Newspaper of The New York Herald, August 20, 1860, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated August 20, 1860 Page 4
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4 NEW YORK HERALD.' J A K 8 UOHDUN HKHNKTT, CDITUK ANl> PRltfRIifruB orrici M. W. C'UKNKB or NAHiJAC AhU FULTON ?? TERMS, tuin ganiKi. M tmi ?v ruHi trt'l o* u. tA# rUfc qf tK/ xxub-r ?<? *? kK <w ni*eriitt*n DAIL r H Eli ALU Mm c*iO? <w ayt. f )? u**iW? TH* WKKKLT RFKALD.?<~% .SrUur.iiv, at $i* ctnf p* topy, or K> pw wnum. (Ac Jfivropmm Zltfum mry ???r, < ?tz <ym?> prr r?j>y, (4 /kt 4iniwi lo unv part or' fii-mii r M Co any part o/ ?/W OnllMU, MA fc> inc'udr pw'xu* '*? CMV-arnt.1 IWi? on (A# KA on.i *W. JucA ?*-aM > ' ** ??'* P*r ropy, or SI 60 per unnitto. Vulaoii XXV Ji3? 41HSKMKNTH THIS JSVUNlNli KIBLO'8 <?ARI>KN. Broadway.?rsuroiillA>r?d? Cikdkkbixa. WI1HTKR (1AKPK.V. B." vidit*/?PKurMSOK AhDKUO*. WAU,ACK S THRATRK, Broadway ? I*t*K AMIItlNCI AKt) tlMM MOP??T? ?W0BKIK8 Tll? ORACLK. I,A I'R a KKK.VK'S TIIEaTRK, Wo. 04 Broadwuy ?Ock A??*ka? NKW ROWKKT T11KATRK. Bowery.?IIkhkiw Sow?RarFAKLU?UKKCULW. BAKN'I M> AMKKICAN MUSEUM. Bnwd?>r.-IHv and K>rlllU*?*>iNt,Il>6 AMU DaACIMu ? JkMMT JllMJ-LlWNu I'DK1061TIU. KtC. BKT ANTS' MINSTRKI.S. Mechanic*' Hall, 471 Broadway.W UO SlItLCk. bUJ-T PaTTKKdOltr HOOI.ET A CAMPBELL'S OPERA HOUSE, 685 Bn ?clway.?Black Btatok. NATIONAL VARIETIES, Chatham atrcet ? Rosb?.k'? Wira? Miwc PIUA? Ikmii SoHooun.irm. PALACE OARPKS, Founei-mh st.-eet.?PaonitMAi'K Co.iCtM. CANTERBURY CONCERT SALOON, Wo. M3 Broadwmy.So*?a, Dtnou. Bcrlbmqm. Ac. nOPK CHAPEL Broadway.?Amn I?aacs Uiuikik'i SiiAasi'iRiA.* Riapim]*. H?W York, Monday, AngMt 40, I860. MAILS FOB EUBOPE. Thi New York Herald ? Kdltlon for Kit rope. The Cunard mail steamship Europa, Otpt, Lcitcb, will leave Boston, oh Wednesday, for Liverpool. The mails for Europe will clone in this city to morrow afleruooti at a quarter {tafct one o'clock to go by railroad, and at a quarter to four o'clock to go by steamboat The Evromuj* Ermo* or thk Hkkau> w ill be publt?hod at eleven o'clock Iu the mortng S.ngle copies, in wrap per*, ci cents. The contents of the Ernopax* Er>mox or thi Herald Will combine the newt received by mail and telegraph at the office during the previous week, and up to the hoar of publication. MAIM FOB THE PACIFIC. New York Herald?California Kdltlon. The mail steamship North Star, Capt Jones, Will leave this port to morrow, at noon, for Aspinwall. The maila for California and other parta of the PacillO Will dose at half paat ten o'clock to morrow morning. ttie Nrw y(ini Wsmklt Haiu>?California edition? ooMlnlng the lah?t Intelligence from all parts of the world, with a large quantity of loc*l and miscellaneous latter, wilJ be published at half past nine o'clock In the mom Lag Single copies, In wrappers, ready far mailing, six centa Agents will please send In their orders as earl/ as possible. Tke News. We publish elsewhere some very interesting correspondence from on board the United States frigate Niagara, detailing the incident* that have occurred *v-?. ??luats ft ?\>a witk tl.a ?a?ii?itiam Mill v UiC rnmuft, vi uiv nim vuu iviui utu^ Japanese Embassy. A letter from Tommy to his friends in America will also be read with pleasure, expressive as it is of the simple yet earnest gratitude of the young Eastern stranger. It will be seen that Tommy aspires to be educated at Annapolis, and signifies his intention to return to America for that purpose. The chief Ambassadors i*ere applying themselves diligently to the study i f our language, under the careful superintendence cf the chaplain of the frigate, and the voyage thus far has progressed very satisfactorily. The steamship Ktna.from Liverpool on the 7th and (jucenstow-n on the 8th iastant, arrived at thii l>ort early yesterday morning. Her news, nlthough not so late by oue day as that received by the Glasgow and published yesterday, is much more complete than any we have received. A complete and literal translation of the two protocols of the Conference on Syria, held on the ;:d inst., at the Foreign Office in Paris, will be found in our columns. The second one contains the noleron engagement which the contracting Powers have taken upon themselves, to seek neither territorial aggrandizement nor exclusive influence nor commercial advantages for their subjects by the intervention. The tirst regulates the details of the intervention itself, which is limited beforehand to a duration of six months. Troops have already nailed from France. The news from Sicily is not Important. The steamship Quaker City, Captain Bchufeldt, arriv<d at this port last evening, She left Havana en the 1-th. There is no news of auy great interest. A contract to pave the city of Havana with Ttelgian pavement has been made with Mr. Fair< hild, of this city. The health of the city continued very good for the season. News from St. Thomas b\ the same steamer is to the l*t inst. On the day previous a severe shock of earthquake was experienced. No damage to property or loss of life is reported. The weather at the island was very pleasant and the health remarkably good. The I'orto Rico correspondent of the PUirio de {(i Marina, writing on the 2?l inst.. says the yellow fever w as raging there with grest flercenesa. attacking not only foreigners but natives. The new Governor, Senor t>hague. was expected every d*y. He had arrived at St. Thomas, and a steamer had been despatched there to take him to Porto Rico. A letter fromCietifueg?w, dated August 1, says: - i Account* from the interior are very satisfactory, and kind nature is suppljinp us with plenty. The shipment ot -unar and molasses continue active to tue States and to F.urope; but in two weeks a cea- ' bat on will take place until the new crop sets in. which i? at present very promising. Political af- 1 fairs are unlet, and with the Cubans much indiffi-r c-t.i c pervade* the town. and bearing particularly toward* all nation* c\cept Fran*?, with whose teprt -entntlvr- the ilignitarie* of this inland are in if parable friend-hip. Nt w.4 fr< iu Bumo< Avrea i? to June 2!>. and the I i liti' a' events of the month have been interesting. A rooi|>a< t *f union between the Argentine Conti dt ration and the province of Dueuoa Ayrc? v,n ?.elibratedat Parana on the Cth and ratified by i | uth government* on ti e Uth. A decree immodiate!) in-tied for the a-ambling of a convention od 7 within thirty dijo. the remitt of whose dollar- i > uv wan to be submitted to the next National Con pre^?, to which Buenos Ayres. after having sworn . to the con.-tilution. would send membeni. I'ntl Cot>gre?*ionaI action shall be taken, Buonoa Ayrea r-1? ? it v"< -"it an<l v ith entire control o li> ' own a a,y and C'u-- m H i??. F.arly next J > I'? ' w .. ! , , - in - nden d her quad 1 hWkptwrtftice and W< < ?... ( m? i- nviro a member of ( the < oiifederatii n. IV - , * 1i >1 been backer than \ fi ; m.nv month# pr* \i' - owing, in ? >;ue me a | mre. to the winter ?ea>on whi 'h vm netting in, and ( ti the fl i rn.itiun in en v w1p. Ii, say* the j C . no.v ' r e#, hare alu -t paralysed operations in aome cl??*e? of produce. At the very latest dxtes ounce* were at I333). From Paraqnny the new- by the la?t m i'I from " A?< rc- n waaaati-fcetory.* through the ' Ujc.-t productive regiooj w.rp being vigoroualy r % ! c.iTicd r,n, and trade wM prMperoav The demands of tho En^li.^h Consul, Henderson, in the a flair of Car.-taM, Lad gi\on rL-e to exertions to bring about a Mouth American alliance, with which qui -ticm many journal" in various republic*, and even in Brazil, were occupied. Files of Kio de Janeiro papers to July 21 have | come to Land. Therein no ut w? of au> importance. The ceremony of taking the oath of fealty, Ac., by the imperial princes* Donna Isabel, second daughter of the Emperor, was to take place in the Si'imfr chamber, on the 29th lilt.. her birth riar ? ' ? ? ?J The latent accounts from Pernambuco represent yellow fever to have bo en raging there. The Alrican, which arrived at this port from Belize on Friday night last, report* that at the time of Hailing (2rtth ult.) yellow fever had almost entirely abated in that place. A letter from a correspondent in Arizona, published elsewhere in our paper to day, informs ua that three unoffending Americans had been murdered at the San Pedro mines, by Mexicans, while in the peaceable discharge of their duties. The names of the persons massac red were: Frederick Huncknon, superintendent and mining engineer; James Williams, machinist, and John C. Moss, aseayer and melter. Much excitement existed at the mines, and a meeting was to be held to consider the propriety of invading Sonora ia pursuit of I lie murderers." The reply of the acting Secretary of State of the United states to the letter from Lord John llussell of the 11th of July, 1*60, relative to the slave and coolie trade, will be found in our despatch from Washington this morning. The letter is very tart, and bears car marks of being the President'* own composition. The talcs of cotton on Saturday embraced 15,000 bale*, the market closing firm. The run was chiefly on middling t^>?trict middling, middling fair grades, low middling and under that gTade.down to ordinary were Irregular, while the higher qualities, Including fair, were rather scarce and nominal, as there was little offering. The accounts coming to hand from the South represent no decided improvement* in the prospects of the cr?p at the South, so materially affected by the late drought on high lands, and on which is usually grown the heaviest portion of the aggregate yield. Flour opened heavy, and fell off aoout 6c. per barrel for sume grades of State aud Western, at which the market became more active. Wheat was heavy, and fell off about lc. per bushel for many descriptions. Corn was also lc. to l<^c. per bushel lower, but it was quite active. Pork waa easier and less active; sales of mess were made at $10 31 a 919 36, and of new prime at 914. Sugars were steady, and prices closed, on the sains of tho week, at an ad vanre of >,c. per pound, especially for refining goods. Coffee was Drm but quiet. Freights continued to rule Arm, especially for EnglUh ports. Among the engagements were w heat to Liverpool, in bulk and bags, at lid. a ll>?d. and Hour at 3s. 8d. The Higher Law and the naiiachuctti BoKawkl a# A M.a.l?.aa I)? <!.? fl_ toroaa Allies to BritUb Ntlirmci. Mr. inward has truthfully told us that he has " studied in the school of Massachusetts," and that from there he has derived the " higher law,'-' and the brutal and bloody teachings to an " irrepressible conflict" between his countrymen, the enlistment in which by Lincoln constitutes his only claim to a seat In the Presidential chair of theBe Unit.'d States. This is a bold acknowledgment. The "school of Massachusettsis well known for its devotion to British interests and British designs; and more than once has it gone to the very verge of treason, while it has ever exhibited a persistent opposition to everything that ha? truly tended to the prosperity and greatness of these States and to the glory of the American name. It w:is " the Massachusetts school" In 1814, when British cruisers were designing to repeat in every American port the vandal scenes they had perpetrated at Baltimore and Washington. that called together the infamous Hartford Convention, and proposed to hang out blue lights to guide the murderous invaders to the firesides of their brethren, and draped themselves in mourning when the news came of the glorious victories of Jackson at New Orleans. It was "the Massachusetts school" that for years fostered every scheme tending to create a moneyed aristocracy in this country on the British plan: that opposed the acquisition of Texas, the Mexican war, the supplies of blankets and medicines to our victorious troops in Mexico, the acquisition of California, the defence of our northern boundary rights, and every measure that was antagonistic to British interests or conducive to make us a great rival power to Britain. The whole of this policy Is now concentrated in the "higher law" theory, the abolition mnremi'nt mill nrnr>lam*tinn nf nhmf-il and bloody "irrepressible conflict" between the Northern and Southern sections of this Union. This conflict, once initiated, would soon satisfy the most destructive hopes of British interests for this country. We propose, therefore, to give a succinct but truthful view of the origin and aims of this British school, its transfer to Massachusetts. and the intimate connection that has since existed between the mother and daughter. When the American colonies achieved their indepecdence, it was supposed by English statesmen that a deadly blow had been struck at the British empire, and that not only must the means be found to parry, but others must be sought to destroy, the young giant lu the West which bad given IL The victories of Olive had laid the foundation of a new empire in the East. and thither their eye? were turned. It was an empire within an empire, and the Eist India Company could use its vast wealth and Influence without committing Itself to a dangerous degree on any side. To make this E utern r mpire overpowering. It must be enabled to monopolize the production and supply to the world of the staple products of tropical and M-mi tropical labors sugar. cofTee and cotton. In order to do this the British West India colonies must be sacrificed. Every one knows of the alliance between the E*st India House and Wilberforce. Clarkson and the school of British abolitionists, and how ruthlessly the We?t India colonies were given over by them to barbarism. Thirty jears ago this event was on the eve of cons mmatlon. and the time had arrived to make the final blow at the same interests in the l nited States. The British designs must be transplanted to America, and a congenial soil was found in Massachusetts. There a ' higher law" than the constitution was first procl >imei. Its earliest apostle# were British emissaries, and Its earlier organs were openly supported by [ ritish gold. From that time the stream of British abolition propagandists, beginning vith [?eortre Thompson and Mrs. J'rr. h.u rontln i.'d :o flow to our shop*, its latert >eipg found in Col. Forbe? and Thaddeu<i Hyatt, >f Kantian and John I'rown fame. As ' the U.tjwacbi.setlp w.ut.-d nc" thed' nand* of the Diitlch interests Inc;ea#ed. After i while the Priti?h McthodinUdemanded thit the Isorthern Method*' church he vbonld ?epaate from the ?outh< rn ; then British Fre#i>jrt 1ao? required tb?t the same ab/w should be NEW YORK HERALD, MO i reat***! between Northern uq^ Southern Presbyterian communions among us, and every effort baa been made to divide the other churches. During all this time " the Massachusetts school'' hat> shown itself to be the constant and devoted adberrot of Iiritl.-h intere.nts Its propagandists have ever nought in Kngland the applu.:.-e aud ^mpathy which baa been denied them at home. We need cite only the conduct observed towards lira. .Stowe some years since, and the sympathy to-day ex ended to Dr. Cheever, to prove thia. At last the time came to divide political parties in obedience to Bri tl?h interests, and "the Massachusetts school" was. as ever, the ready instrument. But Massachusetts' first son stood in the way. The "school," however, knew no ties of blood or kindred, and Webster was sent to his grave, even bis statue denied a place in Massachusetts hall.-, because bis Dataaotism would not barnl to the behents of British schemers. While these destructive eflorts were going on in the West, the most strenuous exertions were made to build up a competing interest in the East. American cotton seed, American cotton gins and American overseers were sent to IadU, and every possible encouragement has been given to the cultivation of cotton there, of coffee in Ceylon, and of sugar in Mauritius and other places. These are the great outlines of the labors of "the Massachusetts school" and their British musters; and to-day Mr. Seward, fresh from England, and from conference with the destructive tribe of British abolitionists, comes forward boldly to proclaim the "higher law," whose behests be bad learned in Massachusetts, and to urge on the brutal and bloody "irrepressible conflict,'' to which he assures us that Lincoln owns his obligation, and acknowledges that his only claim to the Presidency is, that he "avows himself, for weal or for woe, for life or for death, a soldier" in its ranks. Let the patriotic and conservative impulse in every American heart ponder upon the awful import of thepe confessions, and guard bis hand from giving support, through the traitorous "Massachusetts school," to the designs of the worst enemies of his country. The Central Park?Li the Result Proportionate to the mkaxi.?We have been consistent and undeviating friends of the Central Park. We have appreciated the advantages which such a breathing ground, tastefully laid out and carefully kept, would confer upon our teeming population. We have, therefore, given to the enterprise, from its inception to the present day, the support of our influence. Three years have elapsed since the work was commenced, and it is full time to examine whether the results obtained are proportioned to the means employed and the moneys expended. The third annual report of the Commissioners not being very intelligible or satisfactory, we commissioned one of our reporters to visit the Tark, examine it carefully, and give a full and impartial account of all that has been done and is being done toward making it an agreeable, pleasant and popular resort for our citizens. The result of his Investigations and injuries will be found in another part of to day's Herald. We c annot congratulate our readers on the very favorable features presented by this report. The Park has ceased to be what it was a year ago, an attraction for equestrians or promenade'** nnd is fast hoingf pi von orpr to that condition of neglect into which one by one ull our public grounds, from the Battery up, bare fallen. There are several reasons for this. One of them is the disagreeableness of the approach, through a dusty region where pigs and porter houses are the chief features. This is beyond the power of the Commissioners to cause or cure. Our city authorities might do something in the matter, but they will not. Time and the rapid growth of the city will be found the only remedies fcr this. If, however, the unpleasantness of the approach were com penrated for by the attractiveness of the Park Itself, our citizens would still flock there in favorable weather. But it is not. The interior is not much more attractive than the exterior. Broad avenues there are indeed, but the leafless trees that border them atford no shelter from the scorching rajs of the sun; pleasant walks, but no cool and shady resting places. The eye takes In a large expanse of ground within the rude enclosure, and the mind suggest! that In ftiture years all the appliances of taste and art will be brought to K/tnr tifiAfl ft* hft# (ffl kiMitiHofl nM nnl v it v, wni U|fVU V?l? ? ? w ' ?? VMIJ I'* |' V " I ptctii, and it may be that with time as with \ pace? \ TU diaUoc? lends tnctuuitment to tb? new. f We must confess that the result* obtain- * ed are not proportionate to the means em- ? ployed. Over ten thousand workmen hare n been at work on the Park for some three p year*, and about two millions of dollars have ft been expended. And what has been effected 1 c, The drainage of the ground, the opening of i three and one third miles of road ami seven a miles of walk, and the building of half n do/en u bridge*. That is all. Tell an English noble- f( man that to convert 768 acres cf wild land? n the extent of the Central Park?Into a charm- d iog demesne, such as stretches before many an n ancestral hall in that country, would cost half s a million of pounds sterling, and he would laugh with incredulity at the assertion. And d yet that Is the sum which the Park Commis- ^ sioners are authorized to expend, and have al- * most expended, with such mean results. ft We are afraid there must be some terrible ft blundering somewhere. It Is cot ea.-y to point a out where the fault lies. Our reporter, how- u ever, very properly remaiks that instead of the ft plan being made to conform to the natural features of the location, the ground has Wen mide a to conform to the architect's plan: swampy r( hollows, fitted for aitificial lakes, have been L niU'd up. ana lakes uave been excavated waerc * nature never intended them to be; rocks hav<> ? been blasted, eminences levelled. and valleys |? filled up. all of which would have better re- pc m.lined untouched; and instead of tiding the p material quarried on th<- ground for the erec W tion of bridge*, expensive stone h;t* been im- R ported from Nova Scotia for the purpose. Oq ft the whole we are a little apprehensive th it L this great Central I\irk to which our clMzen? have looked forward with such plea*unt imtici ?' patlons. and for which the? have so liberally ? Contributed, will not realize the expectations we had formed of it. To the next generation <? It may be a delight, but according to all ap " pearances. the pi esent wl'.l derive little benefit or advantage frota 1L d M)AT, Al'tlUST 21), 180 The Black Republic** Creed?Its Kipoiltio? by Cbrvalter Webb. The signs of the times, the progress of the counter revolution at the North, the reaction which is taking place in the popular mind, the t.ober second thought prevailing at last over the wild, fanatical and revolutionary ideas wLi .j bad become rampant and threatened the very existence of the social and political fabric, and reuniting from this, the new combinations of the conservative element against the common dagger, have thoroughly alarmed the republican leaders, who huve no longer any confidence in the it sue they have raised before the country , but are like men treading cautiously and with fear and trembling on treacherous ice which by a genial thaw has grown too thin and too weak to support their weight, and may at any moment give way beneath their feet and engulf them In a cold, watery grave. They are half way across the river, and are sadly puzzled and distracted as to whether they should go an or back. Some advance, " whittling to kwp their courage up some hesitate and pause, and some retreat when it id too late, and it is sufer to go forward than to fpu? ~r 4L. ? i i rnuiu. mug, ui iuc leauerB disguise their fcars while they press onward ; but other*, like leaky Webb, who never could keep his own counsel, much lees the secrets of others, are blurting out their inward distress. The Chevalier perspires from every pore, and bis courage oozes out at the tips of his finders, like that of valiant Bob Aeree, as he Sounders back and falls on the ice, and scrambles up again, and thinks that every moment will be bis last. In a long leading article in last Saturday's Courier and Enquirer, under the caption of " Republican Doctrines," he betrays his apprehensions of the approaching doom of the republican party, and exhibits his consciousness that he is no longer Bafe upon its Blippery platform. He recedes into his old whiggery, which he blunderingly calls true republicanism, the genuine article, " the Original Jacobs." Now that the issre has been Bqr.arely made before the country, and that the various parties and factions aud cliques are ranging themselves under two standards?one the black banner of revolutionary republicanism, and the other the flag of the Union?Webb is frightened, for he kuows that the result will be the samr* as it was in 1852, the issue being the same, but now more clearly defined. The hopes of the republicans hitherto were founded on the [ sane and suicidal divisions of the conservative element, and the belief that they would not inite against the common foe. Those hopes are low dissolved into thin air. and the gleam of lunshine has only served to weaken the ice on vhich the republican leaders tread. Hence the ears of blubbering Webb. The fusion of the Jell and Douglas parties in this Slate, the comlinalinn nf thp RrecWinriilirp nnd Roll narttaa n New Jersey, and the union established in Pennsylvania in despite of the sinister efforts >f Forney to throw the State into the hands of he republicans a? the price of the Clerkship of he House of Representatives, have made him veak in the knees. The conservative element s rising and swelling under the republican platorm, which it will soon shatter and sweep away is a spring tide in the Hudson breaks up the ce when the return of genial weather has prepared it for dissolution. Webb anticipates the :oming crash, and he runs away as fast as be ;an. ilis feet refuse to stand any longer on the principles of bis party, and be falls back )n another platform, widen is as like :o republicanism as day to night, or Hyperion io a satyr. He says this is the Simon Pure republican creed, and that nine-tenths of the >eople of the South believe it. If this be so, hen there is no use in a battle, for republicanem will carry all the Southern States, and the Jell party, the Breckinridge party and the )ouglas party may as well strike their colors teforehacd. and save the expense of a contest, rbey ought to come down one by one to General Webb, to save him the trouble of ighting. as the coon came down from the tall ree and surrendered when he saw Captain kott with his unerring rifle. The Chevalier Webb says the creed of repubicaoism is that -the constitution gives no right o the general government to abolish slavery n any of the States or Territories of the Union, md consequently it cannot confer any such ight upon any Territorial Legislature;" that "it s n paramount duty of the general government, ind the object of its creation, to protect the tote* of the confederacy in their right to esta>li*h and perpetuate slavery;" that any attempt >f Congress ' to abolish slavery ia the .'ictrict 01 uommou without trie saneion of the .State of Maryland would >e a -TOM breach of faith;" that "the ipgro is physically. socially and morally in a etter condition as a slave In moat of the slave ;tates than he would be in a state of freedom:" nd finally, that " every attempt on the part of ersons not inhabitant* of such State to inter?re with the institution where it legally and onstitutionally exista ia a crime against the nion itself, and that it ia not only the duty of II good citizen* to frown down any auch at mpt, but. if necessary, to bear arms in de*nce of the right? of every State to regulate a internal affairs as to it may seem expeient.v To crown all. we are told that this is ot only the creei of Webb himself, but of eward and Lincoln. W hat more could any Sou thorn slaveholder esire than thi< It ia no wonder that Webb ?ys nine tentha of the people of the South rould subscribe to these doctrines: but we >ar the Chevalier will be excommunicated om the republican church with bell, book nd candle that even political execution uill e done upon turn as a deserter ironi toe revoitionary army. We shall not here quote the books of Spooner nd Helper, the law and the g> -pel of the ^publican jarlj; but as Webb admit* that iucoln and Seward are good authority a* to bat the doctrines of the republican party are. e shall cite both these prophet* of the "higher tw," and ask the reader to compare what they ly with what the (burirr fitEnquirer now retends is the real creed of the republican*. *e shall quote from Greeley's ' Political Text ook for lff.O." From page 127 we take the illowlng extract of the speech of Abraham incoln at Springfield, June 17. 1S?8:? could flnt know wfcpfp trr ?r<>, ?rd whither tr f Irmlinfr, wi could bpttpr Jndfp what to do, and b >w to i it Wr *rp noir r*r into the fifth yr*r ulnr* ? p.,h v *? tiittnt?d with lb* <)?rd object ?ni! oufllent pr tfp ? f putt trie *n end to ?l*rpry (citation t'atcr il?> H*i?ti<'M of ihnt policy, tbat Mit?tloD hut n>>i i*ly n<" rd, but h?? rootUntiy augmented In m/ opinion t HI not i fir < utit rrii>t? ?h*tl ? >? ? rti?ch*l?nl i?*cd "A hoQRi* dlttdod a^ftitift tturlf rauiQot *t*nd " tw Here ih's torernmenl cannot en.ltjr* r?<rn,?? ?) y kir elate an.t half free I do nm e?pe< I th? I atoo to n? mm ted?I do aol ctpect Uic bwuar to but I dost 0. _ _ pect it wtll caae lo be divided It will become all one thing, or aH tbe other. Either the opponent* of alartry will arruki the further spread of it, and place itwh^re tbe public muid sball re?t in the belief that it ii in ihe course of ultimate enaction; or its advocate* will pinh II forward, till it ahail become alike lawful in all th States, old u well at> new?North w wtli w South. Surely the republican candidate ior President known what hid own opinions are a little better tbun General Webb, and he see? that the anti-Blavery agitation will never ceaBe till its end is attained, and that "tbis government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free." We auk any man of candor to Buy whether this doctrine, which is the cardinal point of the republican creed, the foundation on which Mr. Lincoln carried ou his political campaign in Illinois, iB not diametrically opposed to the creed set forth by Chevalier Webb. We now come to the speech of Senator Seward, delivered in October of the same year, and we also quote it from Greeley's* book, at page 161:? These antagonize By sterna are continually coming into closer contact, una collision reeults. ehali I tell you what tins collision meaui? They who think that it is accidental, unnecessary, the work of interested or fanatical sgilaturt, and therefore ephemeral, mistake the case altogether It ia on irrepressible cor H let between opposing and enduring, and it m -axis that the I'uiutd Status muat and will, koooer or later, become either eutirely a slaveholdlng na lion, or entirely a free lab >r nation. Either the coltun and rice fields of South Carohnaand the sugar plantations ot liOiiiciana ariil ultimately bo tilled by free labor, and Charleston and New Orteau* become ?Q*rU for legitimate merchandise alone, or else the rye tfWds and wheat fields of Massachusetts and New fork rou~l again be surrendered by their ftarmrrs to slave culture and to the production o! slaves, an* Bostun and Ntvi York become once more mar?U for trade in the hnd.c* and s^uls of men. It is the failure to apprehfnd this great truth that Induces so Diat y unsuccessful attempts at Dual compromise between the slave and free Males, and it is the existence of this great Fart that renders alt such pretended compromise, when made, vain and ephemeral. Look upon tlite picture and upon the picture presented by Master Webb. What can be more different? One creed ifl a creed of compromise and peace, and the protection of F-lavery. The other is a creed of irreconcilable "and never ending. uncompromising antagonism?war to the knife against slave labor?an irrepressible, enduring conflict?which means that the 4,lrnited States must, sooner or later, become entirely a free labor nation." Here is the true republican creed, and it is rather too late in the day for Chevalier Webb to try to substitute another In its place, when he finds the strong tide of conservatism setting in against his party and threatening to sweep it to perdition. Th? Armenian Riots at Constantinople? Knulan Intrigue Again Busily- at Work. By recent advices from Constantinople we learn that there has been an outbreak in the very heart of the capital itself. And the tumult on this occasion was not excited by Mussulmen, but by the Christians themselves against Christians, and originated in an at- j tempt to bury a Protestant Armenian in the consecrated ground of the old Armenian church, from which the Protestants are seceders. Seemingly, this was a mere ebullition of Eastern fanaticism, but it was, in reality, ot deeper significance and origin. The Armenians are very tenacious of their religion, and being, as it were, a community isolated from the government, have made their faith a bond of nationality and union, and until now have thereby- maintained their homogeneity &a a people. The Armenian church resembles the Greek and the Roman in many respects, but has no spiritual head like the Tope. The form of government is episcopal, and includes in its ranks archbishops, bishops, priesti and deacons. True, it has a higher functionary, designated the Catholicos. but his powers have no analogy with those of the head of the Romish church, for there are three who hold this dignity?one ut Etchmiad/.in. the other at Sis. and the third at Akhtamar. Their duties are to regulate spiritual affairs only. The civil head of the nation is the patriarch, who is elected by the people from the bUhops? and of these patriarchs there are several in various sections of the country?so that they are not under the absolute control of the priesthood. But the mass of the people, being uneducated, are swayed by superstitious and traditional influences. Up to the lant century and a half they lived in unity and peace, until Catholi cism was introduced among: them. This not only aroused the jealousy of the priesthood, but touched the patriotism of the people, who dreaded the dismemberment of their nation; for Catholicism had a denationalizing tendency. Latini/.ing even the church ritual, to which innovation some of the Catholic Armenians would not submit, so that even at this time there are two sects?the radicals, who prefer the Latin service and disdain even to use their own lan guage in their domestic converse, nnd the liberals. who retain all that is national, and only acknowledge the Pope as the head of the church. Within the last thirty years Protestantism has also been Introduced through the efforts of the American missionaries. In the beginning there was little or no opposition, the missionaries being well received by the Armenians as friends of the people, having at heart no object but their real welfare and moral advancement But in time their influence iucreased to such an extent that they began to insinuate their sectarianism and entice the lower classes from the church fellowship. The schools which they established proved mere establishments for manufacturing proselytes. Sectarian books were disseminated, and conventicles set up. where the discussion of abstruse doctrines, and Puritan psalm singing, te the tune of Old Hundred, took the place of the time-honored church ritual. The Armenians displayed bitter animosity and opposition to these efforts, and persecutions followed. But through the intervention of Lord Stratford de Redcltffe an nmicable settlement was effected, and the little body of Protestants were recognised a? a se | paraU* community, with a patriarch of their own. Thi- peaceable state of things has been suddenly interrupted by a fresh outbreak between these two classes of Armenians?thow of the old church, and those known a? the Protestants. The point in question Wiv? whether the newly foimed lect of Protestant seceder* from the mother church had the right to u?* the buria ground of the latter. The persistence of both parties was ucpreeedented. and defied the pre pence of the civil authorities and the large body of soldiery. ' The excuse which the government oilers for its pawiveitews on 'hi* ? is that this inob really had nothing to do with I'r UesUnMvn. hut was got up ui >)er Kn-. inn iufht#De*s. for the purpose of brirgln^ ! f.?ilwdon Wt-ween the Turkish soldiers ..i.u < - ?'hr.-'i.ut papula tit* of tb? city. U a'.'.?:g i i? it Ui.- soldiers been allowed U> ' . 'i moh an im> t< d???e ?i.*urrei';? hv ! La . c jut a?l over IK city. To.*' < : . < .v <c> nrwdit thif "Tttc ' L? U v. t' it Kuwia is determined to undermine the Turkish government by any and every meau that may present itself. Th? Armenians are the real life and soul of Turkey; hence the policy of Russia has of late been to gain them over to her interest. One Btep to which she resorted for this purpose vm to get the See of Etchmiadzin within her owi jurisdiction, and thus influence the Armani^ through their religious sympathies. Recently, through Russian intrigues, the See of Etchmiadzin, which had been vacated, was given to Matteos, the former patriarch at Constantinople, who took an active part in the persecution of the Protestants. Further, Russia has just sent commissioner to Constantinople?on Armenian general in the Russian service, Melickoff by name?to persuade the Armenians to combine their three Sees into one; the one of course to be that of Etchmiadzin. It is plain that this peaceable people would not have thus compromised themselves had thej not been instigated and sustained by Russia on the one hand, and by the representatives of Pro* testantism on the otjier. Means are nothing in the estimation of rulers, provided the end seems attainable. The outpouring of innocent blood and the saciifice of valuable lives are of but lit41 ? :r .l?I- L.1*:?.. J?: 1 us iiujjuiv 11 U1C11 aiuumuua uoeigua U&U N *C* complmhed. What is it to them that Christiana and Moslems decimate each other, provided the door for intervention be opened? For if France is to protect the Catholics of Syria and fill that country with her boldiers, it follows that Russia will be justified in extending the 9ame protection to the Greeks and Armenians of Constantinople. Such is the game now being played out. Verily, the '-Eastern Question" is becoming more and more difficult of solution, for, between grasping Christianity and fanatical Islamism, the sick man seems to hare but little chance of dying a natural death. Ora Financial and Commercial Prospects? Breakers Ahead '.?In another part of to day's Herald will be found a carefully prepared and well digested review of the past and present financial and commercial condition of the country. In it the rarious financial revulsions that have swept over the United States at regular intervals. from 1814 to 1857, are traced to their causes, and we are enabled to draw a parallel between the condition of things that preceded and brought about those revulsions, and that which we see now existing In our centres of commerce and finance. If like causes produce like effect*, then it appears almost inevitable ^hat we are fast drifting down into the whirlpool of another financial crisis. At all events, we nn>vnt tn nnr rpnd^ra ibe> qi ifiav utanA and leave them to draw their inferences therefrom. As all our commercial revulsions have been preceded by a period of wild speculation, so we find that within the last couple of months the Stock Exchange has been marked by a rapid rise of all classes of railroad securities. Railroad stocks that are absolutely valueless as investments have, without any appreciable cause, run up from ten to twenty per cent above the figures at which they ruled in the beginning of the summer. The sole basis for this rapid rise in railroad securities was the very unsubstantial one of estimated short crops in England and a prosperous harvest at the West. It was calculated that this would give rise to a very large freight traffic, and there Is no doubt that such is and will be the case. But of what real advantage to the stockholders is an increase of traffic, when we all know that the railroads are irredeemably encumbered, acd that all the profits are hardly adequate to pay up the interest on their bonds, much less diminish the amount of their indebtedness? And yet we see speculators dealing in these valueless railroad stocks, and rushing them up to figure* which they will never be worth. As to the operations of the banks and of importers, they are of a character to arouse ap1 prehension. The bank? of this city have actually at the present time a larger amount of loans out than they had in the inflated period immediately preceding the crash of 18.17. On the 4th of August of that year the loans were $120..r>97.050. and on the 13th of the present month the loans were f 125),855,173?on increase ui wuriy wn minions 01 aonars .mis accounts to some extent for the wild speculation on the Stock Exchange, as it does also for the large foreign importations icto this port In riew of these indications, prudent men fill trim their sails and look out for breakers. Tnr Canal Tou-s?Grkat Increase.?The increase in the canal tolls during the present year. as compared with the past, is quite large. The flgrres are as follows :? Tolli rref trcd on all the canal* of Plate in ths aw tort week In An^tin, IHOO IW OO M Do In 18M 47.4M 09 Inrrrmr til 1VS0 MS .864 41 Whole urnnuLt of lol a received In two we?** Id JuIJ.HOO $187,MS IS Do tn 1060 ?S,SST 01 Ilctcv* In 1?00 MS.991 ST Wboie amonnt of t"lla received from the openinf of invitation to and tr.ciudlnf the Moond wr*k la AURiiat. lwo ?1 >42 tos S3 Do. in is.''# *S4 SIS SO Iocrratt in 1M0 S?7,l?7 W Tbe increase is only spparent after all, for last j ear the canal tolls were extremely low? lower tbHn tbey ever were before; and in the present year tbe? are still below nn average. The cause of the increase is twofold?first, tbe canals, which were sadly out of order, have lieen repaired; and, secondly, there was not much produce to send last year, and it was forwarded chiefly by railroad, that it might bHng a return nf cash as soon as possible; v>hereas this jear the produc e ou hand is abundant, and though the new has not yet found its way to market, it has pushed forward the old to make room for it. In lt*6. the canal tolls amounted to some $3.700,000. But the canals and the public Interests hare l>een immolated to the railroad Interest. In In 12 the leaders of the part) who tried to break down th? canal.- for the benefit of the railroads declared that the canals could not convey another toai ?f produce more than they did. Thw tolV? were then reduced twenty per rent, tad yet the Increase of receipt* half n otiliton of aoiian. a mrinor Tcwacnoa ot p*>r cent tooli phc*. am) h*"-* w??. ?tVM *n incrca?o of r*. c* proving ih?t 0* capacity had lw**-n ntiwly TnkrMvw^nt^l. Kif Si fbt> beginning the r-an&lf bi??e b#e?? tBlfinaRfiged. aud rendered a -?t pnt';0 plunder. The monej voted h? th?-ic nlarg"m?'nt wat appropriated to otWi purpo-"1 pc#* of *ne canal* hv been fbrJy mil'ion*. T';ere i* a hcnvj debt nn ihfn. which wonM bav# h-.w-n cx?in(ziii?hr <1 by thin tiiii??. r.nd the^n! .rifwinrnt completed, with wrm f'etcf watrr la thj

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