Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 19, 1861, Page 3

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 19, 1861 Page 3
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?ft (tery thai Mg i u w?iW Dnl to orr** ?*?<* re fults, w<*;?d b? toueuy t^at ai y uec^a^ily ciinled lor tt-H ' (iinrnatuo, to gircre lJI the teachings of hit;lory, and all I ?K( fX[?TK:n< o of mankind. If UMaenVtiiig ator. sts grcwmg out of a diversity ; ?f mhI, climate and production*. be re< oi.-iied ut- : rter (be prrt -ct.r.K c. root a c' vernment I'minatiin; from the |n|<: it w? uid bo a lolly and delution to Hippono | they wo?M not clanh as between separate aii J rival coo- i IbdcrMies 'aniimc!) ?y m* hmthiks ok hoctii ankhka. The history of the South American republics ailbrds i i>ioi>l ' pr<-of of tb< lUipeis to be apprehended from the ' jarrinp ititercsts cf independent .'.ml sovereign states, ! wtlli no common aibiter itivc-'M with authority to set tle their diiloui. .ve.imd wi'.ii power to mike its de. roes rawecuid. Hut the proof in ?npp->rt of the prop sltion is not con- 1 toed to indir* et iu>d inferential testimony. It res'* on the higher cviiienco oi plain constitutional provisions, ' about wLn U tbi ro can be uo Uufp'ite. Hy article sixth, section s. coml, the constitution and all laws made m pursuance thereof arc declared to be the | supreme law of the land, and to be paramount to the i ?'/institutions and laws of the several States, J'Uure is no 1 Habitation to ihe operation of these provisions, and no i qualification of th<-ui I roai other paaaages. Thoy must ; stand in all their breu Itli and sigoitlcaaoe until the con- ? stiiutkn shail be amend* 4 < r until it thall ho overthrow u *y a successful revolution. ti:k cov-arn tion aoain>t WBtq<n. We have tlias endeavored to sl??w that the proposi tions set forth are in harmony with the constitution, and !itut the principles which 'hey embody are logical deduc tions from its positive firovisions. In the f iee of those there can be iv> constitutional right of so eesloti, since to Eupjotte so would tie to ela.m for the ordinance of a .state a paramount authority over the constitution and laws of '.be Union, to deny the rlj?ht^if our ancstori to bind th< >ir posterity by thc.r acts, and to make the noblest I system of government the world h.ts ever seen tho sp'irt au.i the football of dangerous and designing men. The citizens of South Carolina reason on this subject as if the icnetitutiin of 17^9 was not a reality, and as if wo were still being under the old articles of confederation. But th? old system with all its dr/'eds has jMwdaway, and in its place u-e hare a nation*i' gwnm-nt de tirtsy authority from the j>tople unl invited with jiou; r to malt !h>: corstilutu n, ami the laws made in pur nui me thereof, T'fpc-'.ed and obeyed. Even supposing the constitution a compact between sovereign States, there would Btill be no constitutional lower on the part of a Stale to withdraw from its con trol or escape from the operation of its laws. Jf the con stitution had been ratilied by the State-* iu their sovereign capacity, its provisions: remaining the same, it would still have operated on individuals; nor could a State, by the CJKKJee of aby coast I tui tonal powff, i.tve released them from their duty of obedience. There Would still have been the same common arbiter in the Supreme CV'Tt; nnd ts decisions, and riot secession, would liavo bteri CcnstituticpHl rmody for^. tacts stbhtttsd to sorrn carouma. It would be well for the citi/"D8 of South Carolina to compare the views in regard to sovereignty p it forth in the recent proclamation from th it State with the opinion of an eminent citizen and member of the Constitutional Convention. In the Legislature of Sou'.h Carolina In 1783, on the queetion of caning a convection of the people to rauty the constitution, C harles Cotesworth Pinckney spoke as fol lows ? 'Tl is admiruhlp m?nlfesto (moaninR the Declaration of In depemler re) sultlclently refutes the doctrine of the .D'll\ idual w-v?ielgniy and Independence of several States. In that de fU.ration the several Sta'es are not ev n cnuiner-ted, but, after reciting In nervous language, and with convlo ing aris'i menta, our riyht to independence, and the tyranny wliiob compelled us to assert it, the declaration is made in the fol lowing werds:? "Wc, thcrelrre, ihe reprefentatlves of the United States, Ac,, Ac , do In the name, Ac., of the good people of these colo nies. solemnly pe.hihih, Ac., tbat these united colonics are, Knd of riph*. ought to be, free and Independent States." The separate independence and individual sovereignty of lBe several States were never thought of by the en lightened band oi patriots who framed this declaration. hecmhiox roirncAL hekk<v. The several Slates arc cot even mentioned by came ia any part. us if it was intended to impress the maxim on America that, mir freedom and independen- o arose from our ut.ion, and that without it we could never bu free or independent. 1st vi, then, oontfder aJl attempt to toeafcn ike l:ni(,ri ty nwintai.iiny that tachState it ttparaXely and uulii idual'y independent, o.? a specie* of piilitical h-.r-sj, which, can never benefit ut, but may bring'onut (Ac most it riotis distress. Lke nu,llfi ?<*?*nt In South Carolina, Mr <1r ,k;i Vh;.n': th? State made a mo*' able '* < rn(e speech in favor of the Union, In which he 'h is < enii.lUHivny (info.-i (1 o| Ute fpiestlon ot state sovereignty un<l ?f ilhe constitutional right ol a State to secede (rim tlTlnfe %2L'"TIUr" Tr r ST*ti.*4BK MKtD IIV VORKIGN NATION*, never was a time when the Suites were mm;.nil. <t as separate battensiby other nation* Tht. U?>tcd st ifc, Jore the tirlirlrt <>/ .>?jr.lrru'ion, irerr ii,e ??l mv.a- to tin _ J h,! ?*>lonics appeared before the world as tliirt""n separate indent odent Sum by the Declaration of Independ ent' r111 no "'?''rnatiouai set of any con?equenoc, by \ lrtue ol the foieign ?ovcre.lpnty, was ever done by any one' State as to European Lations nor by these as to that. Prn.nicaliy ton pe kn<y? noihinp of the several States. She only knew' the conl?dflHcy of States. * This *u Pti 1! more rcanifegt after the of>nfe JcratK,n thPri 6'1 the branches or the foreign sovereignty were vested in Congress, as tbe international representative. 88, Indeed,rhcy bad been, in all re it. rial respects be fore. Uut when the national constitution ol 1789 \\..a adopted, beyond all question, under that every atom of lore gn sovereignty is stripped from the' Statu# and vested u the new government, Kvcr? alti lb i'? of international existence !s parted with: and no M? :te can ever be rcpoaseiiscd of any one of them but by a sue c-fsrul civil war. or by the consent: f the rot-t to'i di -o of 'he I, and the restoration of the c? lid thority to tie Str.tes. Sorm CAROlBfA NO nation. South Cv??o'ilitl. prntl vtly, wr ,rai r o rhe very 'deawould excite a smile in every .'ablnei of Kurone ' Tb?'n t?illv, as well as priv ?lo.illy. she ts now. I?ymd all 2? iKi /?'y "1?n?*Y.n ? her.own ?u?."nde, th, constitution I!i !. i*ou'rv MUfl :o ,ftlk "i European nations about re ??i vi d rlghiS. The answer xvouUl be, we know ? ou not. W e know the government of the t'nlted States; the I'residen as tie head ot the diplomatic department; the ''resident and the fi+nate aa the treaty muklns authority, the President, Semte and Iloose of Representatives as the war de larlmr power Tb??e we know, and, as repiosented liy them, we know the I nitcd states e.s one nation. But who are vou? Your own M to r"8? d yo'i not' an a nation, as viiiy a j an or one * THE HrATM Sr'WIOV, Again, .f the doctrine of secession is ir .-e-oneihblo wi?h the constitution of tbe I nitcd States, it ? ? tvAt'har t( Jtrt'ti any ;v/r- warrant in th conttitution' of th? urtral fita;**. Such a measure in nei-her eont-mplate-! i."r provded for .n any organic law, and the art-! of I gw-iatares caUirg conventi'.rs to tnko the inMect into cof s.di rat ion would appear to be beyond the s-ope of their 1. g,timate powers. It is nothing iers th?n n deli'.e rale attempt to substitute for tbe decisions of the Supreme Court, wh. se jurisdiction extends to all questions Mi-nc un<ter the c< utltution and the laws, tlie dangerous action of revolutionary tribuaals. Nor will the proceedings of tlie convent i?s lie any more regular than the at Ion of the UgiFlutures which called them together. Ih a t oratnanrt of te^/fion may he an easy mcutf.r; bid ivhm v a,huh o releasing citittru fr?m tki> oo'h.i nf nV irian . b) ttiff a ??onttituiivn which Ih' i? mjr < f tit, '" Slat" y o Mii'mn a,t of ralifualum, made f<pr>iHe ntrr all &h*c connWutiont: ioften n ,Y>m.? to ?i? lai-H i>/ Congrr/n, made in ivwitanc* thrr, *%. I, an I orjjf I th. ,/arrimnx from th< 0*tt on ' ?rsr.mJi Wilk.n th. ir territories, IkrywOIJInit net imril in anu 2 erm*itutv*.< to jive a hj notion tn'tmrk /,ru ?-?*#,?-, 0, to quality thr :n/.;yrr'nti'm irhirh thecirUitxl linrlrt will nt Hur"uy pu! r* on m It would be more magn in.inous lor ? the citizens of ti .? periling Statee, instead of attempting U.e hopeiesa Uvk of defending such acts, as constitutional remedies, M come oat boldly and ant cipat. iho verdic' <4 Hindi ndon, b) confessing them to bo revol itionarv SW1M.K.N 'WT MAINLY Nl HoRTKl. IN \IKULXIA Th. doctrine ofe-ccsBion ha- found ;:s main tupport In the \ irgiLia r. solution# of 17?K. This remarkable iHd.ti W!'? d".,wn b)' Mr M;,d","n 'her a m-'mb r or tbe \ irgitjin legisla'nre. It originated in th" ia?.,r of lLo alien and vedition laws by Congresr, which the re".'u tKiis declared were unconstitutional, and then pro ceded m follow'w ?r th? in lbP th n' 01 *l'e wrfes lhl* Assembly doth e*plleltly and r^remii nrllv de-la e r,owr" federal >oreri!men>. as ,'e K??w .c?nirsrt to wbloli ih" StAiPM arr partle* ah pmt^d by the plain sen e and Intention of the Instrumen ' C,.f ?' LW>lk,P*ct> a.? no further va'id tbsn I Lev are authorized by the K.a,"s ? In that e?m J, f'and that In ease of a deliberate, palpable and dangen..ii?Vr,"uo ef ether powers, B'.t g-anted by the said eon.paet, the Stat" who nre parties thrr"t? have the right, anr are In <fnt T hound tu iiiterpoM tor arresting the progress of the nri anil tor ma^niainina within their r*?pe. tive limits the suihorllles rurfite and liberties appertaining to them. Tins resolution of the Virginia Assembly was thebi ?te on wfcieh the Stale of South Carolina rested her righl of nulliflcalion and se?;ession In 1830, and which Mr. Haj ne referred to as containing the pood old republlcati dfs trine of lis. It ,l appareut, however, that the idea of an authority rosid.rg is .i State In decide on infractions ol tbe oonst.tution. Is no wh?re to bo gathered from the resolution. The word is used !n ita plural form, and re f*rs clearly to the States collectively, whilo ih t authority claimed is (.nly to be e*crciee?l in case of a deliberate, paipubie and dangerous exercise by one general govern men of powers not granted. It is not claimed that the right may be exercised by the State on any presumed m 'met on of the constitution by another slate, and its ope ration is ront!n?d to esses wh> re the general government and not n Slate is the party at fault. Ih'P was substantially the view taken by Mr. Webster, 'n the debate oa loot 's resolutions, and it wa? aft -rw iri's confrme<l by Mr Madison himself. In a le.'tcr to Mr Ttist. in 1832, be says ? 1 have reteivsd your* of the 19th, enclosing some South ? aroltna papers. There are In one of them *ome inieroitlnn ?l'?s ot ifce doctrine of secession, among which one that had oecutred to me, and which, for the Mrst time, I have seen in print, namely: that If one .-Pate can at will withdraw from the oth-rs, the oth-rs can withdraw fr m her. and turn her, we >sr?m tolmtem, out of the Union, t'ntll of late there is not a Btate that would ha>e abhorred such doctrine mom than South Caiollna, or more dreaded an application of It to her ?ell rh" same may be said of the doctrine of nul Ifl atlon which she now preaches as the only doctrine bv which the i nl< n can be saved. I partake of lbs wonder that the men you ?nould v.ew secession In the light mentioned. Theessen ual dlfTerence between a free government anda?overnment ifc Lr* '? 'hat the former Is founded Inoompact, th.^ parties to 3>.? .V" n?u,iul|y an<l equally bound by It. Neither of ihe h^riirr.k'1*' ?L,n h.r? * r right to break off from Ud .J1 ,h? 'ther, or others have to hold him to It; '?'frr'* noth,n?ln to Virginia reiolutloaa of ^" 'i',h. " frtnrtpi^, which Is that of common sense ?Enc u5<m^?ej2.*}& ho lallscy which draws a different th^ i artieM I'J2' m .'ll confounding a single party with Theater ha^n.'l" a United .states. with It ih'ri^S. the compact, may do what they will -?t l cie.Ja hl r' *' 0,", "f the parties, owes Hdelity to it ?r the ~"r,nt "J an Intolerable alu the p u?2l number%itM) ^Tn s^ In?l*"*!* ,^>fl refer' nre Is m?,l. i ,i L every Insance used whon 'ver government m*0,; lj ,h" authority which p.eslded over the Have been ronrlrued Inlo a want of ^^21 ? gtrgnBentr ud? in its favor, and perha^^t^'. n* , n ot inability to answ r iho^, P*rh*P" ,nU) *Cin mr viistimn viswkii n? a sj^'Oiitionasv mw A r Shall now leal with the question as oneofrevolu !..*?, aJHl 'nsider? rwvuiu fc-e| cui'Kt alleged as govenong tbe action of the l ? f Aille* XJ il4i et. d be t:e course of :l.c government? I I In fall the great political convulsion# which have taken plate ,0 tf.e world, there hoe tnen the one unvarying jus | i ncatieu of tyranous and oppressive acts, against which ; there was no other means of red row th-in open and vkj | lent resistance. From the day the Englwh lUruns .isseia 1 bled at Runnymede, until the consummation of the Kevo lutkn of 16M. this principle of the ultimate right of (? h stance, where no other means woukl avail, l?iis teen acknowledged and acted on by that great rat inn, from whom we derivo our origin. The history of ? II otb>'r nations offers the same instructive lesson: and our own Declaration did but enunciate, in appropriate : lid eloquent language, a universal sentiment which had k ng before received the assent of muikind. The sentiment, however, was not of rapid irrowth. l)en< unued in high place*, its only leluge for aMC* wuh in the heaitol man, and its only vuidi auir ih.) sword. Slowly. however, the world atlvan ed to more just IdouM i>* strength and to a truer nppre "latino of i's nivine m igto. The historian honored liimself by defend ing it, and the publicist by ini orporating it luto the code oi i.atidii' It rnftt'e itr< way, oftentimes by the intlueu' e i f a moral power, before which k'tiirs an I potentates bowed thi niselvi s in the dust. N'o longer under the ne cessity oi establishing its claims to recognition, it had enly to how cause for tho assertion of the doctrine on vim h ft rrsts, that resistance to oppressive and urn: m Etitutional aets, against whii'h there is no other remedy, is an Uih* r> indefeasible right. But in consult ring the causes on which tho revolution ?ry action of the seceding States is basod, It cannot es Cape attention that they are U"t alleged to exist as against tho government which they are inteudod to sub vert. The ordinance passed by the State of South Caro lina uo word ol' corn| against the acts Of thai government. Nor is it probable that the proclamations of the convention* of other .-stales will be of a different character. We rhal| then have presented to the world the extraor dinary spectacle of a revolution for tlio overthrow of a goverLinen* agnnst which no hill of indic'.ment has been presented by those who are plotting its destruction. Such a movement cannot fail to oxcito the astonishment and indignation of Christendom. TUB I'KKIVM'KRATIM. lM l.t'KNIli OF TltE KKVOl-TIM; STrtlKS. But if the spectacle of a revolution undertaken to Bub vert a government, against whose a ts no charges have be< n brought, bo an extraordinary one, whit will be said of tho fact that the States which have commenced it, have for a long period had a preponderating inlluence in that government, and at this moment control a majority Cf its co-ordinato branches. Such is the solemn truth; and whilst it take* from such a movement all that sym pathy which real oppression is euro to call forth, it must deprive thouo who ui<l an<l nh?,t it of all claim on tho oh ai. table judgment of the world. TIIK flRJKVA.VCEM OK WU'TIl CAROIIVM. In the long Pot of grievances presented by the Conven tion of South Carolina, the non enforcement of tho Fugitive Slave law, the interfering with slavery in the states, the exclusion of the institution from tno Terri tories. the denial of protection sh property under the constitution, and lastly, tho election of a republican President, are the chief subjects of complaint. In regard to the tirst point, it may be said that the ad ministration of thflt law is tho duty of the general govern ment, and if there has b^c-n any want of vigor in carry ing out and enforcing its provisions, the fault must in good pai t be ascribed to this cause. It is not denied thai there is a repugnance to some of tho provisions of tho law in the minds of the people of tho North, but it is nevertheless conceded on nil hands, and by all political parties, that tho principle which requires a fugitive slave to be returned to his muster, is a constitutional provi sion, and r.s such must be obeyed. All thai is lubil Is, that the law should be stripped of its odious and offtiuicefea. luns. If this were done, such acta of legislation as have been parsed by Northern States with reference to this | law, would Vie ?.he? rfolly and promptly regarded. Your committee are liot informed of tho character and provisions cf the laws of other Northern States on this subject, but the act of 1840 oi' tins State was declared by the courts to be unconstitutional, and is therefore null and void. THB FKRM1NAI. TIMCRTY till Ifl. Again. the personal liberty bill?, oh they are termed were many of them passed previous to the enactment ot the law of Congrets of l&jO. and could not, therefore, have hud anv reference to it; and tbe ("net the state of Virginia has at this time a law on her statutes con tainuig essentially the "?ain- provls oun, ami enacted for the purpose ol protecting the liberty of her free citizen*. would seem to alford some warrant for the enactment of similar laws in other States. The whole difficulty on this subject h is ailse-n, in the opinion of your committee, frem the unnecessary severity of the provmous of tho act of 1860; and they repeat the convictw n already ex pressed, that if these were inodiiied thero would be a cheerful w<; ii? f> r :o in the tr^rc meut of the law. On the subject of interfering with slavery in the Mate* where it exists, your committee deny that there is any co, gideroble portion ?.f the people of the North who affirm the nsht el such a procedure, or who have eny intention of cnoorragirp. much less of aiding or ab ating, any attempts of such a character. I ho fact that both th gr- ai political parties ol the North are denounced by the acknowledged leaders of the abolitionuta, shows how I wide is the ' h?um tint eparatee that sect Irom the mass of their fellow citizens, and how little is there to -'O apprehended from the.r most earnest and persistent efforts sorTtntRN' opinions or mt north. The determined pertinacity with whieh the people or the South cling to the belief of a design to make war ou their institution* is a striking proof ol the erroneous ideas prevailing there on this question, or else 01 a d"ter mlnatton en the jsirt of designing men to falsify and mis state our op nlon? and purposes. It may be perhaps use 1< ss to reiterate what has so often been said on this sub led, and Inserted in political platforms, but your com mitt, e . annot r< frait. from once more ^y d tsv? , ing for the pooole of <he North, of both the g?t political parties. any nlfiition or right to interfere with the insti tni ion of slavery in the Stales where it now exists. In regard to tl.e great prim iple of the dominant parly of the Northern States, which is another subject of com plaint, your committee desire, in the first place Jo say, that a principle which was engrafted ill the ordinance ol ami by the operation of which the States, of the Northwest were preserved to Iree labor, can not be re carded by us with any other feelings than those of \ cue ration and rcsp. et. That it was incorporated in a trie ; sure proposed and advocated by one of the greatest of our statesmen, linn-elf a citizen of the south, and paused bv the aid of Southern votes, should save it from some portion ai least, of the hostility with which it is now re garded by their descendants. By a series of acu, from tho date of this ordinance down to the legislation ol IH.iO, the subject of slavery in all our Territories had been withdrawn from the arena of politics, and it appeared as I if the two great forces under our government, chained down by compromises and tired of a contest as old as tho cotstitution itself, had at length de< lared a true". I The repeal of the cigh'h sect ion of th > act admit* ing Missouri into the I nlon once more brought the sub ieet before the country. Ry that act Kansas and I Nebraska were opened to an in.-titution winch h id al readv . onm cted itself with the destimeaoi tho three great States out of tb<vlx>uiBiana purchase. mi! inumrtr. or jrox-ivnmvKSTio'o. The principle of lion-Interventlon whIch was theba is f>r the settlement of lhoO, to which the North relu. tantly submitted and which had been Anally endoried by the two great national conventions in 1852. was now rn ? le to apply to the territory covered b% the Missouri restriction, :,nd iiwm! kg a cover lor its rejieal. _ This act destroyed the ? ontidencc or the people of the Northern States in the bindtug force of compromises, and with the subsequent ai ts of the administration in Kan sas led tt 1RS0 to the first national convention or tho ppldic w BBrtv, and to the adoption In Its platform of .Jefferson's punciple of exclusion. Whilst the his tory of that party, from that time until tho pr? sent, has been a struggle to give this principle rccocnition In the administration of the government, it bus never thought of using for thu objo.;t any other than strictly constitutional means. It achiewl I id tint wti'-nal icto/-'/ in rte Itfc I'rrsi>'< ntial rlc.wn, 1 ami. f?r tkffrd Hmr in it* Ki+>iy, t' can cfuiw th* control I e/rt tinnl' < o-oidinat'brati hof the fjorernmsn!. I The adoption of the p, In iple or exclusion by the rc I publican party wesa p irely defensive act. i It grew, us has been before remarked, out of the nt_ ! tempt to extend the principle which was tho basis of the settlement of 1M0, to territory already i freedom by the Missourlcompromise. 1 he repeal of that ! restriction by the votes of Southern representative* was i exceedingly offensive to the freo States. No time was Klven t? prepare the public tnind Tor so great a Change It had not been foreshadowed in the debates ol 1#j0, and I when without any warning, the blow was struck, its effect was what might tnlifht have been anticipated from the r< morsi lof;i vigor with which it win dealt. Then followed the administration of the Kansas act ar.d tho po litical outbreaks in tlia' Territory consequent therein. I The acts of the free settlers, although in strict con form ity to the principle of the Kaunas bill, were denounced in the proclamation of the President as revolutionary, their resistance to laws made without the shadow ol au thority as treasonable, and thoir further cmtumacy threatened and >oon alter visited with the interp isition of federal bayonets On the other hand, the conduct or those who were working in the Interest of slavery was excused, extenuated and soltened down. or where that could not be done, even by so finished a -peal pi adcr as the President, passed over in utter s:leuc?. Thus were free meetings of the people, free speech. we had almost said free th mght, consigned to the sum" grave which had already receive! the llfelest remains of I'opu lar tioveioignty. IX Tlir. WATT* or FAUTIW. It would be difficult to point to a period in our history when the .frtfu. of parties suffered such grey change, as in the short space or six years,, from 18..4 t) 1H60- .M that i*ri<d Of mn*t pMtral organxtalutn which of tkii country Sat 6 "i i?ti luptni, iti Ir.atlt-rt aticnat/d and it* mira! pourr u - "'ZZclt has been the effect of the repeal of the Missouri compromise on a great national party, llut that act has had a power to build up as <P^1I na to destroy. To it must be ascribed the adoption by the republican party or thai same principle which the repeal or the restriction wasi in tended to crush. "The stone which tho builders rejected has betomo the head of the corner."' tiik rwx'irm os w ittok. The ifrim Iple ?>f exclusion Is a principle wh eh can never be eradieated out of the Northern mind, how mucn soe\er It ma* bo expunged from politli^l platforms. It has taxen too de^p a hold on the eonTlctlonsof the to be any longer a snbject or bargain and sale by political ' Should it be struck but of the code of the party which adopts it to-morrow, It would still Und a reruge In the hearts of a great majority of the people of the free States. Su*whdst your i oinmlttee feel bound In all candor to expre*? this their solemn belief, they cannot refrain from ! Jerking that the time when the principle shall have a I practical application is uncertain and remote. This m obvious from the following considerations.? ?e Territories or Washington,Uew Mexico, Kama., I NebraskTand I tah, are already "^an ^ under TernN, ! ,1*1 governments. In regard to these, then the ?inverv is llxed by organic law. fhis haves Arlsona, the EL* Territory and Imcotah still to be provlde.1 for, 1 every foot of our publ^doma?. Now, I before these three Territories are ?rr^.nj torial governments, the opinions of the Dred Scott Oaw ITlv tike the character of decaions. and this wuld ren der t^ application of the prim inle in. cmWMl With ,T?r constitutional obligations. IKw tnocb.^ er lh s might be deplored. y ?ir commitfeo have no h^silati n n expreeslnit the belief that the people of the free states eonid no . i.e brought to disregard a puelt^ p c0''"w' ' ? the constitution by the Supreme ivmrt In n?ch?. ase we M?eld have to rest our hopes on the obttaclee to the I .Blroduct on stnxery ef^red by the so 1, .. irate or productions of ihoee ,orrito"tes, an?1 defeat the fffe:t ?f the dec.eiou by strenuously opp<>s i ^ aJ further icqutb. U? ns. .\ga.n. if no decision should stani in the way, ihe ap plication of the principle would be defeated during tho next President..J term by tho want of harmony n the eo ordinal"' branches cf the povrnnvtt. The Senate alone < ould defeat it. even it' the President an I Hoti-o of Kepresenlativcs should favor it. Looking still further in the future, and judging cf what may happen from our experience of the [.act, it call not escape attention the mutation* 01' party nuke it extremely problematical wh*t is to bo the poli tical complexion of the govern imir after 1K64. If tlese views are ?>f any force, it must follow that the uppre bonpions of tho Flave states in regard to the prin 'tple of exclusion are without foundation, and that a-'a pretext for withdrawing from the Tuion, it i cot entitled to the woight which is claimed for it. THK ItKH SAL OK 1HB KKKK SfVTR-I TO RKXX.XIW SLAVES AM I Kill KU'n . The next grievance which ycur committee have to consider is, that the people of "tho f- oo ^t.itos refute to a("ni!t that the constitution recogni 's -laves as pro perty. The third subdivision of the 2d sect.on of the 4th Article of the constitution is in thep>' words-? !?? person held to sorrloe or !abor In one state, un^e ?? he laws thereof, eacapliig into another, shall, n >r.n uo:iee of i?ny law or legulatum therein, !>?? <1 :tut>|ied iruui h wr vi<e or luior; hut shall be delivered op in claim of the party to wbi in Mieh service or lab' r n ay Uo iu?. Although tho word " alavo" is not mentioned here, there is evidence from cunteinporane'i ?-our es that they aro referred to, under tho term of persons held to service, and the reference to them is therefore admitted, lint h i " ino recognition of slaves as property, even where they are held as such in Mates under the laws thereof. Tho constitution provides for their rendition, but does not recognise thern as property; and to thia extent only aro the people of the free State* willing to admit any connection of the government with tho institution. The recognition of the principle to the limit which is claimed for it by the people of tho Flave States, would carry slavery into every ,-Late in tho I'nion. by Virtue oi the paramount authority of the constitution over all law-> Of a -Mate. If s'aves are property under tbeconsl tut ion. then no State would have power to abolish the inst tution, or to prohibit it Within its territory: and by logical se quence it would prevail, whatever might be tho lei loci, as far as the constitution reaches. T1IK 1'AVl.l.R OK KKOrEVlN'iT THK SUVE TR '.nr. Again, this construction of the constitution would open the slave trade without any legislation on the subject. There would be an evident inconsistency in punishing as piracy the dealing in a speeis of property which, by being recognised as such un<t#T th? sonatilution. would btc< nie at once a legitimate subjoctof trade. All froatles With foreipn rations fir the suppression of the trail.o i.s piracy would have to be modified or annulled. In short, the world would be astonished at the spectaclo of a nation existing for more than seventy years under a misapprehension of tho true moaning < f its orgariiJ law. TIIK K! I'THI.V OF A fRKKIDKNT. The only remaining grievance which remains to be no ticed is the election of a republican Presidonl. The ob jeetions to Mr. Lincoln are that he was a ecetioual candi date; that he represents a purty whoee views are hostile to the interests and institutions of the South, and that ho will use his influence and tho patronage of the govern ment to give those \ lews practical effect. If by the terms " a scctional candidate,'' is meant a candidate carrying only the States tfn ono side or the other of a geographical Hue, then Mr. lire kmridgo was also a scctionul candidate. In this particular both tho candidates were in prcciiolj the same poeition. The ono had tho electoral voto of no free State, the other stood on the sumo footing in the tlavc states. Of the aims and purposes of a party there can be no higher evidence thun that aOoi'deil by an examination of its political oode or platforms. This represents the doc trine of the party as established by ail authority ema nating from the people. If individuals go beyond tho principles thus laid down, they no longor represent a patty, but their owu individual opinionttMuMrhich they alone are responsible. It is not denied that fie priuciplc of prohibition is apart of the republican platform, or that its application is considered proper, whenever it may bo ?e<M'f*ary. It cannot, however, be directly againit the intercuts and institutions of the South, since it has nothing to do with these interest* and institutions where they exist by positive law in ttio States. It cin only be applio i to tho Territories; nnd there, if iU appli tation would bo indirectly against tho institutions of one section, it is not more to tli.ui the opposite principle of protection would be against another section. Free labor i us lninh an institution ono side a compulsory service is on tl.e other. tiik rawnW nolVD to trmm mnroxmnnox. , n courff ol ll?? ne?-administration on this, as on u I other qacstloas, must bo governed morc ..r less bv Circtimstaucee, it can only at th.s time be a matter of 11 uanao*-, however, In any event bo other wise than In accordance with the constitution and tho i**s made in pursuance thereof, which the President in bound by hi* oath to support. \VhrUc~r his imliri Uuil ejntuom may be, the,/ ran <m'y rtgulaie his conduct in so far e"nttlMi'"nl "arrant. Beyond thin they ni.iy l>o held ax convictions, but thev . an noyor con stHute a rule of action m tho idminJtrltTon Ilf public affairs. A President, then, hnnost ami capable acting under his oath of oltloc. and with no power to form a cabinet or to appoint even a consul without the absent Of a|eo ordinate branch of the government. is not at all Iikoly to realize the gloomy apprehensions with which hid advent inro otilce is regarded bv the South ar0 l^e rfaSOD< Wl,lc1' put forth to Justify olutiou and perhaps civil war. They appear so inade quate as causes for an attempt to overthrow a govern m nt that it is diillimlt to free the inlnd rrom a suspi cion that they are after all more pretenses for a move mcnt which had its origin in motives that have not yet rZ" ,yu g0! ' ,ll lt'? 8ccrrt h'story of the Charleston Convention should ever be written, it may appear that the proposing ol an impracticable platform,and the with drawal of Southern delegates on iU rejection, was pirt of a matured whemc to dofeet Mr. Itouglis by depriving Southern aid and by thus insuring the election of Mr. Lincoln, attbr.i the wished lor opportunity'? of precipitating the Southern Mates Into a rebellion." rori'ijcATiovs hut Mtirr hrh-it srom -?fcsw):*

In concluding this bnuich of tho subject, your Commit tee have no hesitation in saying that, on tho assumption of the reiility and weight of the gr.eynn. es complained ol ai dissolution would .ause them to bo felt with ten nf'ik I\T" i vi'' '\WcvU< rarr? "?< prorninn i ? i'. ' SU,rr ,aw- h""> couU 'Vv be enforced a' all a< Mwentij arateanl imUp. rulnd confederacies? There would then be to common constitution to operate over end above the lex loci, and bind tlio people t0 the free States to the observance of a provision no longer appli cable to the new order ol things. The rcu- of ? */<ir wuj-ing from A'-nfttcky to Ohio. wuld be (tnulayom tu thai or one M-apinfl from Virginia In Knit and. ' Whatever r.Khta the \ irgmia master would have to follow hi,; pro putj to Kcg.'und and claim its rendition, would bo the ,Vr.^U"< k>' 1 Uimon Ohio. Coini t \ m ght Settle the question in his favor, but in the end it would prove a reliance far less to bo depended ou than tlx* c oiistituf ion of the I uitcd States. ,yif'ai!h * "f<*? I'ni n itniU h-UUtht fiU'Jtion of tlaaery in the TWrdrniej in fana- of the free State' Vour r n? rr""n ll"il c""l<, 1,0 urW* <x> those ? tales, power fulonotigh to induce them lor ono moment to entertain the idea of a division. They would be no ^^.oconnect the M'ant, States with those of the 'Ihey would also be necessary for the millions of free laborers seeoug hsmes for their families, with no c,in, tal but their own unaided energy and strength. lastly they would belong to these States on every prineipi,. ?f international law, uor would they ever be yielded U1, ex cept to an irrlsiatiblo power. ' ' * ? t't-TlMA RATIO, OR rontnoN BY ARMS ?"0'"'""'""^ amved at by your committee be con Sidned in the main correct, it will not be dillicult to draw there]rom the rights and duties of the general ?o vernment, in this important crisis of our history. Should these revolutionary movements be persisted in. the public proper y taken possession of, aud tho proclamations 01 the I resident and the decrees of Congress get at defl anc", the. umr v:iU hare arrired irhm, the mil ler nteum of a "en i,.n ?j lawn Ka< ,ng failed, thef will be nothing left tut the la,t remedy under the ron*>itu>ir,n?a coer>i m </arm< !T1Ph WH,Vrr ,,,rh "n ?'ternativc mirbt be de plored, the government may bo driven to accept it by the torce of an unavoidable necessity. That nocesslt/wlll Z wh"?'yr it shall sppear that tho people of . euth Carolina and or other Southern States ran no longer tr/hv ? 10 lh,"'rto revolutionize the coun try b> the peacel ul influence of the civil officers. In such fi.TO' J7"r rommit"^ ^ve no hesitation In express i* ^ thnt tho government should "eiRrr op ttik awairA* covrhwsvt The government of the I'nited states Is ,, resting on the con-ent of the people rt has T>een ?h?.?r v?r. 1,V',??.r,,nSt,,U,">n Vhey sdopUd1heyhp?on Tided for the paramount authority of all law* made in pursuance thereof for the perpetuity of the t'nton and ?or the protection of all the varied lm^tV?li?g!Ut$ a diversity of soil, climate and productions That in all these re-pects it has Justllied the antlclca "f i,? Ulustrkms founders, our nstonishing progress as a nation the n,.?t unmistakable evident ^ ..." '1 n,'wvh" P'?t to a severer ordeal. Having proved i ! 10 1 lho wnnti' of ft pwple of peace tT/li i without, its power to resist nn Internal reb'I , " be P"t to the test. The almost intuitive wisdom or the convention armed and prote-ted it at all ' "'""V w*'" the .sunshine and if In tht?, tb? hour of trial, its foundation shall be sapped and undermined. I, will cover with unspeakable infamy all these who. dlsr'garding their oaths to support It, shall siemv^n Hg^defence! ^ ?f pn'Ti .jn* "nt Her or tiik xr:w adjuxiktr tnox. the course of the new administration, on thlj firmL.r1' rl! *'"'h M receive the appr. ba tlon oi the people of the free States irrespective of party there . annot be the sharlow of a doubt. X }?!* certain th it the position of the first re President will claim and merit the spprov.-l o * "?<?? Invicg men in all the state. 1. I hr'!?T',r *!!? "h*tiact opinions may be, he will, when inducted ;nto his high office, administer the government mi7?? lu COD*t't?tlon and the laws. Your com ^ 'he Km pi re sute w,.l n^linVvm c 1nt fmif Performed their duty PUtc o? v" virw A '^Pt^T 3"<1 *?PP??rt. The .r1?* York m?lo a great sacrlflee in ac constitution. She sacritlcsd for a protei ion which she did not need the control ! r 1 "1 whoee gates she possessed. With rtituttoJl k' "'""P'y with all her con MBt t hM nf h? J r . n"' "h" ' f0r ?. COB Idv.i . t ? ?n anjr Pr?testr such ss have been *,,!* y'. .1'*"*7 proceed to throw them oir. a?.l to this PrrP,Md' whenever the time .hall arrive. _f?vernment of the I nifed -u?tes not onlv with her moral hut with her material power ' THO. hi; i hoi sk. BKNJ. F. MANIK'tKK, rmn r. kthraim >i3h, JOHN V. [>Tf> Mi Rpur. ntK Rmoimow. rri.'yty.', 7hc,/>netituHon of the l'nite-1 HUM was e. fawih? ^ or lh0 P^'P" thereof; and. whereas, it ,'r^L ^ ^ Paramount s.tthorKr cf the (kivrrnment. and provides 'or the perpetn r , f th# t n.on: ilrr# /Mt>rh!jr ciwenr.) Thai the people <>f th n ctate. irrespective of party ie*tilW tKiUH, do htr> t>> u-oioie tho r.ghts of the vieopio of a -ingle ?>uto or several Stales, to absolve th< u.i* !v< s ?t will from their sob-inu obligations to tho federal U'num ounot bo acknowledged. The principle and the objects which the general KOverLiinent wan termed to secure, are repugnant to such authority, and the exercise (hereof, whiresover, or howsoever attempted, 's treasonable, and mast be resisted by nil the remedies provided in the con slitution. The lirsi duty, therefore, of the citlmis of New Yoik, is to he directed to the preservation of tho Union. Resolved, (if '.lie Assemby concur,) That the legisla ture will Fuetain the Rtucutive of the State in the Oder and pledge of (be mi! Uuy p >wer and resources of the Rule: and that lloy wi'l 'provide for c.illir.g fir th"J nulilut toexe? uto the laws of the I'niou. suppress insurrec tuui and ri pe! invasions," whether wiih.u jr without the ctate. Refolvrd (if the A?s<-mMy l' ?ncnr), That tho-'late of New York is faithful to the federal 1'nion, and will nuiko every needful su> ilii^e to maintain it in its integrity. At the suiuu lime New Vork will make equal sacrifices to supprrt tho several States n r.ll th< ir cons', tutional rights. Resolved (If the As ombly concur), that (.'onf/ress has no power in u ;orfere w ith slavery .u the several Stales, or any of then. IV o|\.>d 11 (he A ?mbly cone-ir). That although we boliev longies.i possesses (he pow.r to abolish slavery in tho Pisti id of Columbia, yet it .8 inexpedient to exer cise fiicIi ptwer iinle s up. n t!.o follow;ugn r. htions ? 1. That abe.'ition should b? rn the vote of a majority of qualified voteis 01 tho district. and with tho consent of the state of >\ land. 'J. 1 tint it sh< uld he gradual. 3. That compensation should be made to unwilling owners. Resolved (if the Assembly concur), That Congress should not Inlrbit or impair the in(er State tralllc of per sons held to service or labor under the laws of the sev? esal Stales, or any of them. Resolved (if ilio Assembly concur), That while tho rendition of fugitive from service or labor is a plain constitutional obligation, and should be faithfully ob served, (he laws of 1850 contains provisions which se riously obstruct, tf they do not prevent, Ms oxeoution. These .-hould bo modified. KPHKA1M (><>-;?*, ex. ept the one as to tho District or C'lumbiit. THUS. HUXHOUSB, BEN J. V. MAN1ERKK, I'KrER T. MUKPHY, A. J. OOl.VlN, J. MclJvoD Ml'Rl'FlY. 1 sign i Lly as regards tho resolutions, anil iu no inao ncr intecd to ecdcrte or approve oi the report V. B. 8P1NOLA. The Report of the Hey York Auembly. Auluvy, Jan. 18, isei. The select committee to which was referred bo much or the Governor a Message as treats of federal relations together with the several resolutions which have b en' ofl<red upon the same subject, submit the following re For nearly thirty year?, and ev?r since Po ith O.r 'inn attempted to nullify the revenue laws of the federal eo there has been a large cluss of persons .n that Mate who have openly avowed a to effect the d? solution of the I'nion. an,I to that end, mm,edi?ll5 af^ u.e resuHof the Presidential election in .CvVml'er l.^t was known, a violent agitation was coruir<'Uc*'d ih?re and it has spread to a considerable ? cnt o ' , , of the slave states. Four of th, -0 Staishlv?3 mTJ?b ouT^of ?**??*">**?, declare J thetu ? ? out tl10 lTnion. Others are likelv to do the same Forts. arsenals, dockyards public oftce. money, and other property of the UniuKU taw be.n seized; the authority and laws of the goverment have been tet at dctlanco; an unarmed vessel r, * th^K^rK^'/'r^.' 'j" ,K!f" "P?n arid driven from ! the harbor 01 Charleston; preparations are believed to hn in progress lor taking ,-ossess.o,, of .lie Lpu',1 at Wa.h ! ?sa njjssr'ifc ^rs;? 2SSSSSK5 "" huiArv ?e?Lmitt?e det''n il inexpedient to enter into ?? history of the causes which have i?oduced this ,,ni,nn?! with anxious solicitude the developmentof th" t?j?f ?.r h?'!n,>' ,0 t'"1 I'nion, which has . ""y culminated m treason and rebellion m it the dcsiies to raise h?'r voice in sisterly warulmr and admonition to the disaffected and belligorern^m hers ot our American family Whilst nil.. ?,i.. ii duty of listening to and adjusting ,n a spirit ormuUmi ti/a uwtKC'.ai'. "II causes of discord between the dim-rent Males and sect ons of the \ nion ?!,.? r..?? diates the dec trine and denies the right of secession All eomp.aintr and controversies m ist be settled within the I iiion. aod according to the forms of the const" ution Th it instrument established not a mere volunt.rv n.?" chition of States that may be broken up " ! of any one ol the.,, but a perfect In ion, a government the authority of which within its appointed suh. re u supreme, and neither individuals nor States hav? a rLht to folate its laws or absolve themselves from allegro The State of Sew York has ewer been and will eon tinne, steadfast in her d votlon to and ?,rtr Constitution. she will faithfully perforin all her federal and inter State obligations, with an earnest d<XV store ntd preserve barmonious relations between nil th* Plates of the I nion. And doing this sn, w M n? s ,1, the government shall bo su?.,ii.,ed, and th- (nion pre e^i to uph^d'Z;:;,; W!!l"? revolution and anarchy. 10 ^rt'venl lJ?ull?lj'181 'akinKthw Position, it is earnestly hoped that the country may >?t be -av?d from the calamtv 01 civil war. Xohocorableeri.i t likely to 'e.r? end should be omit.*. In the mid/t o ???J tionary frenzy prevailing in some of n,e davo States' tb. re are largo of citlsens who continue obed" a1*? ^h; va foundodapprrbensionsof lawl-w interf..r,w,tli the?r nf-rhl, 01 ?ho administration As they bei ome better informed in this r> spoct and as thev experience the evils of disorganized so. iotv Y r!^ . ~ in the public mind m?y bo untie paUvi and a di#rvi?it on i" r'M,r" bu, i. V r I tr li'o'' "" <t becomes the State of \vW J Jji ng a IIrr and inri \ible stand for the |>. o.-<. \ at ion cf the Ci'ii-t if >jt">ri and lawht to ovIim ir spirit of concilia, on ?nd a desire ?. nia.nlain pcace bv every means consistent wah her dut. aiid Le honor 7 It is evident that the question of IVrrii,. 1 .. \ mentis ,ne upon which the free and .ho slave Slate. hold, and * ill continue i?? hold, vi^wn oi?rv?Mito and " re< one deal le as to preclude the hope that they wd <r agree in p card to it. go long as it tSm.ta??n ilr^u!LnCyu y H di-i-ord and' irritation. It seems, therefore, to he tho dictate of com nion sense to wholly reniovo th ? question, if possiWe' nat,,,DaI politic.. If this Should be done both section, assenting to it, tho greatest ubstruc te n to a restoration of harmony'would he overcome and without any sacrilleeof cherished principleon eXr cominittee therefore report for the consider it Ion of the House, resolutions erpr. smvo of tL , J ' ."I " slate.l, Including tho?e in favor of organising nil tho ler good will to the na'ion. rtstoro peace\tnd Resolved, (if the Senate concur) 1 hit tho si.,???<? v* York has wltnewedj with deep regret and rest r .nrW bation. th- attempt of some of the ^avehold nt 1/, Pr.'" O^rer throw^'be national con=tituli>m atid l.iws. andt^di? solve the I nion which has conferred inestimable benefits upon all sections?that she dec in. the right of any <utr to al solve Itself from its allegiance to the fodera! gov?re ment-and that she will P.,t forth all her power and ro' S?ZXtaJDuT g"irn"r'r'm alJ ln consistent with her honor and to meet he'r s,st<T nion <am?ca*ly'^cT^remol'e a?*ju^t "i!-efT c mo^ K&X"1 co?""te?-?.w*2?Si Whereas, the government of the Territories ha.? bmift itolarbliig ?l< mmt in our n%ibnal coiinciiK *n i has of late given rise t0 pontic^ divmi^ ih!u& Jf Ihr rn?"0","proniiW!' to 'hrnaten the >L egnty vLnn.en? h1 iP'"' ^r,y 'h't tho genial uZ vpipriii rt ^IihII protwt Hlavorv u. th?? ether that It shall prohibit it arid sil l I'J *" shall not interfere one way or the other " tb'lt'l And whereas, ail parties loyal to the constitution and tnion agree that rath Slato has the ?,.|n a,?i, d po^cr of determining lis own domestic TUuut?l,V therefore, to the end that tins impediment t ' u tionai harmony be ror ever rem wed Resolved (if the S< nate concur). rhat our "en ,u,ra an,? representatives in Congress be requested in,',,! ,h 1 tlueneo afer the admij^on of Ka ^ aL acLJn'^ present application, to du Ide allTho Zn' ?? f"nn ,w" ?-"?tea; to he admitted ' m *hi r.dor.. ?..r as the inhsbliants thereor pnai adopt Mat? con? tj tut ion ^ r?!i?ublicin m form Jr?. 'Compromise provided that our <w d xcm He,01 ved, (If the Senate coreur.) That these resoln w.Ih'tra. ?mfaed"^ "n' t,'or^'n- ho rorth wiiii Transmitted l?v th? Oovonnr nf ihio ??? A *? Senaeors and Representative, "n ^ngre". ^ \?0 '.Z Governors of the several state-of this > n on IJ HIH ROB1.VON. K?.p I . Cll.tVfilJ5R DAIJ., Ken. WILKJc> aVOKI.. Rep ' F. K BIN AN, IK-m. W. J. McDFRMOrr, Dem. LETTER FROM HON. WILLIAM DUER. Oswk*>, Tar. 18,18fll. A letter op the national i-ri8i?from Hen. Will,am Duor la ptibl'.ihed in the Onwcgo pnperf. 11# do lares the laws m?tit bo on for rod and treason put down. Th"ro should be a united North, and no concession to un.iuit demand! involving a ehange In the utnal legislation of the e Tint nr. The seer est on of the North must bo guarded t^'iut, for New Fnglitnd ?* worth more to the federal 1'nioo than ^uth Carolina or Oeorgie He recommends?tlrst.the enforcement of the kws j second, justice to the -*ntth, i.nd the removal of every reaannaMe (Voise of omi la*nt: third, ihe refnaal of e*trem? demands in volving * radical change m the rbarater of o?ir govern m. nt, and opposed to thea'rotg and general aoniment of the North: fourth, pern, salon to the %>ntbern state* to retire from the t'tifio. if eoch s their deiiberate w-:h. by mean* of nn amendment the eonstilution ohedienre to the ln<*? tr r>g * tr,?wt y qptnetrU urtlJ th s rtyv t s ao . < irr'^eo THE REVOLUTION. Important Reports from South Carolina. Major Anderson Allowed lo Procure ? Supplies frem Cluuleston. PACIFIC DISPOSITION OF TIIE SECESSIONISTS. Movement in the Senate To wards an Adjustment.. Probable Submission of tlic Question to the People. THE DEBATE ON THE CRiSIS IN THE HOUSE. SPEECH OF MR. SHERMAN, OF OHIO. The Humored Invasion of the Capital by Marylanders. How the United States Arms Have Been Distributed. DETERMINATION OP GEORGIA TO SECEDE, Ac., &c., &c. IMPORT AM' FROM WASHINGTON. TIIE RELATIONS RETWEEN SOUTH CARO LINA AND TIIE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT. W-AsitrNCTO*, Jan. 18,1861. There arc no new developments in regard to the ques tions at ii-Bue between tho President and South Carolina. Colonel llnyne did not communicate his letter to I ho President yesterday. Ho is holding it in reserve until ho hears from Governor Pickens. At the urgent tohc tuitions of nearly all tho Southern Senators and representatives Colonel Hay 110 Ins changed his purple, as indicated in my despatch yesterday. Several leading delators have joined with him iu liis letter to Governor Pickens not to make any such demand us he was instructed to make. They urge ujxn the Governor to allow Major Anderson to have such fresh supplies as he may require; and it la ow.rijr. doubtless, to the suggestions of the Senators and Others who Uu\e addressed letters lo their friends in South Carolina, that has induced the Governor to comply with these r< quests. The President's I'.rm and decide ' stru.d in tho matter of Fort Sumter had much t' do In changing tho con dition of i.tta.rB. Hid he persmteii or yielded there is no telling what would have been the result. There is no certainty that the authorities of South Carolina will back down frem their demand, notwithstanding tho effirts that have been made here to indnre tliem to do so. Tho next forty-eight hours will probably dc. ide the matter. It has been currently stated, and g-nerally believed, that South Carolina seised and appropriated to herself the futn'S in the hands of the l'n t>d Stat<? Sub-Trea enrer at the t;me of her secession. This, I am autho rized to sUte, is nn error. On tho presentment of tho Urst drafts drawn on lam, after tho secession of the State, tho Sub Treasurer applied to Governor Pickens for instructions, and his Excellency referred the mat ter to tho Convention. The Convent/n determined tliat the State had no right to these funds, and they were lift ;n the hands of the Sub-Treasurer, subject to the order of the United States. I have just received a despatch from Governor Pickens, slating that Major Anderson has now uninterrupted mall facilities, and is allowed to Etnd to market for ft esli pro visions and vegetables whenever desired. In fact, he the game facilities that he hail when he occupied Fort Moultrie. I am authorized to state by the South Carolina Commis sioner that all property seized ha3 been declared, by the orditance of the Convention, to bo held subject to an ad JuEtmeLt of accounts betw.en the two governments hereafter. The Tax bill has Jiot yet pa-Pcd either Iloupe of the South Carolina Legislature. It is utterly false that any Hp. cuil exaction has been m.idc on cgro or any other property. The contributions of negro labor have been en t.rely voluntary on the part of those who havd rend.'re 1 it. It ie also the same of contribution* of money, which have been very liberal. It is equally Arise that Uovernor Aiken, or anybody else, has had any requisition for money or labor made on him. All tho appropriations of the money thus far made by the Legislature have been furnished by tl.o State banks in exchange for par, and the principal part coming from the Bank of the >-t?te, of which the State is the only sto? kbolder. Com merce goes en as usual without restricts. There is no scarcity of provisions, ai d the market is at ordinary prices. IMPORTANT MOVE IX THE BEN At E TO WARDS AN ADJUSTMENT. W?MHin<.ro* Ian. 18,1861. On the motion to reconsider Mr. Oark * resolution, made in the Senate th.s morning, every republican voted in the negative?ev<n <Jen Cameron. ?ho made the mo tion to reconsider?bat it w..a carried by democratic votes. The motion to stnkn out Mr. Hark and insert Mr. Bigler's programme, submitted th- other day, tlxlng tho time to vote on the 12th ef Febrmir) , took tUe rep'ibli cans by surprise. Th>se amendment" are limilar to Mr. Crittenden>. Tho chances are in favor of their adoption. Several republican* In both branches have indicated a wllhngness to go for it. By general consent It was made the order for Mon day next, with tie understating that it shall be voted on formally and conclusively. So the end of this busine*s will be decided on Monday The Southern Senators are entirely willing, and havo so stated within tfao last twenty four hours, to accep either Crittenden s or Bigler's plan. This la the only thing that will put a stop to the revolution now running through the entire South. Will the republican* su tain it, and give peace to tho country? Upon them rests the wbo.o t< sponsibilily of saving the country. MR. SHERMAN'S SPEECH 0* THE CRISIS. WjMBDNTo*, Jan. 18, 1861. Tn the Sous# to-day the debate continued and closed on the Army bill. Mr. ulMrman. of Ohio, the leader of tho House, making the conceding formal speech. He do fended his *tate ag* nst th<3 chargo of having upon her statute 1 ooke any laws in conflict with the constitution, nrd Mr. Vallandigham came to his reoene by showing that an oflVns vr Personal T berty bill ha.! t een repealed. Mr. Sherman stated that he had conversed with leading men from the rtFith. who assured him that no concessions or ouprosn'.s- a that the *<orth could make would prevent a dissolution of the I'n .on that the Gulf i uites would a1 go cut if it e 't ior and therefore he raii.raNy ;n? mro'l, ? Wfeat la tbe good of compromise*--*" He said, Willi Much form ud ytat i'IIki, to Ihi Southern mem bnt)"Yui do Mt Kay to us Hut you can either bin k .be luo.lmg bitten or ave otb^rs from receding if wo ompiamise; bR you are Baited in telling us that ?'?? mint nut coeri1-'' the seceding ~*at?- bark to an obo dien ni the liws thoy liuve so grossly violated. On Urn oilier hi. rid, you ilo MB <>s tliat you will be sul m^nio, and you will not go mil of iho I iJon if yield all our principles and all that ve Lave foil' Mt ' Of that Is worth iyhti g for. Mr. ^herm in told thi' ;With, icy briefly, that tb< republican ixirty would n.iike no such concessions, Thoy vi lat"d no laws; thoy wore not succ< i fully < h.trged with having don" bo. They hul elected a Pn sklent, Intended to i angurato him, ?nd ho ad vi sod the Southern States to keep quiet an l unt pass Judgment upon his administration in ad vance, as thoy had perverted all bin declarations of prin ciples in tho past. The speech of Mr. Khcrmau is viewed by the si cossionists as a declaration of war. The previous question was called on tho Army bill, and it wa.? fas-sod iii commit toe. It appropriates ten millions of dollars. Notwithstanding the imminence of dlwolution, politi cians tlnd time to discuss mutters pertaining to the In coming administration. If Mr. Sherman's speech in tho House I h:n afternoon foreshadowed any branch of tho policy i i Mr. Lincoln, it was that the ultima thul? of tho republicans was to admit Now Mexico as a State, a terri tory described to bo one ovor which a turkey could not IIy without starving, anil, further, entirely repu diating ('rittfniton's compromise. This being accepted aa tho extent of tho conciliatory intentions of ihe new at1 ministration, there would liuve been no doubt abou the course of the ?outborn states, bu'. Mr. Sherman de clared he did not apeak for anybody but himself, and therefore he should not bo taken as the mouthpiece of Mr. Lincoln. The speech will do nothing toward alleviat ing the present state of feeling. CONFIRMATION OP MR. HOLT'S APPOINT MENT, ETC. Washington, Jan. 18,1861. Mr. Holt lias been confirmed by the Senate us Secreta ry of War. Tho m initiation of Mr. ITolt was opposed by Senators Lane, Wigfall, llayard, Slirtoll and Iienjamin. They all made speeches against him. Messrs. Benjamin 4ml Wig fall wcro especially severe upon* the administration, charging that tho President and Cabinet had violated their agreement with tbo South Carolina members of Congress, by sustaining Major Anderson in removing from Fort Moultrie to Kort Sumter. Mr. Crittenden said he did not insist upon the exact terms of tho compromise proposition introduced into tho Committee of Thirteen and sinco debated in the Scnato; that he was willing tu accept any proposition that would be received ns an adjustment by the two sections of tho country. ITodesired losave tho t'nion. Kentucky, he said, is now the centre State of the Union, and enjoying all Its bk swings and protection. The format Ion of the proposed two confederacies would make her an exposed border State, with an enemy's territory for a frontier for four hundred miles. The people of Kentucky will never allow tho State to be placed lu such a position, as it would destroy all her material interest and all her security. The charge being made by Messrs. Slidell anil Ben jamin that Mr. Holt was a coerrlonlst, caused Mr. Crittenden to declare emphatically that ho was glad to know that Secretary Halt was a coercionist. Ho bo lleved that a government without the disposition to use ? oerclon was no govornmeat at all. It has no marrow in its bones, anil is worthltss. At the same time, he remarked, tlie exorcise ot coercive measures is an act of discretion, and should bo exercised with grea', care. Tti.s decided patriotic expression of the gallant old Kentuckuui, in vin dication of a citizen of his own State, who could oot be present to meet his assailants himself, produced a deep sensation. Mr. riolt was confirmed by a vote as decided as that of yesterday?C4 to lfl. Mr. Greenwood, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, was tendered the office/if Secretary of Interior, and declined It Tlie admission of Kansas Into the Union was tho ab sorbing question in the Senate to day. Tho subject will be renewed to-morrow, when it is believed that Kansas will be admitted, adding two Dew members to tbe Senato and another member to the flout c?all republicans. 1'apers in tho South and hereabouts publish tho state ment that Commodore Shubrick. of tbe navy, recently died at Pendleton, South Carolina; but Com. Shubrick is in Washington to day, and well, ultonding to business. Tho naval oflicers at Penh toola N'/ivy Yard have been for mally detached, aud are now waiting for orders. A son of W. L. Yancey lins resigned his place in tl)0 Annapolis Military Academy, nn>i has gono home. Senator Iverson has receivisd advices 'h's morning from l'ensacola that Fort Ptckms will be a'..-.lulled. Kurt Pii kens baviug recently tif" n garrisoned by the federal government,, it has excited the ire of tbe ece??i0nists, who are now in p< session of Fort liarnuci and tho Vavy Yard. The bill introduced I y Mr. MoK*an, of New York, lasi Monday is to repeal tbe law making Charleston, George town and lieaufort, in S?oth (fcrolinA, ports of entry. Even In Maie of peace it costs rawh more to collect the re\eniieat thofe jiorts than it amount* to. Mr. McKean's dsslrs U to stop the foreign trade snd fond a sufficient naval force there to blockade the harbor*, and in this view he is not alone. 1h ? statement that Mr I.incoln is to Washing ton under a military escort i-; not true. A volunteer ompany, composed In part of some of Ms neighbors, t?n dered their service? a an < ? ort, as an act of courtesy. There is no evidence and il is uot likely that he has ac cepted their offer. It is a singular fart tha Colonel Craig, a thorough Colon man. who wasat the head of the Ordinance bureau, and the only man who wn < thoroughly posted in regard to the transfer of th<- public arms from Northern ar, irories and arsenals to f'outbern seosssi >n States, was about tsbe transferred by Secretary Flsyd to i^ulifornia win u Mi lloyd resigned, an d a ^e e^slonist wss to take his place. Tlie "Senate of the I'ni'.ed St.vtes Is fa?t chr: its politkal complexion. Mr. Morrill, the snccesssr of Mr. Ilaral.n having arrived heio. th'-re are now twonly si* republicans In that body?within three of a majority agRiti t all opposition. If K?r?as i-< adrn'ttod to morrow, ar it i believed t>ho will be, two inoro Senators will come fr?m there very soon. If the statement of senator Berjamin made to dajr is true, that b wi'l not remain in the Senate but a few days longer, we natuially Infer thkt he believes that I oniristia is going right out. This will take along with her Mr. "Udell, and leave the repiiMicai * trie majority. Tlie result of this will bo a thorough re organization of th it body, a cleansing out of i-e? i sslonists, snd the appointment of men in their places who are loyal to the Union snd the constitut on. Fol lowing thi? we shall of Bourse inaugurate a series of meustiri s ihat will gre itly aid the present admin stration in ex> ciitin? the laws, and m-iklng this government per manent and popular. Northern men are activity engaged i!fpurchasing arms for the secession States. Is n< t this thing treason? A certain < hicago politician who enjoys close political rela tions with a distinguished We, tern democrat, is reported to bavo a commission in hi i>ocket to purchase ten thou sand rifles in the North for the disunion authorities of Mississippi, which Hate ho has recently visited. His compensation is a dollar a ritle, or ten thousand dollars for the lot, besides travelling expenses If these rifles go .South, they will soon be taken back. It will be s rheap way for tho North to obtain them. General Harnoy has been challenged by a Ute officer of the army. They are both in Washington. IMPORTANT FROM GEORGIA. Mm icwiBvtiLS, Jan. 18,1811. The Convention was in secret h ess Ion all day. At four P. M. it adopted resolutions:?First, declaring the right and duty of Georgia to secede; and, second, appointing a Committee of Seventeen to report an ordinance of s?OM slon, by a vote of yeas, 166; nays, 180. II. V. Johnson introduced resolutions as a substitute for those adopted, looking to co-operation, Inviting a con vention of the South at Atlanta in February. Mr. John son's resolution was lost. Mr. Stephens, during the debate, said if Georhi* deter mines to secede the sooner she does so tbe better. Cannon are firing, the (lag of incependenco is waving from the Capitol, skyrockets are flying, and thersaro music aud other demonstrations. IMPORTANT FBOM LOUISIANA. Nsw Oauu-fH, Jan. l?, 1M1. The programme for Louisiana's secession isalrMtfy agreed upon by the lending members of tho Convention. Arrangements are being perfected among tho seosding States for holding a general Can vention at Montgoasry, on the 20th of February, to devise the plan of tho m confederacy, to adopt the federal constitution, claim title, and ask recognition by the European rowers aad tho Called State*. Tbe President's message is strongly animadverted on [OONTINTED ON TFNTO PAGF )