Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 6, 1857, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 6, 1857 Page 2
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AFFAIRS IN EUROPE. "SESTV TV Monetary f:mbuna?mml> of Grtmt Ma** ReckUi* Character of Kngh$h and Scotch Bank ,n? Operate- i~r ?a? of *+ *?* <*?^-n-ar'E"Tr T%r Financial Prrtrurt an th* Continent -Home ward Migration of American,, fie.. ?-C. Financial tn.ut.le* and commercial disaster* are ( ?tin the order of the day here. All other are newly forgotten for the moment. The rebellion in India, with its unparalleled horrors and splendid military triumphs, have ceased to attract public at u-ntion, which is now monopolized by the convul sions of the money market. | The relaxation of the Bank Charter act has led to a large increase of her issues, and this has doubt less given much relief, but not to the extent ex pected. It has beyond question saved the leading financial Aims here from prompt failure, as well as the Bank itself from a suspension of specie pay ments. In contrast with the state of things here in 1847 it lias been observed that though the Bank was \ben permitted likewise to extend its issues, it did not do so. whilst at present it has already, in a single week, discounted more than a million, and it is imjKissible to say to what extent it will go. * or my part 1 will consider it fortunate indeed if the list of bankruptcies is finally closed, for the disclosures that have l*en made prove an extent of bold specu lation and reckless swindling never before equalled in the commercial annals of any country. A vast amount of well deserved obloquy was showered on the beads of the former Directors ot the old United States Bank for allowing Nicholas lliddle to dispose of its capital without investigation or supervision. The English press at that time overflowed with invectives against these careless, unconscientious men. and even against the nation that produced them. What will l>e thought, then, or the shameful facts elicited by the hreak-downof the Iiverpool Borough Bank. or. still later, of the Western Bank of Scotland, to say nothing of other , cases even worse. In all these instances the most | criminal indifterence to the interests of the stock- | holders and the public was displayed by directors. I and even when their own standing and property were involved. , \ The joint stock banks of Great Britain are for the | most part under the control of an individual yclept the "Manager." who wields the whole resources ot the establishment with the undisputed power of an autocrat. He is leader of the nominal board ot di rectors. but he rarely troubles them with the myste rious details of his daily doings: aud in the case of the Western Bank of Scotland, this august i*r*on ape with the familiar name of Taylor, was allowed to disburse at random the startling sum of forty millions of dollars capital and deposits, not to in viuue ihe entire liability of thirteen hundred luck less stockholders. If the crisis of 1H57 puts an effective stop to such outrageous events as these it will have accomplished a great good. The irold discoveries of the last ten years ha\ e im parted a tremendous impulse to speculation , Imt what strikes me a.- strange is that an old and steady com mercial community like this where system is so strouely fortified, should have l>eeii as widely infect 2jl v it as "hat Of a younger and more excitable c mmunitv like ours In either country it was impossible that so many chimerical projects *Kd go on hatching day after day with out -me great catastrophe coming mon sen^e and common honesty . The predictions TtheNtw York Heralp were founde<f on a calm ?md logical survey oi passing events, bat who amid the uproar and excitement of such a saturaaliacan -ton t<> listen to the voice of reason. The grave Juistion now is whether there a" ?nj means to pre vent or check the recurrence of such terrible vi ciiuitudta in the financial world. An article of tli Has a LP a short time since laid bare the main cause of all tins inflation and consequent c^UaP"- " *h ?H it the excessive issue of |>a|*cr money, and un 1,.^ a remedy be found the commercial community Sm be forever at the mercy of these desolating re V<Tht' London Timet and most of the thinking men hel areCcupiedHith the recondite problem as to KSto be maintained between i>ai?er and gold' Vbe Bank of England is teen millions of tsmnds sterling beyond tta bnUtan In her vault*. and it has leaked out in 1M7 and tiade and commerce go on expanding e ry y the most legitimate basto.and. thewf<? . ? ? fj questioned whether the above sum. as fixid by r H*l ? Lill in 1*44. is fully commensurate to th. wants o the nre?*nt <lav. Parliament meet* on the th1? f 1 ?ecember to legalise the recent dotation ^ the bank charter. and then we shall Is- launched on the botr t< ?nil?~>- ^a ot a n.rrency discu^ion. ^ j The second tailure to launch the Great Eastern has cre .ted a good deal ?he^S th p ntilil'C men who have been locking to the mtccrm i SMS* zxsj ? th- .?> ?3ss i over the Atlantic. By dint of effortsthere iajoUouM that the Uviathan will be got into the water I* fore Von?: but the engineer. Brunei, is 1 *ing r,.;;:,;,,. ? k?i" ? "u*r" ofdM c ? . ((f t|?ir li^t penny. A S^nrfiht exodu- ha. set in. and London wd Paris wiM he more ? nil letely denuded this winter of the den W than ft* a u ?- n>.tfiv liidinnff and oiiwr pcMtJ* Hr.'.iuite .b ^V. d to go into mourning for sonnex peeted an event. I Out Pari* CotrMpiHidfitft. PtU), Xw. 19,1857. Ftnunna! S'.iJ't* tn limit an and thtir F.Jfttt ?n Frmmt? Why Iht lank Chmrier Act whw Sut 1 tract n! ? Tht Awn ??/ (iurnty if Co. ? Cltmdt in Iht Frtnch Monty Hun sun- XnpoJnm * Arti tit-, i'i I'niigtr- India and Turkty -AJfaira in ( hnia /' ifiotrd < (mmvmratum by Tunntl with England 7k< (jirat Emprroi Almo*t Rtnrtd? t t l ifHtrrrmrnls Sh angir* m tht CapitaJ -.Xo .hi ti ii <ir,f Ai 'iving. The *un|H' aMon of the Bank Charter Act, on the authority if the Knpludi Pftflik r and hi* Chan' allot ot the lit lii .r.i t i>r<?l<iced a vivid emotion here, ftdiowinu aa it <lt<J . iinnii I ate'y the famou* letter of 1li? t.n.|* t . r . In w hk h e*| edleiit* of wi'h a chara< < mmentcd on H-. "empiric*!." For t tie ui'tii. it;, i* ii,-<>veniment -"eemed t > have changed < hara t?r*. and the id w < ountjtutiouaJ movement ?if iBgta&d i bin unjiliiiu I itself in tin aoil of l'ian<< wfcile U' < jMiti. willuudtiwM h tin- Utter ii w? ipi ? .. ? t ||. -aildf ii v tinii'i -rtcd to tin- f ir mer. hnp land h,i? ior?^u>4 to It W,i* -11(1, and th. <!..trUi ,..t win Ii iua.J- the only lein?l tender. - torn aMnd<-r lik ? ? . m . h waste |,archn.?nt the m-uui'it ? U found t . interfen* with the corn enknoe of tlie |il>it"< ta< y of i/?n ion. To fn < o!mi?tent, the dictatorship should i? complete, iUi<1 l/ord I'aliuemton po*w<-i tin ri?<ht to int. r!? rc with all h|im uliat i??n?. all tmrgaiu* and all < out t u ta tha' tl n nten the tnUHjnillity of any wtiona of tlx popular. It in w hin|iercd ben;, in quartern whi h Hhindo lie ?i I! infornn d. that Hk* midden rcv?lutk>ii to ?i*jn nd the I: ink Charter Act wan taken by l/>rd Paimtrnton m 'jUMquenct* of the repreaentatim nude liy tlx ImJct the houae of liurney, Ovtrend A Co., Hie Vim in hill broker*, that tlicjr should immediately proceed to contract their i~*ue* unlena relief were given. The tianaactionn of thin firm are ftliuu?t eqtmalt nt to tbow of the Hank of Knglatid itaelf, and the l>iu .i thought auch an intimation waa A Dot to be disregarded. If rock be ti* fact, there In no doubt o* it* leak inn out in the forthcoming dijcuasioii wtiicb will follow the meeting of Parliament. The bonne of Carney 4 Co., it la Dot gw. rally known, acquired aome unenviable notoriety at the time of the famoiw failure of Hir Jobn Paul'n I audi, the part ytn <4 wtucb, it will be remembered, were penally convicted. They had. it seems, accepted Sir John 1 hiiI * securitiea? securities which it was impossible n<>t to have known were not bin to pledge to a very large amount; aud when the failure occurred, in or der to put the whole matter straight and nave the reputation of the firm, the house returned the se curities and forfeited something like ?200,000 ster ling. Old Sam (>uraey, who lately fell ill and died in Par ib. always spoke of it as his death blow. Lord 1 almerston may huve been afraid of sending another bill broker to lux account; but it is reasonably asked whether henceforth it is to be a law of England that, in all case* of disturbance of prices from panic and misconduct, the government is to step in be tween those w ho would respectively gain and loss by that panic, to the benefit or one party and the injury of the other. As to France, directly : The best that can be said is that the cloud which has been so long hanging overhead has not yet burst. It looks awfully threat ening, and all men, with hated breath, seem listen ing for the thunder clap; but a light wind may even yet spring up and disperse the threatened tempest. The accounts which reach Paris from Lyons, Rouen, and all the great manufacturing towns, are of the most depressing character, and every one? if not pre pared ? appears to be looking out for tiie worst. In the particular department of trade in Paris which has been accustomed to look for orders from America, there is nothing whatever doing; hands are knocked off, and the deadness of all commerce communicates itself to others also, so that generally we have sel dom hnd to speak of greater d illness than the pre sent. Every trade looks moody, and all seem to rear that some terrible visitation is at hand. The Em|>eror seems to be thoroughly on the alert and to know full well that anything in the shape of a financial panic would break his staff in his hands. The festivities of Compiegne have l>een brought to a close, and the imperial baggage has reached St. Cloud. It is, indeed, no time tor junketing. There is a soreness with England about those Danubian Principalities: and certain observations made by Na poleon to the Emperor of Russia, or endorsed by him, respecting the English difficulties in India, are afloat, which do not tend to improve the relations between the two countries. Perhaps the threatened panic in the financial market may ultimately prove a god send. by inducing a spirit of conciliation where pre viously something very different was intended, There can be no doubt that the observations of Lord Palmerston at the Lord Mayor's dinner was directed to the Emperor Napoleon, though nominally to the Emperor of Russia. Something of the tone of as cerhity at present prevailing between the two governments of France and England may be gathered from the bitter observations which from time to time are suffered to escajHs from that part of the French press which rejoices in the government patronage 1 respecting the recent capture of Delhi, whicn is pretty generally characterized as a stigma on the English anus. Indeed, I suspect that could the Emperor Nicholas' conduct with reference to the Danubian Principalities, which subsequently occasioned the Eastern war, have been viewed by the light of the quarrel with China, the mutiny in India, and the utter impossibility of regeneration in Tur key, not one of the great eveuts that have rung through the civilized world would have occurred; the Emperor Nicholas would still have been the an cient ally of England, and the Emperor of the French have been left to struggle through his difficulties as liest he might. But the wisest are but blind leaders of the blind. I do not believe the time has yet arrived when a really honest alliance between two such powerful countries a.- England and France can exist. Old rivalries are as fertile as ever, na tionally as well as individually, and it is much ques tioned if Turkey, which was the cause of a fallacious union, do not prove the l>one of ultimate contention. It exists only by the rivalry of the Christian Powers of Europe, and of course will continue playing fast and loose with one after the other according to its necessities. One day the Ministry is French in its tendency, another English, and another Russian, as its policy inclines, and it will be very strange if it do not at length excite bad blood between the various claimants to supremacy. In the midst of mucli that is unfavorable a com munity of interest seems likely to spring up with re gard to China, when ? if I may judge from private letters which 1 have seen, written by Sir Michael Seymour, the Admiral, to his friends here ? the Ce lestial Empire seeius bent on bringing ull Europe al*?ut its ears. The writers, too, on scientific subjects in the Paris press have formed themselves into a society called the " Circle de la Pressc Scienti flque,"for effecting a tunnel communication between France and England. M. Thoml de Camond. the projector, at the first meeting, communicated the details of this astounding enterprise, which has all the gigantic proportions of French theorv. The first idea of this tunnel, it seems, originated with the en gineer, Mathew, some tiO years ago. M. Thorn*1 took it tin in lft3:i, while engaged in a series of geologi cal investigations entered into for another purpose. It was then he was struck with the similarity of the soil on both sides of the Channel, and upon closer examination found that the chalky dciMiait the striking feature on either side the British Channel? constituted a kind of convex lens, fitting in a concave one of jourassic formation? that is, com posed of the argillaceous and stony deposits of a sea which formerly covered large tracts or the west ern part of Europe. Well, not to enter into all the scientific details, this gentleman pn?|*oses to run a tunnel from Cape Gronl/. in France to Eastware Point in England, crossing the Varne Bank in the middle of the channel. The surface of this bank raised al*>ve the level of sea, and the island formed at one of its extremities, is proposed to lie hollowed out or pierced with an immense elliptical shaft '200 metres in length bv 100 in breadth; the base of this hollow tower forming a re-tiug place for the trains, whence a spiral road, winding its way up along the walls of the tower, leads to the top, where a large port is promised to l>e formed. Ac., Ac. The limits of a letter only permit me to add the esti mated expense of this gigantic enterprise, which I suspect very few of us will live to see accomplished other than in imagination: ? Franc*. The construction of various islauds ... 24.000,000 Piercing the tunnel 2* ,000 ,000 *!?<- i r> till, 000.000 Accessory galleries 21 ,4.10.000 Branches of railways 10 0, '>0,000 Stations 12.000,000 Boiling stock R, 000,000 Administration 0,000,000 Kix years necessary for completion. With America and England in the throes of a financial convulsion ? with France tottering on the aby??? such an enter prise ls-ing gravely discussed is a curious feature of the day. Prince Jerome Bonaparte? the sole surviving brother of the great Napoleon rode out on horse t>a<k yesterday, attended by two grooms, and attract ed general attention by his extraordinary likeness to his deceased brother. He wore a light gray surtout. and. together with the |>eculiar seat on horseback which distinguished the late Emperor, the re?em blance was so striking that one of the old Ooard said in my hearing, he could almost have fancied It ptht capnrai" was resuscitated. The roundness of shoulder, projecting the chin over the chest, so as to give the ap|>eararice of do neck whatever, must have almost amounted to a deformity. As for the features of J? r< me allowing for greater age ? one might alni'-st have fancied one of the numerous portraits of the deceased F.mperor. with which the shop wiu dows are filled, suddenlv imbued with animation. To those familiar with the localities of Paris, it will be interesting to know that the improvement* - s? me i-er-ist in terming them demolitions and re construction* or the employment of those without W'^k? continne proirre"ing in an nnabated ratio. I he( hamp* hh ?. ???, even within the last six months has Isen perfectly transformed. The old Jardln ? Hi\re h.is been cleared. a;.d houses and Isiulevarda are alsiiit occupying jt* place. J'h" upper end. to Arch of Tiiuifij'h. h.i* bl9ft entirely re b'tilt. and a line of |?lace* fringe* eith<r side of the broad -weep which distmt*i iahes this soperh avenue. Beyond the barrier where the Hippodrome formerly st?. .il I !<h k- of t>eautifnl hot* I- tiv re.it:tlof which will Is- something fabulous have bee n already roofed in. and are intend) d to Is- curried arounl the Aich, forming ultimately the Belgravu of Paris, n.i mtranu to the avenue de I'lmiteratrl ?? is al- ? Is'ii , a covered with houses of similar importance, and when completed cannot fail to improve this new nvet lie. which, considering th.it it eo?t a *,im of ton o<?i franc* to con?truct. |? hardly at present < -?-ri i men ?urate in appearance t ?u h ail outlay. Pari i gradually filling, but the almost t >tol ab -ence r,f American families is a sad drawback, and shopkeejiera ?omplain that they lose smae o< their fin -t and wealthiest customers. Out liei lln ('orreM|K>ii<teiire. Bkm.in, Nov. 4. 1*17. < imvnhxrncf nf Iht King? Hi* Inlr/Urt I'trma nrnUf) lnpantrl 1'hr lult I'niiliral /hmim*trn fitm rgmn't Itmmnrk- Thi Reaction nf V\> .Inn trim ( riMM in Iht Hrriin Monty .\farktt? / ffirl nf Hnrri Timta nn Emigration. I h# King's health has improved so far that offioia I"' 'et in are no longer issued. He keeps up the (?"alei part of the day, and Is able to take short *a ss on the terrace of Hans^ouci arm in arm with the yiieen and his sister. the Grand Duchess of Mc< klciiburg. In the course of this week be is to i c rt mov. d ?? |,j I)SMn| winfpr at Chariot - 0i nlitirg. but as the rapid locomotion |ier rail might ' ' I rrjudii iul to him. the rpieation has been mooted Whether he should be conveyed In a sedaa chair to riw H,W- ??"! thence on Ismrd one of the royal barge- in tow of a steamtug. or in a travelling .amage, at a slow pace . on the turnpike road that leads from Potsdam to this clty.and haaalm<*t Isen almndoned since the introduction of railways I understand the latter alternative has been do cided upon. It i* evident from thin that althougt ' the alarming symptoms of bin malady have disap peared, his nervous system must be very rnucl shattered; and the aangnine anticipations ezpreaaet by some persouh more immediately attached to bin, that be will be itufficientiy recovered to resume toe direction of affairs even before the expiration of toe ; three months during which they liave beeji entrUt ed to the Prince of Prussia, are not likely to be fur filled. On the contrary, there in every prospect tha the quasi regency will have to be prolonged? per hap* indefinitely? although nothing positive can be known on this aubject till the meeting of the Cham ben, which does not take place till January. Ao cording to the constitution, indeed, they were al ways to assemble in November, but last session an act waa passed empowering government to defer their convocation until after the New Year, to pre vent the transaction of public business from being interrupted by the Christmas holidays. If the King were permanently incapacitated from performing the duties of his office, the assent of the Legislature would be required for the inauguration of an actus regency; but as he is excessively unwilling to giw up his authority, and any proposal to that ett'eflt hrows him into a state of mind most painful to wit ness, it will be avoided as long as possible. Pei haps, too, the restoration of his mental fticultiiM may keep pace with that of his physical strength, and in this case the question would be setttad wifn out further difficulty; but, from the naturs of his disea.-e, this seems very doubtful. In fact, the physi cians are of opinion that his intellect will neter lie restored to its usual state, and tluit every extrtion, either of mind or body, might bring on a rdapse that would Is* fatal to his existence. While the Princc of Prussia only reigns ad in tn-im no change in the policy of this country cm be expected. He can only act on the advice of his brother's ministers, anil pursue the liue of cctduct chalked out l?y them in conformity with the kuown or supposed wishes of the King. It is necessary to mention this, as the communication made by Prussia to the German Diet on the Danish question lias Ix-en attriht<-d by some to the personal interference of the Ptince, whereas in reality It had been concluded upo.i several weeks since, and was only postponed on account ?f the King's illness. At this moment a demonstration against Denmark happens to be equally agreeable to the reactionist and to the liberal party? to the lat ter from a feeling of patriotism, nitrated by the at tempts of the Danes to force their language upon the inhabitants of the duchies, and to the former from their antipathy to the democratic nstitutions of Denmark, which they would like to we overturned, or at all events prevented froui extending to the <5erman portion or that kingdom. Notwithstanding the blustering of the semi-official liriutt, however, no apprehensions need be entertained of sich demonstra tions leading to actual hostilities. N:ither France, nor Iiussia. nor Kuglaud would allow lie ultima ratio to be resorted to against Denmark; bit the two for mer Powers may probably joiu Prussia and Austria in requiring her t? "reform"' the constitution of Holsteiu and Luiienbirg according to the pattern of the other German Slates, by re establishing the nobility in tlieir anient privilege*, and introducing the three class system of elections in lieu of universal suffrage? after which all parties will declare themselves satisfied, wtli the exception of the liberals, who in this case as in many others, will find they have been made cab-paws of by the absolutists. It must he admitted, .nevertheless, that the Danes are most to blame, their overbearing con duct having exhausted the proverhal patience of their German subjects, and induced tie latter to refuse even the gift of a liberal constitution when coming fn>m such a quarter. Some writer, I believe Totque ville. has said that there is no tyranny iike a demo cracy, and the liehaviour of the Danes towards the inhabitants of Schleswig-Holstein would certainly go far to justify this uncomfortable doctrine. The more favorable accounts received last week from America produced a corresponding feel ing in our money market, which, unfortunately, are damjied again by the later advices, stating that the pressure had acquired renewed stringency. On the whole, however. Berlin not being a great commercial emporium like New York, Ixndon or Paris, it continues to suffer less in comparison from the financial crisis than thooe places, and even than Vienna, where 106 failures have been recorded with in the past few weeks. The Stock Exchange is the field where speculation is the busiest, and the depre- | ciation of funds and railway shares occasioned by the tightness in the money market is severely feft by the parties interested, hut does not affect the pib- i | lie in general, or that portion of the mercantile j world who keep aloof from the gambling and time I . bargains of the Bourse. The Bank of Prussia, find- ! ing that s]?ecie was sent out of the country in great quantities, declined to discount the safest brokers J bills where they thonj;ht the discounting would end to facilitate s|M*eulations in the export of si I ver, or other stockjobbing manoeuvres. Among th? bills refused were, am I told, those of Mendelsohr A Co.. the greatest banking firm in Berlin, next U Schicklers. At the same time it was understood thai the bank would discount the acceptances of mer chant* and manufactures with two good indorse ments, the same as heretofore. The interest ha been gradually raised to j?er cent j?er annum which, though high enough for this country, is 11 |>er cent lower than in London, and 2$ per cent lower than in Hamburg, when.' in former time* it 1 was down to 2 per cent, and is now up to 9 per cent In consequence of the scarcity of money man j articles in which large speculations on a rise had taken place, such as cereals, spirits distilled frorr grain, and |x>tatoes. have had to lie sold at a ruinoui sacrifice, and several bouses Jieing unable to pay th? . heuvy differences, were obliged to succumb. On? i gieat firm in the spirit line has liecn mulcted to tht tune of 200, (KM) thalers, but ha* succeeded In keeping its head above water notwithstanding. How tin new joint stock banks, upwards of thirty of whiel hav? been established in (iermany during the las two years, will manage to get along in the preieu, I calamitous state of the money market, remaitH to Is- proved. Their transactions, in gnintir*? limns and advancing money on good*, must ac tually subject them to great fluctuations. Besides these establishments there are about 120 mining as-? -elation* in various parts of the country, many of which have sprung up within the same periol, and are busily engaged in digging for coals, fignit", Copper, tin . /.inc. iron ore, and other metals. Thf -hare- of these companies may in time pay the hoi. i crs vi ry (rood interest, but in the present state of the -liar, market there an no buyer-' for them, and their quotations are merely nominal. These hard tiim ? are likelv to have a (treat effect on emigration, which had diminished considerably in I*", 4 and but has been ajnin on the increase for the last year or two. In the Grand Duchy of I Mi rklenhnrt Si bwerin alone, which does nut con tain much more than halt a million of inhabitants, , the nnml>i r of jierstms emigrating amounted la?t year to 5,600: >*-ine more than doable that of the preceding year, and there is every pro- pee t that the i figure will be still higher in 1K>7. Me- klenburg is one of the most retrograde countries in Germany , the aristocratic institutions that had l>een abrogated by the revolution of "4* are flourishing airain w all their m? din val vigor, and the people have been re duced to a state bordering on serfdom. It is no ! wonder, therefore, that they try to e?ca|?e from their petty tyrants, arid -eck a new and happier home I acmes the Atlantic. IIkrmm. Nov. 17, 1?57. Political Su*prn*i The Rfgrney and Position of lh? Rrnmt Hrnlth cf thr fting A Pa*?t /ngnt tihuU- ApjiroarhinK Marriage of Princr Frtdr r irf, William Hi' Trip to England -Tighter** w th * Monty Mai kit ? Hailvay Sham ? Price of f'utl. Tli?> Mate of incertitude and wjton-e into which lit government of thi? country ha* I iron thrown by the King'* illnc?? poem* t<i have milker increased than ilitninixhed ?ince thr appointment of the Pftow of Pn?ia m virrgerrnt to hh royal brother. It will t* un?ler?tood tlmt the proxy wanted to the Prince wa? not only limited to a period of three month*, but mm- liable to be n vok< d .<t any u.< uimt. if the Kiuir ?hmild naaaw pPtvtoa* to the t xpiration of tlmt tntn. '1 bis arrangement , a* 1* usually the ram- with Mf mciimn s bv platHI bin Royal Hlghnem in a I ? ' uliar and ntber awkward portion. lie I- 'triable to pa i mi* nil indej enieat line of n< tion. wldch might ntxfqW titly be difltpprav* d of 1 y the Ring. and would !*? hM'ofapaUble with the deria ration he made ?? awnMbvtf the ?imlni<ra^on of iiffhir*. "to con dm t theia in ? < nformity with the known intention* of hip M?je*ty," and he in nnwiliing V> ratty "lit thr inea*tirfM < outwnpkNd by tho priiaeul Cabinet , > 'thar from their lieiiia unpalatable to him -?*!t or lik< ly to prove mi to the politb al party with whirh In ha? lately connected him-elf. Thn? every thlnpr remain-* In al?ey.ime, ?r ?1 iliy after day tho an cunt- fp in Put-dam are wat< hod and eagerly orrmmrntod upon, a* tnrn to them the (banco of thr Kii.?r ii -liming the dstie* of hi* office, or of the Prin<r ot I'rtifoia'H temporary administration being converted into a Iwmtt jut* regency. Theflt account* continue to h? Of a very conflicting nalafe, and they arc variously int< rprcted by th" inland the oute, the adherent* of th< present rlgimt and thoK whoae hfn are centered in the fhtnre. The official report* would lead one to infer that the King's health was rapidly improving; he talced frequent airings, sometimes 011 foot, sometimes en earrotsf, eats with a good appetite, sleep* soundly, and receives the visits of his relatives and inti mates. On the other hand, it is considered an unfa vorable sign that his removal to Charlottenhurg ha* been adjourned tine die, and that he is to pass the winter at the new palacc in Potsdam, it being obvi ous from this circumstance that his strength is not equal even to the fatigue of so short a journey a* that from Sans-Sonci to Charlottenhurg, a distance of hardly more than twelve miles. The state of his mental faculties appears to be even less satisfactory than bis physical condition. Occasionally his intel lect is quite overclouded; he converses with those around nim in a perfectly composed and rational manner, listens to and muxes remarks upon what is said to him, examines drawings and architectural Slans with the interest of a connoisseur, when sud enly his mind wanders, his ideas become confused, and, painfully conscious of his infirmity, he bursts into tears. How long he may continue in this melan choly situation it is impossible to foresee, but from all I have heard I am satisfied that his entire reco very is out of the question. Whether this will definitely preclude him from resuming the reins of government is quite another affair. George III., of England, was as mad as a March hare, with occasional lnoid intervals, for at least half his reign, which did not prevent him from performing his regal functions, or lather from having them performed by his Ministers, 1 ill the latter had got a sufficient hold upon his son, the Prince of Wales, to enable them to delegate the authority to him without danger to themselves. No doubt this example has not been lost on the Prussian Ministers, and it may depend upon the success of their efforts to regain the confidence of the heir ap parent whether the present crisis will l?e terminated ,n a similar manner. 1 mui-t not omit to mention, as a sign of the tintea, that on Friday, being the Queen's birthday, the

Court poet, M. Kellstab, omitted for the first time, to address a congratulatory ode to her Majesty, in the ! columns of the Vo??irche Zeitung. Ill-natured folks look upon this as a sure symptom that her reign is at an end; but perhaps M. Kalis tab's Pegasus had only turned restive and refused to be saddled. Prince Frederick William left the other day for 1 Coblentz, from whence he proceeds to England on ' his visit to his future mother-in-law and bride, which hud been put off on account of the King's illness. Unless some unexpected event should come in the way again, the wedding will ccrtainly take place about the '24th January, and after spending the first week of the honeymoon at Windsor the youig cou ple will set out lor Berlin, where they are to make their public entry early in February, Great festivi ties are preparing for the occasion, and as the Cham bers will have met by that time, all the rank and fashion, tp say nothing of the beauty, Ac., of Prus sia, will be assembled to greet the nouveaux marie*. The match is immensely popular with all classes here, and especially among the fait sex, who always take a particular interest in such matters. The only drawback is that the young prince's palace is not finished, although they nave been hard at work at it for the last twelve months, and the happy pair will have to put up at the "Schloss'' until their new abode is ready to receive them. It is fitted up in the English style, and the interior is said to be quite a model of comfort and convenience; but in an ar chitectural point of view it is certainly a decided failure. The money market continues to be in much the same state as 1 detailed it in my last report. About ten days ago the Bank of Prussia raised the discount to 74 per cent; since then you are aware the Bank of England have raised theirs to 10 per cent, but as the pressure is far from Iteing so severe here as it is in England, it is doubtful whether the Bank of Prussia will be induced to follow their example. As yet, at least, there has been no meeting of the stock holders or of the select committee called by the hicf director of the bank (the Minister of Com nerce),to deliberate upon a measure of this kind. 7he opinions respecting the necessity of such a step a-e divided, as in most cases where part of the pub lb are entrusted in power, and another against it. Tke former (the capitalists) agree that if the present rave is maintained, the specie will leave the country to go to those money markets where a higher dis count can be obtained. The opponents point to the measures taken by the Bank of England for increas ing the circulation of ita notes, as being likely, in conjunction with the more encouraging intelligence froa the United States, to produce a favorable reac tion. and to bring down the rate of discount from its present enormous height. For the moment, therrfore. the question remains undecided. Mean while, the hank lias given notice that it will cease to make advances on railway shares and other stock, which will occasion no little inconvenience to specu lators who are in the habit of raising money by de positing such securities in the bank. At the same time, however, it is granting greater facilities to mer chants, with regard to discounting their bills, and is not so particular atiout having two endorsements, which used to the case, bnt is now frequently de viated frnm. Railway shares have fallen, but not to any considerable extent, and uo failures of couse quence lmve been heard of lately, so that altogether there is a general feeling that the worst of the crisis is over. In consequence of the continued low stage of wa ter in the rivers, wrxnl and all other kinds of fuel which used to come in .arge barges, can now only le brought in small craft, and through the deficiency in the quantities arriving, prices, particularly of wood, have risen enormously. It is stated that there is plenty lying cut and stacked up at the landiugs iu the forests, but it cannot be brought to market for the altove reasons. The timber merchants applied to M. Vou der Heydt for jiermission to have the wood forwarded per rail at. a lower rate, but their rfquect has not I s en complied with, the Minister al leging that the railway companies have no proper wagons lor carrying wood. Coal and coke are com ing in great quantities by railway, but generally speaking they are only employed for industrial pur poses. Peat , or turf . as it is called in (iermany, which is ii*ed here a rrcat deal, has not risen s<> much as wood and other descriptions of fuel, and lately a process has been discovered to give it a more intense heat than it possesses in its natural state. I understand the humid particles are pressed out of the peal, and only the more combustible ma terials left in it. A committee has been appoint ed by government, who have Item experiment ing on this compressed peat, and their report is de cidedly favorable to the invention. Cor Ht Petersburg Correapontlenre St. Pbtbkhmi iui, N<?y. 6, IA.'iT. /m/x-ridl t'n nmo of 1'nlOiatl Qwttion? ? /'rojwmmt Almli (itmi'f Surfilnm ? StCtUitf (inrf Danger! of Ikr V'Viture ? Rrfarm t'n tkf Administration of Junticr ? S'Wi from f'ntt-m Aria ? JUmvmrnU rf Ihr I'atiflr .%{ti?drrm? Ths Sun Am Fir* at S rlantnfol ? <f?rali"tu af tKr American IHt- ? Hiuce lie Emperor's return to hi? capital we are looking forward to the solution of several ur???nt question* which had been long penJIuf . ami the settlement of which luw been continually deferred ' The chief of these la one thai must lead to a radi il cbango in the political and social condition of the empire, the final results of which It la Impossible to for"- ?? ! mean the abolition of serfdom It il a reform tint is gene rally acknowledged U> be imperatively nectary .mil Iim for years eiereised the wits of our state ?men and [><> litiaal economieta, but wbicb ia hedged frmiid with ?? many difficulties and dangers that r\ . n the iron h I of the iate Kmperor Nlchoia recoiled from at t- mptiiig it H>' emani puled the ? rf- or Iim owne* tate?, but did not venture to interfere w.th th'i-e o; the nobility, whose number amounts to no le ? than twenty millions of kouIs be contented himself with enacting "t reviving some regulation? for faci! tititu th>- manumt*?ioi of the 'erf* by mutual agreement b"twoon them at> I tb'if mauler*. The pytlem of serfdom in Uu.?ia must not t? tie confounded with that of villanagc ss it formerly In the Wen a* Kurope The pea*ant' a r vltrrif attached to the roll, which belongs il* jitr* to the master, but iltfmiUi U> the serf* lliein.v lee*, who com '? r Hi m selves as much entitled to their piece of ground ai the nohlemaii to bis e?tate. There is ih> law . Indeed, to |tie - sent him Irom depriving Uieni of their land (who h n generally heb) by tlie whole village in eomtnc*. v^ry much alter tie xmuI.SI lash on), or from imjio-int, ?o high a lai upon .t as to rendm- it un|*e s bla for tl, m to cultivate it to advantage hot such a course would lie contrary to custom and to the propr tor s own Interests *isl it i? '|Uiti-. Seldom, therefore, thai anything of the kind billions Tf.e >1 fflenlty is new ho* to rei oncdo tills > tate of th ng? with the eiiiHii'i ipation of the peasantry from the dis.r t.oi ary pi.wc r of their lorda. If they only re nv> i tite r personal libert) without tbe ownership of tlie land cull ? ?at< d by tb in, they would t.e Intin iely worse off than tiny were before, they might lie driven off their tarnn at any time by the landholder*, If the latter should thmk it more profitable t<> turn Mie grounds into pasturage, *? ?be Ifttke of Hutberland did in the Highland* of SootUnd', or else their rortner masters, baring no further inter ? t in tbeir wtllare, and heing im longer restrained by tht un written laws of prescription, which an stronger than any written I*"*, would exact such high rents that the peawtlit* would prefer Ui leave their Held* unti led aud < ongrepate in the large tnwn?. in hope* (>t finding employment id the manutx luring establishment*, where tbe> would reduce Uie rate o< wages iif their com |h tit on Ttiiisan Immense Proletariat would be cre'itml ? nu n withnut profx rty , without a lionie, wii<?, having ev < hanged their rustic simple ity for the vn ea of a town life, mould preeent the same eierrient* of disorder and agitation whlrb are ri'ibio iu other (wrt? of Kurojw, lint from which Kuss'a has been hitherto exempt 'Hi th" i thcr hand, if the peasantry Were declared tlie legal owner* of the land they cultivate, the nobility would r>e r?diicei| to ? similar slat" of poverty, as th? mn>irity of thein derive their means of subsistence from the prodnoe of tl.etr estates and oven if a portion ot these were let t them, they would he unahle to cnltnaie h for want of ItatidK. Th a dilemniA has always been the great stum hluig block n the way of a general emancipation of our peasantry, To Uie cmani ipaiion ttaoU the nobles would 1 have uo tnanuer of objection, it would relievo them from the constant dread of a servile war, like the Jacquerie in Kraucc, or the re volt of JA'k (Alio hi hiiiglAud ; liut to giv6 up their serf* and their lands, too, i* a stretch of liberality which is clearly im|KM*ible to expect of them. Various suggerlioDs have been mailt- to ubviute the difli cully which lias s'ared our statesmen in the face ever sinee the time of Alexander 1., when the abolition of serf dom was first brought od the tapis, it h*-. beeu pj-opoaed to divide the arable laud between the nobility aud tilt) peasantry , stipulating for the latter to work for a certain number of days every week on the portion roserved for the former; or to convert the lands tilled by the peasant* into farms ou long leaden, fixing the maximum of rent by a special enactment. All such plana, however, have their practical difficulties , which have hitherto prevented them from being carrieil into effect, and it remains to be seen whether the advisers of our present Emperor will succeed In removing Impedimenta that havo deterred his prede- j cessors from carrying out a reform prescribed alike by j policy and by humanity. At any rate, something must be > done' now, for the question ha* |?netrated through all the i strata of society until it has reached the peasants them selves, who are in anxious expectation of the ukate that is to regulate their |iosition, and it cannot be shelved much longer without leading to serious consequences. Another project much talked of just niw, relates to the administration of justice, which h?s long eel led for a tho rough reform. It is promised to introduce trial by jury, j which Is said to be an old Slavonic institution; if so, it has certainly fallen into complete desuetude, and it will be no easy matter to revive it. If publicity were only intro duced in lieu of the present secret proceedings, which open so wide a field to injustice and corruption, it would be a great stop towards further improvement, and as such would be thankfully accepted by the nation. We have received interesting account* lately from our possessions in Kastern Asia. Admiral Putiatin has sailed down the Amoor to Nicolauosk, after hiving been refused permission to cross the Chinese frontier atKiakhta,and had embarked for Sbanghae, on board the steamer America. He is instructed to enter into negotiations with the govern ment of the Celestial Kmpire, in the issue of which it will depend whether the squadron that lately left Cron stadt for the Chinese seas will appear there in a friendly character or on a hostile errand. This squadron consists of the screw corvettes Boysr, Voivode and Novik, tbo screw clippers Plastoou, Jegut, aud Strelok, and the steam frigate Aakold, under the command of Commodore Kuznetaotr. It was last heard of froiu Copenhagen, aud i must have passed the Straits of Dover before this. The Askola had been aground in the Kelt, but was got off without injury. This is the most numerous flotilla that nas proceeded to the Pacific since the year 1?U3, when : the Russian flag waved for the first time in those distant waters. Almost every year since then a vessel or two , lias been des|>atched around the Horn or the Ca|>e of flood Hope to Ksmtschatka and the Russian colonies on the northwest coast of America: but it was not till 1862 j that a small squadron was sent thefo under the orders of the same Admiral Putlatin. who had been appointed Plenipotentiary to Japan, and la now gone out again a* Plenipotentiary to China. A second followed in 1853, but the war with Kugiand and Krance breaking out immediately after, two of tne vessels com I osmg it were unable to prosecute their voyage, and had to run into neutral ports, where they were sold, and the crewa returned overland to Russia. With this exception, the expeditions have mostly been very successful, not more than three vessels out of fifty having been wrecked, and even these without any loss of life; the last was the Diana, that was destroyed by the great earthquake at Si moda in Japan. Nicolauosk Is represented us promising to become quite a flourishing place; the trade is chielty carried on by American ships from San Francisco, kc. ; and two steamers under the Russian flag, hut built in the United States, were plying between the settlement* at the mouth of the Amoor and the head waters of that river, from whence travellers have to cross the mountains to Irkvotsk. This ia the worst pari of the journey, and lakes several weeks to accomplish. The idea of construct ing a railway from the Barrel to Port Strelke appears to have been abandoned, as too gigantic au undertaking for the resources of that country; but the great capabilities of the regions on the Amoor can never be fully developed until the communications with the interior are placed on a t more rapid aud regular footing. According to our advices from Sebastopol , considerable j disappointment was felt at the little success attending the 1 operations of the American coin|>any engaged in raising the sunken fleet, last year, with very slender means, the Russian authorities bad succeeded in raisiug eighteen vessels, including the steam frigate Khersonese. which has been made over by government to the Black Sea Steam Navigation Company, and is uow making regular tri|is between Odessa and Marseilles. After so propitious a beginning great things were expected from the cunningly devised apparatus of the American engineers, and a tele graphic message was looked forward to every d*y stating that the saucy Vladimir, or the far famed Twelve Apostles herself, had ap|*eare<l ou the surface again, and was float ing in her native element Up to the present time, how ever. the American company have not succeeded in raising a single vessel, and it is tartly feared that the whole affair will turn out a failure. Ibe apparatus are said to bo splendid; tbey are the admiration of all beholders, and displays a wonderful amount of skill and ingenuity; but in spite of ihese wonderfu 1 machines, aad of all the efforts of their inventors, the fleet remains at the liottom of the aea. and promises to remain there till consumed by the ttrrdo nan'lit. Some changes in our diplomatic corps are atwut to take 8 lace, in consequence of the decease of M. 1 -om.iuonsoff , uaaian ambassador in Holland, and the retirement of M. | de Scbwedcr, who has long occupied the same position at | the court of Saxony. M. Ozeroff. envoy at I.isbon. will I probably be transferred to the Hague, but I have uot ! heard who is to be our future representative nt Dresden. I There is a report that a charge d'affaires will shortly be | appointed to Mexico, Willi which republic lunula dues nut ; at present entertain any diplomatic relations. A Mr. Bolls, of Virginia, arrived hern lately, for the purpose of concluding a contract with government relative to the construction of floating docks (or the im|>erial navy. I understand he has obtained very advantageous term's, and the works will be commenced as soon as the necet sary arrangement* arc completed. Second Attempt to L??nrh the Leviathan. [From the I.oiHon Time*. Nov. 20.) Yesterday u second and tor the present, we regret to say. an unsuccessful attempt was made io move i this great vessel further down the launching way. It was not an attempt to launch her, as there is not now u sufficient amount of water to float her off the bottom of the ways, l>ut it was an effort to move her alsmt forty feet lower down than the position which site at present occupies, and in this, as we have said, the attempt was a failure. The immediate cause which led to this ill-success may be stated in a very few words? namely, that the abutments of piles against which the liases of the hydraulic, rams rested yielded under the pressure which was exerted between them and the ship's cradle, and gave way to a great extent, and at last in some places broke entirely. The mooring chain, belonging either to the gov ernment or the city corporation, holding the sheave, tho ugh which, by a four-fold purchase on land, the sUm of the vessel was hauled to the river, also gave way, and this mishap, taken in connection with the other led to all farther attempts t>etng|Histpon?d for at least M ine days, and perhap- for a longer period. These were the immediate causes, but in order to mi denrtand completely the circumstances which induced thr in. it is necessary to refer to the time of the first utti in pt , and the second of thi- month. Most of uur | readers can easily rememlierthe arrangements which were then made. That attempt, though generally I considered by the public as a failure, was in reality ; rather a success, tor it proved beyond a doubt that Mr. Brunei |s*isessed a complete command over the vetsel, and could check and hold it in. even when it had acquired a very con siderable downward momentum. Had he not pos sessed this controlling power on the occasion of the first effort, and when the monster slipiied some five or six feet in a second, the launch would have taken j'laee in spite of him. The vessel would, indeed, l?a\e l?een got into the water, bnt probably at the cost of a fearful loss of life. There is no douht that when anything in the nature of a spectacle is going forward, there is no ri?k, however tearful its aspect er probable iii its contingency, which Londonera will not incur to gratify their curiosity, and it is this consciousness of always venturing into danger which I induces such fatal panics among them on the most I proundless alaim. Thus, on the first <?ion, an j the hour apt r> ached when the ves iwa-iomovc ; down, the river literally covered with boat* I and stiamcr>, all densely packed ami laden to j the very water's edte with men and women. Com j nmnd- and entreaties to these craft to remove to a ?afer distance were alike disregarded and they re mained almost in the very track over which the Tea sel, if launi I rd at all. would have had to pas*. It "? frightful to contemplate what the consequences must nave bt en if Mr. Hrunel had not possessed i>er fei t < ontrol titer her movements, and if she li.id then slipped away and d i?hed Into the river. Not only would she nave buried all in her immediate way. but her di?pla< < -incut of water would, ol course, have raised a wave sufficient to capaiM the boats and sfcamt is near her, and evmUiero- the river, end pet Imps ? ep away some hundreds of the .sjht tstors who crov iii d the wharves on the onjioslte -here, w ithin a foot or two of high water mart. All thi e thinfr- Mr. Ilninel saw at a glance when the time t't the launch arrived. and lie saw. also, that to the tremendous mechanical difficulties of moving such a mass of iron at all was sii|iera<liled tin responsibility of undertaking to do it at a time when the snapping of a piece of iron or the ne.rlect of a seivant might involve the lives of hundreds. Nevertheless, the attempt was made. The Ureal (?astern slid down some live or six feet, when she ???< in-tnntly checked, though not till the mishap at the w indlass occurred, w hich made all the workmen in the yard wo timid ns to unfit them for the execu tion of oiiler.. which required an unusual amount of nerve and coolness. Within an hour aft? rwards the aftimpt whs given np, and it. WM then determined that at all hazards the public should Is kept in total knoranee of when the next effort should l?e made. Hence the strict secrecy with which nil the subse quent operations have lieen conducted. and which was o Well maintained that even up to yesterday morning not half a doyen persons were aware oi what was to le d?ine. i'mm prudential motives with regard to the men, and. also, that above all ether places 110 note of preparation should be given on the river, the pur chases wmked from the barges which were to haul the vessel in that direction wen- allowed to Is- work ed fr? ni the shore. In order to do 'his. double shea vi s w?re secured to the gove rnment and < ity moorings, iienr the dockyard on th< other <hle of the river, through which the chains from the ship Were pa*s< d and brought Imck under bei keel and up the yard, w here they wi le hauled upon with :? fourfold purchase by powerful eralis.eaeh worked by twenty four m< n. Four of these purchases have thus lieen fitted, fend th< fc1 united exertions, it was csti inati d, would apply a strain upon I he midship . of the vessel to warns the river equal to J60 ton*. Small stationary engines in place of the crabs work ed the name description of tackle at the Htem and stern: but with theae the power hast beeu so multi plied that -each can apply, if necessary, a strain of one hundred tons or more. At the name time the launching ways have been strengthened by the addition of several lengths of the bridge rails insert ed between those already down at regular intervals, and additional and more powerful nydrauiic rami* were brought to bear on the ship's cradles, to push her with force enough to start her down the ways. These were the changes which the experience of the first attempt showed would be advisable in future efforts. Six hydraulic rams were yesterday fixed against the side? namely, two seven-inch ones at the aftermost part of each cradle, and a ten-inch one at each forward part. The base of each of these rams rested against a regular series of strong piles driven deep into the ground, andjtliis fulcrum appeared strong enough; but, of course, they could only be tested by the actual pressure of the rams, and that could not possibly be applied until all was ready to lannch the vessel. The last preparations were complete at noon yes terday. Up to that time, so carefully had the secret beeu kept that even in the immediate neighborhood of the yard the intended effort was unknown. A collier brig, which was ashore on one of the launch ing ways, tended to lull whatever suspicions migfct have been entertained, and which the appearance of gangs of workmen greasing down the launching me tals was certainly calculated to excite. In the yard, with the exception of those actually concerned in the launch, there were not more than twenty or thirty geutlemen present, and nearly all of these were engineers or shipbuilders. The great advan tage of this urragemeut over the very mixed crowd which filled the yard on the last occasion was so ap parent that there is now no fear of the rule of strict privacy ever being again departed from. The men were all at their places at the crabs and bydraulio gear soon after 12 o clock. Some time wati lost while the various details were minutely inspect ed, preparatory to beginning; but at last, at one o'clock, all was ready, and the signal was givien to the gangs working the hydraulic rams at the fore most cradle to commence pumping. The aftermost cradle having slipped on the ways about 18 inches or so more than the one near the bows.lt was uecessaiy to push down the latter first, in order that they might both start on a level. As the men commenced their effoits, the anxiety and expectation of all in the yard, even down to the navvies at the crabs, seemed wrought to the highest pitch; not a word was spoken, and not a person moved. All seemed absorbed in watching the tremendous experiment going forward, so that literally for a lew minutes the susjtensc was almost painful. The gangs at the pumps worked with a will, but the handles went down more slowly, and the pressure was evidently becoming felt. A few minutes more i and the sharp loud reports of beams of timber 1 yielding and straining under tremendous pressure ! became more and moretrequent. Every one imagined ; that the vessel herself was yielding, but this was mere fancy, as, alter a few moments, it became evi dent to all near the rams that it was the piling against which they rested that was giving. Never theless, the strain was kept on, increasing with every stroke of the lever, and the huge beams, cross beams and supports groaned and strained and bent, moving visibly about like a huge piece of wickerwork. All this while the foremost cra dle never showed a sign of yielding, nor moved even to a hair's breadth. At last the supports of the rams gave way so much that it became necessary to assist them by hauling 1 in the tackle, which pulled the vessel towards the river, but even these gave so little relief that at last 1 one of the centre piles broke, and some others "sprung"' so badly that it became imperatively ne cessary to abandon the attempt. Almost at the same ' moment one of the large threc-incb mooring chains, securing the double sheaves which hauled upon the stem of the vessel, parted somewhere or other in the river, so that even bad the piling been capable of j immediate repair and strengthening, the latter acci dent alone was sufficient to put a stop to further ef forts. Hardly had the orders been received to dis ! continue the attempt when the men were all at full work again to repair the causes which bad led to the failure. Gangs of 1(H) " navvies" or so carried down huge pile-driving machines, which in an hour were erected and at work, driv ing in fresh piles behind those which had yielded. These men will work night and day if necessary, so that in a few days at most all will be ready again for another effort,. The supports for the rams will now be made of immense strength, not only by a great addition of new piles, but by the whole mass being bolted together with iron tie rods, and again secured in the same manner to the launch ing ways themselves. Thus strengthened, it will be i come quite a mechanical impossibility that they should yield under any pressure which the dead weight and friction of tne whole vessel can offer. When we say that repairing the mooring chain, and having that gear ready, is in Captain Harrison's de partment, we have said quite enough to vouch for the certainty of that not being found wanting on the next occasion, when we sincerely hope we shall have to announce that the Great Kastcni is at last at the ; water's edge. Our Iowa Correspondence. Calhocn, Harrison Co., Iowa, Not. 11, 1857. Pmh of a Reporter on thr Frontier ? Tramp of Fifty MUt?/ Away Out Writ ? Swamp I. and) i in Iowa ? Town* and thr Hard Timri. I arrived here to-day, after a tramp of some fifty miles. through the anow aud cold, from my Territo rial home. Night before last, after a hard day's walk of some twenty miles, darkness found your humble correspondent in rather a sad dilemma. Roads, objects, distances, Ate., were all obliterated by the Know (lying on the ground at an average depth of some three inches) and darkness. Five times did we in vain try the timber, hoping to feel some indication of a road leading to some Nebraska settlement, and as many times retraced our steps tuck to the broad prairie. We gave it up, and took to the prairie, hoping to reach some friendly roof. After wandering about awhile, we found a humble claim cabin, tcnanUess and drear. Of course in we went, and after hunting in vain for the where with to start a fire, concluded it would be better to travel on " till broad day light'' than to find our selves in the unfortunate predicament of a son of the Emerald Isle, who wokewp in the morning froze to death, and with a coroner's inquest sitting on his body. On we staggered, footsore and tired. A littio way from the cabin, a heatheuish wolf with a snarl "csine down upon our lee," ami after receiving one fifth the contc nts of our revolver, "scudded oway to the windward." When we examined the sad condi tion of our pedal extremities, now we wonder how we succeeded in staggering on ; bnt on we went, through the cold, the snow and l the darkness. About idne o'clock we fell In with a friendly fence? a good compass, by the way, on the i frontier, because it always points somewhere. After a short rest ami examination of the premises we | concluded to find which end, If either, led to a night's lodging within doors. In a few minutes' travel we discovered a light, and soon after found us knocking at a widow lady's door. Of course we were made welcome. jpd not long after we were steaming it off" to the ItfUpttr <?f "Nod" in gallant style. Next morning we felt decidedly "uncd up,'" bnt after a good breakfast of beef steak, wild turkey, bl>-ctilt and coflee, we bade adieu to the hospitable ns'f of our widowed friend (by the wav, reader, if you tta\c1 that way give her a call) and limped on fl\< miles further through the hilts, snow, cornfields, A ( . to the pleasant and tnriv ing town of Dacota .Wash ington county, N. T. Here, of course, we found friends, and tarried to recruit until this morning. Tlien away on Kis>t.% Walker's slow line we started 1 for the ferry crossing of the Missouri river. Five miles brought us there. shivering and shaking, upon its Isink with a half asleep, embryo town, named Cln j clrit at 1, Jlist ovc r the river. We hallooed until not ? j sound could be forced we fired our revolver, and set Are to the drift wood therealssits to keep from frees ing. tint il midday awoke the Hip Van Winkles of Cincinnati, and a clever young fellow brought us j ovi i in a -KifT. for a quarter, told us there was no w hiskey in Cincinnati, seventeen miles to Calhoun, and a plea Mint day. On we went, aud here we are by the side of a cheerful fire, with si cheerful fat land* , lord, (wi have s fancy for fat. Jovial landlords), in s 1 comfortable tavern in a hMutifMl town, with sore nil wet fleet, for we have performed the last twenty ?llfes of travel In pump shoes. This Is travelling, nv a y out West , witn a vengeance. The last fifteen miles of travel have lieen over M beautiful ond dry bottom lands ?s can l>e found on I lie Missouri river, extending tar away to the north and south, and I am Informed it is all returned us swamp land. I doubt venr much whether low.i has any better lands than those thousands of seres of fllie Is'ttotn Isnds. This belong* to the county, for county purposes. Thi place is pleasantly situated, just whore Hie Mu (Tom bottom landn join, on a bssutiftU tableau of land, and in point of beauty will compete favorsttly with any town "away out West. It has some IMM) of a population. To morrow ? Ood willing and weather favorable? we s hull continue in the n-e of our pedal extremities farther up the country, thence down tin Missouri rlvsr eiue distance, then hack to oni Territorial home on "the other side of Jordan." The people sssig the MlswWi slops herv do not appear to realise that there ere hard times in the latin. 'I'hey Iwve plenty te ent plenty of w.ak. plenty to wear, and money enough for practical purposes. Home of the tafias of tntishrnom growth in lowa and Nebraska of course feel the effect of i suspension on the part of purchaser* of town lots and sharps; hut only in -itch pieces do yen really hem the cry of hard limes.