Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 19, 1861, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 19, 1861 Page 2
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mr i M<a* wbicb h&Tf been. UL0 perh&ps always will be, ?tc ot the subject of eUvrj', until all men eihail bo agrf d a" to the moral B'jj .vonomical principles on which it reata. Tins struggle wa? attended with all the wigr> d*cas*-ona wh.O^ bud bo Bigumly marked the two fri' .t uf c( uit'h'.s. T*iien, as now, disunion wan threaten ed?pi.hlio bodies resolved on secession, and for two jears ? t ircely *uy otber question 01' interest was known i,r #'ci o'-rod a Congress At length, tn September, iijuu, Ieagre&s art?Hl finally on ti e subject, and a i>e?c?ful, ithouuh. In 1 >tne quartern, a ullen acquiescence folio ?ed. tU leading spirits of all par tie1-, however, at that time, ?"wed < teinal tldelity to tliai compromise, ?n?l the publio ? ii,<1?; thj.i time had reason to hope that, our dominion having .'cached ihe 1'aciiic O ean, l'uture acquis.lion of territory would not be desired, and by const- pience this dartvi+.iug question would not agnin ari'e. lu 1864% htrwi- Ti r, by the repeal of th* Uiw of 1821, known as tiio <is'*uri O npromise, and the attempt to extend slavery 1+< ? < rriton where, by that veni rahlo law, it had been jfrrohitet' <t, this disturbing question was again opened 4'A ot the ((rave in which it had been buried. In 1456, Miu ?'??artul spirit of, discord arose. Hie present 4f plomb:e condition of the country bears w t to the mischief whtch it has wrought. Wi see strong and opposite parties triain ?atae.g *i??K>si?i opinions on this very question; these tMjtt i?5nion. are strenuously adhered to on i-ach side, be*via little1 ar no hope of agreement without a surren der *? convict.ons honestly entertained. An .idjust nn u founded upon legal pi incipleo, on which all will an**-", sceif.aquite Impossible. rh-- expedient of with dfa.7, sig tt ?? ? utojeot maUer of controversy from this con Di A of or nion, and by another iw( do of setUemeftt giving te Uiu ~*oth and the North all that oach, under existing ewenmrtanoes, woult expect or should desire to obtain, -nw-tu. -o the committee the b??t if not the only, mode of peace. bio adjustment left us tlir committee are impressed w ith Ihe belief, growing VMtt th-1 ailmoaitions I'uruished by our pa-it history, thv.. ;ii .! republic constituted as ours is. in all cases wii? rc parti' ? arc t>l st m.itely divided in opinion on sub jrc^s whi Ii touch the interests, or make up the passions ?T different <'ctions, it is the clear dictate of sound poU"/ IP withdraw the su'ijc- t. in every way possible, from the strife Yjvri-t, and to Ucep the federal gorcrnm nt an Jar removed ?Tr 'H any vnnecttfn with it a.< a duty In the constitution mOipermit. The committee deem the present contro versy, invol\ing tlio riglit to carry slavery into ter ritory not yet forniel into stato governments, one pocu barty lit?ed lor the application of tho principle just an Bounced. It m r^utcndeJ, on the one hand, that in all tho territo ry now in possession of the I'nitea c'tates, not cmbracod wiih.u tin limits of any State, and lying south of the jarall-1 of luiitudo thirty six degre?w thirty minutes ?ufth, slavery bhall bo established and protected by a Saw 'if congress. 'Ihc territory tliusdetiuedcouipreheuils the new organized Territory of Now Mexico, including A?uona, which la; t, by law of Congress, has beon at w h<nl to and made part of N'ew Mexico. This Territory *as organised in ls.50. Ry its organic law tho Territorial If ^kKlitur'1 was authoriz'-ii t ???met laws aud rei>ort thom to O ngie it wis prov ded in tlie same act that If Onugrtfa should disapprove of tho laws tiius mude, they nhi ild lie null and void. In ihe year 18a9, tho Territorial Legislature of New Mexi o established -,la\ ery in that Territory. Tbia law was annulled it the la-'t sosslon of Congress by a vote of the Hc.'>tse.bu tho venate hnvenotvet acted upon the bill. A> Uii- law of the Territ' ry. not hiving be n annulled by hwh hou-< of <\mgros3. remains iu full force, and is thus established aud now exists by law in New Mexico. nit ADMlsflON OK NW MEXICO. It is further provided by tie a< t of ls.'iO that New Mexico wtaon sho i= admitted into the I nion. shall be admitt><; with or without ah very, as her constitution uv ordn n. rh' committee now propose to admit New Mexico into the I'nion as a State on an equal tooting with Uh- org'na! stat?- By this course Ihe faith of the na tiCB, pledged in the act of i?ao. will be preserved, aad territory Tying Ranth of tho parallel of 30 deg. 30 min. % ill t e disposed ot', and thi1 -ubject matter of controversy 1 oiii.e, ed from the jui Udlct inn of 'lie federal government. Th'W all claimed by the South will be obtained, while the aurth* rn port'.m of our rema ning territory will ho *'ibi' ct t>' s.i.'h laws as th- constitution and Onugreis may furni 1. tor its government. By this adjustment' of 'he present territory of the lh??ou jcludn.g the frrltory at all the States, It will be flDund tb'it th" area of all >4ie free States and Territories, laduding Ml north of the !in*? of f)0 deg. .10 min.. contains 1.64* -q ire mil<-s and a population of 10,036,739, Baking a population of about 11 j 10 to the sqetre mile. Th' ?re;i the -lavi holding States, n. hiding V wMex Irxi, is 1.Of'4,004 ? ciare miles, with a federal population of rrv&ss ? .. . v..... i is: ?* lillt.t O \ .Ifi 3lvV.\ O BY - ni? orraiivT,'n?**?ifc m *?- ? ?? . _ ,, *. n^Ht -tit -a wh<-n Sew Mev ' h admitte! as a 3U\o ZEfthal by tli ? sluv?h.-Minn States will bo ?- vUrmiV.|H;rt..?i! to the federal populati.m tb?ii that 5^.V - ' ,lav. V.?..d.,g-..??? Bad SS*...." at a lu- to c.?ivu wh.t nnrethan an ?dwnardod or ?1 ir^d by ?ho -oi.tta. lb.* set blci,. cowii -uds lUelf u. -ur acceptan ?? OTZ,' of no m* any surrender -f oj.iuion for <*??*? -laverv.for or a^ain-i any I rf'P ' coortj m m.1 fem .iti.i \v ? tii.ir.iw ?? forever from < otit( -t 1> tween -..rrtory wh: h tholat- r d-sires to p>w? < it ? ScvtbUn, vM.go belonging to SfsEf-c' toidopt ...-h .lo?n?ti- m'itu.lon- as I.e. own 55*"cf duty and interest shall Jet- ml.,". nn iDpn atioh 01 thk it. ?ttK Vn tb.it the population of thopropo^ed Mate is ?.?> stnal! to justifv h^r iidniiS"ion ta'.o tne ' mon !??ia im??w? answer thai it now ^nturns a Ur^er ss&Sskk &&V2SX ^Xrrrl%t? ^^.polatk.L n a> noi -a ?ie rre?at re j?&T> .he <Vrr?ory are no^ual fJuL I. is ITI, I. lore !iij.I?. to now -tat.- on i ? Id ...i the ii i' 11 comtn tte" consider M?nd"tU * tiotistothis p' in. which rt??rht be >n- fnttic.1',* to wegh Or b moment 1*(L. n:al ? .Uul- ben-lit t-> all the -Ut-?. md ul 2f??. PC. all the ?!atep. which it ? h-pil may low SL] ih. ,d. i i .1101' th,-measures i r-'int-? -I. lierpians Ld p.o "S" adjustment have been pre-n"-d an I con ^'wngUM byS'liigei-.-Hou of the |-?ple. and .oo i?wv r, ;i .l<-d':ti ther c<i'. ? ? ' l'.? t:I v a demand ,M ? . bv ail ai. be reached without that aacritlce. THK MAI* ??? : H I I H'. i ron the b'ginning of 0'ir .liberations :twa?ari? JIA.. di?p.-it on of that |?'riH'n "? > or territory lying north of the i?;al.-l of 3f d-,'f" >n m,:2"'7that 3,,7_lf, tfubicct of .limc-illv. I lie ?.ttl"ii)..|* of .lilt 1 mX l r.ow. ver. oinplieato l w th a provision ? ,i-h nM-t.,; on for terr<- ij herfa ter m ?" "'<<> ]r*'-' j l*5r,rd not ?ecn. ioihc.-oinmitt.-prop.-rly to helonK lite cm. 'tee did n ? th nW proper to ^?end -.hr.r ro? :derat>?n or the ?"tniarr.<- ..nuaris- j to ... ,,f th" .?? ctiiMtam ot ten 'or; now h n ir M^iuiun '<> 1 erritorv whi -h migh- or might ..?-t here- ; ST.T r.. 1 .nrri't It ??e-me.l to ti.ein ?mpro|?-r? u not ??T ?Mlo c'?r ^".-rrmeni ? - thre.it.jn-d withover 1 v.. n -on-r.. "er-v -oo-hint; the-?|>oBitton i>> un .ii-gr.. ,,?c tor nplov our tim? rf,,ur present e.rt.? ..l |^ ,?ira!.iv,., of the r . mx- A' r atd a- ? theiu. ? T t'vP7v he p ??r -. o-. Tolnmb.a. and ^.ep^s ift^VlHV.-hoi.iing -t i-s whore the ^ 5^:'."^ Kr^\v g''r.-n,'.?th.. r-.' . *"r?r?<s\xonoff,,."-'- r?" ? ? f"'v:rn I wD e^p. aUy lately. been a -oor-- o* m i. I ire . .at n wtw-eu thfl Stai'-I". an I li. r.-.- ..">* . one. tul In .. imkiDD ',v with th" nuhl'-ct of "Uvery The provl ona u the :jnsliiui on have d 'er.-i * iha.Jovrnowof dtnfcren' -iaf? Wd.nR to - < ntr i\ nr > Mfriendly 1 ' ti.o.-e am'ahle rcla our w).:.h nh<>. d 'h.Vmiach'of"the >? mn.: t-e have th^ght , tiacaf.-r the duty ->i ?? i ni- upou there.,... rwltives irom l-.aUre from the (.ovrnorn of ST^t^ t fthe courts oi the ' .rted ^tes. so aa to -? cure i udi al .instructi'? of the i.MtHuti>?. ard also St ?4J.^ifoi?u 'v of a ti n n the mftiect, i-nd present a ^rr.rrUve pr. pared .vera, rgtom. ^ .he House, . to .u..",ncePprin, pl.a'wbich -em in -on.e rirt%s ???> beij.i.-a.ioue.l, while th- r a-.optk? may tend 2^rr- ' errors and m-sr- prese?u.ll?n- thal hive oIp t^ute.1 utw k <*?alb lief in th- - uthcru wctloa oT the "th^ BtrinsicdifflctUile? whrh VWrnf to ?h- ?t.h]ect , ?Vh?- inoloirv lit the .- inni tie- f r the time .on S?. d m .-. nong to the roc usions now submltteil W ti. Bouse If the remits which >vo have r- a'-be-l ahuuld l , rtouipll?h tlx- so nucb des r-U -nd. the ?mni.t r.i!l entertain the. ontl lent belief ?hot C.?nfre.-s w, Ir a lotd "me niea-tire wbich w il be a.x* p 7aaa ujtand fair b^.s upon wb h th- fraternal reU ail w.tions of the t . ? n may be r.-store-l. a.^rmrrlo observe that the commtttee were not a:! the resohitions and bllta' P^^u*d. - W! ThoM v"''mWIV C!u rrran. ?JMCHfTY RKFORT OK THK HOI t UMMlTTKB OP thirtv-thrkk. Ti- -ler* gned. eon,prising a part of the m wwity of U.< omno.teeof -?e iron. 7^'to fcrrwl ..I Tn.ch of the Preoidtnti* Mmmc ? ??"J? fb*- pT'-wn' *\ turbid condition of tlio <^)untry, r. p0 faB) abm.t '.he following report:? Or ;be ttb \y of N ivetnber last the people of the ?t> t.l wwe it, a condition of trawjuillity and yw . Tb^y at e >\:tb other natn?nfi, and at i.monK ihtmaelv. ^. Th? exeltemen'of a general ?jnf t on titf ih ti at h bniglit but as such ex Lenient* ?ecet?-ar y result fr..m our repnt.iiran system of govern ?en*. and had alvi?y? before p.n".-<l away wllb the an ao?n ement ot tho general re-'ill the^ienpie always before bi?v.i?n gracetul.y yielded their iuhni.c- op to the [topular ^nrdlet and shown tie ir I >alty to the c .iistitution aad law*, it wae .?i ed and believed by all g??d Men and patriots that tlic ex. i-enu m tue.n existing would pa*s away with the election it *;n not -,,p see-<l that there were any considerable Burner of men toiho t'nion wbo would turn traitors to the country in the event of a party defeat The leading id. a in a r. pub kkran eovernm nl is that the majority, under .he cuieti Litw shall rule and wft. n the j?^.pU of the . v.ral lmmuw oei ,n an electl-m of a Chief Magistrate. ,t has al *rr' u...n m-iii. thu rn'ifti.i. d t icl'. understandisg. To ^tide bv the mult was th. purainount duty of every one witaTtook pari in the election, and to refuse Bcnu.wconco wm en b manifest had faith as no one could be guilty of ?tthJut a palpable repudiation of our implied contract mk wwoi moji i!f !*" th rjmoiisu. But tho result of the last election had ?. ar.-ely be. n an ?ouih* d wben the people of one of the Southern states E'Umied tliat they would not ibllllt t? ? the verd;- l of ?Miority Th**4*l*r- if,<U,lMomsha n.fwriy, thy ritl- ikr i-ountry '* doitwj t>.. ' ? rt;. u :t s. those who now pr-poee to destroy tb ' nlon rT, iImI control for many years of the K \?*nment ? ._.-i-.?.r\ .pvar.ab.y bc-n pa.^sed to ' tl.crn 5Re>,pr'ne ftwt l?s ?**> ??Mt:tuWHl etpr^l; the v'ew to \phold their interests. aud hu ne t only given decisions lo favor them, but bod travelled out of its way to ani.ouuce opinions upon subjects not before tlu.ni. They cannot, therefore. complain of uji> wrongs ric< ived from the general government, tor they h-ivo hud thut entuely in their own way. But ou ihai 6th day of \ov< ruber the people of the United States, at an elec tion conducted with |x-rfc'i t order .uid In strict accord ance with ilw nfuinuitnU of the constitution, clocted, us Chief Magistrate, one of her citiaens of most un blemished character, and whoso principles we believe were in strict conformity with those of the founders of tlio republic. No sooner wiih tlio fact of hid election known than the ilrcs of sectional hate and long meditated treason, which had been .smouldering for nearly thirty years in -uuth Carolina, broke out in devastating fury, auti great was the rejoii ing nmong those vtitjfuiiled fMOjie, who Utile\l that m* Mas the harbinger of their dsliierance. from a Cnion w/iiiit they hatl reyaidedfor a long time as a thirty MO.*r$e&. ST*1' Tl'KIM OJI TMK nOBDISiT'S MKhHAUK. A State Convention was promptly willed to ado pi mea sures for secession. Other States that li;?J Je.it t>)0 willing ear to lier .siren song, were induced to initiate measures in imitation of that deluded State. Hitch ?H the position of utluirs w lien Congress assembled on the ad of iteccinbor. At this crtiU the President of L hUed Ststes, in hit annual Message, tvas onitty vf the criminal folly of adding fu<l to the flame, by the m<mt grot : m'srepre lentatiuns ?f the feelings, vrincipUs and vttno es y' he pet fie of the .\ art It; and while he pulliated thi ooui.su of ilie secessionists. he declared bis inability t<> stay the >ide of treason and rebellion. On the delivery of tbut Mcfsaec. contrary to the usual practice, it was /oferred to a select committee, consist iug of oue from ouch State. From this unusual prix-eeding we, compi ling a part of the minority of the committee, could unticipnte lo good result, and \ oted against the appointment ot such com mittee. But having been appointed members of it, we entered upon the discharge of our duties, ready and eitger to co op< rate with the other members of the < om mittee 111 any nioiisurcs promising peace to the country, mid requiring no sacrifice of principle, or humiliating concession on the jwrl of those people who hud over been loyalto the constitution. The lirs" resolution that passed this committee con firmed us in our pre\ ious impressions. It was as fol lows:? Resclved, That, in the opinion of this committee, the exist ing discontents among the South* ru people, ami ilie grew nig heHiility uniting them to the federal government, are greatly to be regieited; avd that whether .such discontent* ami hos tility are without just cause or not, any reasonable, proper and constitutional remedies, ami additional and morn specific and eflectusl guarantees of their peculiar rights and interests, as recognizrdDy the constitution, necessary to preserve thu peaee of iho <ountry and the jierpntuaii'in of the luiuu, should be promptly and theeriully granted. The above resolution laid down a basis of action which tu our minds was entirely inadmissible, declaring as it did that a groundless complaint was entitled to receive the same measure of redress as a complaint feuuded on just cause. Establish that principle ond there will be no end to tho frivolous complaints and ul>sunl exactions tli a will arise from disaffected States. Acting on this principle, atul not inquiring into the right or justice of alleged griev ance*, the majority of the tommittee hare adoyUt several pwjiositUnt fr< m which we ore Miffed to dismd. It is un derstood thut the design of these various proi>?sitious is to restore liarmouy and concord between tic t?o sections of the country. Will they do it y Wo say no; for the reason that they do not, iii our ju Igncnt. touch any real ground of complaint. Their adoption will not appease the South, while .t will only incense tho North. Ine su> cetrful party in the last > faction did nut elect their caniidal^s to hove th-ir jh itl iplts sacrificed. Tho first of the:*1 measures, from which we uro com peiicd to di&seiit, is cmbiaccd m the fuilua:ug resolu tion Resolved, by the Senate and House of Repres"ntadv??, That the several States be respectfully requested to euuse their statutes to tie revised, with a view tl ascertain u any of them are In <x>ntli< l A'lib, or tend to enitiarraas or h nder ihe execu tiou of, -she laws of the t nited states, mml" In pursuance of the second seetion of tlie fourtn article of tlieo institution of the 1'nited Stittes, tnr the delivery up of persons held to labor by the laws o! any Mtate, and escaping then from; and thu Senate and House" of Itepreseneilves caruesi ly request that all coat tments ha\ ing such u ndeneybe forthwith repealed, as required by a just sense of eonttftutional obligations, and by a due regard loi the peaoo of tic republic; und the Presi dent of the I nlted States is i-enursted to communicate these ie-oiutions to thi Hoveniors'or t'ie several sinet, with a re qtyst hat tLty lay the same before the Legislatures thereof rc-pectlrely. The presumption i-that each and even Ptate knows w but is due to herself and her own citizens as well as what if due to her -ister Jitatos. ami that they will mako their legislatIM conform to w hat ;s right , jtt- t and proper, w ithout any out-idc interference. Tim PAiWiu or CNwniinw* -t ? v??.. If any of the States have passed _ineon.n. nt inal la*., tho cou-titution bus provided a tribuuul bv *biUi thi? fact is to bo i1? terroined. and that trbunal ih> not, the. ton ere-s 01 the lt.itod -Hat.*. If any un ronsntut unol law has been pnffled. whm that fact shall to- det.-rmiued in a proper way. th-v will 110 doubt b-promptly amended. -o as to conform to tho ."oustuut.ou . th . I nited -tat. s. i'he courts of the North art' always opou, andhistory record, no n tan thec.*5titut,o^hty of any law In u Northern Stat.; Wdx yousht to l J. Htjd, that it was prevented by on armcl mob. .lad - bun otherwise there would have bc.-n some e.vi'o for th.. present iuterfe.enco of Congress. And hero weide-in it not impertinent to inquire of e- ntlem, n. and 1^.11 ular j nt Northern gcntl-men, who are now soa ix,'ius to cou v-vXeir advice to sovereign how ,s t that they lave-Jo luiii: delayed iui exprc.-s'oa ot ipinlon. and with held the'i advice u regard to well known univnsti tutii-iial law-, ?<?W? <n ? xistenc*, tthich deprive the citizens ,7pomeof n.'e Norther., Stales'of ?foderacy of tLo "rights and immunities of the itizens >. the < viral Male-- ihH lart i-ho. o'lawfl are practi-ally oppressive, r/.e former have never n a single iasuu.ee town fa ir .xii.h Of 1 eprivini: a rajiilh'TU man ol a siugl I gbt. rhe resolution ?"<" further than to request tho reuoal of a Muv'n-Ut"tf.nai laws, but aUo asks them t r|? ?l tij.h uk delay the operated* 01 tho lugfv- -lave .aw. StaUi arc it <?'!</ fftilv-ot to Ottir n+rtrd ngtUi, J?* ? iwwrn ui*naU attemi'* to uiurp then i Kpmlh ;<?; if "i oJ gmrrnm^nf. C>ucedo the point thai Congr-*- hj-i tlie ngbl toadvis- ..rmdlcate the hur.i Ur of their legislation, or pronounce even Indirectly. upon th, een-iituttonality of tl.-ir law-, will only knd <> addi tional u.-urpa'ioti. We prefer to m-e: all 'icb .it empts >n the part of the mi neral gov;rnni'ut at th<> thr-ifajHl. While we would not recommend to any State to pa-.J or maintain'ire-nstitutioni laws upon an) sub.o.t, we are wiling to l-iiv- all such quest on* to me senic ot wt .ee of e.i li Slate to d. uunln-. and when 'he pr- - a' e.\c. e ii.-nt -hall have pa-?Hi away. and the public m.tid. -?=pv ci 01 v a th- Souih. Khali be;oine more calm ai.! r-a-on able if ?ov N?>rth-rn State being apK*i.?d to in the ipirit of'kiiMH.eta and conciliation to rev no anv liw- that may be deemed unconstitutional. and Which b?*r unjustly upon any of l,r ,is;-r Su-ei. we have no doubt ?uch appeal would l-e -on,- of U cse ivr-oual l.tberty lulls were t i^ed near,) twcniv xtai alio, and before th-pa>-ago- tho present r?.H,'u. .-lave Taw. lh-ir ? Oj.ct and demgn was the pr> v. ni .on of tl.e .T.nio of k idnappin* Th- r con-tuition. ?Utv in a few of th- states hi<? be-n deputed ? > anen oi "l ull I-gal ability. This lamor a:--?,nst then, now is a r. . \ lor ! >ng meditated treason. The ? .t.h. ot n> man hr s irer b' en prejudiced by there. U such la\> s ar- wroLg now, they v^>re -o wh-n they v ere -nact-d. "h. v hav "-. n ainW d,- us-d and ?.n -lere^l.ern t,.fo>e I.v the Stat-s n wh el, U.ey bay- be?n paaaed, both I>-iore and sin-e their ena.tnicnls. li wrong or un len.-'it'H'onal. ihey nev r -hould bar- been . na. ted. or having b?n ena- tvl fbould have been r.-p-al-l 111 s i.r? i>? -- ,t,. n -a too plain to reqnir-us to communicate it to a stut-. While the iouniry wiw at peace, aud the pub k mind in .icon iiti.m to fairly and justlv mrdersm h law" tho Suit'?* thiit ha\?? pawed th? -e Uws t?ave con. -td-r-d them ! >t right an.i prop? r. -hall 'hoy now toe required, wb le a pwiioo of th- oountry ,? in aras and threateuma die-* .hition and 'Ivil war, to rev tw th? ir lrglslat ion' l< this U,? time when th..y can riirlv review It Would \lietr repeal panfy the n' .li"ontentj WouM t not rather b- Justly re K ,'rd. .1 u- ?n i. -know'-lnm-ntof a disposition to do c^ f.lSt,..heiet't i-?.which nothing but an open rebell on 1 ? indu. ? t?. m 10 r.-' tif) ' It w.ll ?- in va.n for 'h- | -tat.? to say thai they repeal ihe>o ia?s beevi th y , are v ror.a and not because tn-y are threa.oncd wuh v\ i?,-nctR ?hould they fail to do so. r#. iiKsnxAL uioorrv Btnn. W hile upon 'his subject, we de?:re to notice another ?nd kindr-d propositi' n of the eomraittee. which :s -m b<Hll-d in the following resolution:? l Rp-olT'-'i, That ea-:h ^Ute muested 10 re-. i?e. 1t% ?>it ..,'.''..,1 ,, to amend ?h- ?ame ?* to He>..ire, ^,"n; iu?I.lST - V-oBgres., o Citizen, of other States tr o. 'ltent 'hef In th" ?aine protection a*<-ltuen?of such! Ut enh.T? ?nd?liotopr..l.etIh.-cillwBsot other SiatM navel. UBi: 'r notour'.iBg thrreiB ??*Ib 11 opulai rlolenee or Ulega^ -urnnian puni-' ment, without trial in doe ton,, of law Tor imputed citrws. . . | 1, ,, he ecn that the ohje. ti ,r which we hay- ii-fora t interrvsid lothc te- .lutwn in regard tc I'arsonal ! b-rty ? i.tP ? w ill i.pp'v to this resolution. Wo will do uo Srmth- , ern -tut- if < "111? i-1ico to suppoe- that they have u-t n >w ! laws to protc t recotinize 1 c:t>zeus ,,f the ^orth who I travel cr nojouru ?moiiK them Tlw outran A< j ha' been p-rp-trst-d ur^n Northern men do not r? ul' rr.,m Ibe want of pr .jht laws on their statute ?ook.<, b'it role I the nubile sentiment of the "Mates. 11,11 not to Inell longer on this tubjert wo pa-' to eor I .'der th-propo-ed ?m-l'din-nt to the e.mHtltul oo. rbe AUbstsne- of It is ?mbo?lt-d In the follow r-j resolutwu. n.|opte.| i.y th" ComuiHt" e ? Re-Olv. I, That It 1? expedient to pr .poee an ain MI'im< B' V. ,h? ron?llt,it|..n Of ll.e rnllert sia'e?, providing thai no ,me, dment havln# for Its objeet anv tBtefer^uoe^iMu the k,...,, will, (lie relations b-lween iheir elilxens and thosi d-. I -rtb> d In the seellon ? -ord-f the flnjt artlf-of iheoojMU i tuttr?naH "all olh**r prrnot^s' MiaII orlulnaU* wr.h any Stat* 1 that 3. e not rrrx.*'ilse'h.'relsti.m niAln IU own llBalts, or I (Mill be miiM wll!.o?,t 'he*"*,.! "f evry one of the rttatej 1 itilc I ?toll. I ? i n? it \e this propr.fe.l atuendment a mom nt s -on ? -i.ler.ition While no pa. tv in th i nlon proposes to in I, riere m any way with slavery In the SUt.-s, .aid the nr. s* nt dominant party < xpi ? sl) dwclaini any such right ; or intention, we are asked to ay.n.jt only n'.ur own ? h, half bill in behill of millions yet unborn, that no in it ; tor what maybe th- ' tinnf" or circumstances of the tH ople no matter wb.it may b" the w sll-sof the vast u lioi iiv No, th and south, no m-isur. - shall toe adopted Sat In sny way interfere with th- r-la.n.n b. tweon the nl /. ns "any MateII,.d tho-edescribed In Ihes-cond sec i .afof ih-first article In the. on-tiiutiou aa nil other ^ , L - thatreoelve lh- sanction of all the .Statej f^th- t niou lb'" acou-tutlonal d.croc of mlcb^men.imwitoof the . onstitntion wearo i? rte. tared that all tf.ey ,.-ked was that the existing eon stltutl.il Uuld l.e lived up lo mil ra.r'y InU'rpreUsI^ It the prentoit roB-titulion is violated, what reason lu?\ ? for nellev i g 'hat any new one w .11 be 'tetter observed 7hf jirtf rtt on'htutf'ji ? no rinhi >o ony /wirfy In iwrr frrr nith Itlii1'ry in Ihr Sln'*.it nd no ;?i? 'g MiM *" in ' ftr>. OrtoiB'v w 'Unr- n'i itu \ in'trjtri,n& "i'( aa<t irttf /W' < ion < f ony -io H jw?/vr. The plat for ffl ol the republican p.rty a.loptiit at <'hioagO declares, " 1 ha*. Uie maiiiiennn Inviolate, of vli- r ni.ts ef theS'ati-", and especially tlis rifh'of c. h st.ui to order and con trol its own d-mn4lc instltut .ins, seeordlng ?o its own 'idfiireBt ex Insively, is essential to th.it balat - of IOW.r on whi'b tho p- rf-:'.. n and onduran-e ,f ,, ir fill tl'.a! fa r?c depf od", aod wi. l?E ?ur c the lawless ,-.va ?Ion by armed force of the soil of any State or Territo no matter under what pretext, as among the if <v'vei crime*." By ili?: above declaration the people of thrj \-or(h vm faithfully abide, and, in Mtr judgment, the" nirt mirnf to any ureaUr yuaremta* of goal faith \/(an tt, t,i,jent unMt ti. n ffiiv.f. What good Is likely 'M reeup_ fr.om ti,0 ?ubmisslou of the propel ?me*J(ini,.nty wilt it bo adopted? In our judgment it w,n not. u Wjii 1,0 re j< cteJ? not betausu the jy oplo bf the North desire or in tend to iutcrfcie with bravery, but bccau.se th?*y will re gard it as a huuiilu-.ting requircim ut, proposing, as it does, that they fltti! enter Into bonds for their good be havior, When tK-y have nether committed nor liiedi tated wrong. The submission of such amendment is a yirUsal uckiiowledgaii ut by Congress Unit there is dauber of su< h interference, and the voting of it down will t>o regarded by the South an such a declaration of intention to interfere as will greatly add to the present hostile feel in,]; aud t.s we can bee that no good is likely to arise from the submission of this amendment, but only evil, wo feel constrained to oppose it. ADMISSION OK NKW AJII> ARIZONA. The majority of tho committee, as a further remedy for the existing evils, propose to admit New Mexico ami Ari zona into the L'nion as u Statu "as soon as may be," with or without slavery, as her constitution may determine. To this proposition we also feel bound to interpose our protest. 'ihe people of New Mexico have not asked to 1)0 admitted into the l'nion, and there was no evi lence be fore the committee that they had any such desire,or that they possess the population or ability to maintaiu a .-lute government. On the contrary, it was satisfactorily shown before the committee that tho entire population of the country sought to be brought in as a State did not ex ceed "6,000, scattered over a vast extent of territory. Of this number all but about seven hundred are natives of that country, who do not speak our kinguage, and tho great mass of whom are sunk in the lowest ignorance. Over one half of the entire population are peons, or per soPs held as slaves for a limited period. Ihe number of persons of pure Circassian blood is very small, but the great majority, aro a mixture of Mexicans and Indians. They are gi'Uurally poor, unused to paying taxcaq and unable and unwilling to do so. Small as is tho population, it is bi lleved to bo quite as large as can be sustained there from tho products of the sou of that country. Aj an inducement to create. New Mexico and Ari :i na into a State, it u ill no <l"M I* tla*mr.itby Mine that the mirntnt it u admitted the freeptr>j.U of the. Nrrtk wiU go th>rc anil cotdrol its destinies. How far they will be likely to do ho wo will presently inquire. We express tho opin ion that it will come into the i'nion as a shivo Slate, and It cunnot bo supported as a measure of adjustment upon any other assumption. In saying that it will come in aS a slave State we do not mean to say that It will ever bo a country whcio it will bo prontable to tako slaves in any roundel able numbers; but lhai it is a country where the st ntimcnt is not adverse to holding slaves, is proven by the fact that the territory which amis free wh ui it was acquired has established' slavery, aud adopted a slave code of a most barbarous character. If a State is a i nntud the laws now existing establishing slavery will remain in force, and the same power that established it in the Territory will maintaiu it in the State. But were we certain that it would coma in without slavery our < bjections to its admission would still remain. The lark of /.njinlatiim and the. nwngrtl chara terof its in hah/ant*, the in<tOility totV)n*rrt a State ^vemun/. all in Ur^ne 'Mails of the gravest character. To give such a State the same weight and Influence In controlling tlie legislation i f tho country as is possessed by the old States would be a serious objection under any circum stances; but it might be overcome was there a prospect that within a reasonable time they would have a popula tion entitling them to'any such control or influence. If it comes in as a free State it wi'l only further add to tho excitijfiw nt of the South, and they will maintain tbat it was tile object and iut ution in bringing it in to still fur ther destroy the balanec between the two sections of the country, and that it discloses a determination on the part of the North to create States for the purpose of overwhelming them, regardless of their want of popula tu n or other titling tea.suns to entitle them to admission. HE.VSOK Ki II Til KIR NOX-AU.MBSIOX AS HIKE STvITS, To those who intend to vote for ih<\ admission on the ground that it will bo a freo State, and in tho expectation that freo wnito laboring men will seek that country as a plaeo of settlement, aud control its institutions, we beg to Submit a few facts. It is now over twelve years since the most of thatcountry was acquired, and yet to-day it Is believed that it con tains less population than at the time of its acquisition. Why is this t It is certainly not because that country has not b> i ii sufficiently puffed into notice, tor ft Is well known that perm ns interested in Imaginary gold and sllv? r mines there have been indefatigable in their efforts to commend that country to the flavamble notice of th" public. To gentlemen who see in this measure anew Mate ipeticd, and to the world, which Is to invite the f ree men of Ma-tachuseits, Ohio and other States to take I eofH anion of it. w e beg to commend -omc descriptions of i hat c mtry. In lsiu Mtijor Emery, with (ienerul Kearney and his military force, passed across this portion of 'he eonti n-'tit. He savs, sneaking of tho country whore tho -in I'edro joins the itiia ? In one spot only we fourd a few bunch?"i of grn?. More than lour tlt'lh* of tbe i lain was destitute of vtgetttlon. I he foil, u light brown, Iroae, sandy earth, I supp"M<C ob tained s. ni' ihlng deleterious to vegetation. Passing along that region he nays of it:? Wo travelled till long after dark, and dropped down into a 1H if du?t hole. There were not a sprig of grass or a drop of water, ami daring the whole night tlnj mules kept up a. I Hi ohm rijr i or both. lie sajs further:? l'r< ni Intnrmafion collected from ihe Indians and others, it appears that we shall meet do more grass from this to the settlement, estimated to be three hundred miles dis lam. In speaking of the long route OTCr which hohnd jwed. he suys:? ? In no (Mif of thin vast tract can the mins from tic; heavens be relied on (to any ex teat) for the ctiUnHvacf the soil. Dm earth 1- d. siliute uf trees, and In a great part, also, of an> vegetation whatever. I.ient. Micliler, who was attached to the Boundary Survey, speaking <>f ih:? country, says ? Phi climate of this region i* in accordance with everything el?e relating to it. Having returned the dinning August to Kurt 1 uma, the tbeinioiiietcr in the shade at that p >?t was faiad in be llh degrees rahreuheit, and ovtr 1W degrees in tlie sliade an i g the river. <itie hu:idi ed and twenty decrets ! Mr Blo'lgott snys. in liiri work on ??Climatology." page km. that V. H' >rt ^ uma the mean for the year la 7.1 di g .1 nun and tl nt H.r 'he wannest iii.Ttlty:! deg.? measures only equalled In the lowcs: basins and valleys ot Arabia. lining in iicconnt of his travels from Sonoyta to Fort Yi<ma and back in tho middle of August, 1*56, Lieut Michler say Si lt Has the n>',st dreary and tiresome I hare ever .*pe rieue?a. I tii.nii'utlon cannot picture a morn dreary, sterile ? nutty, and we named it "Mr' "als." The burnt "nine like ii'l i-aiance ot the soli Is ever be ore you; the very st >nes 1; >k 1'ke the >eorl?e oi a furnaco. There ia no grass, and but a ni kly > egetail m, morn unpleasant to the sight than the ear leu ? ar'h Itoeif; acarcc an uiltnal to be seen, n't even the \* >j11 ir the hare, to attract :bi> attention; and, tave the lizard and the h rned ft? g. nought to give life and animation to 'his r< ilon. I be eye may watch In vain for the night of t bird j.>sd? to all tlil- la tne knowledge that there is not one drop o' waler t?i be depeadi d up n troin the Sonmta to the ?'olor do . r the i Ilia. All tra es of the road are sometime* eia><->t *,y the liliih winds h,\e> |>i g the iins ab e soil before thtm; but dia'h has strewn.i ??on'muous line it bleached bot e* at.d wither* d etreusses of hoi sea and ' utile, as mono mcrtts to mark the way. We could add numerous Whi r testimonials ;ti regard to Pus delightful reginn, which, in tho estimation uf Feme, is to bi ome the future abode of frcemea, but we thmk we bme gid n enough j mm i>j? turn n ihk lu.rrni. slave uw. rite majority luive ulao i eported an amendment to tho Fugitive Nave law. Tho disign of this am inltu'Mit ia limit I Ml od to <o to make the law tunic efficient, and at ihe ;ime timo render it lew oU'cnSlve to the iionplc of the North, ihsl they have succeeded in this former there is no d jubt; 'jut that it w ill, in lis practical operation, be of any brneilt to tboallegeilfugitive,or mttisfy tbe N'oriii lluit it - any improvement on th?- old law, is very quej tioLable. It provide * for the conducting of all the opcra tioi - ol slavecat< hinc at tlieex|?'tifc of the t'nited States, und uflords no Inih tninty or just prulvcttou to por^orw who limy be unliiwlully seized and transported for trial to a ditlunt State, t'ader it a frco man may be smrail in ihe ?''.ale ?.f Maine and transported to Texas, and th n held in cu-tudy until ih> next term of the i'n'ted ^t^es Court, wbi li 'nay not be for months: arid if he should linall) be adjudged a frei' man, tbe only satisfac'.ton he can "bialn for hi* loss of time ami restraint of his liberty I In bi'trg trail>? ported back again at the expense of the Vlitid vtates. Ihe lust sec'ion of tlie bill Is designed to remove an of fensne provision :n llie exlstu g law. that authorized the mnr>h<il lo scniii <>n to his aid any person or petsonshn ?aw propi r the amendment only authorises it in case the 'narsbal reu-i nably apprehen> s that lie shall need their aid. Pract ually, there is hut very little difference be tween the existing law ami the proved amendment in tlllf II gird aid (he whole of the amendment Is Of SO d"uliti ill aii improvenMnt on the present I iv?, (hat we 1'eei Justified u withholding fr>m It our support. Ihe iriai'irit) of the committee also rooommend an amisi menl "i the law of 179H, in regird to fugitive* f?om juMI e, making It tlie duty ot the I nited Stales Jurfgt? fo surrender sui h f ugitives Instead of the Kxecu tlv of Ihe Main{ to winch the fugitive hid fled. I im is ople are |n?lly Jeal >us of the jiower the Ciiited States Courts. a? we have helore said, are imrticularly sensitive in r> gard io nn asnres lhut propi.se to abridge the rights Of ti e Males, and enlarge the pi.wer of the general go vernn ei t. Ibe opposition of the I'n'ted States Courts lo cLlnrgc their powor has been ?n manifest hi retofore that we lee| unwilling to na?eut to any ptopo'ils that will enable tie in In do so. llawng ibus UWMsl <mr views on all the proposi tloi.s of ibi commitiee that contemplate any in;'inn. we feel compelled fo pay that In our Judgment they ire one and ail poWMles* lor jiermsnuftt good. Tbe present dls satisfaeti' n und discont- nt do hot arise fro-n tho fint that ihe North liss passed ferroaal l.inerty bilU, or that the 11 gttlve Slave law il not faithfully executed neither does It arise fnm an apprehension that the No'th pro poses to Interlero with slavery in the States whero It exifts. ni* ioxi? i'ontixi itn rmnsi or *?irn i iMUXi. The trenst nal le purposes o( Aiulh Carolitn are n it of re:entorigin. In tbe recent Convention of that-Life lerdllg m??brr* made use of the following language In the ii? hate on the passage.of the ordtnanco 01 s.-cess'iA ? Mr 1'ar*?s?Mr. Prestden'-?ll appears lo me, whh great deference io the opinions Ilia' have te en eipri<?s> il, tha. the pi.bile ti,led b full) made up ti ih? great i.o aslnn that now awaits us. It is no sparmodlr effor1 Irntt has '-oni" suddenly u| en us, buf <i has been gradually cnmlnatlng r..r a long se ri?-? of years, ui til at last It ha? 'nmelo thai point when we may say the matter Is entirely right Mr Iko?.i??Mr. President, if there Is any gentleman pre ent w bo w i?hes to dihate this mot r, of eiurse thl? bialy will hear blei; bet, as to delay, tor the pu?ae-eof a dfcjeuZ ? inn, I, for oai, am uppesi d <o It. as my I rflM Mr. faraer) I as ?ald:?"Mo?t of ue here had this matter tndei o .nsi'ler* iiea for the last twi niy years, and I presume * e i,?,|thi^ I me arrived a' a derim.n tpon tbe aiibjeet ' Mr. Kaitr-Hr, *' are pe'furmlng a grent aet, which In v< vi s not 'it.lv 'he stirring present, Tml enthrae ? the ? boln KM at future foi ag> < to come I havS been engaged In this gr. at movement evr since I entered polltlr d lit. i tri t w ith what has bet n done to (lay, and c nient ? Hit w ha' ? III lake i laee to lie irt'W. We have Carilt d the Ixirly ?| ihts I I Ion lo fia last le-tlng piS' e, anil m>w we il "p t it ntrf l?' gravie ftt^r thai Is dan.-, I am ready to adjoutn an I leave ihe remainingei-remonies ror I nior <m Mr. Kti?TT~1hi P oesalon "I Sonlh CarnMha Is n a nn cveM ofai'aT. Il Is not an; thing prodde d bt Vr In s ?lee I, n or by nen e*ei u'len or 'he unrttlceKisv. aw. !? has i >. ii a matter which has been Jkihcli ? ' . t.| f?r hn-iy y.ars Tlie . "I -i of Mnc.iiti aed llam ci us ih" ist aireen ihe L-aeh ol the aravi. Hut II Wad not the nly me. Ttw fcaek was nearly broken Wore. The potai upon rttt 1 now differ from my triend U this: Ue r?y* ha thought It upnUMt fnr w to put thw great question before the world upon tli 1m simple matter of wrongsou the question of slavery, aud that iiuestion turned upon the Fugitive Slave la*- bow, iu regard to the Fugitive Slave law, I myself doubt lta con untutiouality, aad I doubled It on the floor of the Senate, when I wa? a member of that body. The etate* acting In their Hovtrelgn capacity should be responsible for tbt) rendl lion ef fugitive mares. ThU was our beat security. Such sentiments expressing the opinions of leading

representative men in the South Carolina movement, flight to satisfy, it seems to us, m.y reasonable uun Hint the proposed measures of the majority of tho committer will bp powei less for good. South Carolina is our "Blck mau'' that is laboring un der tho influence of the most digtrcHSing mal.idies. A morbid di.sea.se, which has been preying upou thit State for a long series of years ha.s at last assumed th) charac ter of acut> mania, and has extended to other members of the confederacy, and to think oi restoring tho patient to health by the nostrrqis proposed, is, in our judgment, perfectly iule. But we hear it said "something must bo done or the Union will be dissolved.'' We do not care to go into a nice calculation of the benelits aud disadvantages to the Ptveral States arising from tho Union, with a view of Btrikiug a balance between them, .should we do so wo are com inccd that the balance would largely i'avor tho Southern section of tho confederacy. KIMUJTV OKTIIK BOKTU TO I'HK CN10!f. 'Hie Xorth has never fell inclined to calculate tho valuo of the Union. It may not be improper to iu<iuiro in this connection whether lie State oi South Carolina aud tho other ultra secession States have been so ?ppre.saed by our government as to render her continuan ce ui the Union intolerable to their citizens. It is not pretended that (they ever lose fugitive slaves or that any escaping from these States have not been <le livt red u|> when demandod; nor is it pretonded that tho Personal Liberty bills ol any State have practically affected any ol' their citizens. Neither do they complain that liiey cannot now go with their slaves into any Territory of tho United states, ihe Supreme Court luu decided that thoy have that right. Is >t then complained that their citizens under the oper ai Ions of the federal laws, are compelled to contribute au undue proportion of the means to maiatain tho govern ment? It' so, and the complaint is well founded, it is de serving of notice. But It is not true in point of fact. TJV rould easily rfe nn.nttrate, by official futures. that the government of the I'ni ltd Statu annually csjrnds, for the evchisiee itse and bemfit of South Carolina, a much larger sum than that Stale con trUuUs for the sujtjort if the government. This same rulo will hold true in regard to uiwt of the States t hat are now 9o anxious to dissolve their connection with the Union. Florida, a State that contains less than one live hundredth part of tho white population of the Union, and a State which bus cost us, directly and Indirectly, not less than $10,000,000, and upou which the general government annually expends sums of money for her b' neiit more than four times in excess of aer Contributions to the support of the government, has raised her arm against the power which has so liberally sustained her. But we will not pursue this subject further. Ih I'nion if these States is a neoessity, and will be pre*? r**l long after the msitjuuled men who seek its oerrhrov are dead and forg?tt> n; or, if rot forgotten, only remember'<1 as the attrmjted destroyers of theJyireH fabric erected for Lhc pre ? n ation of human liberty that the world ever saw. It is not to bo preserved by compromise or sacrifice* of principles. South Carolina, i it bzlieivd, it fist l-arn ing the value "f the I nam, and the esperimce she is now acquiring :rill be of immeaturaKle value to her and her sis Or States v h-n she shall return to her allegiance. If other States insist upon the purchase of that knowledge Iu the school of experience, at tlx> price paid by South Carolina, while we deprecate their folly wo cannot daubt its last ing value to them. Regarding tho present discontent and hostility in tho South as wholly without just cause, wo submit the follow ing resolution, whii h is ibe samo as that recently offered in the United State.) fcenate by Mr. Clirk, of New Hamp sliiie:? Unsolved. That tho pro\ isions of the constitution aro ample for the preservativn of tho Union and the'protec tion of all the material interesUfof the country; that it needs to be obeyed rather than amende*!, and our extri cation from present difllculties is to t o looked for in efforts to preserve and protect the public property and enloree the laws, rather than iu new guarantees for par ticular Interests, compromises, or concessions to un reasonable demand. C. C. WASllBL'KXE, MR. AP4MS' MINORITY REPORT i'KOM THE COMMJTTEK OK TI11RTY-TI1HKW. The subscriber has labored earnestly :n (ho comm'ttco tn make himself masior of tb?! cause's of the present dis contents. So tar as tbey wire divulged there, they may bo comprised un<ter time he Is:?1. The Personal l.ib?r ty lawn in some of the free Siat< a; 2. Exclusion from the 'territories; 3. Tho apprehension 'if wrae future dan pur to ihe rights of tho ."lave States from tho Adopt;, n of con stitutional amendments interfering with them. Without joining in the belief that (hero are very seiioiH grounds lor this uneasiness, tho subscriber is too well convinced of its etisienco not to be disposed to apply any reariona IjIo ri medy to quiet it. lie was. therefore, for th:s rea son, inducod t > give bis concurrence, at first, to several el the measures rcpor'.ea by the committee. He did so under a conviction that thc\ contain thy only reasonable as well as practicable adjustment of the differences un happily existing in tho country without the ?a oriiico of principle on either side, that has thus lar eoinc within h.a observation. And although r.ot i ntucly approving e,f them in the abstract, he was ready to give his co-operation in adopting them if ? here *a-i good reason to suppose that they would ef"Ct ihe object aimed at. He endeavored to act in ^ood firth, und with a view to the restoration of the kindly relations betiraun the aph nectiomiof?lie ce?try, inMhMew to be so rudely threatened. That this spirit has l*.en airly reciprocated by a portion of th" representatives of the aggrieved States be takes groat pleasure in aeknow eugiiig. Had that portion constituted only a b iro m ijo tity ot ihe whole number, ho would still tiavo pledged all ilie limited aid in his power to unite with them. Hut the tact is wholly otherwise. While threo Siates have ro 1 used to be represented at all, seics more, m*k;ng ten i nt of Ufteen, have decided to reject tho conclusions tr i iv< d at by tlio c iiunnttee. Ibis fact alone would seem to ri n.ier all prospect of i gentm! adjustment very dim. Atiu when it ap>vared, on the other baud, that a number of the representatives of the free States were equally disinclined to accept them, what hope was left oi'any advantageous result from per o'veiatct t _nrr. ntrn soritr* or nwconn. Another significant incident hippened, whih p it. an end to all fmttier doubt in themMiof the?nfeacrtber, be nuse It convinced him nat ovnn if all the tn< .isures reci iiiiuended could bo adopted the ad ju.-nt? nt anticipated would be as far oil' as e\or; that. th ? iittr-'fi ot the dijJ-x-n < ar? t/ut nperJU iitUy touched in th'. olUi'iig*ierancet ?-hirh haf'eiigpiwd 'Atattenti-m of theci.mwmttte; ami that ihe trw nmrct ofdisi-urdlvt alto piker '<> de>/i J or th /ilumw' of Omar atonal l^giiliHon. My relerenoe to the journal of tho committee it will uppearthat on Frii'ay, the nth day of January, a resold tmn was offered by the subscriber in dire-t r> pon-'o to one fort ion of tin- President's Message, speciilcally re ferred to the consideration of this committee. ,\s dually amended, it was in the following words:? Ferolvd, Tha'peaceful aeiniiescenee in the election o'a Chit f Magistrate, iictnmpllslied in .v eordanre wl'b every legal and constnui onnl requirement, I- a high and ImoerHtlve duty ?I every good citizen of the t'nited state*. <;reat was the surprise of tbe mover on perceiving ihat the annunciation ef this indlpu'ablo prop wition. n his belii f ol vital mnmeut to tho permanence ivf any re public founded on the consent of men, was met by besi tat ion on thi'part of several member*. Th* I'residont, in his annual Mot-sage, h id distinctly atllrmeil the Eime thing in another form "t imguage. " No reason seemed to exist why the committee ,-ho<iid not, by res|>ondiiig nnan mously to bis sentiment, aid in giving to tlio coun try cot fluent e in the belief that the discontents existing in come quarters were merely such as a conciliatory policy nil/'lit remove. Instead of this a written paper was jires< nted by seven m? mliers, assigning reasons for their refusal to record their votes at all. Ihe substance oi that pa| er is found recorded in the journal. It alleges that voting upon such a declaration would, m the opinion of the signers, do more harm than - ?>d. Why it would have that ? ll< ct it dors not explain. If thepro|)ositiou ">e true, and ii there exists no intention in any quarter to duty its truth, either by word or a t, S'iroly it could do nei her harm uor g>>od to voto for ;t. It wouM tall powerless, like any ace-cptcd truMi of society. It i.s only iu the aIt?Tnat!ve. wh> n tome p>rtien"nf a eommun.ty is di tor mined, at all lui?iri's. to act in direct oot.traventloo o' it, that it can dolumi. For it Bay then indeed servo to excite the publn aite itii.n to the true nature of the l?MC presented, and to embitter the ammo-ities which r wlic.ai differences naturally prouuee. While tho subscriber would not ven tnre t<i 'ntimate a doobt of tl?e sine rity of the nn mber* in assigning the reaaons for their hesijitlcn to accvpt an undenuihle a pr pus it ion be cannot abstuin from ex pun ins bis profounu regr> t that their course should un avr idably taise uj> anxiou" uoulils in tbe minds of great numbers ol people as to the uature of th* struggles now pp/iented to tbe countiv. Is it, njhra>l. only flp rf a I'T' .(/<?( of Ike ' ui'nl S:cU>? >ihum <??'? srtti n uf thi i 'niin (Jul not n<>min<ttr OMl wj>?4l1, ttst tVMti'uU- Ihe main jru?ai"c and r(imatut< * to a 'liwj'ution th' 1 n*vn/ It it !??< tii< ? ? d so then is there no neeess-ty tor orga nizing li g slntlve committers to Mnd a remedy. rh? otm MttntNai tuci-mes a mere hi*, of paper, If men determine with their eyes open tg violate und annul is most funda mental ptovisions. TUB tUPKRI t SltK.NT 'V fATHIori-M. TI.e sntis,riber la yet reiuctuit to hel'eve tho .-.tse quite sti d< sperute a.s this would shrsr It. Uf. stilt twit" '* thitt muc) of thirtxtTHH'. cvT'itii't ?? thi ftf-tt <wU'*n I'm f,i b' ami ri iU4 ms ion' and thai th'rr <? a fund of rn mm and It.i al-'y at t'th m. which may tie. ithtd up .nul im.it ly to tin a thr ri rr-n'. in !a<i>r of thr ? amUKe *n fi re'ttesr of' th<? lam, and ks t? encouraged in thfc< laifh *t>> observllg tlint the refre-ntafres of ; ims of the u?ratttS?d Ktntvs cordially ottun forwird and n corded their m niis. us well as their reasi ns, for votmg in favor of the i<sidi.tion Yet, on the other hand, it c.mnoi bo iii.ied that they constitute inly a minority of tho dis til ilied Mates. The majority stand on the record as ro li.sn g all t? i ms i f adjustment they <!o not dictate, and decikitig te OCBin.it themselves to the sunt tort of a prin ciple w ithout the acknowli-dgmel.t t?f which ronsHtn* tioiail gi'X eli lie tit ? ImtM ssihle. To this state of things it is at least doubtful wnethei Ibe legitimate pow.-r* of Cm girts if ful'y exertcl. would avail to reach the sent Ot tl.e tli^i a*e. 1lf? MO Mtm TO t'SOTlyT .I\t> EXT?An ?t.A\1CNT. Tbe general <i nclosion to which th? subsc ilwr has ar rlvtd fi'.m a eh se observation of tbe action of tbe com mittv?- it- this ? Thut n<> fnrtn of tr{/ttffeien( Kill V m'itfv h ry to thr r>-<-miunt Stittel * hr h i/t? not inaTvirriiti' iota <h.< r, nt/itutu n i J tht I ni'idStatrr a rc u/nititm of the 'Mipitiim b ).ii4r<t in" irttP'l ttetvty, 'in this condition, and on this all tie, will they constlM to withdraw their opposition to ihe lecegntl' n of a ri.nstltuiioftai election of tin' Chief MuMtnit'. Viewing the niatter in this I igh% it seems unadvtsablo to attempt to proeond a stop further In tho way of iflirii.g enacceptable pmpusltwins lie can wr tin* ht> (unti nt tn th' tr i nut d, mnndrtt ler thif teason it Is th it, alter having become con v'tiCi d 'if ihis truth, he change! his course, and declined to reci mmetid the t- ry inessutes which he in i;o d laith ! I,ltd ' tiered. It Ot rta i ly ean be of no use to propone in a'ljcstment whkh bos no ptoepect of being rco<"ret ns si, h by the other pan v. Het.ce be feels it I,is duty no i io r' coid his dVs' iit from tho action of the mijorltyof tus i oik (.goes in irtredi cing any measures whatever for the i oni (deration of the Hou"!'. CH tHJH HUVCI4 WHAT HAS HEW YOKE DONE ? Report of tbc Select Committee of the New York Senate. Auu-vy, Jan. II, ISfll. The Select Committee to which w ta referred so ma oh of the swage of His Excellency the Governor an re ates to oar national ditileultles, ask leave to make the following report:? After mere thaa seventy years of unexaraplod pregreai and prosperity, tbc Union of theto States 18 threatened with dissolution. South Carolina, Florida, Alabama aed Mississippi, by the acta of conventions culled for that purpose, have already upturned the right of secession. Georgia and Louisiana aro preparing to follew their ex ample. Tbo border States sympathizing with theee re volutionary movements, and yet unwilling to commit themselves to precipitate action, counsel delay and com promise, vith the determination, however, that if what they deem the reasonable demands of the seceding Slates are not complied with, they, too, will join in the effort to overthrow the constitution. TUK AI.IJEOEl! KKillT OK A STATE TO SECEDE. The doctrine of the right of a State to withdraw from the Union is not a new one. It liad its advocates under the old confederation, and the indefinite nature of the powers conferred on Congress gave It a color of plausi bility. Strictly speakiwj, lujwtrer, the State* were never in vested v.ith full jMwers of sovereignty. During Jlui colonial iwriod the supreme authority resided with (tan crown; auu the declaration which severed our wmnwuon with Great Britain was closely followed, in the order of time, by the adoption Of the articles of confederation, whieu clothed the Congress with this authority in respect to many important subjeuts. Hie c<<ufeder*tion of 1777 was of revolutionary origin. It was the result of arbitrary and oppressive acts, against the operation of which the prayers and potition-s of the colonies failed to obtain any relief or redress. Clothed, fioin the outset, with inadequate powurs, which the fears and jealousies of the individual States refused to enlarge, it was soon apparent Hint, with the removal of a common danger, Ihere would be nothing lift to supiiort its exhansNu aitd expiring energies. When, therefore, on the ^iitli of .May, 1737, the Convention ni t to revise the articles of confederation, it was with such a general sense of the weakness mid delects of tho old system its led Uj its tlnal abandonment, and to the adoption of a government with powers greatly enlarged and moro widely distributed. In comparing ihe present constitution with the articles of confederation, it wjll be seen that in no particular do they differ moro materially than in tho source from which their powers are derived, and the authority which they confer on the general government over the inde pendent action of the States. THE D?>:>TH OK T1IK COKFTOKRATIOX. Speaking of tho defects of the confederation, at tho openingol the Convention, Kdmund Randolph remarked? That the qovernmeni could not defend itself against tho en croactiniehi* of the Suites, and that it mis not even paramount to the Male constitutions, lalUied, as it was, in many of the Mateo. Madison, also a member of the Convention, said? l'hat the radical Itiilrmity in the articles of confederation whi the dependence of Congress on the voluntary and simul taneous compliance with Its requisitions by no many indepen dent communities. t xcli cousuliini<,more or less, lis particular interests aud convenience, and distrusting the compliance of Others. Mason observed:? Not only that '.he present confederation was deficient. In not pioviding 1 or roerclon ami punishment agulunt delimiugut Mates, but argu' d, very cogentlj, that punishment could not, in tho niturc ot things, be executed on the States collectively; and, there!ore, that such a government was necessary as could directly oneiate on lndl< Jduals. anl would punish those only whose guilt re<ituie<2 it. Chancellor Kent, in commenting on this subject, makoa these observations:? Notwithstanding the Irtl'-les of Confederation conferred urcn (tongiesa though in n wiy impe.fect manner, and un der a most UDaalUfulorganization,) the chief rights of politt eal sti) jemacT, the /></'< s'imiiti //n/?ni by which our uxist >-u, ?? as mi independent people was bouml up together, and kn1 wn and a< know ledged try the nation* of the world, yet tbey w pre iu fact hut a 'iigesi and even a limltat Ion In the shape of a written comi a>-t, of thute undefined iiud dlscre tleinry sovereign jiowers which were delegated by the colo 11 if 1 to Ci nirress in 1773, and which had bceu freely exercised at d Implicitly obeyed. \gain, in speaking of the Imbecility of the confedera tion. the same writer remarks that:? In la ltatlon of all the former confederacies of independent State-*, either in ancient Qrecce,or in modern Europe, tho ar tlcleB of confederation carried tho decrees :>f tne Federal t oudcII to th- M?tc? in their sovereign or colic tire capacity. 1 his was the gieat: unilauion'al tdefai t In the confederation oi 1777i it led to its eventual overthrow, ladttkMinNi pernicious or destructive t > all other federal governments whi'h adopted the principle. />;?A./<>?<? tuthehir* tij the I "w>' < it/f r bt tuJimi**l'> hi/ ih'njt'rTitintiit) to il* >nrn .1 '/.<?< '.Mrs ,111/.' l>- ?-?/?? 'r.l hyimim. The mild ln liiiei ce of the civil magistrate, h iwever -trongly It may be li lt and be)cd by pilvate InoIvMuals, will not be heeded by 3ii ergaulzad community conseloua of its .strength and s vayed by ttSfssooM. fu-lMr.x OF IfAMILTOJf. To these references to t!.o opinions of our ah' -el stilt es uhn and couimenintois, wo uuu the authority of Hamil ton. In ni <umg 'he n*-i*e-sity of adopting a new system of government, on thn groiuid of the imperfection* of tho old, he saj s:? It lias uoi a little contributed to the Intlrniite* of the exst ins federal system, that it never bail a ratification by the people. H* sting on no better foundation than the eon-?it oi tne M'veial Legislatures, It has been exposed to frequent and Intricate <|ueMloiin e< ncernlnu the validity of lis po>ver?, snd h is In > >u.e Instance* Riven iilrth to the erroneous doc trim if a light of legislative repeal Uwinx It- ratification to the 'aw ot a Mate, It has been contended that the same authority might re|i?al the law by whi'h It was ra'l tied. However grO" < a heresy it may be to main tain that a party to a Compact has a right to re v.k" that '-ompa, l, the c .ctrlne Itself lias had respectable advocalts. 1h* po-sllullty of a ipiesilon ? it this natore proves the necessity jf laying the foundation of ,-ur national govrri men! deeper lhan in ti e mere sanction nf delegated authority. I'te labile of American empire ought to r< st on the solid basis ot the cot sent of the people. Tlie i ?< airs of national power ought to How Immediately from that pute original fountain of all legitimate autb irliy. It appear*, then, that the confeder* ion was possessed of in constitutional power to enforce the decrees of. Con gress or to perpetuate its own existence. Indeed, the second article expressly declared - that each State should retain ovory power. Jurisdiction and right not expressly delegated to the Cnited States, in Congress assembled." lu the face of this clause it would have been necessary to show the delegation of an authority to claim obedience to tee laws before such an authority could bo constitu tionally exercised. As a const quence. there were numerous instances of a retl.sal on the part or a State to comply with the arts of the federal legislature, and in some cases these acts were nulliiied by contradictory and conflicting statutes. tHfc foWKHS Of rilK KKl>l.K\TIO>". Xor r. the cose of a it ceding State were the powers of tbe ctnfedeiatioc anymore eiear'y defined or generally admitted. The sense of a .i.immon danger had controlled the conIIMil g uteres!* which arose out of aditersityof soil, climate and productions, and there had been no oc casion. Ihti i far, to put the relations between tho federal and Male governments, as established by the articles of confederation, to th test, it was conceded, however, that -Ir hi hi such a ca-" arise, the confederation would Lav-to tely on the exercise of implied and infeiential power a, or allow the seceding Ctates to w Ithdi aw unmo lested. Peing a compact between States, and never hav ing be?n rat I lied by the people, tho 4 MM Ml J.sif fictirn exifting totrards 'he federal government led to disci.scions as to the right of a State ta resume its dele gated authority , an I th* dl cti IM thut. a party to a com pact had tho"right to revoke that ctmpu"t, did rwit laik its siipjsirtei s, 'loweyer untenable ?U'h a doc trine niny have been when, at a latter peri xl. attempts were niatto to ruonc'.Io it with the provisions of our pro sent constitution, the possibility Lliat it might be acted on bj s?.n.oof the states, and the desire to put it at rest forever, exerted a powerful ililluen:o on the deliberations of th' Convec ion. Such, then, were some of tbe more glaring defects iu the aitietes of confederal'on which the Oonvention of 1787 was called to .vlislder, and which, Mr. Mad?<jn re 'oaik?. ^honhi n-n sr be overlooked in expounding and appre ?lafng l he re butional .barter, which was the rem dy pro * |J| d. KSVTKW OF TITK iTOflmm?. ?(D lfcla preluniiiary view of the articles of confede ration lit us i ow turn t"> the constitution it#elf. which la the hart which riust _uid?- the ship of s?tute through ttio -toinif ?/ d in.' u aLu the opinsmg currents of faction. To this, i.nd to the light thrown up<iii its provisions by cott mporaneoua const ruction and judicial decislona, wo miif-t ri fer to ascertain tho true relations between tho everal stati s and tho general government. History affords no example of a body of men assem bllng onJer moro momentous circumstances or '-Wired with higher responsibilities and dutirs than the Conven tion ot 17*7. Nor, if we glance for a moment, from the nrvat questions upon which they were to deliberate, to the chaiscter and qualifications of the delegates, will tho contemplation ot such exalted virtue and pre-eminent ability tail to call forth the deepest feeling* of venera lion -nd le'-pc'-t At the hend of tho Council Board ?at Washington, fit 1'rrstden: of an asseni'Uy which wast o secure and per petuate 11 the p< ople ih< ruihis and privileges which in tbe no lei? admired characV r ?f a military ejiieftaln ho bad won hy the ?word. Around h'm wre githered Kiatikiin, the philosopher, but no less the ardent patriot; Ikn rns, ol pre-emincut talent in all that relates to tbo subject of finance: Mmund Handolph, liovetnor of Vir ginia, atd author of tho Virginia plan, and Shermaq. and I'tickmy, and King. Nor shou.d we forget tho ii.iocs of .Inmrs M*iii?>n and Alexander IUmI1t?n, .listit gui?hed in 'he deliberations of the ?"?invention for 'heir profound \ lew* of government , and no !e?s for the ability with which they afterward* explained and defend ed tbe cntittitotlon 'n the essays of the . It whs not to bo anticipated that the deliberations of il e C' nveMlon would p suit In perpetuating In tbe new ?yi-t<m, the inherent defects of the old. On tbe contrary, it whs to be presumed that, without invading tho fOTneignty of Ine Ststt s In tlie legitimate sphere of Its operatic!:-), it would, withinceituin prescrlbel limits, In vrst tin goveinment with supremo authority derived fti m the fountain of all power, and provide means to n ake Hint autli'iiity res|?ctetl and obeyed. We find, tl.rn. that the constitution of 17S7 affords unmlstakeablo efliience tha'., unlike tho articles of e.,nfederati<m. It was irdniucil by and for the people or the I'nlted States, that It provides for th< perpetuity of the f nlon. and that it fsiabli*h?s the paramount authority of tho general govemnunt tii* vrwno* or sumsami* niwi snm. Tbe in>p<'rtance of \he?o propositions will be at once admitted. If they are ? ontnlned In, or fairly deduclbln fr< m tin- provisions of :he constitution, then there is no ?imrt'tntii nal i* wer whatever by the exerci?e of which a -tate enn withdraw from the I nlon, resume |?iwers irre V eablv irsLted by <he people to the gen ral government, and release its citizens and i.meials fr m their laths of ,,1IC .(an'-e to It. It will lie necessary, then, to examine those clauses of tho (onstitution going to establish these pi d e sit ions, and the et idenco ol ther mean'ug to ho ?athered ft'm other sources. It is a well known fact that the ruling minds in tho Cerivenilon i f 17?7. whilst agreeing on the neeesmty of an extcnsW n 'f the powers af the general r>vernment, and a diffetcnt distribution )f them, w?re i ot onan moos as to the way tn which this should be accomplished. Whilst the majority were m favor of cutting loose from tho con federation, and establishing a government of a more ca tkmal character, a party, composed in the mam if tt repn sentativee of the small Slates, advocated such a r? vision of the articles of coufoderatiou as would anil lea the government a league or compact between the Stat* Resolutions In aecord&nco with the former, or what w. called the Virginia plan, wore introduced by Mr. Rat dolpb, and subsequently Mr. Patterson brought forwarc others embodying the views ol' the State rights party, which were known as the New Jersey plan. On the lOtli of June, these opposing propositions being under consi deration in committee of the whole, thone o fie red by Mr? Patterson were indefinitely postponed, and then on a mo tion to i ise and report Mr. Itandolph's propositions with out alteration, " which was in fact a question whether Mr. Randolph's should be adhered to us preferable to those of Mr. Patterson,'' it wua carried by tie votes ol seven States for, to three against. The resolutions of Mr. Randolph declared:? Tbat a national government ought to be esmbliAbed, cod* slating of a supremo legislature, executive and judiciary: thai the rlchta of suffrage in the first branch of the nailonkl I legislature! ought not to be in accordance with the rule estab lished in the articles of confederation, but acoordlng to some equitable ratio of representation, namely in proportion :?j I the w hole number of white and other free Inhabitants aivl citiiens, that the rights of suffrage bi the wtoond brau?h u? the legislature ought to be according to the rule established in the Hi si; that the legislative, executive and judiciary powers in the seteral Mates 0Uf;bt to be bound by oath to support the articles of union; and that the amendments which should be offered to the confederation by the Convention ouar at, the proper time or limes to be Huomltted to an aflaeinb y or assemblies recommended by tho several Legislatures lo b<5 xpre.-sly chosen by the people, to consider and decide hereon. These resolutions, although subf equently modifled,con tained the germs of the present constitution, and the vote on them settled tbo question against the advoca e3 of a confederation of State?} as will appear from ac X amination of the principled which they involved, lhe debates on their adoption show that they were con' .u-r ed by those who advocated nu t those who opposed them as substantially an endorsement of a government in vested with larger and moro widely distributed powers than had ever been possessed by the confederation. Tha only joint in which the advocuios of a federal system appear to have been successful was in linally ina.nta.n ing the equality of the States in one branch of the Legis lature. Ttre dicta of the txjrxuKHs of ntt; RxrrBuc. In discussing these plans, Willson drew tbo follow.ug parallel:? Representation of the people at Urge is the cans of one, the .state Legislatures tiic pillars of the other. Propor tionate representation prevails in one. equality of -utfrage in the i ther. llere the jurisdiction of the national tribunal* H to extend to all cases affecting the national peace aud harmo ny. there n few <?:? ?only are marked out. Finally ih?? ratifi cation || In this to be by the people themselves, in that by th* legislative authorities according to the thine nth article W the confederation. Madison, speaking of tho New Jer?ey plan, observed That besides omitting a control over the State*, as a ffen*. ral defence of the federal prerogatives, It was particularly defective In two of its provisions. In the first place, Its rititf. caliou was not to be by the people at large, but bv the Legis lator! s. It cou'd not therefore render the acta of '< digress in pursuance of their powers even legally paramount to '.he a"9 of the States. And In the second place it gave to the federal trlbuual and appellate Jurisdiction only, even in :he criminal cases enumerated. The necessity of any such provision sup is.sed a danger of undue acquitnl in the Mate tribunals?of what avail would an appellate tribunal be after an acquKal'.' Johnson said:? On a comparison of the two plans which had been proposed from Virginia and New.frrsey, It appeared that the peculiarity which characterized the latter was its beiug calculated to pre serve the Individuality of the States. The plan from Virginia did not profess to destroy this individuality altogether, but was charged with such a tendency. EXTRACTS FROM TUB COWH'ITTIOV. With this reference to the two prominent plans of thd Convention, which is intended to show that from the first the leaning was towards a national government, _\ tie committee proceed to notice those provisions of :h<s constitution which establish the propositions beiora stated:? 1st. That this is a government ordained bv and for the pec pie of the I'nited State", is established by the preamble U the constitution, by the form of its ratification, and by ihe direct representation of the people In one branch of the {na tional Legislature. For convenience of reference tbo clauses relating to these subjects are given below. Preamble. We the people of the Untied States, ic order to form a more perfect 1 nion, establish justice, Insure dome-ale tranquility, provide for the cimmou defence, promote b?< ?; neral welfare and secure the blesxings of libertj to us ami to our posterity, do ordain and establish this constitution foe the t'nlted States of America. ArticlejT. The ratification of the Conventions of nine State* shall be Kufllelent forth'' establishment of this constitutiotx between the States so ratifying 'he same. Art 1, sec. 2 Ihc House of Representatives sh'ill be ?om poscd of members chosen every second yenr by the reople oC the several States; and the electors in eoeh State -hall havii the iiualilications requisite for electors of the moat oumerou? brunch of the State Legislatures. These extracts from the constitution show a deriva: n of power and a confirmation of it from tho onlv tr?i>3 source of all legitimate authority. The great principal tbat the government should rest on the consent o:'tno people, and not on that of tho States, having been settled by tho vote on the form of ratification, tho preamble -vas adopted without opposition. The decision of the Coiiven tion on this {>oint established a most ini|>ortant distinc tion between the constitution aud the articles of confede ration clearly stated in tho debates. MK. MtDMH'.l OPINIO*. The subject of ratification being under eon-ideratkn, Mr. Madison said:? Hp considered the dlllVren c between a system founded op ihe Legislatures only, and one founded on the people, to be ili>' true difference betw cen u league or treaty and a constitu tion. The foiiner, in point of moral obligation, might be <>. inviolable ae Ike latter. In point of polltieal operation Owi were two important distinctimn In favor of the latter. I lr?t. A law vi'dating a treaty made by a pre existing iaw might he respected by the judge* a? a law, though an uuwise r |? i tidlou? one. A law violating a onsilutlon established y the p?ot>le themselves, w< uld becousidercd by tbo judges h null and void. So jointly. Tiie doctrine laid down by the law of nation# :n he cn>-e of treaties I*, that a breach 01 any one article by ..ry Of I lie pOTttM IreeR the other parties from tie; r engagements. In the cane of a union of people under one constitution, th ? nuttiic ot the pnet Iih- always been understood to e*' lud"> mcb an interpretation. t'"?ii|>aHiig the tw-i modes In point > f < xirtdlei.cy, he thought all the "onslderaUton reeomineullrn this Convention In preference tn Congress, for pmposlug ihe ieU ini. were in i'a?or of Sta econventions in preference j Die Ii> *' tun s, forcxuminlng mid adopting it. rut IHOU.-IONS FOR I-OPl'MR UOVMINMK.NT. T" in direct p u tici|>atiou ol'the |ieopio in the governm' lI by ilu'ir representation iu one of iUi co ordinate branched, as provided, article 1. feet ion ??', of the constitution, iflbrde additional evidence of the national character of th??go\ prnment. Ihe members of the House of Keprcsenta:ives ore elected directly by the people, in the name manner .u? membeii of a StateLegislature. This feature of thecot - gtitution waa most strenuously opjior-cd in the Oocven litn.as destroying equality ot the states, and building i>? n government over which the States in on? of its co-ordi nate branches would have r.o control. < ?n this provision, as < n that tn regard to raiilication. tlie advocates for State sovereignty tnado a determined stand, as is sho^D by the debutes: nor could they be induced to >ieldoa tiny other terms than a compromise which left them . a e<iuul r< presentation in lb" Senate, rhe legislative branch of the government then, whilst jiartnklug some what of Ihe federal character, may bo da!mod, as to the House of Representatives, as one of the connecting links between the p<ople and the government and as thus strengthen ing the evidence of a constitution of tho people, which -< derived from the declaration of the preamble and tho 1 otni of raiilication. 2. That tne cotislltution establishes the paramount au thor iiy of the general government'Is the next point t> be considered, n>r does it rest on evidence an;/ m< . ?> doubtful than the prnp??itioii already discussed. It would Hide d liave been a fatal defect in Ihe con t. tutiou If its supremacy over the constitutions and !*w< of Ihe Stiiti s bad been established on no higher sanction than implied or inferential powers: and it is an evi dence of the%onsnmmate wisdom of Its framcrstfcat, whilst no opposition could induco them to waive th'* most Important provision, its undue operation on the le gitimate authority ef the states was rendered impoes; by Ihe establishment of a Supreme <>>urt, with a jurtt diction over all ca-es arising under tbo constitution, an I whi se .Judges were to be appointed by tho two bran lie* oi Ihe government most directly oonm-cted with th>? | States in fboir collective capacity. Wo here ipinie them passages in the constitution to which we refer in '.ls.s * connection:? Art. 3, Sec. 2 The Judicial power shall extend t^ all mm ? in law or equity arising under this constitution and the laws of the Inlt" d Mates. Art. 6, Src. 2 Thi- oonslltution. and the laws of the United States which shall be made In pursuance thereof, and af 1 treai Irs male or whu I, shall be made under the authority of the United Mates, shall he the suprvme law of the Inn I, and the judges In any Stale shall lie !<ound thereby, any'hlng .c. tie constitution or laws of any State to the contrary ao'wlih ? standing. TtlK ?OV1t*?IC.jm or STA ITS ItKIJl StlHKMtl Thepo ptovisions of the constitution. Ilkn all other* trct'chit g on the sovereignty Id' the States, met with a dcleimined oppc ltlon. lwiih in and out of tho Conven tion. Ibey olvested the Slab's of powers which had otien bei n exercised under Ihe articles of confederation, of r ullifylng the acts of Congress, and established a common arbiter in the Supreme Court on ull case.-* arising under the constitution mid tho laws of tba t'nlted stat?s. Originatirg In the conviction of ti?e impOFSibility of reconciling a sovereignty iu the Qn'on, and at the same time complete independence ir U?o Stutct. they destroyed the inifwrfnm tn tw;nria, and in lt? piucr substitutes the paramount author'ty of the gere tal govert.no nt It ts not dillicnlt lo See tint without tbc-o provisiore llie connilution would be a much more imperfect instru ment than were the artlcUs of confederation. Whilst, dividing the govemmi n? into a number of coordinate bram hcs. rnlHrgiog their -pi.- re of action, and litipheing on ihim resrs.iiflbllltles and duttea whn h did not extet i nder ihe old sjst< m, It W"uM have elo'hed them w:th i o powei to enforce Ihclr deerers against the >>p|i?ieitlon i fan individual Slate. In Ihtt lamftnigeot tho federalist ? IhC world would have seen the authority ot ihe whole so cletj ml oi dlnate to the authority ?t Its part" It n nuM harr tri n a tn< tister In which the he .U waa under the direction v il.c tnenii eis. ?nt* irttrm m o? nm t >h>m. 3. Thatihf. cimfliMii.n]Tin-ir>r* fnr th' /?r;>WMt'v nf the In ton nitty It rhown neuatiivlf, turn th? aitKnrr ?i rny I nirfrion by authority ?ffltith it rum hi mrwu? iii.mtl t ilif#,lr.it. It would inneed have keen a tlrange perver sion of jrtwers If, in vl< w of the reeotntnetidatiun ot (V>n pKsstliatit ?bonld take measures to render the fed' tal constitution ad?<iunte to Ihe exigencies of the gov ett.nienl and the pr. servati n of th? I nhm," the Cunven tWn lwd proceeded ?o eiieraft on tlie new system a vital d< feci of the old.wlncli they were ctpressor rjiiio,| to ri tnrdy: nor would sueli a proceeding have been more ir harn.otywllh the action or Ihe .Vtiuipilts meeting and Ihe opinions of the moil i minent of our ?intesm"tt l"he want of such a provision, considered n ctnmec'W with the lull conlennsiramtius evidence .is to .lie views and objects of the lending mitx'sof that day, aflhrd? evidence indirect indci d, hut nt th- mm. timt *mnt} an* rf,n nvi if (J, thfit thr fill r/irit iff >'uvniVat ion* *???' la ?!<?? rite ntr nmt *?;??,rt fum th' nv-mt ptttri'/ an it? rh-it mi nt whii^h m*i? In ilr irny if* ;??vr Again, negative U'sliinotiy in favor of Ihe pro|ioeitli>o under e*?mitiation may be gnhcreo from n c msideration of the en>!s anu puri?>ses (or which the constitution wo* ordained ind established The preservati'in of domestic tranrpiillily, and Ibe promotkm or thvgeneral weKareariH objtcisol as much importonie now as they ever w e> an Ihnl Importance will not lessen in the fut ire. The fame neceisitv then which led to the Cnlon n* vlve only m-ans of securing theee great hlessii^' - ' '< to Its pr serv:iHn:i as the "iiy meant if perpet at'rg tbe