Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 5, 1860, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 5, 1860 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. ? WHOLE NO. 8854. MORNING EDITION? WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 5, 1800.-TRIPLE SnEET. PRICE TWO CENTS. THE CRISIS. STATE OF THE UNION. Tllfi PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. Annual Reports of the Treasury, War, Navy, Interior and Post Offioe Departments. Important Position of the President on the Crisis of the Union. The Material and Industrial Pros perity of tbe Country. Shall Such a Nation be Dissolved ? Appeal of the President to the Patriotism of the People, fcin a?* THE PRESIDESrS MESSAGE. 7SLL0W Crroaws or tb* Swat* Aire Hoc ai or RiraawNTMi**51? Throughout the year iinc# aur last meeting the country baa been eminently prosperous in aU iu material Interests. The general health ha. been excellent, onr harvest. hare been abundant, and plenty smile, throughout the land. Onr ?<?"? and manufactures hate been prosecuted with ener gy and industry, and have yielded fair and ample ntarns. In short, no nation in the tide of time has ?ver presented a siectacle of greater materia ????*? we have done until within a very "whv'tolt, then, that discontent now so extensive ly ore vails, and th? Union of the States, which la the sooroe ef aU these blessings, is threatened with destrnation? The long continued and intemperate Interference of the Northern people with ques tion of slavery In the Southern Btates has at length produced its natural effects. The different section. ot the Union are now arrayed against each other, ud the time has arrived, so much dreaded by th# Father of his Country, when hostile geographical parties have been formed. 1 have long and often forewarned my countrymen of the now impending danger. This doe. not proceed solely from the claim on the part of Congress or the Ter ritorial Legislatures to exclude alavery from I Territories, nor from the eflbrts of different Slate, to defeat the execution of the Fugitive Slave aw. All er any of the* evil, might have been endured w the South without danger to the Union, | JL others have been.) In the hope that torn, and reflection might apply the remedy. The immediate peril artoe. not so much causes a. from the fa-t that the inccssant and vio lent agitation of the slavery queation throughou the North for the last quarter of a century ha. at length produced its malign influence on the slave., and Inspired them with vsgue notions of freedom. Hence a sense or security no longer exist, around the family altar. This feeling of peace at home bM given place to apprehensions of Mr** recti on Many a matron throughout the South re S??.?. U?i.r and her children before the morning. Should thU anorthenaion of domestic danger, whether real or Imaginary, extend and ioUnufy itself until it shall pervade the masse, of the Sonth^rn people then disunion will become inevitable. Self- preservation U the first law of nature, and has been implanted in the heart of man by hi. Creator for thewUe* purpose; and no politic il union, however fraught with blewing. and benefit, in all other re.pects, can long continue, If the necessary connequence be to render the home, and the fireside, of nearly half the parte, to K habitually and hopele*ly Inaecure. fioooer or later the bonda of .nch a Union must be severed. It to my conviction that Urn fttal period ha. not yet arrived; and my prayer to God ..that He would pr* serve the constitution and the Union throughout all generations. Bat let u. take warning In time, and remove $ cause of danger. It csnaot be denied that for five and twenty year., the agitation at the North against slavery in the Sluth has been lnces?nt. In 1935 pictorial handbill, and Inflammatory ap L2.JL CcoUU-d U.r.u,b?, to Honth of a character to excite the pan- of the and. In the language of General Jackson ? to Simulate them to insurrection and produce all ever alnce been continued by the pub u pr . 7 the proceeding, of Bute and county convention., and by abolition eermon. and lecture.. The ti of Coon res* has been occupied in violent spce- he on this never ending object; and I appe aU pamphlet and other form., endorsed by r dtotla pushed n.mes, have Wen sent forth from th^e?" ual point, and spread broad. a.t over the Lalon. How easy would it be for the American people to settle the alavery queation forever, aad to re aU,re peace and harmony to thto distracted coun ' They and they .lone, can do it. AH that is n? -ewsry to aoMWl^b the object, and aU for whinh ?t. i?vi> States have ever contended, is to be I?t - manue stitutiona in their own wsy. A. m Stat the* nnd they alone, are responsible before Uod M<ftbe worli for the s<a,ery extoti* among them. For this the people of the North *re notraoreras ponsibla, and hava no mote right to hi* wltb similar Initiations In or ,n ? fpon thalr good sen?e and patriotic for c.?rs confess I still greatly rely. Without their *i? ? beyond the power of any President, ao mat. what may be his own political prc-liviti*., to re atore peace and harmony among the Bute-' i?e It limited ?nd restrained as l? hto powf , nndes onr constitution and laws, he alone can accomplish but little, for good or for evil, on ?u< h a momontoui U' if brings me to observe that the #Ie*tio? Of Ml one ol our fellow citiwn. to the office of PrMtdeat does not ?f Itself aflhrd Just cause for VL u M thf Union. ThU to more ..pecl.lly vm ?!,- tlon has been effected by a mere plural iy. , , - .inrl'v of tbe people, and ha. resu e.| XL ?*"? ? ?' !y r,Kain occur. In order to justify a vernment moat be guilty of I p?lp?Wl and dangerous eitrciM of power* not granted by the constitution. The late Presidential election , however, ban been held in atriot conformity with lta express provisions. How, the*, can the result justify a revolution to destroy this very constitu tion! Reason, justice, a regard for the constitu tion, all require that we ahall wait for some overt and dangeroas act on the part of the President elect before resorting to such a remedy. It is said, however, that the antecedents of the I 'resident elect li*ve been sufficient to justify the fears of the South that he wKl attempt to invade their constitutional rights. Bat are such appre hensions of contingent danger in the future suffi cient to justify the immediate destruction of the noblest system of government ever devised by mor tals! From the very nature of his office, and ita high responsibilities, he must necessarily be con servative. The stern duty of administering the vast and complicated concern ? of tiiu government aflords ia Itself a guarantee that he will not at tempt any violation of a cleir constitutional right. After all, he is no more than the chief executive officer of the government. Bis province Is not to make, bat to execute the laws; and it Is a remark able fact in our history that, notwithstanding the repeated efforts of the anti-slavery party, no single act has ever passed Congress, unless we may possibly except the Mis souri Compromise, impairing In the sligheit de gree the rights of the 8 )uth to their property in slaves. And it may also be observed, Judging from present indications, that no probability exists of the passage of such an act, by a majority of both houses, either in the present or the next Con gress. Surety, undur these circumstances, we ought to be restrained from present action by the precept of Him who spake as never man spoke, that "suf ficient unto the day is the evil thereof." The day of evil may never come, uuless we shall rashly bring it upon ourwlves. It is alleged as one cause for Immediate secession that the Southern States are denied equal rights with the other States in the common Territories. Rut by what authority are these denied! Not by Congress, which haa never pawed, audi believe never will pass, any act to exclude slavery from these Territories; and certainly not by the Supreme Court, which has solemnly decided that slaves are property, and. like all other property, their owtiers have a right to take them into the common Territo ries, and hold them there under the protection of the constitution. Bo far, then, as CongTesa is concerned, the ob jection is not to anything they have alreadvdone, but to what they may do hereafter. It will surely be admitted that this apprehension of future dan ger is no good reason for an immediate dissolution of the Union. It is true tBat the Territorial Legis lature of Kansas, on the 23d of February, Imtf), passed In great haste an act, over the veto af the Governor, declaring that slavery " is. and shall be, forever prohibited in this Territory." Such an act, however, plainly violating the rights of pro perty stcurcd by the constitution, will surelv be declared void by the judiciary whenever it ahall be presented in a legal form. Only three years after my Inauguration, the Sa preme Court of the United States solemnly adjudged that this power did not exist in a Territorial Legis lature. Yet, such has been the factious temper of the times that the correctness of this decision has been extensively impugned before the people, and the question has given rise to angry political con flicts throughout the country. Those who have ap pealed from this judgment of our highest constitu tional tribunal to popular assemblies would, if they cvuld. invest a Territorial legislature with power to annul the aacred rights of property. I his power Congees is expressly forbilden by the fed-ral constitution to exercise. Every State legislature in the Uuiou is forbidden by its own con?titaii<m to exercise it. It cannot l>e exercised In any State except by the people in their highest sovereign ca- , pacity when Iraniing or amending their State ion stitution. In like manner it can oulv be exer< wed by the people of a Territory represented in a con- , vention of delegates for the purpose ot frainmg a constitution preparatory to admission a? a S'ate into the Union. Then, and not until then, are th?y in- i vested with power to decide the question whether slavery fhall ot shall not exist within their limits. This is an act of sovereign authority, and not of ( subordinate Territorial legnlstion. Were It oth erwise, then indeed would the Mualltv of the States in the Territories be destroye 1, and the rights of property in slaves would depend, not upon the Busranues of the ? oin-Utution but upon the ahirt i"g majorities of an irresponsible Territorial Legia iature. Such a doctrine, from its Intrinsic un< >uud ness cannot long loflueece any considerable por tion of our people, much less can It a?*d a good reason lor a dissolution of the I nion. The most palpable violations of constitutional duty which have vet been committed consist in the acta of different State Legislatures to defeat the execution of the Fugitive Slavs law. It ought to l>e remembered, however, that lor these a<-ta neither Congress nor sny President cau justly be held responsible. Having been passeu iu violation ot the federal constitution, they are. therefore, null and void. All the courts, bo b State and nation si, before whom the question las sriM-i. have fr ?ui the beginning declared the Fugitive nlsve law to be constitutional. The siu<le exception la that of a court in Wia:on*ui, tftd thii 041 not ouly been reversed by the proper appellate tribunal but has met with an h unisersal r< probation that there can be no danger from it sh a precedent. The validity of this law has been established ov.tr and over sgain bv the Supreme t.ourt of the United States with perfect unanimity. It is founded upon an evuress provision of the con stitution. requiring thst fugitive slaves who ei cape from service In one State to another aha 1 be "delivered up" to their mseters. Without this ?rovi>ion It la a well known historical fact that the eonatitnttoo Itself could never have keen adopted bv the Convention. Id one form or other under the acta ot IW and lsjO. both being substantially the rame. the Fugitive Slave law hsa been the law of the land from the days ol Washington until the present mon ent. 11. re. then, a clear isae is pre iecttd. in whidi It will be the duty of the next President a* it has hcenmv own. V. act with vigor in executing this supr-me law against theeonllict. i in k sDactuieuts of State LegUlstur.-s. Should he fail in the performance of thii high duty, by will then have manifested a disregard of the constitution i and laws, to the great injury of the paople of near ly one hall of the States of the Unlsn But are we to presume In advsnce that he will thus violate his duty' This would be at war with eveiy prin ciple of justice and of Christian charity, l-et us wait for the overt act. The FagUive Slave law has been arried into execution In every c intested case since the commerceme it of the present ad ministration, thooghoften. It la to be regretted, with orent !?>?? and inconvenience to the master, and with considerable expense to the government. I*t ua treat that the -tate Legislatures sill repeal their unconstitutional and obnoxioua erertmente. I n lesa this shall be done without aaneceaasrj deUy, it is impossible for any human power to save the ^ The Southern Slates standing on the t.asis of tha constitution, have a right to demand thl? act of jua tice from the i-natea ot the North, (should it be re fused then the constitution, to which aM the ftstoa are parti, s will have been wilfully violated by one portion of them In a provision eseential to the do mestic security and happineaa of the remainder. In that event, the injures States, after havi ig tlrst used all pea<"< tul and cons?ituti.?oal mesns to >i,t*in redress, would '?e justified in revolutionary resist ance to the government of the Unisa. I have purposely coutinsd mv remarks to revolu tionary re?tot*n-f, b?f*'ise It ha* b< ei claimed within th? last fes ye?r? that any S'ate whenever this shall be Ua soveN sli srHI and pteaaure may i accede from tha Union, I a accorJsn e * tu ttie constitution. and without any violstioa of iae coo stitutiooal righta of tl?e other m?Bil?ers o ttoe con federacy. lhat as each became parues t?> Uie Union bf the vote o' It* o*r> people s -wambled in I Convention, so auv erne of tl.em tnay retire from | the Onion in a similar macner by tbe vota ol am i * \n order U V??ily seceaaion a* a ronstltuti >nal rem. lv it must be on the principle thst the frderaJ sosr aoient is a mere voluntary aasocia'ion of states to ke dissolved at plea-nrs by any OtM of the contra ting parties. It this be so. the cm I fe.l. rarv is .? rop< or -enl. to be penet-ated and SLlJd l>r U,C I niiinn'T our i,M| / 1 11 imnff arta. 2+ - froB lb. . nlnn, ?iihom fM> anv -widen excitement might Ir.pel ikem to ? couraa Hv thla process a l n ou muht toot brokoa into fragmiaU in ft lew wec^J, which co? our forefather* many yeara 0/ toll, privation and blood to esubliah. Such a principle is wholly inconsistent with the b<Utory a* well as the character of the federal con st, tntion. Alter it wtu trained, with the greatest deliberation and care, it waa aubmitted to conven tion* of tie people of the several States for ratiji cation. I ta provisions were discuaaed at lengtu in these bv>di('s, composed of the tirst men of the ionn try. It* eppouenta contended that it coulerred pow ers op*u the federal goverumant dangerous to the rights of the States, whilst its advocates main taicec thai under a luir construction of the iuatru meut there w :?a no foundation for such apprehen i.ions In that mighty atturgle between the first intellects of Uiis or any other country, il never occurred to any individnal, either among it* opponents or advocates, to a*sert or even to inuuiuU? that their elViU were all vain labor, because the niomeut that any Sute felt hersell ag grieved she might aeoede from the Union. What a cruhbiug argument would this have proved against those who dreaded that the rigbta of the States would be endangered by the consti .ution. The truth is that it was not natil many years alter the origin of the federal government that such a proposition was first advunced. It wm then met and refuted b> the conclusive argtlaienta of <Jene ral Jackson, who in his Message of ltith January. 1*33, transmitting the nullifying ordinance of South Carolina to Congress, employs the following 1st guagt:? "The right of the people of a single State to abaolve themeselvea at will, and without the consent of the other States, from their most solemn obligations, and hazard the liberty and happiness of the million! com posing this Union, cannot be acknowledged. Such authority is believed to be utterly re pugnant both to the principles upon which the ge nerai government is constituted and to the objects which it was expressly formed to attain." It ia not pretended that any clause in tha consti lu'ion gives countenance to such a theory. It is altoge her founded upon interence, not from any language contained In the instrument itself, but from the sovereign character of the several states by which it was ratified. But ii it beyond the power of a Bute, like an individual, to yield a por tion of it* sovereign righto to secure the remainder In the language of Mr. Madison, who has been call ed the father of the constitution, "it was formed by the SUea? that is. by the people in each of tho Slates? acting in their higheat sovereign capacity , and formed, consequently, by the same authority which formed the State constitutions." "Nor ia the government of the United states, created by the constitution, leas a government in the strict seese of the term, within the sphere of its powers, than the governments crested by the constitutions of the Mates are. withiu their several spherea. It i?, like them, organized into legisla tive, executive and judiciary dtpartmenta. It operates, like them, directly on persons and thiuK*; and, like Lb* in, it ban at command a phy&ical force tor extcuting the powers committed to it." It was intended to be perpetual, and not to be amulled at" the pleasure of any one of the contract ing parties. Ihe old articles of confederation were entitled "Articles of Confederation and Per petual Union between the States;" and by the l.tth article it is txprettsly declared that "the arti cles of <hia confederation shall be inviolably ob served by every btate, and the Union shall be per petual." The preamble 10 the comUtution ot the United States, having express reference to the arti^ cles olcouUdt ration, recites that it wa# eaUbliahed "in order to torm a m jte oertect uniou." And yet it is contended that that this "more perfect union does not include the essential attribute of per ' BuMhat the Union was designed to be pernetnal arrears conclusively from the nature and extent jt tie powers conferred by the constitution on the tedcral government- Theae powers embrace tho very highest attributes of national sovereignty. They pla:e both the ?word and the ptirae under it* control. CortgrefB haa power to m<k? war, ana to make p? ace; to rai4e and support armies and navies and to conclude treaties with fore'gn go vernments It is invested with the power to com money, and to regulate the value tuereof, aod to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several SUtes. It is not necessary to enumerate the other high powera which have been conterred upon the federal government. In order to carry the enumerated poweis into ettect.l. un files* possesses the exclusive n<ht to lay and it - t dutie* oL iiiii'M 1+ ? 1,1 1 Ipn* ' NN/li l,i,# Htate* to lay an<l collect ail other taxes. But the constitution has not only couter'ed 'Ice hiun pdWer* upon fongreaa, but it has adopted el fe tusl means to restrain the states troiuiute rfenng with their exercise. For that purpose 1? has, lu ?trotg prohibitory language, expre^ly declared tii a' no Mate shall enter Into auy treaty. albam e or con'ederstion; grant letter* of marque audrepn sal; coin money: emit bllla o( crt d 1 ' ; make nny ihinu but gold and silver coin a tender in payment ot debts; pa*s any billot attainder , er law or law impairing the ob'igation of contract!. Moreover, "without the consent ?f Congress, no hiate shall lav any impo?'s or >'utle? on any nimorta c r exports, except whet may ?-e absolutely ne -ei ,ary tor execu'ing Its uspiction '?**?? '? ,f they exceed this amount, the excess shall belong to the United States. And "no State Mi ill, wl'hotit the consent of Con fines, lay any duty ot tonnag' : keep troops, or ,),ips ot war.in tin?* of p? i ? : cntei int.. any atin-e ment or compact with another ata'e. or with a fo reign I ower; or m*.ige in war. ni ie?s ac ua.ly in * ided . or In snch imminent danger as will not ad " 'Vu'oMer 11 Jurther to aecura ths uninterrupted exeit is* si these Ligh po v ers a.- *iu?t S.a'c iu er poMUm.il is pi?. '"1 ?''???t this CoLstitutiou and t!,.- laws of the United State* which shall be made ,n ouisuasce thereof, and all treaties made *r wl. h shsll be made nnder the auth irity of tV United State* shall be the supreme I law _ of the land: and the 1 idges 111 every State sh-ell be b > in I thereby, anj thing tn the constitution or law ot cl< State to ;l,e c t'traty n?twith?tandtng. The solemn sanction of tellgion han been ?"l'?*: added to the oblitjationa of oflieial duty, and all Sot.ators and liepreic ntaUve* of the tni^d SU.es. 1 all membera of sute Legislatures and al execu Uve or judicial o!T:< er*. "b ith of the United St Ue* and ot the several SUtes, ahsll be bound by o?Ui I or t fini, atioo to support thla conatiiution. . In order to caxrv into efleot these powera, toe constitution haa esUbliahed a perfect government in sll lis forms, legudatlve. executive ??J " f cial: and tins governm-nt. to the il, powers, arts directly upon the individual ? /n.s ol every Hate and exe "tea iu? e J Ord.esbv tl"- acen.y Of i'a own 1. ???]- In tl.n re?|ee- i- <! 1 ' " ? rs.mlrrly from the govrrt.-r-ti' njr der t) <? o'.d c on fede ration, which was c utlned to ii sk rg n tjni iUons < 11 the Sta . sin their cl.stai'er. Tliis left it in Uie dial retion of ea< h j w het n. r to obey or to refuse . and they tocen ply witn sued requisitions. It thus b ame ; necessary, for the purpose 0 Tamn ' 1 n?r. and "in ord, r to torm a 1 more perfect ? tcj ? fcUt lbh a nover^m^ot wh*rh coull a^t ainpcwj 1 ...eat. m o-. I J- "X tbe Intenueoiate s*ency of the Sate*. been m complbhed by the conailtation of the Lulted ? In short the government created by th* consti n, ? n and deriving U auth-rltv frua the aove relau ptople of each ot the several Su<e, has pre ' Hsffy 'ne same right to exer. ise if 1 owct ? ove r the p? p'e 01 all these StttM, in the enumeratad case*, tha- each one of th<m po^e-wa over subje. ts not delegated to th? 1 nited sute*. hut ' reserve* to the Matca respeoMvwty , or to the people. . To ?h 1 extent of the delegtted power* thee >n stitution of the United hutes Is as mn -h a pan of 1 the constitution ot each Sute. and i* a* binding np< u lie people, aa tho?gh it had been textually ia 1 Thia govei ni.ieot, tlierefore. ia a gTeat and pnw ffnl government, invested with all the attribute* of sovereignty over the special anbjecta to which to authority ex tend* Its framers never intended to hrnlsnt III its hosom the aeeda of ita own >\m UucTion no, were they at lu creation gotlty of the absurdity of providing for iU own " was not intended by ita frameni U> be,_th? fabric of a viaion, which, at the touch of the en chanter, would vaniah into thin air , but a tul snd mighty fabrio, capable of reawUng the slow decay of time and of defying the atorm* of ' ages. Indeed, well may U.* Jeaioua patriots o that day lave Indulged tear* that a government ol such high powera might violate the r * of the bta es. and wisely did they adopt the Pile 1 of a atrict c< natroction of tbea* powera tn iPre ^ the daneer. But they did not fear, nor had h y sny ?a"on to l?affine. that the conatituUon wonhl ever be ao Interpreted aa U. enable aoy etate l y her own act, and without the consent if her sister Sutea, to discharge her peopl* from all or an> of their federal oblinationa. , . It may be asked, then, ar* th* people of the State* without redreaa agsinat ptesaion ot the federal g .venitnent R) no The Hfiht of reatsunce on the part of tha governea against tha oppression of Uielr governmeuta cannot be dented. It eruta independent v of all ' tiona *n^ has bet n exercwd at all perloda of the I * oild a history. Under It old *;'?emrne_nt? ha ve bten deaUoytd, aod new onan hate aken Uctr place It is embodied in strong and express lan guage in onr own Declaration of Independence. Bot the distinction must ever be observed, that this jh involution against an established government, \ and not a voluntary sece.-wion irorn it by virtue of ' an inherent constitutional right. In short, let ua i look tile danger fairly in the face: secession is nei- 1 ther more nor less th.m revolution. It may or it 7i ay not be a j militia hie revolution, but still it ia re. 1 volution. What, in the meantime, ia the responsibility 1 and true pneitiou of Uie K.e.utive' He ia bound l.y Boienin ? nth be (ere tio ami the country "to I ke rare that the laws be laiilihilly executed," and from this obligation he tsnuot be absolved bT Huy hnman power. U-*t what if the perlormauoe of this duty, in whole or in part, haa been render ed impracti .aln 9 by cvtnta over which he could lave exercised o control' Such, at the present moment, ia the oa*e throughout the State of South c arolins. so far a the I iwj of the United States, to Hemro the adu.im.ir ution of justice by means of ile Federal Jodn iry are concerned. All the t deral ?>0i< era wr.Sin in, *01118, through whose agency alone these laws can he carried into exe cution, have aln a ? I > .-stnigned. W.i no longer have u Iiintrict .ludge, a District Atiwuer, or a Marshal, in Botstii Carolina, in fact, the whole machinery < f the federal government, ner saaury for the dia t'lliution ol remedial jimtire amoig the people, has been demolished; and i would be difficult, if u:t impossible. to replace it. . The only acta ol Congress on tie sta.u^e boolr earing npon this subject are those of the 2*th February. l"'.'.r?, aid iiu Lisrch, 1?07. These au ho nre the President, alter tie shall have ascer lined 'bat the Marshal, wirh his posse conituus, ?a unable to execute civil or criminal proceas in iuy particular case, to call forth the militia and mpfoy the army and navy to aid him in perform i g this Nt rvice. having first by proclamation com manded the iiJHurgi i j la "to disperse and retire ,>esre?bly to their respective abodes, within a 11 niittd time." Thin duty cannot by possibility be l>eriorined in a State where no judicial authority > xisti to issue process, and where there is uo Mar lial to exi cute it, and where, even it there were ??neb un officer, the entire population would con

titnte one solid combination to resist hJu. The bare enumeration of these provisions proves how iiia()rt|uau> they are without further legislation to overcome a united opposition in a single State, ot to sp> ak of oilier States who may place thcui -e|v,s in a similar attitude. Congress al<?n? has ( owtr to decide whether the present laws can or annot he amendr d so as to ?arry out more etlbc 'uaily the objects of the conatitition. The same iiifttiper tble obstacles do not lie in the >?ay ot executing the laws f t the collection of the customs. lhe revenue still contiuuea to be col Icctel, as heretofore, at the Custom House in t harleaton; and should the collector unfortuuately rtsum, a successor maybe appointed to perform ?lits (intjr. Then, in regard to the property of the United ?states in South Carolina. This has been purchased (or a fair equivalent, "bv the consent of the Lvgis 'atnre of the Hate." "for the erection of forts, ma irar.ines, arsenals. " Ac., and over these the au thority "to exercise exclusive legtHl ition" has been expressly granted by the constitution to Con ^r?ss. It is not believe i that any attempt will be made to expel the United States from this pr iperty by torce; but if in this I should prove to be mis taken, the officer in command of the forts haa re ceived orders to act strictly on the defensive. In t-u li a contingency . the responsibility for con sequences would rig ntfully rest upon tiie lieida if the assailants. Apart from the execution of the law*, so far as this may be practicable, the Executive has no au thority to decide what sball be the relations be tween the federal government and South Carolina. He has been invested with uo su h discretion. He possesses no power to change the relations heretofore existing betwo?n them, much less to acknowledge the independence of that ?Mate. This would be to Invest a mere Kx -cutive officer with the nower of recognizing the < Involution of the confederacy auioug our thirty uree sovereign States. It bears no resein dance *i the recognition of a foreign <lrfart <> government, i wilv ng no such responsibility. Any attempt to <lo this Mould on his part, t>e a naked act of uvir nation. It is, therefore, my duty to submit to Con <re?s the whole question i'u all its beat tags. Tin >ur-e ol evens* W so rapidly hastening forward, ilia: the emergency may soon arise when you ?>ny be railed npou to decide the momentous ques ,ion whe her yon possess the power, by lores of trms, to compel a Sta'-e to remain iu the Union. should feel myse f recreant to my duty were I not to express an opiuiou ou this important sub ject. The question fail ly stated Is: Has the constitu tion delegated to Congtes* the pomer to eoerce a ^tate into submission which Is .it'emptlng to with iraw or has Actually withdrawn from the con '? deracj? If auswered in the affirmative, it must ?e on the jtrinclpls that the power has Deen con t ired upon t'ongresa to dec.. .re Br,d to make wsr ? gainst a S'ate. After much serious reflection i iave arrived at the conr!u*ion that no snch power as been delegated to Congress or to auv other de narimvnt of the federal government, it is mant est, up< u an inspection of the constitution, that h>a ia not among the specific and enumerated nowers granted to CotigT* ss; and it Is equally ip ,.ar? nt that ita ex*r< ise is not "neee-sary and pro icr for carrying into execution" any one of tnese i.owers. So lar from this power bating been delc .at?d to Congress, it wis expressly refused by the oiivtntiou which framtd the constitution. It appears, from lhe proceeding* of that bodf, bat on the lllst May. ITsi. the :lause "au horiztng .it exertion ot the lor e of the whole aga'nst a de uitjuent State" came up b<r consi lerattoa. Mr. Nladison opposed una brief but powerful speech, roro whi' h I shall extract bot a single sentence, ^e observed: "The use of force agunst a State could look more like a declaration ot war tnan ?ny infliction of punishment, and would probably ?e' considered by tns party atta< ke<l as a disaolu ?on of all previous compacts by wtti<.h it might be ?ound." I i?on l.is motion the cla"ne w?aunaol oioualy postponed, and was never, 1 believe, ai{?ln .iresetiled. S>>on after aards, on the sth .bine, .Ts7, when incidenulty adverting to th? anbject, e ?ald: -"Any government for the United States, oiined on the ?uppostd practicability of u*itig i i?e airaiiM the un < ?on?ti,u'ional pro i- 11 he States, would prove a* visionary and I tlU lo is ia the governuent o' C?>n^ress"- evelently moan tig the then existing Coiigreaa of the old con ei'.eration. V, ithout dserendlng to particulars, ft may be safrly wurtrd tb?t the pow< r t'. mske wsr auaiii't a 1 tat* at Vrt-is'. e with the whole spirit and intent of the nstitute n. supp<ise sin h a war should result in I ?? n rnnrit ?,f n Mate.boe are we to tofem fl ??ei?rM- Shall we hold I' as a province, and liovrnit by cesootic power' in the nature of hings we could not, by physical f 'rco, control th? ?tli of the people, aud compel them to elect Sena ora and repretu ntaUrea to Congress, and to per .on. ?il tl.e otter dn'ie- depending upon their own , ? a ,() teqjirrd from t'ie free c'.llzeos of a ree S- ite as a coustitnent member of tlie cinfede Hut. if we priseessed ttte power, woold It be wise 0 exeroe it under existing circumstances*^ The bject would doubUeae ft* to preserve the Lnion. Aar would not only present the most effectual means of destroying It, but would banish all hope it its pescesble reconstruction. Resiles, in the ?ratemal conflict, a vaat am>>nnt of blood and trev -nre would be expended, rtndcrir g future recon niation between the States Impossible. In the 1 >ai time . who can 'oreteil what would be the enf i tings and piivationa of the pet pie during its exl.s 'eeee' .. . . i>e fsct ia. that onr Union re-rte upon ptibli opl ni<.n, and can never be cemented by the blood of tj ? shed In cia il war. If it cannot live in the ifections of the people, it must one day peri-h. ongress possess many means of preserviig it by . in illation: but the sword wii not placed In their hand to preserve it by force. Hot n ay I be permitted solemnly to invoke ny nntrymea to psnse and deliberate before they i ?? rn me to destroy tl i*. the grand, st temple which l as ever been dedicated to huuian fre. lom ? nee the world begsr It has b?ert consecrate. 1 I v tii c blood of our fs'hers. by the glories of the past snd by the hopes of the future. The t mon lots already made us tt ? most prosperous, snd. ere |. T'g. will, if preserved, render us the m" ' j w?r fnl nation on the fa. e of the earth. In every foreign reirion of the globe the I title of Amerlesn citlren is held In t'ie highest respect, and when proaomced in a fo ? etgn land It csnses the hearte n? o ?? eonntiym';n to I swell with honest ptide. Surry when ws re t. i il.e brink of the yawning abys?. we ahall re i ? ith horror from the last fatal plunge. By ?u it dread t ataatrophe th? h<ipe? of the friends > J f ? dom Uronghout the world would be des'r y 1, st.d a long night of leaden desBoti-rn wool 1 shrt nd the nations. Out example lor more to i eighty ytart wonld not only hi lost, b it It ?.i I bs quoted aa a conclusive proof that man iiu :*' lot self-government. It ie not every wrong? n%y, It i? not ev?ry ijricv rns wrong? which can justify a resort to it fearful Iternativt. l'kia ought lo X t v t desperate remedy of a despairing people, aftr every ot^ier constitutional means of conciliation bad beeu nkloM We should reflect t lat under tbia free government there U an inces sant ebb am,' flow lu public opinion. The slavery queation, like everything human, will bave its day. I firml.v believe that it haa already reached and passed the cu'mwating point. But if, In the midst of the existing ex citement. the Uni<>n shall perish, the evil may tliea become irreparab.V. Congress can contribute much to avert it by t?roposing and recommending to the Legislatures M IN WWHiBlHii Ihi mil ly for existing evils. which the consutuiion h i* itself provided fir its own pi'< servation. This hat befn tried at diflerent critical periods of our history, aud alwavs with tunnent suov'ess. 1'. in to ?e found in the fifth article providing for its own amendment. Under this artu.e unu- mmi.'ats have been propisn d by two-thirds of both bouae<< of (/ongr>ns, and have been "ratified by the Legialt'uree of tfcree-fourtlis C?f these\erai Sates." mi><) ht?ve cnuw *tueutlv be come pans of the consftuOoo. To thh process the country Is ir.debted for Uin clause prohibiting Congress f (>ni panning a?>j law runp?<*ti:>g an es tablishment ol rengirJii or ubtidgi.-t* the freedom of speech or of the urrss, or of the r'^ht of pe'itiou To this we are also indebted for tta* Hill ol Lights, which secures the [???rpi? ugt'o?C any abuee of power by the federal government. Jfciob wer? the apprehension" Justly entertained tf the friends of Mate righta at thaif period us to buve rendered it extremely doubuii) whether the constitution could have lung survived witheut these an??mdnienta Again, the coriafitatlon was sinemed by tbs ean e process alter the elerliou of I'resiient Jefler ?on by the Fiotise of Repi^wen'atirea, iu February, 1803. Thin amendment waa rendered bocraeary to prevent a recurrence of the danger* whi^h had seriously threatened the exl<eiuoof the govern ment during the pendency of that electiri. The article for its own amendment waa intended to se cure the amicable adiustm?*3t <<(' conflicting aonsti tutional questions like the prrnent, which might ariae between the goveriim"iita of lite titalaa and that of the United States. This appear* froi.i con temporaneous hiirory. In thia connection, 1 shall merely call attention to a lew sentence* in Mr. Madison's justly celebrated ?.*;iori, iu I7s?i?, to the Legislature of Virginia. In this Le ably and con clusively de'enoed the rewipiticna ol the ;tre ceding Legislature against the strictures of ae\erai other State Legislature*. These w:*re mainly founded upon the protest of the Virginia Legislature against the "Alien and Sedi tion aow," as "pn^pablo and aliM-ming infra :tk>r?s of the constitution.'' In pointiou out tin peace, xl and constitutional remedies ? and he referred to none otRer ? to which the States were authorized to resort on such occasions, he concludes by say- I ing "that the Legisliitires of the Sutes might have made a direct representation tj Cougress ?M a view to obtain a rescinding of thet.vo nl fenslve acts or they uilght have repr?s'*i ted to their respective Sena'ors in Congrwss their wish tliut two-thirds thereof would propose an explana tory amendment to the constitution, or two third* of themselves, if such had been their option, might, by an application to Congress, have ob tained a convention for the same object." This is the very course which i em uestly recora nieud in order to obt?n an " explanatory amend nient.'' of the constitution on the sunie^t or slavery. This might originate with Congre** or the State Legislatures, ss may be deemed moat advisable to attain the object. This explanatory amendment might be confined to the lit al settlement of the true oHMirucUan of the coustil Jtion on three special points: ? 1. An esnresa recognltlun of the right of proper ty in si ives iu tne Slates where it ujw exists or may here if't r exist. 2. The duty of p-otecting thU ri?;h'. in all the common Teri itories throughout their territ trial ex istcnoe. at d ui til they shall be udmitted us SMtes into the Union, with or without slavery, as their constitutions may prescribe. 3. A like recognition of the right of the master to have hi* slave, who Iihs escaped f<ooi <me State to aiittihtr, restored ai.d ' d? Hv? red up" to him, and of 'fie validity of Die Fugitive wlave law enact td for tli's purpose, together with a declaration that all ftatc- laws impairing or defeating this tight are \i>'latious of the constitution, and ajo cous-s (|oeijtly null and void. It may be tibjected that this construction of ttie coiiitltii'u ii ha? win ad> been settled by the Su preme Court of the United State*, and what m ire ought t<> be rti|Uir? d' The answer l?. tuat R very Istge proportion of the people <>l the I'nlied States still contest the correctness of this decision, anil never will u?>i frou agiU'ion and admit r-s blad ing force until clearly established by the people of tin several - a'es m their sovereign character. Such an exp anatorv amendment would, it la be lieved, forrvet terisinate the exiting dias' nsiona and restore peace and harmony aiming the Hlat-s. It ought not to be doubb d tfiut such an appeal to the arbitrament established hy the eonatitutmn itself wou.d be received with favor by till At (states of the confederacy. In any event it ou;;ht to be tried in a spirit of conciliation before any of these SutUs shall S' parale Uituisel.es from the UliiciL. OClt rOKK'GV HKLtriONA. (ik*?T ??litis Our relation* with great IMtain are of the most fritndly character. Hue* ?he ttwUMUNt of my administration the two dangerous q it-ation* aiding from th" CI* \ ton and llulwer treaty, an i trnui the right of search claimed by the Br tinh go vernment, have been amicably auJ honorably ad jt?'< d. Tl.cdUenrdant sonatractiona of the Clayton ani Uulwer tiuty between th'- two government*, ?bi? h, at 'I'tlcretit jxn >]? of t'ie discaasioa, bore a tl r? stalling aspcct, h ?ve read t<-i in a dual act tieti cm entirely nati.- factory to th<? gurei nment. ln n y iMi-t nunual Hcm:ixi> 1 lafurrotd CongrtM that the HriUeh government had uuC then "cum olettd treaty ariang'-mentN with tbe repabltc- of llotidniu* aid NicaritRtia, in pursuance of tbe un den'aidicg between the two govern menu. It M 6t\<-rUjC'!e?e rnnli It-ntly expe< t>-d that tbi* good work will ere long be accoaiplk'-ed " Thin confi dent ex] cc tation lia?*ln''e beeuful tilled. U-r liritan nk M.J .:Kty Ooitduded a treaty with Honduras on the 2t"ih November. IMI, and with Nicaragua on the iHth Aug-, kt. l^* o, riiiri|iiWn. < the Mi -t uiiMd protectorate. Baaidea, by the i-irroer, tlic liay leland* are ra?"gmsed a* a part of '.Iks repub lic of Honduras. It may be observed that the atipuiatlona of theae treaties ci ''form In every Im portant partic ular to the sm- u<Iir'?r:U 6 I 'pteil by the Senate of the United Ntatea to the treaty oon dud d at l."iidon "ii tne 17th i ), ,ul>er, MM be tween the two government*. U wili be recolieotcd that thla treaty wa? rejected by the flritiah prnvcra ment becsuse of iu objection to tbe Juat and im portant mi' ndment of tbe iHer.ate to to* irti.-le re lating to RuaUn and the oti.i r i?Uuda in the Bay of Hondurx*. It njuat be a source of sincere satisfaction to all cla'-es of our fell< w ftttgens, and especially to the i>e < nga^'-d in foreign oomnirroe , that the clai.n. on U.e patt of (Ireat llrltain. forcibly to visit aiul search American merchant ve?-"<ls on the lilph ses? is time of peace, baa beee abandoned. Tbia wan by lar tbe nioit dangerous question to the peace of the two ronntrles which ba* eii?ird ?lnce the war of 1HU. Wnl?t It remaiced op*n. they might at any moment have been preHpitated into a war. Tbia waa rendered manliest t?y tbe exssperated state of public feeling throughout our entire con try. p?Ki need l y the forcible search of American merchant vessels ">y British cruisers on tha c^ast of Cub*. In tbe spring of KM, Tbe American people hailed with general acclaim the ?ider* of the se cretary ol the Navy 1 1 otir naval force la tha ( >alf of llesco, "to protect all tewli of the I'nited States on tbe bigh sens from search or dctenuoa by tha v*m?I? of war of any other nation."' The*e orders Blight have produced an Immediate collMon to tw?cn tbe naval force* of the two countrl*. Thii waa mo?t fortunately preventec oy an appeal to UiejtM'iceof On at Britain tml to the law of na tion* aa txi'onod'd by her own eminent jurliu. Tbe on'y (jt ention of any 'rw put tow e which ?till remain* open is the disputed title between the two gi<vertmient* to the inland of Han Juan, in the ?i? Inlty of Washington Territory. Aa thi* 'inea t< n i# -till tin ler negotiation, It U not deemed ad vi?able at the present moment to make any other aH?i?i?n to the vubfert. The re' ent vl*it of tbe rrlnce of Walee. in a nri va'e chars< ter, to the people of this country, has proved to be a mo-t suspicions event. la It* con sequence* it r-annot fail to lacreaae the kindred ana kindly feelings which 1 tnnrt may ever actuate the nov? rt>m< trt and peopl.- of both ronntriea ia tl.elr p< iitical and social interconne with each o'ler. riu*rm With France, onr am leat and powerful allf. oir relatiom* conttvue to l?e of the moet IHen.'.jr < ha 1 r?< ter. A ile i?ioti has recently been made by a Freo'-h ju'l .al tribunal, with the approba ion ot tlie imp'-rlai govrrtim- nt, wbi?h anti'it fail to foa ttr th? eentlmenta of mutual regard that hare a? i'mg e*i?tP(' lietwcen the two coiiBtri**. Oad*r tS e French law no person > ao serve m the arm c* of France an'ese he be a French riti*en. The law ' of trahct r.cognU'ng the natural nght of a'rl :?oa. it follow* s< ? neceaeary eon*? .|'ienc? llat i Frctcbtcta, ?>y the f*ct of having tlcu? a MJtse* of tne United ("tales, haa changed hu% allegianet and IiHh l<>it bis n?'i?e character. He cannot, there/' re, be compelled to nerve in the French ar iiiies in case he should return to his native country. These principles were announcad in 1H62 by the French Minuter of War. and in two late caeca bar* Wn confirmed by the French judiciary. In tlieae, ; tso iutivi* of France have been diecnarged fro m the French army bccanae they bad beoomn American citizen*. To employ the language (f our present Minister to France, who haa rend erK got ii service on ibis occasion, "I do not think ear I tench naturalized ft llow citizens will hereaftar experience much annoyance on thia sutyeet." I venture to predict thai Uie time ia not far diataat wlie:i the other Crntincntal Fowcra will adopt th* Mime wi<e and just policy which haa done ao muk b nor to the enlightened government of the Emy9> i r In any event, our government ia bound *? protect the'rights of our naturalized citizena every where to the name extent an though they had ? Irawn their Hrst breath in this conn try. We eaa r< < geiae no distinction between our native aad naturalized citiaeus. ars-u. Between the great empire of Itiseia and th* United States the inutintl friendship and regard . bicli have ho loDg existed still com.aue to prevnM, i I'd, ii p-wible, to hicreaae. Indeed, our relatfcMI with Uiut empire are all tint we could deaire. Mill Our relations with 'pain are aow of a more ?Mi> '.ici'ed thoagh danget ous character than tkey *ve been lor many years. Our -iiiaens have long eld, and cintinue to hold, numerous ciaim* .iguimt the Spanish goverriurnt. These bad bees it.ly rrged for a aeries of years by our succeaeiva oiploiratic repreaentatives at Madrid, but without ' "litamiDg redress. The Spanish government fiaaUw i greed h> institute a joint commiaaion for the ad uetuien* of theae clauna, and on the 6th day et * arch. MO.conclnie 1 a convention for thia porpoan with our present Minister at lladrid. Under tUa i f nventica, what have bee denominated " the Ow >.m claims," amounting to 1 1 2rt, 036 and 6-4 ceale, ii. which moro than oae hundred of our fellow cM~ ris are iaterested, were recogniaed, and '"?pMiish government aj?ree 1 to pay $100,000 of this .,meout"wiihln three months following the exchange ratifications." Iho payment of the remaining ?'.p ?U5 64 was to await the decbdon of the Comaia nmrrs tor or against *? the Auimtad claim," bat ii aiy event the balance was to be paid to th* isiinants, eithsr by Spain or the United Btatea. i'lie?? terms, 1 have every reason to know . are higfcr iv sa iafactory to tlie holiter* of the Cuban claiaaa* i deed, they have made a format ofler authorising ili?- Siaie Department to settla theae claims, and ta d> due. i the amount of the Amistad claim from tkm Mims which they are entitled to receive from .^pain. This otter, of course, cannot he accented. All ether claims of citizena of the United Stalen ngainat Spain, or of subjects of the Veen of Spate ainst the United Mate.-,, including tho "Amiatad c.aim," n ere by this convention referred to a Itoard of Commissioners in tfle usual fori*. Neither the validity of the Amistad elate 0 r of any other claim against either party, . ith the single exception of the Cuban claims, was 1 1 cognized by the convention. Indeed, the Hpaa sh government did1 not insist that the validity off the Amistad claim should thai recogni/.ed, not withstanding its payment had been recommended to Congress by two of my predecessors aa well aa tiy niyaelf. anil an appropriation for that pnrpoea had passed the Senate of the United States. Thay were content that it should lie submitted to tha Hoard lor examination and decision, like the othe* hiims. Both governments wer* hound lespectiva lv to pay the amount* awarded to the several aiuianu. "at such times and places as may bo ced by and according to the tenor of aa?4 ..wards* * I transmitted fbia convention to the Senate fc* their constitutional action on tlie :td of May, ISat, . nd en th< 27th of the auiceedmg June tbey deter snimd that they would "uotadvUe and consent to ts rntiiication. , ... .... These proceedings place onr relations with Hpaia nun aw L ward and einbarra? ing pos lion. Itl% uore then probable that the final ailjustineat al these claims will devolraupon my ancceaaor. I ieiterate the recommendation contained in my ?nnual M> ??agvr of IXcemtier, |ksh and repoaiod in that of iUcembei . 1*5!), in lav or of the aequWuj* o! t ut u Irom S^aln by fair pun haae. I Hrmly ba ieve that such i?n aequieidnn would contribuUioa sentiaUf to tbe well tieing and prosperity of T?o? . omitnes in all furore time, as well a* ihc cettaiii me?^? >t immediately abol tailing tho \ frii au slave uad" thrrugbout ih<- world. 1 wool# not repeat this re< < niuiondation upon tbe prison* '.,V..n. u 1 lie lit ved that th<^ transfer "f ( ul>a to the United Htmes, upon eonditi .r- highly lavor . 1 ,1 e to "pain, cnil. I j ?? stly tarnish the n lUonal hi. nor or the proud and am-ieut npanWi monarchy. Purely no person e\er attributed to the first Napa eon a di regard of the national Honor of 1'raaoa, 'or tran.' I' tiirg I.ouii*i%na to the United States fa* ,t lair t (|uivaieut botli in money and coinniwoial advantage*. amm*, ev> With the Fmperor of Anatria, and the remaining Con ir.ettai I'oweis of Kuropo, bidnding that a# 'he hi.ltan, our relations continue to be of UM laoat fiunlly ehaiacier. MM The friendly and peaceful policy pursued by tha ^ov enune nt of the l uited States towaida the em pire of China haa produced tno moat aatktootory lesnlta. fhc 'reaty of Tien Uin< f the l*-'th ol Jnne? is;,s baa been faithfully olwerved by the Chmeao tuthorit es. The convention of the Hth November, ih.> iuiipb inentary to thva tie*ty. for the adjuat n i tit cm! satisfaction of tli* elaliu!" of our citi/.ena o? ? hina, referred to in my laat sunual Me??age. haa tiren already carried into elV'.t, to far as Una wa a ' i'nder this convention the atitn of 600 ,000 ta ilo. < dual to about $.00 000. was stipulated to be p*l? in sntiafsetion of tbe eiuhns of Ameriean ci'l^eaa, out of the one fifth of the ret eipti tor tonnage im ,i t and expert 'lutiea on American ve??e,s at tna jmrtu of Canton. Shanghae au l 'ba anil it waa "agreed that thia amount aball be in fnli Uquida. ti.it. ol al claims of American cltueua at the va ritua porta to this date." l>e?K-nturea for thta 1 amount toalf.-SOO.OOO taela Tor *nton. I00.0W) lor Shanghae, and 100.000 for I- uchaa? were dt liveitd a< curling to the U-rms of the eonveotioh by the respective Chinese collector* a* the cu?U.bm ? ol these i ort? to the agent selected by our M.nia ter to receive the s?me- , Since tbat time the claima of onr citizen* hav* been atljost.-d by the Hoard of Connniaaloners ap pointed for that pur poae under the act of March 5 I ?.'<!? and their nwarda, which proved aatlafao u)ry to the claimant*, have been approved by o-ir Ml 'I later. In fhe aggregate they amount to th? ?tun of #491',Cr I 7H. The claJ'naiitu hare r< seized a large proportion of the aume award** to them ont of Uie ftind provided, and it w con? JeuUy fXi?c? tP?l th<f the rcBiindw will j?>? be entire! > paid After the nwards shall have beea satisfied there w'll remain a aunnfua of more thna |;iX),000 at tbe disposition of Oongreaa. Aa thia will I" equity belorg to the Chinese governroeat, w i uld uot justice re?jiilre its npprownatloh to aoiaa \ benevolent objact fcn which tho Chlueee may ha 1 specially inu reateu* Our Miniater to China. In o' edlence to hia ln sUuctions, haa remained perfectly neutral In th? 1 war between Cre-t Britata and Traaoa ^nd tha CMneae rmpl"*- althoogh. in ronfuncMon with i tha 1 I. issian Mmiaier. he waa ever ready and willing, iiad the opportdkliy oflertd. to employ hia good otters In reatorlng pcae* be- ween the parties, ft ; Is but an a t of almple Juatloe, both to our Minister atd hi* proae ?e?i>r, to state that they hav?> proved fit J ei lal to the dellcata, trytag aod responsible poaitl.ina in which they have m din* rent occaa -ns been piaced. /set* The ratii' ?atlons c4 the treaty with Japan, cm elod.d at Jedtlo on tVe i'Jth July, 1H6H, were as I rhanged at Wa l ington oo the nt May laat. and *? treaty Itself waa pro<laimed on tha aoccooding day. There is good reaaon to expect that, un<l? its prote tlor> and influence, our trade and Intej coves* with tha' distant and intereatlng people wll ratodly inert a*e. The retifie?tione of the treaty west e*ohanged with nntwial sekmaltf. For 'h- p.>rp<?ae tba Tycoon bad a' :r. lited three of hi moat Jl* I tlnmi-Vtd anh'ect. ss Knvoya ixtrat rdlnary aad MHilsters Plenip"tentiary. who were received an* trftted wtth marked dUUnclioo Mid uMMM bom bv the government aad people of the Unltad ftutaa. if, fre is every reaeori to ?>"(ieve that they hare ro torr.e'd to their native la J e ntlraly aa?sfie J wttk 1|,( ,r Visit, and inspired by thn moat friendly fee? rrs for our country. I*t ua ardently hopo, in Un? ' .ngt.sge of the treaty itaelf. that "thara ahall henceforward be perpetual peace aad frtaadahtp between the United State* of America and hU Ma jesty the Tyeoon ol Japan and hhi gocaaaioea. ' num. With the, wiaa, conservative and Hberal govern n. eat oi the empire of Bra ail our reUtloua oontian# to be of tlie moat amicable character. *aw oaamsa* , The exchange of the raUfloatl jna of , t, tlen with th republic of Mew SR ^a<s Wa.hingV.it on the lt*h of tZ be.? long delayed from a H.fenUl . which neithet party ia > enaorable. Theae ra?a?