Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 3, 1861, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 3, 1861 Page 2
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AFFAIRS IN EUROPE. TIE COTTO\ PANIC IN ENGLAND. fiews of the Eii?, Freueh and .Swedish Press on the Auierieaii Crisii. THE SOUTH (AROLWI MISSIOX TO FIU*IE, kit) kCif lie i j The Jivurnai du l/any of .lauuary 15, says ?'? The C'?mmiit.MoiierB from South Carolina, who have come to Pari*, have already bad, it is said, an interview with M Thouvenel at the office of the Ministry of Foreign Alfa s Nothing is known us yu of the result of tliu interview, but it is certain tliat ri" -Itfnite actum will I* taU i by th< &rtnch SC.-ri-nmthl tvjvre the (ttneml condition of affairs in the <4kcr Jatx Statu and WathinyOm u known " The Austrian Ga;*tl< observes:? *tj<linia hv neither men nor money enough to com mencv a war on her owu account. Everything depends on the d?iKlon of France,aiul we feel certain that France Will not, under present circun^Unces, make war in favor Cf Sardinia. Kranio IooUm with no favorable eye on the domination of Sardinia iu Southern Italy. Cavour is a atrong aupportor of Italian unity. Frmnoe ha.s never de sired ati\ such rwilt, and doe* not desire it now. The difficulties which -ardinia i-ncountern and hopes to sur mount in the kingdom of Nupien are not at all di*pleasing to Fiance If 1'ieclmont begins the war, Franco will Stand aioof, and If the Plediuont'-se aggression fails she will tail haok on the treaty of Villafranca. An a'Uek on tb?- |iart of France would be ho impolitic tl??t we see no Tctthon to fear it, except as un indirect means of recover ing the frontier oi the Rhine There will be no war he t?un France and Austria unless there is war between France jiud i;e;man) ; but the 1'ronch have uo wish lor ?ui) such war at present, and. we therefore l^e conii dime in the duration "f peace. Gen de GerUch. aid de-camp of the late King of Prus sia, an one ol lito Mujerty s most intimate friends, boa qu ckly tollowi d h!s sovereign to the grave. lie caught u violent cold at tho royal fuucral, whi;h brought on orysipelss in the hevl. and he died at l'otsdam on tho evening of the 10th. He was seventy one years of age. Much interest is excited in I'ariB by the report that M. Juk5> Favre, the dittnguished orator and advocate, in tends to speak on an early <lay, in hta place in the Legis lative Corps, on the triylagii, the jobbing at the Bttirse, the jxitnU- tim .iud aoi/crurt of various kind.- aud for va rious objects, which for some time past hare been the fertile theme of scandal to the public, and which from the alleged connection of well known characters with Bonv of tin se transactions have brought even the govern ment into some discredit. Th" grant of large salaries and of splendid rcsU.efic. n to the sp \?km-r ministers? the ministers tA/rfeoci', as they are called?will also be treated by il. Favre. Our London ("orrt *j?on<l< ncr. J?.\dok, Jan. 18. Mdl The China treat#?Oommer<r and Christianity?7he Kng1i*h View of (ht American Criri*?Specvialitmi v/xm I'eace or H'#r?Ihe CoHUm fiujht?Affairs in lUily?The Paw Kin QueUi-n?The Kiit/lish ParlixmaU?The Ice Cumiral?Di.\tr> s in Englo?<', <fr. An important document bus just arrived from China II is a di'f-pati h from Chung Wang, tie Tae Ting Kui|>eror of China, to Ijord Klgiu, asking to be recognized as the real Celestial Kmpori-r, vice llien Fung the l'okin Km peror, not tit to rule, lie also wants the glorious privi lege of propagating Chiistianity under the patronage and guldauteof the serene and occidental Mr. John Bull, and our sovereign Ijidy Victoria Alexnndrina, Defender of the faith, Ac. A certain mouthpiece of Mr. Bull at home? to wit, a sheet called tho Times?is constrained, under fear of not otherwise uttering all the truth, to confess that these overtures are made to the Brit^h Ambassador under the promptings of an American missionary ? aud who figures in the rebol king's despatch under the souo IW B and Oriental co,,noracn of l/> Ilow chueu sing sing As this new candidate for the friendship of the Chi istinn nations of the West wishes to do two important things?propagate Christianity and receive British cot tons and hardware at low duties?toe organ of public opinion before mentioned his "strong giound^ of objection to the first, on account of the iptali *y of tho article" which would be dealt in, but thinks the maiket for shirtings and Brummagem notions Should be looked alter. That is, of course, all charac teristic of the nation cf shopkeepers. Perhaps the Ami ricans, when they get ready to attend to foreign affairs, will be disposed to indulge Chung Wang iu his aspirations for Christian worship, us well as for a clean shirt, and permit the Goep< 1 and the almighty dellar to go together Sordid Mr. Bull scorns to take shout the same new? though not so comprehensive certainly?as a certain Hibernian did who applied for the hAnd and heart of the daughter of a r.ra/.ilun planter, aud whoae dowry con aisted of a re Fpeotuhle number of woolly beads aud stal worth limbs aud bodies. At the marriage cereinon> F'at was avked if he would take the lady f >r li.s awful wooded wife?1"Y*?e, and the n ig? rs too, yer riverenoe'" Mr. Bull, if the 7im?? is an exponent, would be glad of the "nagors"?tfle tlcshpots of Chinese trade?but cares nothing for the spiritual and domestic comforts of Christianity. A dilterent and Iofs mercenary View of the case will probably be taken by the nation at larga than tint of a paper that m ikon all principles subor dinate to its gra>piog for gain A great deal of space is now.devoted in the English journal* to tho discussion of American ailstrs. As to the ultimate results, vitrious conjectures are indulged iu but one opinion, however, is expressed as to th course of Preentent Bnehanan. lie is universally condemned, both by the correspondent* of the Knglish pros* in America and the edrors here. 1 he total want of a decided staud in bis men sage; bis vncillating course; bis refusal to send reasonable aid to Charleston, his Lime submis sion t" the capture of lorts, cust >ui houses- i?>st offices and artonals. bis tim d fears of a*safiliation, and his total Uck of decision, are all arrayed against bun Two or three rifled cannon liave t>eeu sbipj d from Liver pool to (liarlestoD, that being probably the oust that the credit and means of the Stale could aflord to buy. I have taken pains to talk with a good many prominent men?politic<ans. stat sineu, mereluuits and bankers?to learn whiih way public opinion is setting, Imth as to By mpathics and the probable results of the struggle, it is generally believed that % war is most imminent, if not inevitable, anil that nothing but cooler counsels and lean passion and precipitancy among &><uhern statesmen can ssve the country irom the dire effects of a civil war, one of the most ceiVnin results being the absolute rniu of th - South. Gn asking either American or English gentlemen m to the course that l'rcttidcui Lincoln can adopt, no ponaible course is suggested as probnble or consistent but the prompt execution ot ib? laws at all baztrds. I navo asked a number what eourse would probably bo t ik"n by Knropean nauri* In th* event of at.y or all of the Southern States sending a diplomatic agunt to represent them, and obtain a recognition while the difficult"-* were |>eii ling *? Not one of them would be accepted,was the uuani maus opinion The outhern peopla may r<*t assured that there I* a very prevalont bearing?tin./ cau ? all it ?'prejudice," "weakness," "fanaticism," or what they please?in favor of lfoedant, and against slavery The "Cotton Htipplf Association ? are particularly ac tive, and by discesaion and public meetings are endeavor ing. m every prvvtble w*y, to iucr^A tf in otlior ?mrt? of tho warid, so they can be iadependeiit of Am rt ca Vou may be aware that the rate of Increase in the imports for several years was much greater In the trado from Brsirll, India, Africa and Australia ilian Irom the United .States. As the Kronch have stipulated, in then treaty wtth China, for an unlimited supply of coolie* for Algeria, that will no doubt soon he a Urge cot ton pro ducing country. All tbes? Indicitions show which way th" wind blows. Itali*a affair* are much di?turbed. Tin' K in* of Italy tiu roiiaentod to an armistice at Caata, ami tli?* Km|x>ror ha> )t.veil ordrrc to withdraw hi* fleet. In Sirllv anl all Southern Ttalj'. the aule of atkin is represented try en fusion, diMttoction, revolt, and, In abort,perfect anarchy. 1/niJi Napoleon 19 determined tfeat Victor Knianuel shall not reiirn over ? united Italy, ami I fear he will cantinne to foment rebel!Kin, ,-ind iu vome way cairy out bia inai tllov" mentions Anatrta goea on har Old way, but ia m ikins sonto ;>ro nuww for the intuir. Hung try in to have her own Kiel, ct l< gif lalive body, the constitution of 1841, and flu a >1 diors but llungariiins f|titrt<red in the country. Tho Aua'rwi Cabinet baa declared thai the first attack or menac- on \ cue tin fr< >m the South will bo loaklJ ujion an tantamount to ? tWaration of war by Piedmont Gre?t (iclteinont wa-i lately crcatod In Holland bv Uia tnrreptitton* publt'.Mim ?r tlix fact that fortv ' mil llona Merlnn r|j(*).ri(tii ouoi of A nutrias bonis wore bold on the Amsterdam Huuraa. The public debt of A m trla ia $1 .fioo.ootVto ?hi tiiro.e hui? tlrad mil'lin slorlr'K? Bad of tkli Hk? IHitcIl rnplt4?lt*r? trv lot In fnr about an Might h part I fear tho *u?kin?R of many of the old fc?rfr?uu4tora will ramakn u a ruin (,r omutiaeM t?r many long ymtr to come Parliament la *i<hi to at-efnblo Tb ra b?vi' baon an tin nauai aIimbor of i-hanK"-* during th? laH j .-in amounting ton?> loas tluin Uilrty six innuimrer. thin ,|e.itii< hive tswirrad, ii?o resigned their Beat*, tlvo wcro uti*oai><l /or illegality iu electkwa, four accepted nih ???, ant .. ;ht arete aavan< ed to ttie p" rago. The cou -<> vatlvo rlaim a i lea' gaiti of two rn?mli"r? ? four (rain* ,nd \ )oaa of two. Th? lioxt lloute will prohairly man I >* rmiowK ? f lower rativc* .'?T Whig* (Kiinno I'nrf) !?? I'aeiitoa 14 1,1 tier a I OT These figure* alio* Uul Disraeli ail 1>'? friend* have the hrymt sfnijle party iii t.'i llonae, while it i? only by what th SlanUlr i c alia tli ' "unnatural junction" of I/?rd Palmeraton and hi< '/ ?1 whig* with the " dam icrall) party" of P i tint ii continue* in bold tho rein* nf guvorntu >nt It uny b ? *>o; but ran: kn m flwre hi* Ktrone'li U , not withstanding poor Horsimn, the reaegaie liberal, an I ? ow renegade tory,j(eta more kicks than coppv?. I'n l lb? l<*ai of "M^x.'t g lei ' ? ur* " a | * t. j. tft'?i Us readers to what Mr. Samuel Penys would call a ?TTgbte wi'.tie" epigram tbk jiK-wri or 0TWOCD. It must be allowed, That the llors'man of Strou<l, L- a jockey uot eahj to b-at. Not l?> bolting or slicing, Nor in the mud lying, Can ho be got out of his **-at Th? ice carnival ha* been made to do duty for th<> -oluu cer fei vice, wbi.e catering to the amusements of the m? troaoUs. A few nights a|Oagraai sham ii^ht came ofl 00 the Serpentine, in Hyde I >rk, the weapons uned being : ?okett?not Congrevo's? torches ;ind other inuoceut '?Uioani.s," combustibles and explosives Tup -.cone was one of the- most brilliant and imposing ever witnessed Ihe coul weather still contM ies, no that w ? may expect fcc-n..' ds\s mm- of Prince Alfred has just embarked f >r the W.-st India sta lion, In >i squadron of the ro_ al navy; and, aft or a aotoura at Jamaica, St. Thomas and' Bermuda, you may perha|?, some fine day in spr'ng, have the privilege of greeting hui Iloyal Highness at New York. Be is a spirited lad, and no way interior to bis older and more illustrious brother. Another of our "id peer- hr.s departed?tin- Duke of I Sutherland?-something of a politician, but o->t .?b anted hi that arena as his wife, the charming aud celebrated ' Dutli< u. As a state ^nuut he never cut ? Ugure, ami liis 1 death creates no blank At th? present turn* there is a great deal of poverty aud suffering :n London There are said to be .'!?,WO per | tons out of employment and walking the street? of 1 on j iion, who were never inside of a woikaotu-e. Ail ' he public charities are uuu.viaily active, but i Line m a great deal of destitution that c?mw*t be i cached. Th" mortality bills are larger eacii wtek than ! the usual average at this season. eteam and joint stock couyuuii 3 don't teem to flourish, i The India and Cliira Steam Comiia?y, lately launched, I stands in abeyance, the stock not being called for ?Kcept i in distressingly sma'.i quantities There is so much job bery, stealing, putting of incompetent ami dishonest ' trirnds iiuo berths, and every attendant ?osa 1 and bail management, particularly iu sicam companies, ' that no wonder the public aro getting shy of them. I : know of one -mall stesm company (hat haw been holding i off and doirg nothing for years, while their steamers are j laying up, and a small, select iwid well paid Board and ; Pc'-ruary are constantly -'looking after the interests of ! the ei mjiafiy." It was found that no one could even buy or hart -r their -humors, and that it was shrewdly nits trusted thit tin .-e d?inter< sted gentlemen might possi bly be locking after somebody's Interests besides the shareholders A f? w hundred changed hanli act our sinecuristg were upset and turned out, the steam ers sold at a ;oood prico, the shareholders g.,t u goon lumped money, and a lew old drones lest ? g"o,i u-<st eg?! and u very ?Q?iI(wt ihle be-th. The Cotton Punic in K^&iaitd. (From the I.ond <u Chronicle, Jan. l-> j L ?voarr ? wiU under different earner .>11 .wsoc a tioij r >r promotiiift the cultivation of cottou has c-xlsud in Inut hester or l.iverjiool Considering t'ie relations Kir -i-ting between the Jui.ta lrre rominurtty and th" cotton uimkot, we cannot wonder that the subject should have attracted very serious interest. 1\e <iiiuti?n i in f .d, little hoit,/life anil death. Iluiit t-> menhcmU <inU null owners, rtun<aium to the rest o f the ,*>)filiation, hauii itHiiieili-xUly in (he Oulaiur. One yar'i failure ?! the Atifr, an a or pxt/xmr>nent of the . I nidi, in ni.mly I ! '//*''' f f fnlui'' tulorhitie^ none thuo any w&r w f<wiiiie mthin m<<ltrn txjiei ietue. [From the Iondon Herald, ,Uu. li? | the first aet of the federal government tn dealing with the srce-sivii of ^ nth Carolinahas been to order shipsof wir t ? the city of Charleston, and we may shorlv hear c f vesses being deg|>atched to Mobile aid Savannah, and to all . ther iK.rt> ..[ seceding Elites We big to remind her Majesty h Ministers thai the United Stutes cotton crop of JM.0 lias uot .vet come to hand, and that probabilities ex ist ot it - being d< laved seme time. With actual war on the coast there is sinHll likelihood of the planters for war.; i.g their bales for ahii<ment tiuless through Vow iork and the Northern ports, and it is possible they will not bo permitted to adopt that course, lii audition to this delay, there is the aduul fact of the cot ton Mates arming their citizens ai.d preparing for a ficiuggre of some duration. The canijttti^n wiif bo com "fenced1 at the precise time wheu the cotton crop of ls61 shMiid be planted, and if our government he satisfied that the operations of agriculture will be continued as usual, and that the slates will remain quiet wheu tlio che< l> of federal authority shaJl be wlthdrawo. then is there nc. danger to tho manufactures of the country. But if they admit the certain diminution of our cotton sup ply from the ( n:ttc{ States, and Us not impossible ressa ti"n next year, it were wise to loot Immediately to our own colonies to obviate the deficiency. The English Press on the American CrUla (From the Ixmdon Herald, Jan. 12.1 It has been too much the custom of lato \ ears to repre sent the American confederation as a model government ertain politicians in thin-country have pointed triumph antly to the I hi ted States in ;iroof of tho superior advan tages of di mocracy, assuring us that the most extended treedom is guaranteed to the citizens, and tho affairs of tuc republic administered in an iim.\j>euH,va uuuner The constitution framed by .leilerson and h,s co workers s compared with our own, the latter being regarded bv them as a mere collection of vague traditions and precedents, whilst the former is vaunted as n plain und simple instrument which he that runneth may read it is easy to show, however, that the constitution of the fnitod Slates is not so considered by Americans, and that the two sections into which the republic is now divided attucl, vory diitereut intentions to It. The democratic party", speaking through the President, the majority in the Senate and the Supreme Court, declare the constitution to bo protective ol slavery, whilst the Northern Hates maintain that forced servitude, except for crime committed, is pur posely throughout its provisions The Judges of the Court have been so freqiMntly called upon to detcrmiBP the meaning and intention of tho instru ment that the tribunal might almost be considered to ex ist r, r no Other purpose; and Mr. Buchanan now suggests that an end be put to these commentaries by a final ' ex planatory amendment,' to be embodied in the constitu tlou as a p?rt of itself. It is doubtful whether this ad y ee, if followed, would avail in restoring harmonv be tvveni the contending factions. The North ha* other ' " v ew thau its rival, and whenever the interests or the two sections Clash it is certain that each would defend it?i own act,on by appealing to the common charter. We cannot but agree with Mr l.ineoln. the I r< ?id. nt elect, that the sole cause of the frequent nnv'T. Ki e" !he '7?actions is to be found in the unxanquiehabie antagoniim of slavery and freedom and that the conflict must be irrepressible until one or the Other shall be supreme throughout the entire republic^"t}'cru ???* cann?t ion^ postpone the nAM issue, for the adverse principles would cantinue to struggle for the mastery although separated by political lines of dtmaication. J ugitive slave laws would then no N'fierexift'uihe North, and every inducement would rhi. ?, ,a , ,0 1110 their masters. I his w mi Id necessitate tho maintenance of large bodies of tr(op-on the frontier of the Southern republic, in order to render escape impossible, and this would be produc llVC'u #J"'l"ent co',toion between the two c mntries ^with Carolina evidently dia net take this contingency into consideration when determining ?n the formation ot a s.ive holding republic: but it is doiibJess tn - eventuality which deters the border Southern .lutes irtm joining in secession. Virginia. K'n lucky and Maryland would become tho battle ?oH,m Jl ! w-ntending partis, and whilst the cotton diet! .its could sutler any torn th,? TZ'? ,rn!',!ree 11 w?"1'1 ^ ^0 "'Kb impossible free men crossing the border and bocomitig A Southern republic would be the d?om of the Western ??aH? l0W* Mich'giui sud t,,T. J ' nr,c now ?"'?cting the FurpJ.LS popuU ti' i of Kurop... and bidding fair to become tho granaries wolJ'<1 siDk Into complete insiginiicaiice Po?er w?U <,"*M'ssi?"'Pt>' ?r^ held by a foreign i ' rij,u ?tatesmen have long toreseen the pre ,V - yeu'" "*"? "??ry Hay declared ttut KM>ner than conMut to such an evil, the great West S'?", brave all the horrors of a fratricidal wjr With the outlets of the Mississippi, Ml?*nirl and Ohio in the poeee^sion of a foreign Power, as they must be d I ouisiana join her fortunes to those of the secession friL th^T,er" St",M Wil1 fx'neftts arising !*cmi inr v";V rH- l"u wtJrriy cut off from the ? of, ? r ?t . Hutdluive no int#*ioFt In a con . 0 V* D,on ,h;it cotnjmre m ith thi- an I able to r^il ll?'" ?wpai 'Hon as piett- ' certain auiiihilat'lon.' C?""' n,,t , 10 " wilho,lt et LU.C^ *"1' 'n*emeit enn uever be accomplishe<l w th a r- " Tii" 'a . '"Sidency, and wn believe that Mr '?incoln w111. ndravor to ren.K r it for the future imo..s ? Me. This cs only be W|,c,ed II, earn iu'( out flie pnn I ? ?e ,Kfr,y w,llrh h',H elected him to office by i", natioial and slavery sectional." sl? ong as free and slave labor are comparatively (? iallv w'^b,'W^hington, m> "I >,!? 1 Tl North ,n,j ? ? tb_ Mr I oln has the opportunity of d.^i.iin" the issue fcr one,, and tor ever, and ail frieiids of humanity and c ivi'ization . xpecd that lie will prove himself w .rtliv ^?in" ' |WV,,,y,f''1 "lbi'""y freed?irB*ovitig majority ol the AniT'tiau people IJ rom the l<oudon Telegraph, Jan 19.1 of^bJ*! wi" .bl ll'l,nl ?l"t the pow of the I nitcd States rests in tho intellectual uioral and physical strength of the whole bodv or the mv>oie Sx eMioii impi'es s disruption of m, tii.gbty th nkio* i " VV" l!r""k "I' ,b? 1 n^.undwner'o Is ih? poiitna! greatness of North America What inilu mro1 the lie stile federations exert m l-u rope* It woul 1 be. thenceforth, a coru and timber mar k. t m cempeutjon with a eottoa and tobirro em?>r?a v,'d^ ytwM ??r the t'nion incii'ased with Uei atise new States, one after another have accepted, applied, nnd inalntsmed the urlirinal principles i |H,n which the c institution of Washington was louided. Abandon these, and the monum'nt, of the host are oViterated the present m ist set uo Und marks for itielf, and thj pro ,?.cU or tl,.- future are the ?n?rcyy. (letter a teinjmr irr de*d lock than a break up. nirgravale l bv bhio '?ti?..| The World can aflii, d to sis. the whole of tb'e American con rederntion cmharrasst d, but it wan Id be a disaster lor mankind were one hall < l the republic runic I Memiiat prepare, ncveitlieles-, fo learn tlint the fratricidal war ti S begun. Neither the temp"' of the North nor ilmt of theSotb appears favorable to com prom se and even d the menaucs of the Cbarioston Convention be ei ipty vaunting, It is the bravado of men wall H v iv di'icrent sense of reapon; ibilitv. The slav? hunter Who rani! iojbells to cclebrate the hinging of Jo'ui if W1', "V''iwhelm half the Cnion with :daiubt-r fen tt " tilO aboiitl'lllists. Vow. ther,. t , it'itii n, Ihe law, tho patriotism of the Hi i ? ,!? , 'k^', ")1?m?ly "Pon their trid. lo toiv Ven i" "t ,h" "rr;t ,'mr in 1,s n.lght'v'n 111,.- e nil.'"*?1 ,,ICe Witl1 H iriferi viinir i A"*/, N V'r -?<?? tit" rtsofirttl-m of V? '? I. hat ,t i!oen , I.'1'": ?? rrlf,i' .to<l by .? isperat ? , ... i '? 1 * Mi" ? ? !,,'r ;> < th. tn abut; ' Hdi. 'ti nut wb.i, w )'[ I) t" t' n of v'r Mn I.JUds (I Ihe nejiro, ?U>'I u u, 'vhl nt" h? oppii ??orv b it eh 'n> by i'"- * r'.'"Pon North haa enoo tutored the kgMiuf of the Booth by ar? tesu and agnation. The Soatb threatens to anon br cannon-shot the moral victory of the North. There mar yet be tine to avert a conflict, hut if it ho rendered la evitable by a conflagrationof morbid parsioM on both Didc8. we must once more rely om the natural Uwi of juatice, and predict tkat the alare aeoeoHooiau will be humbled, if Lot trampled under foot. [From the London Tim**, J*n. 10.) * ? ? ? * * * But what matters all this? Not a single observation have ventured to make could be made in the republic of South Carolina, thus auspiciously taking her place among the natiousof the world. Without law, un'h out ju:tfr,wiUiout tlttay, the is (reading in the path thai Uatu to the do\n>fall of nations and the misery of families. The tU'llownesa of her cause is eeu beneath afl the pomp of ber laboreil denunciation, ami surely to her. if to any community of modern days, may be applied the words of the Hebrew prophet?'A wonderful and horrible thlt g Is cr.mmitted in the land. The prophets prophesy falsely, and my people love to have It so." The French View of Hoathtm Secession. [From the I'aris Coustltutiouuol, Jan. 10.J After following for a long time an encroaching polioy, the South declares itself threatened bofore it is Attacked, and m cedes from the Union. which has committed no other wiong toward.-, it than that of constitutionally elect iiga lYesident representing the opinions of an immense majority, tor we iuu?t once more remark that the elec tion ol Mr. Lincoln did not sigiiily the abolition of slavery, but simply a tlrm resolve to prevent its unlimit ed extension. All the Northern states, with one solitary exception, were unanimous in saying to the South, " Vou have i arried your conquests far enough; you shall not go farther." wiilioit the least intention of assailing any ac quired rights. This legitimate expression of the do termiiiatHn of the North, which had so far been much too patient. nevertheless sufficed to irritate the .South to such a degree as to make it throw all modera tion to the winds, and rush headlong into the most revolutionary courses, it would appear that slavery is not the only motive for the projects of separation. Tho .South likewHe considers Its interests sacrificed, in tbe customs tarilts, to thnse of the Northern manufacturers; it has long protested aguinst the protecUouist policy am |ios( d i>n the States of tho confederation^ U hopea to en joy the advantage of lee- restricted anrf more direct com mercial intercourse with the nations of Kurope. Those ideas must have exercised an important influence on the projects which Kjulli Carolina has beguu to carry into efbet. The slavery quostion lies, howt vor, always held the foremost pluce in the present crisis. It is to preserve this chcrithed -'peculiar institution," and to provide for the-ccurlty of tlio masters in the midst of their RlavoH, thai the Sooth proclaims itself a rebel to the fedeial can stil'iti' a. Slavery, therefore, must be regarded as the chief cause of the catastrophe we now witness?a catas trophe ?h eh so many eminent men had predicted as in evitable so uer or Infer. [From the Paris Pebats, .bin. 10.[ hi '.wo months Mr. Lincoln will take possession of the Presidentship. It would appear, from the language of the ournals of his party . thai the President and Congress will then cati upou South Carolina to obey. Should war ensue, ;>nd the whole South lake part with South Carolina, what will become of all the deplorable interests created by slavert Is it not e.isv to imagine a conjuncture ofcir cum.-tai.ces, In which, even If catastrophes from which the imnglnatl n shrinks with horror are avoided, the for tune - of the slave owners will be a thousand times more endangered b\ their rupture with tho North than they possibly could have been by the maintenance of the Union? The trl?l* iti America in n Swedish Point of View. [Translated from tbe Folkets Knot (Uk> Voice of the People), of Stockholm, l'ec. 24,I860, for the Nkw Vokk HiK.MD | '?The American form of government,'' says Mr. Iic.uglas. "is the beft over which a country had ever cause to rejoice." The breathing of a doubt of the truth of tins assertion would be regarded in the United States as a hen sy; but in Kurojie the people have tho '?liberty'' of e.\picssing their modest differences of opi nlon: and to this extent, at least, our liberty Is greater ihju that of America. Kuropeun reasoners are not to be ccerced into overlooking the glaring contradiction of an Amcricun statesman endeavoring, by kindly words ami flattery, to divert bis countrymen from a revolutionary act. and basing his argument on the hy|Kdbesis that the "form of government" which producod tho impending cris's is the "best in the world." The corstltution of the United States has now served for eighty years, under circumstances that [ cannot he regnrded but as most favorable to I its durability. Without danger of over popu 'atien; without standing army; without inherited institutions from the musty Middle Ages, and at the expiiation of this compnativelT^rt period this sunc lie praised constitution will b% ?e pretext and cause of a crisis whose first breathinjP already develope the mos', pestilential symptoms of national sickness?the stoppage of all trade and industry?mistrust in credit ' and the suspension of hanks. And the reason of all this is, that one Abraham Lincoln Iwir, according to the law of tho same constitution, been elected President. But if this election should be only a pretext?If the motive of tho Southern insurrection is still deeper rooted?the Kuropean conclusion, in view ef the fact that such a thing can occur without the government having tho power to quash It iustanter. is that the United States are lamentably in want of decont institutions. Tbe Ger man Confederacy docs not sullor theoretically from such diminution, although it cannot, maybe, boast mnch of its practical effectiveness. The Presi dent of the I nited States possesses no power or means agulnst the present traitors. Ho can do notUn'K to ? oilmen who thus openly defies tho fadcral laws without being duly empowered by the Congress for sum an extraordinary case. Some may remark that surely Congress could not, in such a case of neod, with hold its unanimous sanction. Perhaj>s not; but Congress is not always assembled at such critical moments; It must first be summoned, constitute itself, and proceed in accordance with rules and regulations, which render tho opposing of a lawful decree a very simple and easy matter. The mere election of the Speaker ef the House can, as it occurred one year ago, consume a period of many valna ble weeks. A member, if he is only in possession or a good pair of lung's, c?n, by speaking for days In succes sion, suspend the decision on a bill?to suv nothing or the more efficient modes of delay, such as amendments, voting, appeals, committees, &c , kc. In the meantime a revolution lias a beautiful chance to strengthen and spread itself, and It is very probable that a civil war is now unavoidable; whereas a better govern mental organization and prompt executive proceedings would have sutflced to quell the social storm. Another method is assuredly open to the President, he can law fully bring an action for treason against a rebellious State, aud that would, undoubtedly, according to tho constitution, ho the proper procciure then, if the federal government win the cause, it can instantly despatch troops to execute the scntonre that lias obtained legal sanction. lint it is petfectly clear that much could not be gaired by the adoption or that plan, the prolonged and antagonistic, action of the courts of law when en gaged in bitter questions of a constitutional nature, would have a more disastrous effect than even the tedious and lto t tan debutes in Congress. Concerning the present occurrences In the United States, this slowness in decision wtil not be or any great ini)>ortance; the movement of South Carolina evincm such a decided character of fanaticism tint It Is to be hoped, ir left alone, it will crumble to pieces for want of combination. Hut the fearful stagnation which this question has occasioned in every ilcpartmont of trade is not yet ameliorated, nor the power and authority of the government, which the slaveholders hive so grossly in sulted, vindicated. The moat trivial ground ol, or a'sup position of a cause for complaint, can at auy moment give rise to the ?amo disturbances, so that tho re volutionists can act with impunity, unmolested and un punished. The Americans are prone to cast into the teeth of Kuropeans the large sums required for the support of tnotarchs and courts, but it is a question as to which comes out tinnncially tbe best?the old World, with her expensive dynasties, or the New with her election of Presiifrnt. When we contemplate the probable cost of the election, and add to it wh it the present jianic Is likely to cost the citizens or that "glorin-" republic," we are sadly arraid that it would prove sufficient to support a host or luxurious oionarchs to a very advanced age Indeed. Further, there Is tho dread that these extra expenses may henceforward bo re newed every fourth year, if the patriotic statesmen of that gn at republic <lo not at once adopt measures for strengthening the power of the government. If the arro rince of the slaveholders is cow )>ormltted to go un punished, Slid they succeed in obtaining many more con cession- Trom the Congress they will employ the same ap proved means id disturb nee ?t every succeeding eiec tie n the yell of "disunion' will perpetually be reiterated, to the terror of the merchant, the mechanic, the banker and the laborer. It behooves ever) good citizen to take warning from the present crisis: to lay aside jxn ti ilities and selfish view.', and seriously to combine for the preservation of the t men "Ibis postponed, and this great, this noble republic may he lost to them forever. Thf Innuda Kitimllt Ion C?ir. [Kr?-in the Ijot>don Xews, Jan. 16. | The fa??' of Anderson liiif- assumed a new phaM. An npplicatloti win jipterday made by Mr. K4wln .lump* to On Court of Qnecns Hrnch for a writ of babtna corpus, directed to tlie authorities in Canada, command inn them to l>riu? up the body of Anderson. After consideration the application wasVrmited. the result of which In that the nidge-; at Westmlrster will practically have to r? vl?w the decision of the judges in Canada. Ho far as poor \ndcrson himself is concerned. we cannot persuade our sel\es tUAt bis ultimate release is a any degree more err tain than it wa* liclore It hw, lnde<*d, b?en somewhat illoglcally concluded, from Ihe mere tact of the Court of (jtlccn s Ik-nch having accept t>d the iurisdicti>n, that then decilIon miic't of necessity differ from that of their Canadian brethren. <m the contrary. If they should nirrce, the difficulty In the way of refusing* to surrender Audi rson will jiroK'iliiy be even greater than It Is at present, for the Min ter- will he compelled to overrule not only the colonial, hut the home tribunals. Fortunately, however, th? p evalling opinion among Knxlish lawyers sc.?n.i to I ?? that tin-ni.i ority of lh> Canadian .Imtg were nii? liken in the opmfc n wltah they dcllrereil. At all ><vn/i, a i> ?7eit> th-it th* / irtiiri >'?<?, flat >/ ?ill nrtrr ># a?'? t.w to <umm<lrr a h" d>i 'i'h > hat ha<t ths mufmiwte to kill hu <tdtrr,ary in df/rntling hit oun lift. Important to I'srlln n?ltnu Mull Mut ter to tlx | nlteil SlMtra ;? rt'l t nnmlu. Ow i g to a disregard of the oMciitl regulations tipoii tli* subnet, which are cleariy itated at pages SS and 46 in tli ? Itr t. h pi <tal ?. ite, X i. 1!?, many newspapers id<lre?<d to 'he I'nlted Mates and t-> Ctudl arc pi^tei in this country either itnpiid or Ina jJBciently paid, and arc Um rrtWI M forwarder. but Ml to tie- return* I let ter btarcb for di?p(if at. It sei rns to be forgotten that such new?pspera nr<-f he prepaid one penny each, whatever nutnl>"! msy be contained in a single pakot.aml the < lia'fi is not r< gnlntcd by weight ?- i* IB' cu-e ? Hi uu slatr.prd n< ? i' i|? i> sentthrough the post in thl^enntry It ba* til o been ?b*rved that a fraudulent pr u t ce pre rails, lo ? ccti'litr-ible extent, i f encl-vog letters or irtlier article- :n newtfinper* sent to or received from rorr'.n conotrli s,rsp? dally Amen i which ri nrtei ? them liable. n* the l< |* tjr.1t> . to be rli.uged with full letter I o?t >?e, tcford'oc to the.? we'sht The rfR. .th of the fit -giri^r.'tl ?re M/lftly ?' ? ^ eta.i.n?. ?/ far a. . . ' , ? ; . ;? . ?? ?r from hmn parts, and U-onforee th? aAcUi regul? (mm wher?T?r they may ha*? been lafrta^d, and it >? thought nfhl to draw tar attention of the public to thai matter with the view of preventing the occurrence of fu ture irrrsuUritiei. By command of the Postmaster Geaernl ROWLAND HIT.T., Secretary. tiKNKRAL Post ()mc?, Jan. 18, 18<H. flu ubtral CoBcrailoai of tlM Vrtatb (iuTrrmirnt. [From the lxmdon Chronicle, Jun. 16.) Ths Senate and the Legislative body of France are convoked to meet for the 4th of February. The recent poliUoal changes in tbat country in vest this meeting of the Vtench Parliament with unusual importance. <>n this aide of the channel, wo caunol but look forward with in terest to a renewed freedom, of discussion m tbe Legisla tive body ui I'aris. Tlie privileges lately accorded to tbe Assembly of Iieputies ought to furnish us with a key to the genuine opinion* of the French nation ok the ques tions which are occupying the attention or the European continent. There is no reaa-JO ti doubt tbo sincerity of the French Kmpcror, and it would, Indeed, havo been im possible for Inm to do s<> muoh for the freedom and inde pendence of Italy and yet withhold from his own subjects the privileges already posseted by a people for whom France has willingly marie enormous aarriiiceg in meu and tnoaey. In a few dayB, deputies from the different provinces of Italy will meet at Turin, aud tha discuss.una in which they will engage will be as free as in our own House of Commons. It is to be hogs! that ?vu same thing may bo aid of the proceedings of. the Leg. .alive body in Franco. The Fni|>eror is well aware that his chief strength must he derived lrom tho independent support of his people and the best way to secure that support is to allow the greatest possible freedom of discussion to tbe national representatives. The measures by whith Count Peroijuiy inaugurated his accession to ofllce have been regarded in this country a? a proof of a desire oa the part of the French government t? maintain a cordial alliance with Great Britain. We arc now, moreover, about to witness 'lio working of constitutional changes which cannot fall ' to exercise a potent nliuence, for good or for ovil, on the destinies of France and of Kurope, and it rests, with tlio j trench deputies U prove that they know how to take , advantage of the privileges accorditd to them. The Late King of Pruula. TKSTAMKNTAH* PAFKK. We read in the I'i ussian Gw-tttt?>' It will be a consola tion to m> people, in their just sorrow on account of tho decease o'l tho King my beloved brother, to know the gcoti thoughts ami desires which he wrote with his own hand, in contemplation of death. Accordingly, I desire that these last wishes, dated tho Gib of August, 1861, should be immediately made public. WILLIAM." The royal document which is reft rred to in the pre ceomg note is as lollows:? tiuiu.oriTNiinui, the day of the Transflguration > of our ljord Jesus Christ, Aug. tl, 1851. / ' llow I wish to be interred. If Cod the U>rd decree that I terminate my torrestrlal 1 career peaceably in my country,and if, which 1 fervently entreat of him on my knees, my tender and beloved Kline .-hall survive me, this paper is to be delivered to tier immediately after my death. Whatever she shall change shall be oxecutod "as if that were written here; her order shall be mine. Moreover, I wish one day to repose by her side, In the same tomb, as near to her us I k ssible. As soon ns my decease shall have been eertilM by the physicians, I wish my body to be washed aud opened. My heart, deposited In n large heart formed ol'granite from the country of Maicho. aud placc^ ut tho entrance of the vault in the mausoleum of Charlottenburg ("and consequently at the feet of mv royal parents;, shall he (inclosed in the ground and iovered by it. My resting place shall be the Church of 1'eace, before the steps which lead to the holy table, between the marhlo pulpit and tho commencement of tbe seats, on the left (on the right of the ultar) of the line of the middle of tho body of the church, in such a manner that one day the Queen may repose on my right. The space indicated, in all its breadth from our church seat as far as those opptisito, as well as the intervals between the public seats up to the pillars of the cho>r, shall be jiaved afresh in marble, from tho funds of which I shall leave, in the sim plest manner, but in harmony with the lloor and with the holy table. Immediately' above my tomb shall be placed an oblong slab of white marble, Ilat, level with the pavement of the church, and similar t<> the two slabs of the mausoleum of Charlottenburg. There shall be en giaven upon it the monogram of Christ, with the follow ing inscription:? Here lies in Cod bis.Saviour, with tho hope of a bliss ful resurrection and of a merciful Judgment, depending solely on the merits of Jesus Christ our Divine Re deemer, the late, &c. At my interment thore shall be observed the same ceremony as that used for the King my deceased father, i The funeral shall take place at the cathedral of lierlin if I die in tho neighborhood of Berlin; but if I die iu the vi cinity of Potsdam it shall be solemnized iu tharhurch of 1'eace, near Sins Souci. As Mion as tbo termination 'of my life shall havo been ascertained by my physicians, there shall bo sent 150 thaler* of gold to the poor of the cathedral, iu accordance with my own custom every tinie that I receive tho holy sacrament a'. Faster. The same sum shall also be placed at tho disposal of the other churches whero 1 have com municated, for their poor, that is to say, tho Church of 1'eace, the parish rhurcli of Krdmansdorff, the cathedral church ofSpandau, the evangelical chinch of Fischbach, and the church of the Oratoire of I'aris. The Gaurfttof southern Germany says:?King Frederic William lias not left any private fortune. He spent his revenues not only In numerous acts of charity, but in building and the purchase of works of art. lie loaves behind him a great number of masterpieces of different schools Hnd a magnificent library. All these pass to the prcs?nt King The yueeu Dowager will have 300,000 tbulet s per a&nura f'liinmr Emigration. [From the Frieu ' of China, Dec. 1-. lKrtO.] A proclamation by the native authorities was exten sively posted about Canton early last month, In which the pei pie were luformed that there would be opposition to their engaging with foreigners for service in western lands; and that men with families might take their wives and children. Simultaneously with this annoiincemcnt the u petit for emigration to the British West Indies, on behalf of ^he British government, advertised the terms on which the business of the opening season Is to bo con ducted. In brief, these terms are as follows:? The |tallage money to the West Indies is paid by gov ernment, but the return iwssagc money has to be provid ed by tbe |>ai ty returning. The wages guaranteed as a commencement are four dollars a month, together with a separate house for each family. garden ground, medical attendance and food. It is possible, however, for an experienced agriculturist to earn from twelve to fifteen dollars a month?literally four to five mace a day?and as the government gives him liberty to do this, his claim for food on arrival eeases, aud he linds himself. The women's time is their own. they may labor for wages, or be idle, as they see (It. Clothing and food for tho voyage are provided by government. The sum |?id to an intending emigrant?man or woman?is twenty dol lars. In the ease ol the man this is deducted from his wages at the rate of one dollar per month. To the wo man it is a gratuity, and for every child she tikes live dollars more given. If emigrants desire it, a portion of their wages, say one or two dollars a month. can be paid to their order here, Ihe term of service is five years. At the end of that t> rm the emigrant has all the world before him where to ohoote. Lvcu at the end of one yeur he may be free from his l>ond by payu g the ifovonuent sixty dollars, as for bark pa-sage money. If h lias served two years, forty-five dollars only arc required, repayment of pasKagc money (and gratuity f) being estimated at tbe rate of titteen uoUars per each v ear's stay. Pevtn hours and a half is the period of a day's labor, such labor being solelv agricultural. Government ula> undertakes to educate tho children of tbo emigrants, and to mamtaiu a tegular J < communication with China We have not seen any other advertisements on the walls, but It is pretty well known by Chinese that there are other emigration agencies besides th" British West Indian. In due time, too, thoy will further know the difference between the terms offered by eai h contractor. The French have an agency under 6ipt. Cloatnadcuc, the Spanish under Mr. ('astro, the Peruvians under Mr I'ineyro, and an establishment for which Mc-wrs. Lyall Jk s'ill. of Ilotig Kong, are financial agents, is under Mr. Ihorndyke If we are informed aright, the emigrant iu his contract with each of Ms establishments consents to a (ratisfer oi his lab'ir bond, so making the grand distinc ti'^i to which we have referred In the one case the emigrant may become (he slave of any(yran(, in (be other, lie is always the servant of the British govern inent and may sh.tke off his liability w ith the earnings of half a year. flie depot or bar racoon of (he British West India agency Is situated. a? are all the other depots, in that |mrt of the western suburbs called Kuni le foil,abutting on the creek h para ting (he Shameen site from the main It 1s an ex t usivc nnri well arranged building, and, under Mr. Tbeopliilus Sampson, cverj thing the Mntisli government ran desire in its object appears to be well carried ont. There is just enough attraction (o conUrni a previous tie s re, but no cajolery. i'bo other depots are also well con dieted, and if. at the expiration ?t a four days' s(av in (hem the applicant for a labor bond alters hi* miud, bo Is at full liberty to go about bis business. As a matter of 'otrse, there are not wanting many vicious scamp? who, after feeding four days atone depot, take a course at another, and so, ringing ? full change, after all remain n I Canton. African Kx pi oration. (From tbe Clapc Monitor J ni* Excellency Hr tSeorge firry lias iliiwrd the follow ing highly interesting communication from the Oon.?ui ai '/mutlbar, tn reference to Captain Speko and In* exploring party In tho content ronat of Africa, to be publialied ? Britimii Ooraci Ata, Zajixiear, Au?n?t 23, 1km>. My Pun BmCnoHUB Okit?Captain Spoke arrived here in the Htlsk on the 17th inat., and from him I have re c<*h?d the letter and books you ?o kindly went tne, and tor which I feel very much obliged to you Knowing tlie i'1-rp intei est you t.iko In everything connected with Afrl in aid it* rncr a, I have often wished to communicate to you fubjteta connected with Ume parte nf tt, rttnl I will do aooa every future opportunity, and alao forward to you as, often as I ran Information regarding |the progrcr'a of t'nptain t*peke'R expedition. 1 think htliw every ch.'inre of inc 1i>a In tiia (avor. British Influence has been Very much increased here by the event* of the Inat twe year*,es pecially by the antiv# aid (then to tiie Sultan tjy Briiiali i-hiMof war dwrlB tlie rebellion of hilt brother ami tho I 1 Harlh tribe of vaba. 1 have also lately cmmclpitcd i . OOaiavca vrlio v. ere h< M by itritlah Indian ?ub:ee?t. f iiave had ail the > brought to the CoMulale, and given to ? aoh ? Mf tificat* 'i emancipation, with new dresae* and 11events of motii ? and tweetmeata; and all the tribes on i lie conat are now -ware that th" Kngl.Jh aro their beat ?wend*. The segroM of tin? part of Al'rku are a m >*t i' od satnrod. docile, merry race, and soon become very ninth ?tta hed t" Kurtpcniui. 1 have not vet h id time to tudy th<- Zoo too Cbffre dictionary you m? kindly sent tne, hut in glancing over It I wv t-urprintd t -> li.i I bow man.\ w?rd? an* exactly the awne ns tln^e of the Khi iheli )aii ike tpofctn Uiro ighO'it the ZaUlibni dcimiloua, and n lately r? ad! it Magyai a tra> el* f observed the xutnft oi 'lie I i ' ii../< ?|? He,, in tlie !r t>e?oftho w?M < .?\sl, neni fi mi." 'a, pi <v|i k 'i ynnd a d ' that tho people of the ?> ho ? continent aa far ttorth M the c<|iiator are of one ?ilin.J r?-e V'i A'ab merchant, who In trave l >d i. ? .?. ? Ai a from opposite /anil bar io London, r? ii": . ,.n I he to i -tie tl a' th inguage* a:i.. 'm % , ? . , . ? ? .t. <t I t ? m? 4 . i no dtfflcottr in naklag thoafetvw understood. OapUui bpeke had dozen* of voiuntoeao U> acooui|>?iiy him direct ly bis arrival waa known ,uul ma?y of his former com panions are anxious to prooeed witb hiaa. Dr. Boat her, a young German, who left Zauaibw ut Juua last year,to explore the lake of Nyaaaa, was murdered on the 19th of March last, and bia two murderers were beheaded here this morning. He reached Nuaaera, on the east shore 01 the ljtke of Nyaatta, on the 19th of November, aud rem* nod there nearly four mouths, being treated with the greatest kindness by the Sultan an<l all the inhabitant**. On the 16th of March he left Nussera to go to the river Kovoowa, iMMftiM only by tw. negro servants, aud with m> arms but a re volver. tm the third day's march, while resting at a vil lage, they were attacked by robbeis antl poor Dr. Koacher shot in tlie throat and ohest by arrows, aud expired in a lew minutes. <>u? of his servants wad also shot, the surviving servant returned to I We Sultan of Nussera ou the lake, and the scene of the murder keing beyond his dominions he sent him with an escort to the Sultan Km zomania. in whose territories the murder occurred. This chief at once proceeded to the spot and arrested the mur derers, ami recovered as much of Ihr. Reecber's property as ho could, and sent the inou hero, together with ail the articles l?r ltoscher had loft at N'ub^era. Considering that no white had ever before visited these districts, and that Dr. Reaoher had no escort, and nu presents lor the ela'fs, as he nts very ill provide<i with tuwoey, 1 think the kind ness with which ht was treated by the chiefs and people is a strong proof of thoir good disposition towards white men. His unfortunate death was entirely owing to lus own imprudence in travelling through wild districts w^th valuable Instruments, Sic., so entirely without any meajia of defenco. Another Ueruuui gentWman, tho Baron Van der Decken, a colonel in the Hanoverian army, is now here preparing for a journey to the Nyaaaa, and by Uiin 1 intend sending some presents to the Sultan Nusservaud 'lie Sulttu Kuuomanza, who beiwtved bo nobly towards a solitary and unprotected white traveller. Dr. Koacher said that it is a magnificent country all the way up .to the take, which he reached in eighty-live days from the roust. The K' vooua is croeerd about six day* before reaching the Nyassa, and is there a deep broad stream. It discharges an immense body of wuter into the ocean, and is well worthy of being explored. LbhI year 111,000 slaves were imported through The Custom House here; of these 4,000 were from the coast opposite, and 15.000 from Keelwa, and destination of the caravaus]from the Nyassa. Kvery year the slave traDic .s extended furtlier into the in urior, and a great many slaves are now brought from be yond the Nyas-sa, and even the Mazana from thfl valley of tho Shir are now brought here. If it should ever be found p**ible to put a small steamer on tho Lake Nyaasa it would cut od' the ckicf supply of slaves to the east coast. The foreign slave trade has been lately very much on the increase on tho east roast. This is now tho chief market In the world for the supply of ivo.y, gum copal and cloves. In 1809 the export of ivory amounted to 4.')8,6C0 lbs , value ?114 606, of guui copal to 875,875 lbs., value ?87.'66. and of .cloves to 4,860.100 lb., value ?55,666. This trade is nil the growth of the last few years, and were ?be slave trado on the mainland abolished a gifat quantity of cotton, sugar, gums, 4c.. might be exported. The whole of this island Ib of.exceeding fertility: su?ar cano, cotton, cloves, nut megs, pepper, coffee, rice, Holcuss sorghum, \c., grow in tho greatest perfection. The cassavu or manioc, which forms the chief food of the slaves and poorer classes, yields three or four crops t? year, without auy trouble. Almosrthe whole of tho trade hero is now in the haniis of ltritlsh Indian subjects. they have settlements ut all the towns ou the coast, anil even far in the li.'erior. The climate of Zauzibar is not unhealthy, although from its excessive datnpn f8, and there being no cold weather, it id very enervating. 1 think that the Zauzibar State may have a very important effect upon the future of Kast Africa. There are now from 6.000 to 6,000 industrious itritibh subjects residing in it, and commerce ia rapidly extendirg. Believe me, my dear Sir Uoorpe Grey, yours very truly, C. P. RIG BY. In te resting from Matanzas. The steamship Matanzas, Capt. I.iesaegung, in Ave days and six hours from Matanzas, Cuba, arrived here on Mon day morning, with passengers, ?Vc., to Mora Bros.,Na varro & Co. Weather rough. On the26th, at two P. M., passed, in lat. 36 deg. 18 min. N., Ion. 74 deg. 16 inin. W,, a la-ge buoy, painted red, with No. 4 in white. Also a topsail yard, with ringing and >eve?l pieces of timber aud boards MARKET KF.rORT. ? Mata.vzas. Jnn 22, 1861. Sfcars ?Clayed?Business shows a dull apjiearance; very little doing ns yet; great disammatiou prevails, owing, in part, to the diflicuities in the money market, as also for want of contidence throughout our mercantile community; many Spanish vessels in port, anxious to buy; their oflers be-ng too low, holders do not wish to submit, and refuse to sell. Some poor lots of old crop Nee. II and li have changed hands at *7 reals per ar roba. Transactions in new sugars have been niite insig nillcant. Muscovadoee?Stock ou hand. some 3 OOOhhds ; of tb0M 800 hhds. have been so d at 5 to 0 reals for infe rior to good relining. Melado in fair demand, with ready sales at 4 yt a 4 !* reals. Many cargoes are in course of shipment lor Knglaiid. Moiansvs continues in brisk demand; some 500 lihtls. sold nt -'j reals i>er keg, at which rate prices will no doubt open for future operat ions. Muscovadocs may bo quoted at 3>a' a 3*? reals jwr keg. Honky in good demand at 50c. a 5fic. per gallon, includ ing casks. Hi m quiet at $.'11 a $32 per pipe. Kiikkuit.?The demand for vessels is active, particular ly for Europe; tor the I'nitod States more doing; priccs do not Improve. Kxihasuk.?Wry little hus been doing in foreign ex change: rates nominal. On I/>ndon,(iO days, a 13 per cent premium; Paris, par to yi i>er cent premium; New York. Beston, Philadelphia and lialtnnore, 7 a 9 per cent ]ir< mium. - Imports.?Very little is doing; money scarce and dcal <vs are afraid fo enter into any large transactions. Coop erage materials dull; atock ou baud largo, demand ifuittj Black. Our New tJranada ( orrrHpomlmir. J .is MF-KCKPSS. ON THE ILlf.IlAIXSA RlVKI!, ) Dcc. 13,1860. f MirrsiH'-nis of Mmi.'tT J<n>es?The Magi/aiena NatiycUion Compary?I'nfair Conduct of the Government I'arty? Removal of the United States t'ovtular Agent at Banan ifuHbi~1h< Free Negro of New Granada, d-c., cfc. We left Bamnqullla ou the 12(h, early in the morning, the American Minister, licneral Jones, being 011 board the Santa Mnrta steamboat, which was accompanied by the steamers Ivtrella and Cauca. At Rcmoliao the Cauca was left behind while her wheel was being repaired. The latter place was once the stalling roint of the Smta Martn Company, who owned steimlionts for the naviga tion of the Magdalena. It il highly probable that the company ovmk <1 the town, and thus nought to Increaso its pioapority. Tbls company was superseded by the pre seut United Steam Navigation Company, which must have flourished very much previous to the serious Inter lei onc? made by the conservative or government party of thjs country, Jlic American Minister has taken a In lil and decided fttand in regard to this interference, <Q v. Inch he is sustained throughout by our energetic Con sul. Mr. J. II. Ma gill, than whom our government could not have selected a bettor man for the position. United to a fair knowledge of law, he has good common souse, and a proper sense of American rights and interests, v hlch will enure grontly to the advantage and satisfac tin of every American citizen in these parts. The American Minister will insist that the steamers for the navigation of lhfcs 1 iver, owned by American citizens in New York, shall ha*e M"" fr(H> ?""1 lM'rfect right to na Vi 1'ale the river as has been ru.'iv guaranteed by the law of New Granada, of May, lSoO, and constitutional provi si 'in. a* well as a contrai l bet ween the government and the company, icqu'ring the latter to carry the ffails. Ate. I be conservative party, it is said, have detained ifO American and one British steamer above them, lost, as they allege, some news may be brought down to the libe mlson the coa t by the Me imers This pretence is a base excuse for keeping the merchandise of merchant* in the waiehouscs of the coast rotting, and impioitig out rageously 011 American in'eiests. The government having c'ioc 1 the |*>rt? of 8a van 11 la and Carth igena, oow has the unparalleled Injustice to collect duties at Honda, at the head of navigation, whereby duties on tobacco and other things are to be paid twice?once to the liberal party on the 1 oast. Imports are also thus trowelled, and I inay say, for the tin e, annihilated. Hie I'uited states Consul at llarrawpiilla has rovoke<l li s appointment of Mr. ("has. II. Sheldon as Consular Agent, bectuse of the improper course and conduct of the Hitter. It i< asserted that he cpenly took sides with the conservatives, and Ilred twice upon the I i bora Is. lie excul|>ate? himself by saying that lie wag intoxicated at the time. 'Ihis is unquestionably good cnuae for his re moral, though they say he persist* in denting the power of the Consul to remove him. Mi . Sheldon asaeverateo hii intimacy with Mr. Lincoln, and expects a good consu late or other otliee, though he expresses some views nl out the free black men of New Granada rather inconsistent with the philanthropic declarations of the victorious lllinoisan. Indeed, after many weeks' soiourn in South America, I have yet to meet the man who does cot only doubt but deny the capacity of the negro for sell government. l*t our Irtends of the Tribune coiue down and see the pri r >us developemeut of the free ne groonthe road betweeu Cartleigena and Cataniar. and give their report in a : plrit of taudor and truth. Tins is what is wanted rather than their nonsense coococted ou the tr p' 'I This m a tine river, ami great credit 18 Cue to the managers of tie- I nited Kenni Navigation Company tor keeping good boats on the river, it) the face of so much opposition and Injustice. Messrs. ,loy anil Wliaptnun, the former a British and the Itattei an American subject, are the manager.-: ot the com pnny at Harranqutila. I'he American Minister was very Lox[illably entertained by Mr. and Mrs, .foy during his roiouin at that town. I hare h aril Inm speak iu terma 11 grateful appreciation about the kindness ot bin lewis A C??*ni<T tint a T/?;m.?WhlNt Maccnmo wr- going through h ? performance witii the liengal tigers at Man dei'? Menagerie yesteiday, a cgre?M caught Bis hind in her month, llatitir g his kr.ei 111 the small of the tigies*' back, ami pressing her okaibmI the bars of the cage, then S' l/wg he; lower jaw wd i the right baud. he lioid her powerless lo do more than retain the loft hand in her n outb so cool wss M111 ? oiMi hi this trying position that looki ra < ti thought it pait (> his performance, hut when Maitouio called to one 1 f ib' k ejiers, 1 ,'hc has got my band fa-t in her mouth. g< I a !.ai of hot iron, ill" truth i f Irs dangerous |s?itlon liimhcd thtougb the minds of tho.-e pi -" lit. and created the greatest excitement?one l?uy fainting aw?y, o:,u'r - ri ? >ni the painful sijht. four 01 live minut' clapM'd Ndore the iron was ready, 'luring which time Mnrcntho lo- l as a pk co of statuary, not quiver of lip to ,-;iow the pcin he was enduring. Whcitrcadi he hot inn wn .'?i>pUi-<t ipdckh ml sorely by one of the k *efier* to c>t? of lhe large teeth In the i?P" JIW, and. an though be hnd bwn clectrlfted, her til "ith sptang -'|M'ti Maec a>iO, .puck as lightn tig drew II,-- band an ly, caught In ?! of n stick, alt uek th an oil a t r'rlflc Mow n the skult, hiMiuht hir down, m.1 lori e-i her to flni-ih bJ'r performance Wfor? ho left tie- r..g vie 1 M'." om cann out of ?h? c.ige, hU ,i ioiIIdh band itiHf 1 to the frightful s:niggle whKih n 'ih?i' o*> ' 'tv n ? ia 1 .1(1 h< ' -Itffrrpwl Tk* BMMaf ?fT1MMu Mm, AMNIYUhABT OBLUBATION AT TBI CITY OMM ?Lr BOOHS. The one hundred aud twenty seventh anniversary of the birthday of the world nr* ortsus Thomas I'alne wm celebrated M the City Assembly Rooms by a bail m( ?upper on Tuesday evening IV assemblage on thin occasion ?u ooo. iderebly below the average of previous years. The hall was but sparsely aitteuded, but the spirits of the guests and the auimaUou were- never more fully displayed than on this occasion. It would be entirety useless to describe the City As sembty Ko>m3, in which the oelebratioo took place Hung with its chandeliers, and flowing with the lustre of a thousand jets of gas, the hall present*! ? scene of Oriental spleador. Tho music wa^ supplied by Podwortb's l and, and, 18 is usual with the selections of this celebrated leader, tliey were chu&te and elegant, pleasing and gratifying all who danced as well as those who merely watched the feet of the flying fairies. ballroom was without extraordinary decorations. Beyond a lew paintings suspended from the front of the hall, there wa.i nothing to show that the occaa.on was S terpsichorean celebration of the anniver>?ry of the birth day of the p-eatest Infidel the world ever saw. The portrait of Tom Paine was susponled in front of the hall, and on either side it was supported by those of Voltaire, Abner Kneeland, Robert Owen and the celebrated Miss Erarces Wright. These drawings all attracted COB* siderablc attention. After dancing for several hours t'ie whole narty ad journed to the grand banquet hall, where an excellent collation, wider the critical supervision of Mr. Rose, awaited their arrival. As in ordinary cases, the company did their doty In B ?olid and iluid manner, alter which the toasts of th? evcutng aud the wit of the company were let loose. The following is a list of the toasts ? 1 The day we celebrate?The birthday of ona ?f the great. est salnta m lb* calendar?Ihomas, the apostle of freedom "jS*Thomas Pains?'Whose giant Intellect and aaoral courage stamped tlielr impress on mankind, leaving a slch legacy for all time In hi* fevleas advocaey of tiia rights of man. Music. 3. freedom?May her battles so nobly fought in IWSO speedl lv terminate in the universal rec ognition of man's inalien able right to life, liberty and the i> jsauit of Lappiucaa. Mrs. Kuh9. 4. Suudsy?By the anrients devoted to the worship of the au'i, by European civilization regarded as a day ot recreati m aod'glaiiutas, l>ut perverted by IVritan Christianity to a day of gloom and sadness. Music. 5. Education?The ruling pnncip'e In tlve formation of cha rade r; i! rightly directed, the Huvaroigu antidote to superati lion ond the unerring guide to virtue uud happiness. Mualo. b t ree s|>eeoli?It can only be uppi esheo when tyranny trauiphs upon lniuiun rights aud slavery becomes the ruling principle or a nation. Muaic. 7. W omau?Out of her proper sphere until she finds one for herself. Music. The first two toasts were drunk with applause, but without anv response. Mrs. Kn?2?n.MS I.. Rosi-ithus replied to the third toast:? Mr. Prkmmlnt?Frienria, it has ever given mo great pleasure to assist you on these interesting occasions to do homage to the memory of one who, by a lifelong de votion to the cause of freedom, justly deserved the noble title of "the friend of man.'' Allow me, tljon, once more to welcome you on the nntal day of the great apostlo of liberty?Thomas l*ame. There has never beeu a litter time to honor the author of the "rights of man" for freedom, never more .justly called ou her champions, nor humanity more earnestly appealed to the devotion of her children, than the present. The year just past has been full of interest. In that ypar a noble people, so long op pressed by temporal and spiritual despotism that hor emancipation was almost beyond hope, has raited her prostrate form, aud assumed a position among the uUiotw of the earth. Italy, the favored gar it en or nature?the empjrium of the arts?the home of poetry and of song? the birthplace of tho brightest stars in the intellectual and moral constellation?reduced by foreign usurpers, hireling mercenaries, almost to bepgary, inaction and helplessness, has, by the magic arm of Garibaldi, demon strated that tho spirit which once animated her children is not extinct. But this unpiralloled struggle,crowned as it has been with yet more unparallelod victory, is not I complete. Her right arm is yet paralyzed Venice, the bride of the ocean, once the centre ot commeroe, as she stands like an enchanted isle, uuique aud alono ii the wor.'d, is still in the despotic power of Austria. And Italy's noble head, Rome, the Kternal City?once the | cradle of civilization?the great lawgiver or nations?now the tomb or her past glory?who6e very ruins attost her former greatness?tho theatre of the most desperate as the most sublime achievements, the wildest passions, the most gli rious deeds, the highest hopes and noblest aspirations? to whose ge nius the very paving stones sUnd an undying monument, is still in the fiendish grasp of spiritual ty rants, more corrupt and implacable than all otherc, who-m spare time from heavenly altairs is spent in stealiug chil dren rrom their parents. But let us hope that long before wo again assemble to celebrate the birthday of rhomarf 1'aine, Garibaldi will broak the chaios of V< nice and of Rome, like those of Sicily ai d of Naples, and give to the world a truly united and happy Italy. But 1860 has done more, it lits demonstrated that at times it may be the in terest or tyrants to es|?use a good cause. Russia, the sworn enemy or liberty, the plunderer of Poland, has stepped out of his time-hardened despotism to give free dom to the serfs. And Louis Napoleon, the republican President of 48, the usurper of an Km|>eror's throne of '62, the bantsher of the noblest spirits or Prance, the ex ecutioner or her liberties, proclaimed himself the cham pion of freedom in Italy. Wo understand his motives, but let us accept the fact ; this is only the beginning. The same reason that induced him to aid Italy against Aus tria has forced him to relax bis iron grAsp from the throat or subjugated France, and give ber back a pari of the rights he so basely deprived her of. But freedom ii not i atisfled with hall measures. What he gave will soon make ii indispensable for his own safety to return the rest, or logo all. But I must leave tho destiny of Europe to he present year, and note some of the events of 1S60 in this country. lost summer we had the pleasure of try ing to make fools of the Japanese or ourselves for tlic net little sum of $100,000. Then came the Great levia than, that stupor dons production which proved that though Great Britain may not be able to "keep a hotel in America," she has certainly built the greatest ship in the world. Next came tho visit from the amiable, modest I'rince of Wales, who it it to be hoped, after gutting over the iitnictioii of being forced to dance with so many pious old ladies, and of being worshipped at Trinity i nurch, will look with satisfaction and pride on his visit to and reception from his American cou.-ins. With these pletsinge\ ems pasted the summer mouths, then came autumn with her riper fruits, far more important and en during, for of all the days of that y< or will stand in promi nent and ineffaceable character the 6th of November. Ob that day, unlike similar occasions, wlien party men with party measures stood in antagonistic position, principles were brought race to face. The question was not erne of whig or democrat, high or low tariff, but shall henceforth freed< m or slavery be the ruling principle of thisrepnbher Shall flic yet virgin soil, the broad acres stretched in the far West, waiting the mngicliandof free labor to pour foith her golden treasures to the needy children of mun, be consecrated to freedom or polluted by the unba".*,'weu touch of slavery, wfoicii, like u destroying angel, blasts the fair works of liature and of man.' And the sixth of November, burdened with the accumu lated progress of 1860, answered to freedom. 1 hen see to It, free men ol America, that the battle so nobly fought Id 1s60 shall bo brought to a happy ter mination in 1861?that those whom you have lionorod with vour eontldence betray not that voice, violate net the sacred pledge, and turn traitor to the present and future gene rations. 'These are the times that try men's sot,Is. The question which now distracts Hie country is no lopger one of color?it is freedom or slavery, life or death of tho North?it is whether a vile mob. headed by corrupted and treacherous politicians, who would dis sulte not only the Union but the universe to get them selves into office, shall be allowed to trample the dignity, i the manhood and the liberties of the North in the dust I whether wo shall barter away the rights, the progreM nil'l the civilization of the free states for the inestimable blcrsiug to belong to South Carolina. But President Bu rhatuin, by whose criminal connivance that mob was let loo*, beim; loo cowardly and melUcient to weather tho storm he helpel to raise, took refuge in fasting add p lycr. but while the North prayel the South acted. Ark the national forts stolen, the Hag trampled under l< ot. ihe laws violated, the ships Urea into, the govern tui nt disgraced, which of th" prayers was most sticeees lulv Prayed1 lor whau <>nc parly for secession, the other for non sec ess Ion, the Ruphalls and' the Vau Oykee proved aiavery a divine institution, the Bee*chers and the (hcovers proved II from his Satanic Majesty; ono side claims the Bible for an,I tho other claims It against slavery, and ihey both are right. That book Is so ac oeuumodating that It proves ami disproves anything von cboeise. Chameleon like, it reflects Ihe color of the glass y< u look through Hut It strikes me If s wise and goad Power really heard these praying mutinies, He would siy. Cease importuning me uilh your mad wailing* ; go to work, set like rational beings, be true to your highest conviction? to human i ights and human fre<Adom?and when th<?e are III danger, take a lesson from Major Anderson, and/ keep your powder dry," I only help th<?e who help them selves. "But cotton is king, and the Northern cowards w hose souls are com|?iaed or tliat material tremble at His mandates. .nmiIIi Carolina dissolve the Union?a Union " nh a vengeance like th at of husband and wire, *ith all the rishts on one side and all the penalties on tho other. 1 here never was .t true I nion. Tor there was no eipiality bfi *een the free and slave States. The slave ho' ler could come here and say what he pleased?expe tisie on the beauties of >|r>ur pectilisr institutions," but the free man could never go South and say his soul was his own, without the r*?k of being lynched. Ask those who have beeu tarred and feathered, whipped, etpelbvl i nd impri-oned. for the crime or belonging to a free ? late, and yeu will learn the value of such a Union. No. f reedom and slavery eantiot live In harmony; the ona uirst destroy tho either the last feeble threads which gave It ihe appearance reckless bunds have '-napped asunder. Koulh Carolina set up <n independent empire' For my purt I would give her n posspoi t to Heaven to keen away Horn us. But whether the South is allowed to drift to her downward destiny, or forced into submission, let th? watchword be, "No more compromise." Wo expiate now the crime ol having compromised so often, snd even ii wc again tried to reconcile the Irreconcilable would the evilTi.'' No; th' disease would only ??t!wr i tiength and break out with Increased vtruleuce. Tho danger, therefore, Is not the secession of the SoutUfrom 'ho North, but of the North from herself, fr<vn the self evident truth of man's right to l ie, liberty und the pursuit of happiii'S* I^?t that ?lunger only be averted, and all will be well. There niny ye t be hope even for the-S<viih, for "While the tami holds out to burn, the vilest sinner inty re turn." In conclusion, allow me to glance at anther i anger we must guard against The national constitu tion guarantees (Vrrect freedom of conscience, ?nd yet through the lulluonce or a bigoted and con up' prieut hood, InraimuiH Sunday laws hue liecn emu ted to pe-te cute m,d punish inotTendini: Citizens for keeping that 'ay according to their consciences?for pieferrlng rati eial recreation an ', stnusements to rioting an I drunkenness ror preferring a good ce a ert, a comedy or tra? dy In a tbreatre to the priestly farce In the church. If the Hun dsj Is to be kept apart from general business an I Uhor, it is precisely for the purpose to enable the w ?rk tg rli^-e*, who cannot spar1 the tim* 'he r"' oMh" w. >k, ?* ??, i i-. ..?I-l He*-.1.-1 Mji.'ftlJ

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