPIClHfl OF Til* Tll.K.H SPH COMPANY. Prvjutwst I'eter tlnopcr. TiiamcBM Mom* Tr> lor. KLornurtto Kam'iel v b. Hotm LhaaciuM,,, Pe<er Hooper. Mo ei Tb lor. Wilton H Hint C> rno w Raid, Mnnhrll O R bar ft Throe yeniiomea about three yea t n*", n > tamed charter from the ooloalol ferernmeot of Newfooadlaad, tract r* (hen) the etc I o? l re privilege frr df > of rnonlag a trle.raph arraai tfcm Hand and Ihroifh uj cf the aijareal water* Tney aleo nbt?t red to apt ro.r-ia ion of twenty Ore ibi-iaaad dollar* for lb* ooaatrortiaa of a bridle path -rer the aonlbera po-t oa of tbe oouatry, which a a* ooartderod <adl*peoeab!e for tbe ragvlaUoa and repair of the telegraph la addttloa In Uita the? wr # atured lb* IMaat oa too butdeart and (Illy Utoueaad dcllare for twaaty yret*. aad a p eaeal of Ofty eqtiar# m lea of lead, wblab tbe oempair vera a'towed tbe I Harty of aeteet *g tn aay part of tbv Ulaad Throe altb rOber *rbe actial mark* of tbe far or with which lb# NewftMiaelaad forrrameat retard el the ets'ar prt?e, were winiag'? bentoeert upon tb* ootnpacy, w tb lb* beet wtebe* for their anceaaa. A charter baring heea rBtaeliniely ranted by the goreramenla of Pel boo Mearl I*ad and New Hr meelrt tbe Mlugrapble coanre J to?or to tar the iaete of tbe iropnaad telegraphic aooaaotloa? brtweea the Catted ?ate? nil t? Johaa, oa tbe ertreiae weatera poioi of New Yoaotaed, w?a aatabltabad. la tbe latter part of lad year a comjie # oataaalealioa eaa aa tabiiibad belweea more polar i, by Ibainooaaafbl laying of b rubma-lB' cable arena* tbe Oulf of ^ t.aareaoe, trorn Oa.e Kay to Cape North, the laad liaaa bartac baaa oo*a ple'rd two o'tbree yeari p*erK>naly Tbua far the nomjoay haa haw aecwwfal. hat Mil lb* Cor neetloa If completed hetweea Rarop* aad America, tb* w k fur wtl -h twry hara ertna'ied raaaiM ba tail la bara bren aewnipii ned Through the at'ore of Mr Oyr*a W. field tbe whole amooat af oaptml (Ckto.ono, whicb ta equal to 11,710.000,) to been wbaenbad tbe abaraa amnuaitrg to M/00 each fa* prepnrUna* la wh>ch t jere thare* bar# been taken ara aaa bnadead aad nee ta Ixmdoa, eighty atfht la Amanita eighty ale ta Urrrponl, 'blrty at ven In Ulaogow, twenty elfh' la Maa r.heawr, aad the rrwaiadar in other pan* of Rnglaad Tb* dlataaoa between Vnlenttn Nay, la tba eonlb wmi of Ireland, and 81 Jnbaa, Newfoundland?thn twa putsle of noaneotlna?la titteen ban tred aad tfle aalle* It will ba reea by tbe fbllowiD|r ente?TiD*^tMU th* trna# *11 nirj*- 1Uf? C?r?|P IB r<TTi" w ?i?l u inr rtni. j wwm * rota ?r; maim tart Brad Tha onro, ar r-iwdra t f If o |ik? that ' r tb* $olT cibie, of an?aa oap par wtrw *i?iil topethr r la (fee rame maniac TW r-w>la Iwo iho in* Writ hof!r?l mile* la Irnnkb, Ui? rurrtoe hear lb* Mull dimroe lo be trararted be In It ooneuVarad eroarreaey to nan# op for tb? ? F* ?II'I I In U>c b?4 r( tbe onaaa and m* enrlailora U>*i mar be rained I f Ui( wleda and currant*. Tb* croiaM l air.' are r *.'? (aha itranda. each aompnaad el **?ei i' the beet iroo wire* Tb# ar?ree?t* 'jaoytb of 'b' entailer wire* required la tba mnnofnctnra of one nil* :f the cable l? one hundred aod lerantr alt mlUw, and Ue e rabl. I* r .'?rr, irnily pempfWad of three bun ! ??<: ? Oftoca tbo??tad mil** of thli wirn. Nl URRiT ATI.AJfT 10 OABLB. Tb* fotlnwlac MifraeiBjf .how* lh? erect thlrkaeaa of Ibe wire*, w th ilioec of ibilr tarlooa ooTOrlafi ? WALL cabin, 11 ir>rn? OP an nrcn in mamitir, IBOWIKO TBI TAHIOVS COTBRINOH. 1. Ni?e?eiRhteen atrandh of raraa laeta wlrt, 2 Hi rtraadi of yarn. B d'lUa te.rba?tbraa roatt 4. Teiofrapb wiiaa. an ran ta aomMr, ?4??B?III l The flexibility of this cable It to (rati that lib h m?a ( ablt at a email rope, tad U la oepeble of being (tad round the arm without Injury. Ita weight la bat 1,M? | pound* to the mile, and It* strength luoh that It wiU beta la water over tlx mlloe of It* own l-nrtn ir aaipended vertically. Home do> bt* being entertained aa to it* Hnkt log to ibe bottom, It U enough to know that It le *eertui than th> ce abella which h *?? taken up from the had or i b<? ocean by Com wander Berry men while engaged M eoun ling along the hue oT the telegraph plateau. he eel (lerimecia r?ported In our paper have, heildea eei theae double completely at real. It ha* been mmm ed, tee, ibat the strand* of alender Iron wire byl wbish M Is protected will soffer corrosion or decamped 1 tton In a short time after their enhmersiou, bat In d <ing ml the material of which they oonatat will enter Into ohemtusl I un<on with the soft mud In which the cable I* Imbedded, 1 and will lhas form n concete m?*s or oeloireow or aah- \ oeoca aubetanoe, aflbrdtng the very beet poadble pretee Mm. The folio win | engraving represents the leKlTlOK OV a CH4IOI OP OUNPOWDBR bt Ml4MB op tib ILKCTKIC cduunt THttJUttH TUB 04bl*. iasijip The whole operation of laying J?p ciUe It la calculated will not tike more than twenty days In Ua completion. On approaching the land at each end a much thicker caste will bo used, and of sumaeut strength to rendtr It teas liable to accident from the fouling of anchors or the efforts of currents. As s preofof the durability of such a cable we may here state that we saw a spoeimen of that which ocnnecls Dover and Calais, and which, after a sab nerstoa of six years, was as perfect as when first put do vn Asoldents from the grounding of icebergs at the Newfoundland terminus will be rendered Impossiblo by the laying and landing of ihe cable In a harbor perfectly land looked. Into which no tcebferga can enter, and where the srater varies In depth from two hundred to two hundred and fifty fathoms. THE TELEGRkPH PLhTEAU OF THE ATLANTIC. " JOH1W, mwrocimuuro. We have speken of the sue i~'\ coss which has thus far attended this great enterprise, u!1 bul 'hce Is one remarkable /- - fact connected with 11 which U deserving of particular attention. When the enbjeot wna [*f?J first proposed It was feared that the IsequaUtlea which were * *JG | supposed to exist in the bad aC A?c3? the ocean, bet seen Ireland end ' Newfoundland, would present J . '-'{M an lnsurmeuntabla barrier to the suco'ssful completion to the project, but It has baas s t 1i:- proved by Lieut. Maury thai S i | there are no snob inequalities gin this part of the AUantlo. to - i to* laminar of 18*3 aad to 3 '+ ~ toe foil of ISM Lieut. BerryJS men ra employed In maHig " ' dorp m* sounding* along too o proposed route. Theoe sound 1 tags proved the existence if 8 <V ' tola plntoou, which sppoon to ? v it, here been pieced there aa e ?' '% pertsiijr for to* parpo**|of g holding a submarine telegraph. i? From toe aooompaaytng ea9 ^' -t| grsrlng II ?lUb* seen tost Hto E greatest depto does uot exo**d ? ' 1 ? "WW h tooma. The cable * ^ now being laid ocraH from to s , ] Newfoundland to Ireland will 8 ,'}*>* pans to toe north of th* Brand ? j Banks, and rant on th* ptotoaa, ? i aid at a depth wb*r* to* S j^y waters of Ibe sea, judgtng (boas ? 1' the nature oT toe bouom whan ? - j brooght to toe aurfao*, an h ? a* quiet and aa completely at g n?-; . rest aa the bottom of a saw E | pond. There seemi to be a* c \ m-A a peroepbbl* currents and as I 5 <-'< H abradiogageateat work aatho ? ^ .U <1 a surfkee o( toe platean. Ueat! j ? ferryman brought up with lha 9 i ? aonedtog apparatus spsetaMi t. yy\ of tbo bottom wh'.ch, ?bn ox m amined with tho mloroaoope, 5 wr a wore fot od to conalat of aheUa o ,r> mlnuU not to bo peroep w -e tible to the 070 Tbeoo Utile *. g (belli at oneo a igceeted Ibo ?, p H fact the. tboro are no carreWa q at the bottom of the aea rrawi C ^ r wbleb the? ate taken, tb(ttbo 0 .f*M 3 opot where they wero Toobd fc 5 1M lb(lr bartal P^0*~ that after bario( IIrod and dlod O on tbo (orfaco the bad aoab 1 ^ gradua'ly to the b? lorn, wbwo a ,v" w toef ba la n uaiiaturbed k; g current*, Tor If tbo platew g wore owopt by eurroaU they ' \ ? would, doubtlooa, bare beea abraded aad ra nkled with tbo * other mieroejopte rooaalao a | -" | which Uo at tbo bottom of tbo f* ocean, (neb a( (and, fro TO* t | ' . and other matter; bat not 0 P par tic >e of (aad or grarot WW j| Toned among tbem la tbo profllo of tbo oowd lnc? take* alor* the platOM orory ap.wrent d#|Hb i? ocof fcrated tenfold, to order le 5 enable the eye to Judge 01 tho effbel The nnduladaf _ lleo roprooeot* 11* cirfaoe or * thopletoaj.lhodtflbroot lepMo P being marked by fat ho mo, M wbl tb are re-reoeaied by tbo g 1 flfureo botwooo tho level of tbo fe Aliaatfc and the bed of tbo t k-rrrmaa ray. la h'a ropaH ? to #* secretary Dobbta, vara aade at later vala of tntrtf, forty, etcty and 100 aritaa, all a wo idnd with oowptnm aaa M. bal frnqtian'ly larnlriwf many houra, onto llfnt aad day. of gmal luiiana* mi hard work, loatog aomMtaaaa two or tk?eo tb<n ?n<l ratfcoaee Of I op. aouodiac a|>parn?.>aand II Tbnra warn no our rati rar tha bottom to af.v* Ota eound'or*. ? I freptnwtly Uba a feck linn would bo oniied at klnk-d npin 't..bowlng plainly ,,| (bat II rna"hn<1 Uin bottom a in tba aadatanon of tog > v , load, dntormla'og iba la mat L aot tact Uiat ? aahloor wlroaf too I If h ton > kind woald root I, tba bad of too ooaaa. ff r*: r.A hat, Lf%.i J : \ iriiawd INFUSORIA OF THE riXEORAPH PL ATRAC. The apcclatM to which we haToaMnded m baring ban Ob . ..on from ah ntdof the ooonn by the ro m imga af Commander Horryroan. and cf wblcb wa prnanut aapar lutraatocy appeared ihrough a highly magnifying t oroo ' ir, pi a?o*aa poctnlar Inloreo'. .r> themnolvoa Amoaf thou foraminlfor* nT wlMI blo?ta aoo MMij aaO u ?ri are aoiro foo-l apocinooa of dlaiomai**'a thaooUoo 110 Tbo dlotom*^* i* r??iro-rt*l by moat natiirailata m ?.f o"|irf tn - oorr miB"ta cia?? of ana ??n<ia Too p?aa4 of a lTf' - CM!, |? In oni-roMbm by fl'n, Ml f o?a "? rar ' am' b'?ut"',i ma ' 'o*a 'ahljhly f> ti#J by rm pr V, -?of tho ?p<' > f ;ho bont t?a t of tba qnai'ty .?f a i o>irrr.r'op? In 'TV naann whoa froar int, Ibo) n -? tin n\?he4 a 1th a golat'.nona autk, whtnb aopppfio ?roor >1 r ?t ><< 'T 1 -XT- 0r (hop- 11? v' bo readily f" pn 4 In Ibo on*-arte** Trrvn tb? fool o' ihoi- er-wit i in ri.-?tp?? Tbo fn-an't ifbrr t* an natal f' ?tn lt? having a iarf" of noioanr biiio opmi nm an 1 la of rfifThrniirahapoa and alaoa It may bo In <v t; i \a * thai IDa f j f uilo fo a r'amo I by aa