Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 12, 1861, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 12, 1861 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERAL ? WHOLE NO. 8891. MORNING EDITION-SATURDAY, JANUARY" 12, 1801.-TRIPLE SHEET. PRICE TWO CENTS. THE IMPBNDI1 CIVIL WAR. The Steam Frigate Brooklyn Not on a Hostile Mission. Important Despatches to Major Anderson and Gov. Pickens. THE STEAMER MARION RELEASED. Senator Hunter's speech on the Crlsix. THE NEW GOVERNMENT LOAN. ACTION OF THE CAPITALISTS. Resignation of Mr. Thomas as Secre tary of tike Treasury. Appointment of John A. Dix to 1*111 the Vacancy. Number and Cost of Fortifica tions Already Seized. STATE OF THE UNION. NAMES OF FEDERAL OFFICERS RESIGNEO. WHO ABE THF V? S ECCSSI ON IN FLORIDA. THE VERY LATEST NEWS, 4k., &c., Ac. All eyes arc now turned to the seceding States and what they intend to do with the federal forti fications in their hay*, rivers and harbors. With the important news com'ng to us over the wires, we intend to give plan- of all the important points (tiled by the State authorities of the South. We feare already published those of Charleston and 8amnnAh, arid to-day we add those of Pcn^acola., The foiiowmg named forts have thus (tar been ectied b/ ordf-r of the Governors of the State* in which tiiey are ie-pe< tiseiy located, and arc now in poaaesvnn of tiie seces-ionl-its:? Hmifca 'iO> 1 lyVdJ.<.>!>. V ort PuUak ... ^irauna h.... PMI Jark? ti I vtaoiih. tort XorRM. Fort <*?'* .. Fort Hv ?' Part iMweii.. tort Mouitr v. Caatte PkKfc.nt' Fort bt. Pfcil l> fort Jmpfcw#? M >utl<* Mobile Itoaltfort, X t.. i.ik N.C. Cb?rl<?' tou < "hurie^ton 1/MI MftllU ...... 14iui(ituju I Cost ?jf l.iltifruc |fio? any Ou?t Kepair*. ISO i'-ii 14) 125,000 FurtPifce I an tsuun Co*t a Anita nert. 11.H10 132> 1.212 ,.'361104.475 8W ISO -00 64,473 61 460,000' 4?,?0 *7 671,221' 72,711 i>i 75,301 48,782 25 43.N9, 23,906 134 203,734,101,980 150i 817,60S, 123 66V 49 472,001 36.5^0 T ul 936 $4,9?i ,089 777,248 Total cwt M tin aMre elevn fortiticat.ons... .$<>,702,337 PKNSAC'OliA AND ITS FORTIFICATION'S. I'FNSAl'OI.A BAY. JVoiAoU bay has rare properties *.? a liarb.jr. It ia omt acoeeeibwr to Irigatea. The bar is near ths co.ist, ?ltd the channel across it chort and easily pa-^ed The barb* U perfectly land locked, and the roadstead very capacious Thi-.-e are excellent por tions within for re pa'rlng, building and launching ve?*eis, and for docks and dbcltya-d tn healthy situations. The auppiy of good water ia abundant. The*o propertiea, in connection with the poaltion of the harbor, as regard* the coast, have induced the government to selcct it aa a naval at i tiou. and n ptac- of rendezvous auJ repair. The upper nw ef Peasaoola bay receive the Yellow Water or Pea rlrer, Middle river und F rambia river, eleven mile* lYotm lite Gulf. 0 A N'T A ROB A IHLAM). tUnta R?'i Taland ta aitnate.f east by north area t by tooth fourteen league*, and completely shuts out Peoaa cola from th* tea. H ta so low that the .-ea in a waabes It* top It is not more than one fourth of a mile wide. Th? wet l point of this is Loud is at the mouth of PetwaocVa '?ay. The latter is not ever oue and a quar ter aaiie *'4-. FORT FICIEVS. Tli' pr acipal means of defence to tha mouth of I'ensa cola bay an 1 the naval station ia Fort Pickens. This ' fort ia a #r? cla?s ba-tlnned fort, bnilt of New YerV granite, and situated on low ground on the ?ut pot-4 Paata Rush laiaud. Its walls are forty Ave feet tn height by twelve feet In 4hirkae*?; !t is embrasured fur two tiers of Runs, which ?re pieced usl'.t bombproof casemate*, bobidea having one tier M gins *w bartxtt' Th,- guns from thia work radiate tn ev-y point of the horlson. with Sank and en dlading lire K every angle nf approarh. The work was cwaea .n iws and finished in 1*63. It cost the fe Uernl ge-.^-mn nt nearly on" million of <mjus When <m a war to * ug II* garrison conaist* of 1.260 soldiers. Its armaniew only a pertioa of which m within Its walls, e'? f'UfU. Forty twr. ;?i.;,.1ct Ir n gi n* Thirty two jmirdrr iron nuns 17 fwanty l?>.' pew's* Iron gin ? 49 rgfcMei > ' d-r ''on fun* 6 TweHefFf.Kl-r Ironguna 13 Bra** teM ;rXw. .. 8 B*am Sans fr^e itaerr 26 Heavy 'teh bo? ttaer* 13 Yh'rteen fh rno'tar 1 Heavy te-i uk Ii mortars 4 I ,vgh? e?rt> - t? ii ui?>rt tr~ 4 Si item nrh tooae Mrtare 4 O'ehora 5 Teini asawnaeut 210 the !!??? '?n'this work comi4*te|v cover* the Navy Yard. aad v? a 0 the Utter Is h 'd by the Tederal mit hart tie*, it we i >? * bold out k<og again! t Fort Pickens. The her -m thr eite.-inr i f the bav Is three mile* d. riant. and bmjmut ? . there are no far MM ?* Tor a boMlle fleet |o lie (n aafet All the forts in Panaa. ..ia bay are ere thi* gar elaanxi fc< <>*b?m% troop*, who were invited thereby the <>?*?. ?-> of F lorida. FORT m'kak. Tb"e nation 1s situated i? Foster'* Baak, and ?pinr<i? t ? est side of the mouth of Pensarola '>*f. It ?a a haw r.'d fort, built <?f brick moMmrv, with walla twe< re M< ?a ttiieknese it b "ftihramiied tor two I lor* 4j| gtiaa, t -nlrr l> mtipnaM eaaetuatet, and haa oti# lisr 41a hur*Kf ita armameat of 1M gnu*, and in tHaeaf ** regatree ? Varr ?.D m wtx hnndre I and flHy men? The wo*k roat th? federal government niiont fMOiWW u?^nnh rad ate at evirj point of the horiadn. II t* a ?ery elfrct.ve wma The fuU araiani at of the fWrt (? complete. bit \ -nmel-nt nnmber of p in st. i! Ivr?i> y to mik'1 a very gt?<d def.'nre in e xviunc |ia wi?H S ^wt I'tch^tw* Hel"W tn s fori is a wets, itat 4ery, e it ' oannois acane e'gbt ??? tea foa* lb* ii? r,oi J??f?DounT FORT SAN CARLOS DC BARRANCAS IU.BAKRACKS BATTEBV SACOL> FORT PICKENS SANTA ROSA ISLAND ONE STATUTE MILE of Fort McK.ee ia provided with the neoeeeary shot fur naces. officers' and soldierb' quarters, magMiuee, be. FORT BABKANCA8 is on the north of renaacola bay, and directly fronting the entrance to ita mouth. The work ia erected on the site of an old Spanish fort. The fort ia a baatioued work, built of heavy masonry, and mounts forty nine guns, and in time of war requires a garrison of two hundred and fifty men. The armament of the work ia fully mocufed, and Its magazines are in good order. In the rear ol the fort Is a redoubt, which ts auxiliary to Fort Barrancas. Home extensive repairs havo r.ceutlv been completed on this redoubt, and the flank lug howitzers of scarp and counte.acarp can bo mounted with very little labor. THE FORTS ON TIIE FLORIDA REEF8. In regard to the forts on the Florida reels wc quote the fo'lowin? from the laf-t report of the Secretary of War. It will be rein.?mbered by our readers that the steamer Joseph Whitney wiled from Uoatou u few days ago with troops to tske charge of these forts, but H is thought the Florida State trojp? would precede tliem in the occu pancy tu tliet-e Important works. The following descrip t.m of the condition or the works will aflord some idea of their practicability for present defence - vrirt ( 1 INCH. AMKLIA ISLAND* FLORIDA. I). r tr the p-'i' t year, the ca^t, south and southwest JrtUM'have been'bu.lt to the springing of the au. room ti?.* rnrtaiu waUf conuectinK iliwn ha\e b? en car r<-n< surface* and placing the door aad .window^ftwni?a, '*,! I!"' co,?n?c?Pd. ltsrhetto platform* fw thr north ?d nmihwett battion* ror tpr nwr\u ?u mfctwlsto a simulated for the aU v?? o' With the fund, now on hand It in Pjo rsSsHto sstf? rsts* s ,? sSfflSWKKK! i ?*. fii'tk defence sn'l to ptit down the bar* totte lialfotma of the bast Mis hewing on the chaoi?<*, bt the funds on band are sufficient for ,1,"^ -'e crllKd Incomplete the ^rk there re the |*rpo?* unfinished portions of land ft nt mSrStheight rail-, bsr&et e platforms. ft. nt, r..mp.iii., ? ak fn, ^ counterscarp and and stori ,lt?' . ijQA aqo >p estimated by the olfl operations stated, to mske th? work surceptlV.e ?rf .hlsamo ut . . nt,j to complete't In detail, ST<i?...? V .*?? pr TAYI-On. KF.Y WI^T, FLORIDA. ii?? vr.ro oivnticiH hare been cbietly directed to mV? on of thi Laihette tier and thetMid -torfofiiie Udiorh quwteis The earth filling of the en^ I'reoHraDct ha* be- n gathered and put hi place, and the roncWUerng laid from hrniflt height to srarp lorra, Td nr"n.M??-c.reii.i oftheca?le. The m?ta arch roofa ? if tli.- v?lio n work have he? n asphalted and th* drainage J, ^ *um?. Hi' Wad flashing., the gutter arche- and the matiholw lr> - e all been compiatad within ta*"*1**1 Hie earth ni!ir g of the terrepleln has lieen gathered and trfaeed and In" concrete foundations (i ,u' a r^Vo w-wd plat forma (forty-aii) have been lornt walls and -himneye of the sotdlora quarters 1 ?ve been completed, all above the second floor forming Srt nMbeMoon's viork. H.e masonry ot ^pmUn Lis beeB finished, and the atata maga/iw and ball fl"o. havrbeer. omen te.i. A section cfthe quarters baa Heett put under loof, and somr ol the third story rooms plaF !i r?s1 and puilv finithed. The roads for hauling materials t een extendV i and retired, and a q-iantit, of stone g?rher!d e^ broken tor concrete, to he used to the ^Cumrotirtattoe of ?70.000 for lH60,fll. will be din dfd^bet5^7flr.1shing the c?-Ue andi building the inrtoa ine wall" and lilting ?tie incloenre of the cuvrtfaw*. Th s wSl provide for miuutlng the entire arni?m. nt of the cn?tlr and for lnel'?lng the soldiers'quart""*, b^ode* HaMrrii.r snd sorr.> other parts of the inside ttou-h. It will M> nUhe sn eflretive het nning to tb. coverfaee. tbe operntiops for the yea. mi^ a^mW he direc ed In r<nipMlnf the castle. t? bvlldlDg the l^anc - of the tnclosma or ^.?u wull of thr eov.-rfaee, to tilling thisilncK nil .- rill earth, to starting the piers and arcben of the coVerTace. ??n and store < aaema^-s. and t<-, ImlW.M the nprmonciit Ahwrf nod bridge, kor tben? objects *iW(SO !>? a^ked hy the cflh er In clmrge, but this l.mn1\?c~ .r',y rJueed in the est.matea pre^ted VOrT Jimt'OK, 0AMMKH KKT, TORTfOAB, "-OR"** During the \eai 110 of the upper rasem?te arebes have been formed, and the remaining thirty ^aix will rompl' ted; the scarp wall ha- been ralsH frc^n th.rty to th?fv two .,nd onr half feet shore l-w water and ? ve i .l tin ill magnrUKE bave Iteen titled up. ILe work mav now ba regnrded as capable <f.M^*y tome defence. l>ut no time Ihoold he lost WeojpWiag ^ Tlie apptriRiat'on f"r the pre^f year and thf one asked for the ne*t, If made, w-ll ^ the cont!ii-.:at:on of the upper part of tb? work, BJd to the erection of barracks and ""j*? tory to the occupation of the tort by tro<^?. the channel fortifications, lights, ETC., OF FLORIDA. TO THK KDITOK OK TMti IfKlAtD. In ca-s 1'lori la secedes, as from all present indieatlona she seems resolved, what shall dedeoe w th th" lort.ftca tlons nnd other t'nlted HUImi eatahlwditnetiis ahieh fringe her Iwders? Shall fort Tavlor, at Key West, and Kort ,lett< '.oti, at Tortuga?-th" firat uearly douo. nnd qulie capable of defence the set-end more than hall' eotn pietc, and easily aerured by f-oe or more naval ve#e?le? lie pnssivelv given over to th.- Mate w.Uiln wb<?e limits they technically atand? yh-ll the Key We?t naval cool depot an 1 wharr. the Marine Hospital, th" Army H*rr .rU i, the A. m 'alty Court and wrecking organiaatioii and the ,?rir?of Wfhthooses?l/iggerhesd, Tortngas, Key West. Sand Key. Sombrero. Carysfnrt, 0?pe Florida, .tuplter and Cure Canaveral?ahall these, one and all, be aubmi*?> ely abandoned to the Htate which baa l-aM in^reet ia tlM-m. Mi,l least capacity to hold snd maintain them' let Florida have Kort Clinch 10 guard the approa. h-s to fYrnnndtna; let her even have I'^col. Navy and the triple fortifleatiens there-if so her people wttl and so the IniteJ State, will. IM her U H h. |>leWng to all. what o*, eooeeena local Interests; but the eommore.sl l ai.ed ?aWart,o..ld !,e?. r aurrfader to on. .mmercial Kkir.da.or to an> n^re rnttna ronfederaey. what belongs to and concerns oaly tberomm^eeeofthenat'on Admit the! Hewth Osr-dina weeded, and la let g?. and that the Cbarleaton forts, fcc/ we riven up to her, m chiefly concerning her local defence and commerce; admit that Georgia has gone out uid Bocured to herself the Savannah river defences; ad mit that the Mobile forte have been given over to tUo Mob i liana, the question recurs aa to the forts at Key West aad Tortugas and those commanding the enlranoes of the Mississippi-shall they, too, be given up? Shall the abounding rlvei of commerce, which rises in Minne sota and the lUxky Mountains, which converges from all the slopes of the great Mississippi baFin into the Father of Waters which Hows thence in lately march over the I Gulf and through the Straits of Florida to enrich and bless the whole world; ehall the custody of this river, and of the return current of neoded commodities which a reciprocal and civilixiug commerce sends back for diffu^ sion over all our unequalled basin, be tamely abandoned to toll gatherers, thorns in the hide and robhe.fer, on the sea highw?? If Louisiana finds it in her heart to recede, an God gflmt she may not, she must, at least, leave the great river frcn-utterly and entirely free. Kven then, and at best, she will dominate aud control to its detriment this transit commerce, and by the fort.- on the Mississippi outlets can unduly overt-liadow and dicuio U it, If she chooses to incur the ire of the great North wivt. And ehall not the commercial States co operative with this Northwest secure so much guardianship of their own commercial river as will come f^m the ih?h Morten of the Florida reef harbors, lights an.i fm t , Tlie Mississippi valley Is a natural i.lt which n-ter ought to be and cannot long remain divided, and tlx Florida cbawiel is but the outer mouth of th? M sse PI " If our Union is to be dissevered, it would seein the .0. It-tot which should satiny (he North*.r t and North <h;.t ,hey should together hold this outer or ocean month I wiiMana, while in tlie Union. will always, as now have ber proportionate t-hare of influence aud ( outrol upon the Floi UU keys, reefs and channels. Should she seoede. the Northwest aud North must, in justice t<> tbassseU-e ? ?hsert their claim to these channels, bsrbo., au.1 d. fences as an off* t, and as a guarantee against M^W?eo?tuSin*TS Northwest'will ahU'yi a* at iSs/suss! *. ss."JM5 ZTfcZ* thefcrlS oomsssnding the river month J ilml.1 in equity, and without demur, abandon the Gull outlet and its defences as a counterbalance and partial eori^ctive, In favor ol the other porties tothteoemmerce u?. i?.\er t?e the future organisation of the foutheru | M f e v,U , ic.t- of the prancing No.thw, t | ^UhV^mScial North will forever i an .hjwi lion of their .toint control over th< Uttlfent lance, "" ;,!Tm!" regulate and assist thai- eommerce, aud to off ; SlTli iomro, ol the nvai mouth noce*w.nly appei- J ;^^rr^^the ! SK.SS2S tne-it 'blv rederscv to some singer naval Power.eag.. j Inevitably cn.l in the substitute of the An?r|. '.either has?uor can 1 reate, ev ept bj pret- rtw^.r..'. and ;| h* ( (the ot these Powers, especially a* to coin j| tdeto theM' fort would require an ontlay little I'**'}' ''' 1 |,e made on Southern nceoent The eoucwaton1 of rorls Tavlor an.'. .K fferson to Florida, or a cotton c?of' der*ry, w< uld umirt the provocations'of tli<ae revolutionary Em.e's.Sandin their transfer to Knglond or Kane-, eXVbwi^'e or by the aid and cohort Tliis transfer on<e made, would be as lastmiras th 1 i,mire 01 "ibMltar, Malta or Alfiertl ? morale 1 dip in the future brings up Nortfcwcstarn ?? Northern bottoms, bowing obedienre lo *"0,e< or even Siioui, an the condition of entry and exit at Iue I (??te of our gn at national highway of traffic. 1^,1 .iiun.it b* very exhileraMan even lo NHttb?rnere, ' I lo the free Wa^ It will Ih? simply mt?l?_ some boM Kouthern enihn last- ara w-r t/> 111'' f * forth with; b*i| If tlw roof lie to Florl4?, w# i^t ia more likely lo ?irffce ***** ^ ohaaaei A f? w .uvs Minre Cve"ht?ni?li mm of war sochorad oil Tiirtuifas ffiTSnd l-id this 11-t baen d?.p^.sed b. Hhl, ^n,r . u vv,.,ihei u c<siledeia? v conM scar, "ly have r?'Straio?.l a tsstxrssr.' .i?- ,.. t^-i?r. ?? tliat DO txtwibiW uibern rouledimcy caa parmaaanUjr hol.t Ke\ W i-t and Tortugas. or eau at any time a vuitiri* a( i|)4i ( lutfttiAl from Ihem n nilrti, " ;..e al atrra?u. win be want , ti%ST25be had hv such an all-ac. wi.h?J ! , htrrlnK naval l'owo. -e will carry the powe?<kn of those ^^SMSsiss bouahtbv the mtted hUles.then eonquered fr >ni the M an oipea*-- of eighty million* and many valna^ Me livrM built up throughout by the patronage and ?Jnr?'??? of the gec.o.1 government, and 8oan> <lo-,at?d ?o berjf In large part by V, ,m?nv landed domain, she owes all, and lu.? repaid well nigh nothing, to Ihe Union she ropildw ?*a Vto' and rne.so.. T-ve each co t abou a mlUioe '^d .quarter Several hundred thousands.have be* e.prnded in b llldlng the MlSf llgj* abut <aretm! einmineli-n, we (tad that the reg liar coa I afflssgat riKru5?5S rurrled topl.eeeof tbeW>ast Inaignifleanca ITtrWa hnii ad b^fni ihe hoiH?OcMiry of tb( K | aovernun tit. and too mnth kindness m*ets Bow With tonted return of Ingratitude Among I _K0 1 re| Knd respect tliese manifold obligations, noshsineless demand for the ? rX^pSe^'? which tha ^ hr&rt ^ ^ ^ ^ tTts ?ore w Idelv aenaraU>d by the l*y.*Mei?oan^ s3is?ss e.1 "tatas. Kay W?il may prefer to seeede fromriori-la ihe I'nion feeling is strong, a>d praelpitaft ^^jgjy found no favor thers, a.The Owvaatton alWMW In case llaetda consummates a the Union, we venture to propose that KeyJfeat p?o?l 1 be detVsced a tree port, mxter ^he^HecUo^JC^ the United States, which should reu.n all iu pro font property there, and coutlnue to exorcise district and admiralty jurisdiction over the line ot key.n aud rcefa anl the bat florid* coast It would bo it shameful dereliction for the only State* really interest od in the wrecking administration, lights and harliors of refuge and defence along these keys aud reel's to surren der all their rights ana prerogatives on tho demand of Florida. Nor need It be feared that any viole ire would lie done to the citizens of Key West by leaving them t<> their own municipal government and to a District (tourt i>' iho tinted States with admiralty jurisdiction ih adjudication of wreck and salvage ciise* will alwava. in time of peace, give to Key West a large hIntro of its iiu portaooe. Tbta duty must be conli.led eithnr to u seen eion Judge, antagonistic to the commercial interests in volved, or to a ?ludgo whose affinities with the mercar tile ilasa will Dot more than couniorpoiae the urgency of a present and exacting wrecker influence. Between tiie: - prospects merchants aud underwriters will see goof reason for choice. If tho T'nited States abandons admiralty jurisdiction along the reefa and key* to com mcrclal control, wrockiDg will speedily relapse into tree liooting and piracy. Tt?i? will in turn load to a sotniio of the place by some aggrieved naval p wor (probably the Northers State*). which will gain indemnity and sacurM} by simply holding on. 'Many indiccttans bolokeu that Be. o.-uion wi't lead to Ihe active roo|x-ning of the slave trade In the Southern Hates, either by law or by its ab<ence. Key West luid i'oitugna, if abandoned, wlli, in this event, become regu lar place* of ro*ort and clearance for slave ehi|ie. which will also [mt into thcin as harbors of refuge from cruisers Thi* would? tend to precipitate a foro.gn heisure of th lorts and liarbo.s, a* pirates nests It wo?id rapidly ?-?n i.ma imj that fidelity uri.l into^nty which litat

-nminet wis proof again."! lb" solicitation* ot unprin clpled would be negro thieves, who, with $200,000 c.t h hi hand, utterly failed to buy a chance for steal .ng Africans In peace. These iniisiouui ics ol the new .-lav?? trade goapei found the I'nited State* Mar tree as Me. I to his trust, while one worthy eitiaen ? alued ilia Integrity aud Belf-reapact altogether above >100,000 "flered, Not mily officers, but even common soidr rs on guard, displayed a fidelity ahich mu.-t have ?"^ini-d very incomprehensible and very verdant to cer tain Chlvalroaa nugneina of Sooth Carolina. Key Went Is of hauling importance a* a eoaling and ? TT'J" Matini lor our Unit squadron. While sec?F*lno ? an scarcely itniAir in the least the commercial strength ot the t inted .states, It will increase the necessity ot nf. fording protectioii and exercising police in the (Julf and Wast India waters. To e:.eruto this tunctiou properly will require not only the occupancy of Kay Weal far a coalins station aa now, but also for supplies and repair*. The r. linquiahmeiit of the rtinsacola Navy Vard to Florida w >?iId oblige the preparation at Key Weal or Tortugis of tlm Mrnps. mai liinerv and materials for overhauling tlniia .?-id steamers, and indeed all the essentials for a v ar j ol and iop-urn should events soon hi log into relief the quest Ions now raised, a due regard for the future interests of the United .4i?t?*?, a* distinguished from the amputated States. w'P iequire a careful consideration uf the view* herein pre xeuted. The distinction between works anil defoncer of a purely local cluiracter and audi aa are national should n?t lie overlooks.:, The forts and lights intliarlestOQ harbor, 0i Instance, chit lly concern the aocurity and commerce of that city. Hence, if it be determined to let South Carolina cultivate b.Jiiude or select ao:iety und.s - Iv-d, these dafancea and aids to navig.it .on ni-iy well lie abandoned to her, tho. gii she should give b<>in!s properly t" maintuiu the lights. Rut when i is a question Of abandoning torts Taylor and Mferaon lo Honda on demand, it should b- uadTstuod that this is quite another matter. Fiom tlrst to laat appropr.a tioii', ror tUe^o works have been MM offl. tally , and by iheir advocates in (Xttgraaa. on the express giound of their national importance, aud not at all because of any local value. 1 ho Morula feiuil.^t are forever eato|iped l:< m claiming th m as local li> olt rei-orded asv.-rtmns of tlieir nationality as the gn at ri;>-on lor appropriations in their iN^iair. heyWeataudthewh.de line ot reefs and keys have only a oomtneicial snd law siguiQ<an<e I hey ore widely eopirate from tiie Kiorula inmti iu gcog raphy, interevt- and vocations. They shoold lie coiif-ider od and occupied as national, not local, the Northw.>st, order and Northern Statc? should only yield them when tliey are too li-ehle to hold them, and neither }lurid., nor dion cnnledf'facy shooi'l ??? t>ei in tte.| to play Ihein into foreign biuds. Ilv national dignity and inteicsl- require n prompt ai.d decided determ mat ma otitic policy to lie puisiied, and iue aeserlMW ot that polic > , either by timel; and nncoo litional onlet ? to iriei, .. . ,d,..' bv in mime diate and pmpei pitting ot s u b n i ..u and military f ires as will antlicF to vindicate the b>gh |s>lie> of *a earnest n?t tonality. TMK DBFKNOBB OF THK CITV OF MOBJI.F, FO*T MOKOAN AKII MtH'KT TKNOS AHSt.VAI.. At the time l/ntiaiana wan purchased from Franco, in ISO.", Mobile was claimed aud held as a ^pannh posses as>n. The French claimed territory to the I'erdid i rivor (lowing into the (Julf of Me*|rr> between Mobile bay atid IVnaacola. When wo camo into posscHtion of Irotiiai ?na. we also claimed to the sain* b'>undar". while the spauish government claimed to a line con<<iderab|pi?e?t ef Mobile, ihe wat'>f 11*12 coiuiax, the Simnlanls con tmued in piasessiiai until IU 13. win a the fort Conle. the principal work in Mobile, wa surrendered to a force under Oo. Wilkinson, ami our claim made good to the f'erdido. Tin' American* on taking froeacsiou not only *trengtboned Kort Conde, but alao manned the impe feet works at Mobile Point, winch measurably commanded tlia cntrame to tho harbor. Tlieae were attacked in the nutumn of lsl? by some Rrittali veaseli of a'ar?one of whiih, ifonr memory serve* us, wa? the Hermes. Oa this locality has since been ,c<mstrnctcd fort Mor gan?one of the strongest defensive works on the Gulf of Mexico. With thta fort and otker worki at the entrance of the bay. twenty two mllaa from the olty, in the pa*ar?*i?ii of a r"?mabls fores, ao fleet, how ever formidable, can pass them. Vort Morgan alone < om mands the chief entrance to the bay. Vcsaats of large draft c-aonot pisa over l>og Island bar, some milei below the city. The arsenal referred to as having be*i tak"n poane<*ion of by Alabama militia is known aa the Mount Vernon Arsenal aid is situated thirty miles in the Interior, north of Mobile. It stand* on a high hill, which risea eome 400 or BOO fe.-t above the surrounding cotintrjr. Iroin the base of this hill lo the elty, and. in fact, to the fiulf of Metieo, is aimoet a dead level. The aoil Is sandy ami rovwd wttb an almost unbroken pitch pjne forest. Interspersed with alluvial creek' amall farina, and with g'adea and swamps, hearing tnngnolia trees, live oaks and tangled thickets ot nadei -r'.v? 11> Tl?e preecnt M Railroed passes near Mount Vernon Tha view from thearMtanl la maxnttleent. overlookmg towards the ttnli on apparently interminable carpet of green, which Is lost in dTmneas ss II disappear* at Ms jnnrtiou with the distant horiaon Ilia site wa* well ch ?en a? a aafe deptsiltori of arms and othei iniiiitttoiiaof war for the defen. o of New Orleans, Mobile, PeiiMwoln and the contiguous Oulf ca??|, and Ills |>rnbafe|t the strongest and b??? built A<m?sl to he (oi.nd lt? th? I n te4 ,-statea It C'Mitftioa a vast Korc of arm/ eq?'pm*ou ot t'i k ads, inc-h.ding a Urge quantity of mulcts artillery anil mill tary apparatus of all kuidd, with an ample supply of b.ilU and powder. It la po**iible that all Alabama, with parti of Florida, MissiAtlppi and louMinna, could ttnd the no cetisary materials hero to oquip all the military fmrc tlu'j* could tiring into tlie Hold. It is noodli'Sb to state chat, from the elevated position of (be ara-nal.it couM b> defended against almost any amount of force Km* might be brought agaiuxt it. LETTER* OF MSTUtMIKOED MDfYUHfil.*. THE \ ICK PRESIDENT ON THE CRISIS ?, HOK. JOHN C. HHht'KINKlDOK TO TUK 00Vl'lt KOK OK KENTUCKY. Washwctw (Tit. .'an. fl, 1M1. rh <P S",~I Ul'uU a" thoughtful men will approve >01 it conduct in convening the l/y^!:?ture. W tb;n a few week* I have received many letter elwuy from KeutucL> , a^;ng mj opwioo a* to the pros-' j-cct or a fa:r adjustment ol our political troubles wh;ch 0 I,f,t a:l w'"cd '?* reasons Mttotaclorv to mr own m;ud, among wh'cli bus been a lingering hope that"some acceptable plan of settlement might be proved by t on Br**. securing the rights and honor of all. I do not feel at liberty longer to remain silent, and. without inteudiu* ? burden you will, an emended letter. I wJI odor a few thoughts upou the toudi'.ion of public aflsir* I am corn-,nerd that no thmounh art ?OtfvUry ,4a* ~ai u ,kf Katft Um m c<tnfrnt 4!, #abf ^ !Tn if?f'>UrPOM" d,3clo?ca too radical to a?fniit of afrceiMiit. At an cu-ly day in the session. on th* mntlr.-.tofa f.Pn*t"r fro? Kentuoky (M- I-owel!), . commit ee of th rleon fee tutors was appointed to consider tho sUW' of r^MweoUtire men r.-on, d.fferent partt, or the r., , n r for many 4*7*, the Chairman reported to the Senate >h*t the; bad b<-en wholle '.ttui ,1' to agree, and a reference to the journal of the comm.tte.. will reveal the tad.cal d Jerenccs I,etwee, t.,e 1 eptibhcanr and oil ee? ? Tiiut C-ogre"?.hall hare no ptwor to abolixb ?unr* the lor,., dock ..am,, and otoer pb/e .mrter t. mrl " dknon u she Southern Mates M.jgris N?r toi pre- < r?t the |ransportntion i>f slaves 1 om one " a v. hold t:g Htato t 1 another, nor to any T-rrltnrv where ?S 3 E?"!" ? SK* '' 1 , Virginia, nor without tho con. nt of the inhabitanth and compensation to the owne nirt in icgard t/. the Ttorr.tori.-T_ *? J 1 i?t In nil the territory now held or t.ereafter to be ?ciulrcd, noith of Utllode 3? 4c*. 00 m,n hUrerr or va&?*?k Imt Ik now I hit it wa* iutende<1 tocmbraoe after ;ir,,llirJ rritorj aooth 01 r>? .leg. r.o min ) wmth of sni.l im? ..r l'.ii '1'le eUverj of the African race thai! be recocnix.vl tl',r |.nl,<,JU7k"""' C**' * ,b" prohibitiou on one sn|.! of the line and the protection ?? ,h,. ,Ih?r coveruij./," wnod of Territorial exjiteace. cngin ihife prov alone toe n*?oliitlinii pronoee ?linii ?>? made , ?r ? coo lltul oU. aud t^tST w^, n( jret* now iri the cio^tilutloti rclativt to the ranrratAn toJKm of tl.rre flftlis of the alavea, ?d th^ returuT?!!. giti? e alavep, ah-tll do( be subject to future iharntinn .hV-^r,"","r lh'T -onU n, imon' lt?r th.rgv a v. rr proper declaration thai cif^asliin V ,.l ?rt?fvlewf.r .moment the TerrX J queatioS othei propoaeil aiu< iidmecta are but d. cWorv'^ th. ptc^ nt constitution Cong-ess has no ]>ov?r now to abo H,h.l?verr m the p^e, with .1 tU tiV>d.rtlon In tl^ ^?-.the n Ante*, nor to prevent theJ ir.u?o?ui!"B ^ slave* .rem one (.laveh .l,i ngMate or IVrrltorv toanotber <17t A' aml ? .yr>S*^y*C*l>t eitlww* It' the I n ted ? I HI 1 II.C (9 Of fodPTAJ rcpn^cntiitioti tnH ii,? term" 1. ihl*"''^2*12 ar? *,'P"l?led for In ex pre* t.rm In the pteeent (natromeut If it be aae) that Con. f ? '1 LI*.1 'onuHy aboi?h slavery ia th ? Ot^tnct w not pauae to arg le the question, but o?lly at ter 1 protect against the aeiuropticw ' *,lUr * rmssfisror9 thn il >>ot a rami hope of Z;"* }v rn,**? "t?n power* not granted toToT J^dtbe m li"* **"" e*Preaaly denied ana tbe pt..w.ons made unalterable to (ruard anuwt ln' prjhcueions of a MMIoaal and gmwiriM tnatontv P' poll I1m?,i' potnle, I bra, u | aiippuoa tber" ia c<u>eoa ^"h'r upon the one aido nor the othw TK^fJL tpntHno pwr to d^wir, t\, gf erittinu rioHtTv hirk are et*n,ha! to Hi ,A/Vyv v rigrtu, tchtck 1 ootne, now, to tne vast coareagion to th? "? <n oraX^cvsTiiir sz ssr1^'r? EE*"- rhm'l?h'u tUSj wffrL: A- 5SJsss. ^ x & r W|,tfh e!Jh.Mled'U"d all lie q?dM>?r proper*/ arr <o fcr orot^-t ,n C#i>ena y tAe ,?w*ern .Was, mTl *! V"fomt* V IToli biUon ?r ,u? property I'orth of .14 daf .TO mi a . reoogmtion vid pro Jn !!! ?^ lh"t liae, an I the rule to apply to all territory hereafter acquired?tbta is theprlnnole of the proponed amendment An4 the laet named fe?ior? to V'lal If the Territorial question can l?? settled m .11 It *ImiiM be aettled for all time and locked on a.Itutwin tHbrrwlae there tTnTtol o? 1".^' T from incMawat ant 1 alavery agitat k.u \J!d tK^ ^P . would aoosi .brown .gain mio t^' .Tdli ^tr, ?' ? ??< >.? it,, : . ,v ' -fcrd to b. stmt off fro. n , ^flTj wUR? ^fj^t.^bjr,h" ^ 3tf.r tCTWS not "a" Miustmei.t ha^ be? oH?red. MSMaaton w th th.. |??1 Vrt,r'" ":l M ? fM and peace. in r,?J ? '?? prompt!y ae- urlty <?l' rod tn forming au origina' of joveroiuont, or even in verucstructin^ tho Old one After the eiperteao* we l ive Ual ?f tlx* practical wrorki/jg of the systeia, I tiii i u Uill.Okiit io filter i*?b a weH grounded hope at perm* iieni ?!?< urilj f KC' pt b\ the iw^tucl iou ?psoaie wleouui winch would give the .-outh tli? p#wor ot iiell protection I cannot suppc*o that Kcutnok) would- coititder b < right-, infer, at, imJ bocor aafo i isdor an, n.-ttlcinetu !?? thorough tlia.i this propoHed by M/. Critteuden. Any M tempt to uUU) il by excluding' from its acOpc attm acquired territory, or hi failing to recognuie trnd. protect flavi* property acmtli of the tiae by langting* as clear aud esplKii as that einplo/ed to prohibit it uoith ot the liao, 01 by veiling its provisions in nntbt guous pli.esofi, could oolv rebiilt iu urw agitations aMt conv ulsioia? I beiirot thjt Kentucky manti a Ourrovgk i-X ttrmrnt ortwns, avd one that any plain and honat nM c?f imdrrMmJ. I have out ref rrcd to the Personal l iberty bite of Uie Northern States, because tlie> uio tlio subjects of Stat# ?rtn.u. nor to v-i. mug propositions rouf.rning tho Fugi tive Hav e law, because they relate only to legislative ac tion, uoi to tlw nue?tiou concerning the right of sojourn fui.i trnntIt w:ih siave property: nor to several sehdMe* of Cf.u.-H'ut.< iial nnunduuiut which demand more for the oath tlmn the pl.ui o( Mr. Crittenden. 1 have said thai, u, my opinion no thoi o"nh and satisfactory amondin iil?? w ill be |h-%<yv?i to the states by Oougress, and I ha-?? taken tlie jlaa which coucede<< mo*t to Ihe North ern State-, ond which presents the lea-it ttiat | Mippo-- ai; iKirti<>u of in.- Nwtli would accept /ml ??? ., >ir, I t ft yt,i that tlw r^HiUkaiu in Cam ffr-f.Cfd I f-tr in the om,,wrv, ner-r mil ouiopM 1ho\ will not ircognWe in any form, directly or todi - rectly, |irof>e i. in slave*. They will outlaw from the protection of t|j? common gov -inniont property to Mvt value <>f fo" thousand millions of dollars, aud which il iuterwovn with the eery structm? of society m aaartfi hair t|i<? stnto; of the I nion They intend that the HouUa nball never bave any portion iii the Territory of ttm t p'O'i Ihelr rtxed policy u to wie.d the federal ifove-n uif<iit for an' ' averr purpose's, and to crush all oppoxi tion by urr*" T ain not inL-takeu a-> to the purposes ot On- renoluti- iuij (.oatrolllng spirits of that organiMtuia at tin? cupttal. At flu early it' in the so-sion a numher of gentleoie* '^rmg that no suitable guarantef? could be propoMd t?> (on^ieKj began to look to the Mates aud the people fho republican- having control of the Northern isiaten, our fr "nil there were, of course, unable to more. An eaj neat effort was made here to fecuro a coiu'entioa of aB tko SHjtbeth stales The plan could not command tha re^^ ?ltc support, and wne lofct in the rapid progrew ot evi-ofa Nest, a more hopeful movement was set m * ot, inok:njr to an immediate conference of the booter *]Av0boiduiff States (enibraeuig Tennewiw and North Oi ?t>lina), w'tli the view touivte their coun3?(3 and avert tue danger of civil war. But here, olito, the obstacles proved U)?m! mountable. and the time for such action ban pd.<?xl lich of these Statu, therefore, must decide for the attitude it will occupy in this emergency. Tf ii?m-tlint> Qur}t;on vat" 'prtf-nted in, pace or voqr. WbeUier the right ol a State or States to dia*olve connec tion with the fede.-a! system be a reserved right or om proving out o! the eonatitutioo, or tlie right of revotH i jn the great ? act 1 tea before o*. that the act baa bw done, and we are not permitted to doubt that in a few weowr. .-even 01 eight States, containing a larger popula - i. 'i than tLe thirWn colouies at tlie epoeh ot the Rcve il l.en, will have witUdrawn froui the I'nioa and declared ib - r iiidvpi-ndeucc. Under whatever nam? di-guiaed, ? collisiou ot aims with thi-m will be war. 'ih - dominant party here, rejectiug etfrything, pre posiag nothing, are purauing a policy wli,i h, leader tk* ni'ine of '-enforcing the laws" and "puuisbiag traitors,'* thrraletis to plunge the country imo all the calamities oC civ'! war. 'ilie federal I niou cannot be preserved by armi. 1M att -opt would unite the Southern fcitatei in ro?isUiK?, wliiie in the .Vv.-ih a great multitude of t.ite and loyat men never would consent to shed the Mood of our |>eup(? iu thodduie and under the aullivi Itv of ;t violatod oota !?Cl. A seriout- collision ujion exisiiaj ifi-'-uert would 4e tro\ wii.i >? er hope may yel remain ot proi-erruig or re noriug thn L'nlon. An attempt to ImiM it tugutho-r bfr the bayonet would exceed anything yet recorded in tha annuls ot U-.mau maiUies:- and folly. U uuvvi bring en a ti <<f nti.rramjiiJ frrccitj),in vhiJt retry ri!al prim r, U of the 1' iirv icet'Td ditamtear fwaetr. 'if the Montlr till aid succeed in maintaining her md-pendeuce, the -? I tui mo -t-??(? engendered by ik" contest between the b -cti u-won. 1 l?e transmitted to succeeding geuera t 'iu , wh 'e, i. site should be :ul).iusat->d, the gaverv tn?iit would bt?'iai- ui form and iu favt consolidated, aiei would ryjou reach the u.<,ual huloiical termination ? a inaitaiy drspoti-m But her subjugatiou u impossibte withoat eiiterui uutiou. auii that is imposoible. A Jul \et the dnu^ t ot civil iv,ii- i? Imni n< nt, unl?? it si i.l lie arrr-te l by prempt ajid euergeta action. If, ka f 'i tho paf- -:olm o' mun b?come arous ed. lUd a serii.* of untowird events drift i h into strife, Kentucky &nd thn other border Slates shall calmlv and lirnily present a united fiout against it, I believe it may lie irroutad. iilt-eu Statis are potent to pre.'ent war Thi, too, v ? ild f-'ri iiKihen al! the true men in the Northern SHaten who rem-t tne atro< mua policy. I pon tiii* quesUoa let i:? .niiiihilnte | arty 'Ac forceMi.. that Kentntf^ tit. I otht . &ruthei n Stole* are tei tvu.iy ilii idti on thxi tuk j, i. Vnb ' thucon be qtiicVy thotrn to Ik a dilation, M ina>) become th ? )*ny>U of a Iron! of vml. Ibo w ijdi in of tbo l.egmlature w ill doubtloM providn whatever Is uredful; vet at a tinio like th's it bei-ifnea the duty, a& it's the right, of every tnin to Mr opinions in d as one clt./en of the t.'onimouwe-ilth I give my voice for a S1 aie Convention It I*only b) thi ihrect lie ion 01 the B rr;?l flutes In their :->>vere gn csptf'tf that aa.. thine efectual can now be lone and, fTr one, Ide- re that Kentucky 11.17 have an opiKirtunity te de termini*, in the luoM solemn manner, hei mdgment at her right -, and h -r attitude iu I he preheat ceal'tion ef nHiirt the ha- ml been an inactive nor lugtor-JMB ?neml>e. of the confederacy; she is In tlie pre* ?'** at preat and startling eveiits, aad it not her nature to *t 111 1 -tk'fii apathy, borne uiou^ by rapid cnrraaii, withw* the power to .l rict h<; pourse. I^t her liave the ''pfmr liinlt;. . through her ch'#'U represent itlveg, of 4*CidMii? ujs.e the pr. 1 ' o< >eor ? ng all the State* m a c<?uta tutiounl I .iU>ti c.r, if that '-hall be imp" sl'de, let her be in a p >s on to determine her ow n dest'ny. Ihi:-. lettor hii:- grown longer than 1 intended, aHhonjJi I have adhered pretty clocely to my origiuai porpotie, rather to nrescnt fact* and my impree- ion* of thetn Iroaa this staud point, than to enter u]K>n elaborate disc issinn I need not aey to you, my dear sir. that I have uttered nothiDg In an obtrusive spirit, but rather rehicu^hr a?4 i-i! 'Wi. v.. mg'^-iions in regard to thedRmaf kentui ky "are offered in a sji.rit of loyalty to the SNatn I love aud will ever obey TUev are cleailv right,or veep wiong. If ri^ht, tlie pleasure will be mm* to hnve ssad a tinely word : if wrong, I will know bow to bear inth out a murmur all the 1 onscqnenoe* of an hon ?t but ter rible ui stake. Very sincerely vonr friend, JOHN C. HltFXKlNfnSGC Hon. B. >Lu.oi:?-. Governor of Kentucky, METIER FROM GEN. LANE. lb' Columbus Mia.) Tim ft publisher the faUowi.-^ l>lo letter, written to ? .eUtivo, and not lateoled fornk ?licatkm:? Wwarn^roN, D. C., Dec 14, IM9 Mr Duk I.nTtj: Oorsrv?With alt my heart I thank ron for j our kind and patriotic letter of the 10th last. I an prouiof you you are a regular little heroine; you ae? for equality m the Union or for Independence oat of it. You are right, and I am with you heart and soul. 1 hops m.d truit that t Georgia mjy nerer submit to inferiority, im quality and degradation. Ood forbid that any *eoh wnnt of tii.-tnlxxxl may be found among the sooa of that gallant Plate. i Luow that bar daughters wftl never sub mil to anything that ia not honorable and Just tbejr will tmer nulimit to degradation. Death before d:ibooor Ik how and will be the motto of the proud daughter* o( the n"'i|p State of (it-or^a?then how can Iter noble naa do less than stand by their rights and equalitr? Awl. tf they cannot have thetn 'n the Union, (and that is now quite manifest,) they will go out .and, il need* be, d <fen<l them at the point of the l>ayonet, and when that dsp iksll c?.ni" I w.ili UiOMandaaf #'>?! Xorthei n men, wi? be by their side 8ul>mis* ion is (would be) degradati<*??. worse thau that, it would be cowardly? aud I wJl takg tlH-liberty <>f saving that my dear little cousin will nat, could not, respect a coward. No, the Sooth must art, and act promptly, and go out of n confederacy that r? t n.?. a Jiuun and equality. Delay is ruin and death. This ia my birthday. I atn now fifty nine years of age. My-life b?H been au eventful one, and unless coercion shall be undertaken towards the States that may secede, I shall retue from public life. My heart is upon it, ana i?jibing but the cry of war ahall divert me from my fsr po-e; but wb.le I live 1 -luill stand by the right. tJod blw-a you, I* the prayer of your cousin. J0SKH1 LAttt. A LETTER FROM OLD IRONSIDES. Cms f+T?TW V?vr 1 1 rmuMBj-m*. Dec IZ, IKfc f 1 'tad I he honor to receive yesterday fmu MHW relative lo the town UM>eting to be held in Wyns? square >n Thursday, 13th Inst , at noon, ia wluoh fM informed me that you had done me the houot lo mm me as one of th* Vtre Preeidente. Consider'tig my portion as ?n MM under lai control of the national gorernmeat, bound by aiMm oath to support tlx ooaatNutton upon which thiaUnioo ia , (weed, a Kenae of delicacy ami propriety wo>dd hare pro i ventail me from mixing with 'be groat aanetnblage of *ur free, sovereign and independent people upon the oocaoton referred to. but to the honorable uae of my name u> the maiinei prop-^ed by yuu I could havo interposed no oh ierti< n, if, in your opinions. It carried with It asf , won:lit in aid of your eflbrt* to nullify nulhtoa ii<ju such iui dams now to threat-u a severanm of the bond of nnkm which hold* this vast empire of the Western quadrature of this world together, containing, as it doer, more than thirtv inillKXU of pea pie, all of wlxini are in pursuit of life, liberty and happi neMi, for wbx b our patriot father* fought aud bled, hhI (at it would now neem) for which th?y may ham NM'iaiid* red their l??t dollar, as well ?s the p.ttr inonjr t due to their posterity, in the tttuggle to secure to an I tboee invaluable human rights handed down by ttMtn it their children. i Kor more titan sixty yenrsof national sarr'ce on?ter the l?ni<M of thexe Mates I have held It is a matun ihst the h?>nor of an officer in his country's serriqa pledged his tldelitv to his oonatitutional oeth, togethi* with bin entire obedience to all lews passed by Orogrear, or orders issued by proper authority in conformity with tlie NBBttMkton undor which be serves, as also the ensr ciae of a sound discretion and deliberate judgment ia * case* Where the security of lives and property en trusted to hia care Is Involved?firing, at tb? same tuna, due and do1'befate reflection, before acting, upon aap 1 matter ?ri?. ng within hla control, whtch, pwlaaw, might bo circuinxcribed by international law W hf honor or Interest? of his country . The?e, gentlemen of the Committee or Oooiicils. bsrn eve been my gniiliug stnrs during the long career w ny public service, and stthougk in that length of tj?J s?y cm cassis Iwve arisen wherein the application of thia rntn ift mj ?cU j,>wn?fiU \xswi urn^mtf, .WUt WMr