Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 3, 1861, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 3, 1861 Page 4
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NEW YORK HERALD.' J a u m. B UUHUON BEKHKTT, jcditor and hioprietur. omoi N. W. COKNKB Of rXTLTOH A NO NASSAU BT8. TERMS, . <uA fa admmn Money r* t* maM "?*?'? risk JU under, tfom* Ud Atifa biUt emrrmt fa N<m York TUB VAllT BBHaLP, t*o ~*U T?* WKKKir uKUAI I), ~m JT^gT MM, or $S fw> wum. tA? K*r<jpmn tshtwn mtmm om* %** an*. %* v* <*?'??? *> **lrt *?? ZuZTZiZJTV *< Mk to imelwU potUtf/e. tht rWV'"-"?i l^lUium ?? '*<? 1?<, 1I<A H* V ?ac* wtmfa, if ?fa ?^r^irr%i?/rtrrH'?fa-<i-v. - /b-r-l. '^^cVrAKT^vkMMBPOirDJWm ******** MM, wMrttei Ai? J?* ?wr(? of (A. jeorW. ? ?m4, ?HW h* Utcro/h. jMIci /or. M-Oul KoRElUN OoRREsrON DENTS A HI p7*T1C* I A?Iv iNUUtlU TW ?RAA iM LsrTRU AJfD PACE AOM BK?T CI. ? . ? . NO VOTH'K ***** * amtmymom comgpondam**. W* do not return retried rmHmvninatum*. JOB PBJVTl&t* ma?cyima with mahnw, cJwtpnem and de ??fa* roiuu xxvi no. 33 AMUSEMENTS TO MORROW BVEMNO. ACADEMY or MUHIO, Fourteenth street.?Italian 0r? RA?Til* Marker or SRT1LLR. NIBLO'S GARDEN, Broadway.? Richelieu. WINTER OAKLEN, Broadway, opposite Bond street.? Macef-tii. WALLACES THEATRE, Broadway ?PlatUU with Tike. LAURA KKKSE'S THEATRE, No. 624 Broadway ? Bk%KM (UTKI.I. NEW ItOWKKY THEATRE, Bowery.?COOL as a Cucuh ?hr? UtiiLiqviH Jack?Thkukhe BARNUM'^ AMERICAN MUSEUM, Broadway ? Day and Erenlnn?Smii ?s ami Tears?Tu? Lady or St. TnorKZ? Living 1;urio?ities, Ac. BR1ANTS' MINSTRELS, Mechanics' Hull, 472 Broad way ?BURLESQUES, SOHOS, DaMOEM, Ao ?SCENE* AT OUH KEY'S. 1VOOLEY h ('AMI'RELL'3 MINSTRELS, Nlblo's Saloon, Lroadway.?Ethiopian Sonus, Dancks, Buulkshuks, Ac.? HTAUK STKUCE llkllOEH. CANTPR''RV MUHIO HALL, 66S Broadway.?Tight Worn, Hongs, Dances, Ucrlexuues, Ac. MELODKON, No. 639 Broadway.? Songs, Dances, Bur lesques, Ac. ART UIUfiN, No. 497 Broadway.?Burlesques, Songs, Dances, METRO POUT AN HALL, Jersey City?Budworth A l)tliriBI.L'l Vood's Minitkelr?Burlesque on Rarey. ' Sew York, Sunday, February 3, 1801. The Ntwi. Col. Hayne, the South Carolina Envoy, Bent a communication to the President yesterday, in which he propone* to open negotiations for the transfer of the federal property to the State, and In case of non-compliance threatens the capture of Fort Sumter. The President summoned his Cabinet on the receipt of the letter to deliberate upon the subject. The result i3 not known, but it is stated that the President will act an heretofore with regard to the demands of South Carolina, and await the result. The Louisiana secessionists have seized the Mint and Custom Houss at New Orleaus. The Mint contain* a considerable sum of public money, which the government agent at New Orleans has refused to deliver up to the Vnited States. But little of importance transpired in the United Ftates Senate yesterday. The resolution pro viding fur the appointment of a Joint Special Com mittee to count the votes for President and Vice President was adopted. In the House, the bill authorizing a loan of twenty-five millions of dol lars for government expenses and the redemption of treasury notes was discussed, and opposed by the democrats, hut finally passed hy a vote of 134 to 46. The loan is to bear six per cent interest. The bill itself may be found among our Washington despatches. The Senate's resolution relative to the election of President and Vice President was concurred in. Both the Washington Peace Convention and the Convention of the secession States at Mont gomery meet to-morrow. Several of the delegates to the former had reached Washington last even ing, and it is likely that they will all be at the capital by Monday morning. Albany was the focus of intense excitement last evening, the occasion being the nomination by the republicans in caucus of a candidate for the United States Senate to succeed Mr. Seward. On tho tenth ballot, Ira Harris was unanimously declared the nominee. We publish in to-day's paper a number of in teresting extracts from our European files re ceived by recent ai rivals. The cotton question in England is thus alluded to by the London Chroni cle:?"The question is, in fact, little short of life and death. Ruin to merchants and millowners, and starvation to the rest of the population, hang immediately in the balance. One year's failure of the American crop, or postponement of the Ameri can supply, would produce calamities worse than any war or famine within modern experience." The Commissioners from South Carolina to the imperial government of France have had an inter "View with M. Thouvenel, Minister for Foreign .Affairs, but the result is not known. It seems to l>e considered certain, however, that no steps will V>e taken by that government till the action of the ?'her slave States, as well as that of the federal government at Wat-hington, be known. The ta-hlp Tennessee, which arrived at New Orleans from Vera Cruz, brings dates from that port to the 23d. and from the capital to the loth ult. Juarez had made his entry into (be Capital amid great rejoicing*, and there were but two or three email armed bands of the beaten faction in the field, which might be easily dis persed. l*i<lro Diaz, one of Miramou's ex-minis ter*, had been caught at Jalapa, and Ai order was transmitted from the government at the capital to shoot him and every clergy leader as soon as they might be taken; but on the intercession of MiramonV wife the order was countermanded within a few hour*. The whereabouts of Mira tnoa is not known. The last heard of bim wkh, that he had escaped from a party which aurrounded him by the free use of his revolver. The election for 1'reaident took place on Sunday, the 20th alt., with what rexult is, of course, not known, though it is Mippo*ed by some that Lerdo de Tejada stand* the best i hanoe, since J Bare z and Ortega have lost ground by their magnanimous clemency to van quished enemies?verily, To- Victi*. The new government will have their hand* full. A number of foreign minister* have been dismissed, the go vernments of France and (treat Britain have claims to prefer, and a w?r with Spain in regarded as pro bable. The new Congress will meet in April, and with all these matter* and the difficult task of re organizing the country on their hand*, their labor will not be light. We are again indebted to Adam* A, Co.'a Express for New Orleans and other 8outhern papers in ad . ance of the regular mail. The Ht< atn?hip Huntsville, for Favsnnah, went through the process of loading up to three o'clock V, M. yesterday, at pier 12, without any open sur ?ill ance, although some persons were observed in . itleens'dress closely inspecting some package*. ? waa rumored that mme cases of arms were on :>i>ard, in the disguise *>f ordinary merchandise, but no auch pac kages were attempted to be seized. The only police present were the ordinary pier guards. The steamship Alabama, for Bavannah, lying at pier 36, waa also closely watched during the time of loading by a number of police officers, who either stood on the pier or walked to and from the ?pH*el. Bkt completed the shipment of her cargo gt three o'clock P. M. yesterday, after which time all freight waa refused, although the vessel was oot to leave the pier until this morning, being de teioed by fog. No arms were known to be on toard this Teasel. A dense fog?the densest in fact that has visaed tl)s region for a long tiae-preraile4 is U?e city | all d?y yesterday. Objects could not be seen tw? bundled yard** off, and ax a natural conaequence great inconvenience and annoyance were expe rienced by the public. On the rivers the effects of the fog were chiefly unwelcome. Navigation by the ferry boats was no easy matter, and to avoid tb< dangers of collision a sharp look out was continually kept by the pilots, and the bells were ringing incessantly. None of the outward bound steamer* proceeded to sea yesterday on account of the fog. The Scotch are noted for being clannish and liking everything appertaining to their nationality; but the Scotch mist and fog of yesterday did not meet the apiriival of the "curlers" of the Central I'nik, consequently the ma'cli between the four ? )< b- for the silver handles was postponed till a iuor? fx\nrsble opportunity. '1 hi skating pond of the Central Park was well flootled by the waters from above and the drain ing* of the Park, consequently the labor of No. 46 steam fire engine, boys was thrown away, except that tbe fact was ascertained that the pond could have a new surface formed iu a short time by this proceea. After the experiment whs made, Mr. Kadford regaled the boys with a collation free of expense. Yesterday a gang of men were engaged clearing off all pieces of grass, wood, segar stumps, Ac., that might be fouud floating on the surface of the water, so that when the reaction of the frost takes place the ice might be clean. A skating match has, we understand, been inade between Fuller, of Boston, and Kngler, of New Jersey, for $500 aside, $60 deposit, to come off the first fine day for skating. There is no prospect of skating for to day. Mr. John S. Rarey gave a charity lecture yes terday afternoon, at the Academy of Music, for the bcnelil of the Widows and Orphan's Asylum. The building was crowded, and the exhibition in the highest degree successful. Among the subjects introduced and experimented with were Mr. Heward's Arabian steeds, the noted fighting horse Peacock, and other less noted equine celebrities. A report of the exhibition will be found in another column. The cotton market yesterday was without change of moment In prices. Tho transactions footed up about 4,too bales, at least 2,000 of which were sold in transit. Although the Arabia's news showed an active market in Liverpool, yet it led to no improvemi nt with us. Was the English money market easy and the supply abundant, no doubt ex it to but what the article would ere this have attained a hipher range of prices than those current at ?ast dates, fbe future growth and supply of cotton is one of the most impoitant questions that ever concerned England aud the commercial world generally. Manchester consumes weekly about 40 000 bales of American cotton, of the value of about $2 000 000, or $8,000 000 per month Gieat Bri'aiu, in round numbers, last year consumed about $1(0,000 0t0 worth of *me-lcan cotton. France took between ?>00 000 and 600,000 bales, or the value of $26,000,000 to $30,000,000. The total exported to ail Eu rope was 8,600 000 bales, of the value ot $180,000,000 Auiericau unuulnctuicrs coniumed 750.000 bales, ot the value of $37,600,000. The total valuo of cotton consume,'! in Europe and America of the crop of 186P 60 was $217, 600 000. Were it possible to strike this production from existenoe, it would result in greater disaster than the total annihilation of half a dozen California gold regions. In the one case, millions of people derive their food and clothing from its pro tuctlon, manufacture anttranspor tation, while in the other case a few vessels could carry all the gold ever dug from the earth; while the shipmentof one crop of cotton, like that of 185?-'60, employed over a million tons of American shipping, manned by about 31,000 American sailors. The destruction of the cotton crop of the South would produce a commercial revulsion which would be felt throughout Christendom, involving revolution, if not the overthrow of the government, In England. If anything can suspend or subvert Its culti vation at tho Houth tt will be an attempt at coo rot,in, leading to civil war. Breadstufl's were lieavj and dull throughout. I'ork was in fair demand, with rather more doing. The sale* of sugars embraced about #00 hhds., at unchanged prices. Coffee was steady. Freights closed at better rates, especially for graiu to Liverpool. The Drift of Ihf Revolution?No Compro mise Mow uf ?? rt?i??Vl? Nrparatlon. The 4th of February, as our reader* are aware, will be n day of great events. It is the day appointed for the meeting of the border State Compromise Union Convention at Wash ington; and for the assembling of the indepen dent Southern Confederacy Congress at Mont gomery, Alabama; and it is also the day set apart for the election of delegates to a State Convention in Virginia, on the direct question of secession. The hopes of the conservative Union men of the country, who still cherish some hopes of a Union-saving compromise, are anxiously di rected to this border State Convention at Wash ington. But we think it due to oar readers frankly and freely to admonish them to prepare for the worst. We have no hope of any com piomibe trom this border State Coufereuce. it comes too late to arrest this Southern tide of revolution The Conference may result in an agreement upon some half-way adjustment; but of what value will it be at this late hour of the day? It will'be submitted to Cougre.-s, and there it will be laid upon the table; for it must be abundantly manifest at length to every intelligent mind that the republican party, with the 1'resid^nt elect at their bead, " have no com promises to make," and will not listen to any offers of compromise, until they shall have first tried, under the direction of President Lincoln, the I'nion saving policy of "the enforcement of the laws." Concluding, thus, that this border State Con ference will accomplish nothing to save the Union, our attention is next called to the Southern Confederacy Congress. The object of this Congress is the organization of a gene ral government for the six seceded SUles, and such others as may join them. The pro gramme, as we understand it, is already mtp ped out A provisional federative government, on the basis of our federal constitution, will be at once established, including a t'resident, Vice President nnd Cabinet an<4 a Congress, mainly composed of the representatives of the seceded States that have withdrawn from th? two houses at Washington. The government of the Southern confederacy ttms org im/.ed will be proclaimed to the world; an t ambassa dors to the government at Waxniugton, and to the principal Powers of Kurope. will be next appointed. Next, a defensive army tor the confederacy will be organized, over which it l? supposed Ceneral Jefferson Davis will be placed as the no?ive Commander in-Chief. All this work will be doue, as we are In formed, within a few days, the whole pro gramme being already arranged. And what next? The Virginia State Convention And what hope for the Union is there in that quar ter? Let us inquire. This State Convention will assemble nnder the most powerful inducements to secession. There will be an organized Southern confederacy on the one baud, and an uncompromising republican Congress and an Incoming coerclre republican admiuist ration, on the other band. There will be the coaric*toQ tfet if Virginia shall elect to remain in the Union she will be cut off from the seceded slave States, a policy which will weaken her self, weaken them, and lay the rltal domestic institution, in which all the slave States have a common interest, completely open to the repub lican policy of coercion, Virginia, then, we may safely assume, will elect to joiD her fortunes with the Southern confederacy, fully a^ured that as she levis all ?he border slave Sutea will follow. Thus in deciding for the union of tbefiru*?*n slave States, Virginia will at once decree a Southern con federacy, powerful alike to dictate or conquer a peace at borne, and to command rrspect abroad; a confederacy abounding in all the re sources essential to a great nation, and to a prosperous people under a cheap government We expect then, that Virginia will secede, that the other border slave States will follow her, including Maryland, and it is quite possible that all ibis m*y yet be done before the close of the first loo nth of Mr. Lincoln's administra tion. And bore we come to the special point of danger?we mean the danger of a terrible civil war. Virginia leading the way, it is pos sible that Maryland may be hurried with revo lutionary abiuptness into the same alternative of secession; and this, too, in the interval to the 4?h of March. In this event, there can be little doubt of the precipitation of a body of ten, fifteen or twenty thousand men from Vir ginia and Maryland upon the city of Washing ton, and what then 1 Beyond this Southern coup d'/tai for the occupation, dr facto, of the government of the United States, we can only discover in the darkening horizon the bloody encounter of hontile armies, fierce bombard ments, and the ascending smoke and flames from towns and cities, North and South, wasted hy fire and sword. Such is the entertainment to which, in de fault of a compromise for union and peace, he incoming administration is invited. Hut how are we to escape this dreadful alternative of war, if it is now too late to hope lor a Union-saving compromise? We answer that though it may be too late to restore the Union, it is not too late to save us from the horrors of a civil war. If the Union is hopelessly di vided, as wo believe it to be, let the North and the South agree to part in peace, like brethren who cannot and will not live together peaceably under the same roof. Accordingly we urge upon this border State Conference at Washington the paramount duty of suggesting the ways and means of the peaceable recognition of a Southern confedera cy as the only escape from a general and ruin >ub war. Greeley for Senator, Why Not??We -?taled the other day that there was to be an nfusion of Weed, Bigelow and wickedness into iur pious daily cotemporary, and we find that the ;.M Adam lilMf already begun lo work. Yester day our evangelical brethren had a ferocious ittuck upon the lion. Massa Greeley, declaring ibat he was not fit to wear Mr. Seward's old -hoes, and inferring that Mr. Evarts WAS (he most "senseless and fit man" to bear the Sena torial lantern. We were really pained by the boroughly unchristian way in which the lash i was laid upon the simple philosopher of Spruce ! street Mr. Greeley, we are told, is a "coarse and sometimes abusive writer ;M he" presumes to be wiser than the doctors on the subject of diete 'ics be " can't keep a hotelhe has an " impatient, egotistical mind;" he is a " man who cannot restrain himselfhe " pelts you with coarse epithets;" he is " the Tope of (he piccaninies ;" he has a "damnatory style ;" " his discretion never got tho better of his eagerness to say a harsh thing;" he is "egotistical," "impatient." "intolerant" and "wrong headed"?altogether a wretch who ought to be chained to his own desk and never permitted to go out unions in charge of a keep er. Beecher, using up a brother who failed to agree with him in his favorite Sharp's rifle style of theology, could not be more savage than Bigelow upon Greeley. Now we do not purpose to join in this hue and cry against Hon. Massa Greeley, who seemB to be in the same position as that of Chevalier Forney when Cameron was chosen Senator from 1'eninylvania. All Greeley'? ri vals, Webb, Weed, Itaymond, Bigelow, Bryant and the small fry republican editors, are doing their utmost to ruin his prospects, and they may succeed. His religious ene my is chiefly exercised because Greeley is not a lawyer; but we cannot see the for^ gf that vbje^tjou According to the general 'mpression of the public, the chief business of a lawyer is to lie for his client, and Greeley bus told lies enough for his party to make the fortunes of any ten men at the bar. If he wishes to change the old white coat for Award's mantle, we say let him have it The old coat has Been some hard service, and is not so cl* an as it might be; but we believe that it is still purer than Seward's political garments, which were first soiled by the slime of anti masonry, then dragged through the filth of ibolition. and since spattered with the mud of corruption, until their original color is hardly perceptible. Greeley will find the old white coat the more comfortable of the two after all. Imttdkm'k ok tiik Grand From time immemorial grand juries and coroners' in quests have been notorious for tbeir stupidity, but it has remained for the inquisition of this city to cap the climax, and set an example of imbecility and impudence before which all previous attempts in the same line must hide their diminii-hed heads. We allude to the action of the Grand Jury upon the Mayor's message. Instead of confining themselves to their proper business?the indicting of persons who have been guilty of palpable violations of the laws tor the protection of property?the jurymen go out of their way to present a message which wns simply speculative, not peremptory, nor even recommendatory in its tone. Just now no man csn pretend to say what the end of our national troubles may be. nor whai courte the city of New York will finally take. We may be obliged to go with a confederacy >' tbe central and border States, or to joiu with tbe West, or to set up for ourselves. Everybody speculates In his own mind upon the present state of things and the pro babilities of the future, and the Mayor of Now York had most certainly the right to express his views upon tbe matter io a message. The (?rand Inquest in presenting Ibis document has piteti to It more importance than it deserved, Hud at the same time furnished another proof 'hat political spite and fnvy will lead men to do tbe m< st absurd and impudent things. Why <lo not the Grand Jurors inquire Into tbe rocent uflfciant violations of the law by the Metropoli tan police? The force has made descents upon private property shipped from this port, and t?ken it from its owners, without color of law sod in utter defiance of the rights of the citizens having it In charge. Yet the Grand Jury winks at tbese outrages, and presents a harmless mes ssge from tbe Chief Magistrate of the city.

There's consistency for you! Th? Pi-nrilun Agnlait Ibr Abol'tloMlnti? Awrrli mn Civilization Vcr>?> PurttM KkBBllii?n>. Tb? reports of the proceedings of the Aboli tion Convention at Syracuse, which we publish ed h day or two ago, t>huw iha' a strong reaction has set in against the abolition sentiment in a city of this State, tbe scene of the Jerry rescue, -?nd long the Ktronghold of un'i slavery fanati cism. Similar developements hare t tken pi tee in other parts of the State, including this city, and at various points in tbe North. Among tin-so healthy symptoms, are the repeal of the Personal Liberty bill in Rhode Island, and the return of the fugitive si tve Lucy from Cleve land, Ohio. The fanatical anti-slavery pro ceedings in Boston at the close of last week were not allowed to pass off ho smoothly as usual; though in that city, a year ago, John Lrown was canonized by the assembled citi zenB, including Governor Andrew. Tbe fearful coi.sequences of the aboli tfon "propagandisra in bteaking up the Union and inaugurating civil war are coming home to every man's business, if not to his bosom. Hence the effort to suppress it Rut tbe sentiment still lies deep in the Northern mind, and though bills nullifying the Fugitive Slave law may be repealed in New England, the anti-slavery feeling is not eradicated, and will break out again in full blast if the ques tion is not now finally settled beyond the reach of agitation. The Northern mind needs to be re-educated. The fertile source of the ever-recurring mischief is the Puritan idea of the superiority of their sect over other men, and a mysterious divine right which they claim to possess of dictating to all mankiud?a right which they hold to be higher than the authority of the Bible and the constitution, and which ought to be maintained at all hazards, even witlt Sharpe's "rifles, bayonets and cannuu balls This is a principle which has deluged Europe with blood for centuries, but happily is exploded there in the present ago. The question for the American people to decide is, whether they will allow it to produce the same fruits here, or whether they will not now lay the axe to the root, that the poison tree may all, never to bloom again in this soil. According to Mr. Reecher, in a late sermon, " Puritan blood means the blood of Christ.'' TIence the superiority of Puritan blood, and the inferiority of all other blood ; and hence Mr. Reccher says, "the North is the braiu and (he moral centre of this confederacy;" and Wendell Phillips last week, and indeed in ill bis lectures, affirms that the Puritanism of Massachusetts is the germ from which every thing that is good in the country has sprung. As for the North being tho brain of the con federacy, the assertion is contrary to the noto rious truth of history. A Southern man?Jef ferson, a slaveholder?drew up the Declaration of Independence; a Southern man?Madison, a slaveholder?was the great artificer of the con stitution; aSouthern man?Washington, a slave holder?presided over the federal convention which adopted it; was first President of the United States, as he was th<> victorious military chief of the Revolution?"first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his oountrymen." Up to the present time the slavelioldiug South has furnished the greater number of our Presi dents and our principal statesmen, and it is only now, when narrow minded Puritanism at tempts to grasp the helm, that there is danger of ?l??|?wr?ok Tt w?? not. the witch-burning, persecuting sectarianism of Massachusetts that modelled the constitution, but the liberal ideas of Virginia?the Old Dominion, the mother of States and of Presidents. The colony of Jamestown was long ahead of that of Plymouth Rock?the rock on which we fear the Union is destined to be split. New York, too, was be fore the Ray State. The order of colonization in the thirteen Sta-les was as follows:? Virginia by tho Hritiah 1807 New Turk by tbe I'utch (and afterwards bv Kng lis.li) 1618 Massachusetts by the Knglish Puritans 18J0 New llani|?hlrr by the knglish Puritan? lOiB Iielaware by the iSwodea (afterwards by the Ihitch and Kngtiish) I. ? l*v:s (tonnecttcut by Maasarhusett* emigrant* 10R3 Maryland by I?>rd Daltimore and tliuOknUolicH 16:13 Rhode la land by Massachusetts emigrant* 183? North tfcrolina by Virginia settlers new South Carolina by Virginia settlers 1H70 New Jersey by Imtch and Swnlea 1870 Pennsylvania by Win. I'enn and the (Juakers IikI Georgia by General Oglethorpe, the Kngllsh and per secuted Protestant* of all uatlous 1732 Tlic proportion of the Puritan element in sub sequent migrations from Europe was compara tively small. At the census immediately after the formation of the Union the population of Virginia was double that of Massachusetts, and nearly as great as that of the whole of the Now Englund States. The population of Virginia was 747.610; that of all the New England States was only 827,443. The population of all <h<- other States was 2,513,638. The popula tion ol New England was therefore only one lourth of the whole. So untrue is it that Puri tanism preponderated either in population, religion or intellect, or that it controHod the destinies of the country at the forma tion of the government The immense emigra tion of recent years has been chiefly Irish and German, far remote from Puritanical fanaticism. The population of New England to day bears a still smaller proportion to that of the other States than it did at the time of die ({evolution, and the Puritanical element in the whole country is far smaller than it was at tho census of 1790. Far be it from us to deny that men of genius, able statesmen, scholars and distinguished patriots have beeu among tho sons of the old Ray State, and at this day, in spite of their education, some of the most liberal minds in the country are to be found within her pale. Put it must not be for got'en that Massachusetts first started the fatal idea of secession, which ha* been iinitabMi by South Carolina ; nor can it be denied by any impartial observer that Massachusetts bus alw ays arrogated too much credit to herself. The idea of a confederated republic did not spring from the Pui itaus. but from the united Provinces of the Netherlands, who threw off the yoke of Spain; and the Hollanders bor rowed it from tho medieval confederations of Italian nepnbllcs, who derived it from ancient Pagan Greece, the inventor of liberty and of arts. So little has the Christian religion of any aect, and least of all Puritanism, to do with the great charter of American frewloin, which Mr. Beecher tells us is the sum of his "pure and undeflled religion." If there is any one ele ment of nationality in our constitution more than another it is that of the Putch. As for the Pnritans, they were not able to squeeso a particle of their sectarianism into the catholic and Godlike instrument. In regard to slavery, Mr. Tleeoher conveys a totally false idea when he represents Massachusetts an having started a civilization with free b.bor, and Virginia a civilization with slave labor. He says:?"In one and the same year, 16 0, English ships landed Um Puritans in New England and the negro slaves in Virginia?two seeds of two systems that were destined to find here a growth and a strength unparalleled in hiBtory." Now, the truth of history is, that at the time of the Declaration of Independence all New England, including Massachusetts, was slave, and one of the grounds of revolution alleged in that mani festo was that the mother country excited in surrection of the negroes, as Puritan emissa ries from New England hare lately done in the South. Massachusetts was the only State of the whole thirteen that was not a slave State at the time ot the Union. She never discovered that slavery was a sin till it had ceased to be profitable in her cold, barren climate, adapted only to the white emigrant of Europe. For years afterwards her ships conveyed slaves from Africa to Virginia and other Southern States And long before that she made slaves of the Indians and sold them into captivity. All the Northern States, like Massachusetts, have found out that white labor is more profitable, and the Puritan clergy have now discovered that negro slavery is a sin. The Southern States, on the contrary, find negro slavery profitable for their climate, and their clergy pronounce it not only no sin, but a be aeficent institution, sanctioned by the Bible itself. ? So far from negro slavery having any con nection with the colonization of Virginia, she long protested against the importation of ne groes from Africa by British authority. It was the discovery of the cotton gin by an ingenious Yankee that rendered slavery profitable to the South, and to the whole nation; and had the Puritans inhabited the South, instead of bleak* New England, we should never hear a word from them against negro slavery. Even as it is they grow rich from the manufacture of cotton, and all of them wear the fabric which comes from slave culture, while none are so conscientious as to deny themselves the use of sugar, or rice, or tobacco, the products of the same kind of labor. Now the Puritans hold that the negroes ought to be mado free throughout the whole land?which of course implies their equality with the whites, their right to amalgamate with them, and their right to fill the public offices, from that of President downwards. The re publicans hold that there ought to be only one kind of labor at the South and at the North. But the laws of nature overrule their contracted views. Hitherto homogeneous na tions have been formed by race and climatc, and their institutions have been regulated thereby. The United States of America form ^n exception to the rule, because their vast area embraces two opposite climates?one cold, suited only for White labor, and the other tro pical, suited only for negro labor. For the fifit time in the history of the raoe it has thus become happy, contented, civilized and Chris tianized. In the North the negro dies out. There is no antagonism, no irrepressible con flict, between the two systems of labor. Both harmonize with nature, and both contribute to the happiness of their respective sections and to the good of the whole. It is only by servi tude under Christian masters that the negro has ever been rescued from barbarism, or can be preserved from relapsing into it. It is only by this system that ho can be com pelled to work in the South; and never did any population become civilized but by labor Hence the failure to civilize the Indian, because he could not be subdued to labor. It is only by servitude of the negro that the two races can be kept distinct in one community; otherwise we should soon witness here that deterioration of men which has ruined Mexico. Servitude is happiness to the negro; liberty is a means of happiness to the Anglo Snxon. and the present relative condition of both l aces is the best security for the prosperity and well being of the whole community. This double system of ci\ilization in one country is a new governmental idea peculiar to the United ?States of America. It has worked well, and would have worked well forever if let alone. Whether the condition of the North will be improved by the change which now seems in evitable, is a problem which yet remains to be solved. New Mexico and thk New York Tribune.? The Hon. Ma--u Greeley, in his anxiety to pre vent the admission of New Mexico into the Union as a measure of compromise, had been naying nome hard things of the people of that Territory, which were reiterated in Congress by Mr. Sherman, of Ohio, and Messrs. Wash burne utul Tappan in the minority report of ihe Committee of Thirty-three. The delegate in Congress from New Mexico, Mr. M. A. Otero, lias replied to the Tribune'a article in a lengthy letter, which appears in a Washington paper, denying all the abortions of our contemporary, and stigmatizing them as false and malevolent. The leading charges against New Mexico were that an attempt is being made there to establish slavery by "the scum of Southern ras caldom, driven out of California by the San Francisco Vigilance Committee," who are now lodged in Arizona; that the federal offices in ihe Territory are filled with pro-slavery propa gxndists; and that the people of the Territory are a hybrid race of Spanish and Indian origin, ?'igm.rant, degraded, demoralized and priest ridden." To all and every of those assertions Mr. Otero gives an unqualified denial. He says, in hiiav er to the first charge, that these victims of the Vigilance Committee were "all from the North, and mostly citizens of New York. The interesting catalogue consists of Hilly Mulligan, Reub Maloney, Charley Duane, I>an Aldrich, Casey, Cora, Yankee Sullivan and others, all of whom were Northern men, and addicted to the practice of shoulder hitting and ballot box stuffing. They have never sat foot In New Mexico, but are enjoying the association and pleasures of congenial spirits in the city which Is houered with the present-* of Horace Gree ley." To the second cbargo he replies that in the appointment of federal officers he took the initiative himself, and that not one of them was selected for his pro-slavery opinions; and hat, with the exception of a few army oftkera, no one in New Mexico holds a sla.-r To the assertion that the people wlom be (Mr. Otero) represents are a hybrid race, ignorant and prieat-TKldea. he oppos* a the statement that the conquered Indian raow holds Itself entlroly aparl from th??e of Spanish blood, lives in different villages, haf a dififcrent social statu*, and never Intermarries with the Spaniard*. He avows that the New Mexican people possess as firmly organized a moral structure u any people on the faee of the e?rth; and in regard to their being priest-rid den, he advisee the editor of the Tribmt to "administer rebuke to the unholy fanaticism which, Sabbath after Sabbath, desecrates tbo pulpit of the North by incnlcations of resist ance to the laws of the land, of treason against the constitution of the United States, of war upon the peace, prosperity and happiness of our imperilled country. Let him turn the battery of bis press," he pays, "upon the insane ravings of pretended ministers of the Gospel throughout New England and New York, and he may then rebuke the priestcraft of New Mexico." And with this piece of excellent ad vice the delegate from New Mexico dismisses the Hon. Maesa Greeley. Too Late in the Day.?The Washington cor respondents tell us that the Senate Chamber presented a very impressive scene the other day, when the monster petition in favor of con ciliation and compromise was brought in by Mr. Seward, who was kind enough to allude in the most flattering terms to eminent mer chants, bankers, publishers, &c., of New York, who took the trouble to go all the way to Washington in the hope that their mere per- ' onal appearance at the Capitol would be suf ficient to bring about a settlement of the pend ing question and restore peace to the country. This is all a mistake, and the distinguished citi zens of New York made their tedious journey for nothing. Mr. Seward is undoubtedly a very great man, but hardly equal to the present emergency; the Chamber of Commerce is a most important institution, but there are some things beyond its reach; the eminent merchants, bank ers, printers and so on are very worthy and influential people in their proper spheres, and of very small importance out of them. Their errand was a bootless one, because things hare gone too far; the secession fever has become so widely spread and so deeply seated that the present administration and Congress can do nothing to abate its violence. Had a compro mise been offered at the beginning of the ses sion it might have been acceptable, but now things are in such a position thai the Union can only be restored by a direct appeal to the people. It is altogether too late In the day for fine speeches and monster petitions. Economy with a. Yknoeanoh.?Among other fine things which were to result from the eleo tion of a black republican President, according to the leaders of the party, was the introduc tion of a system of rigid economy into the ad ministration of public affairs. By way of illus trating this idea, we pre&ume, Mr. Sherman, of Ohio, has introducod a bill authorizing the President to borrow twenty-five millions of dol lars. Mr. Sherman said that money would soon be wanted, and that the bill should be passed immediately. This is what we call economy with a vengeance. Before the domi nant party has come into power its leader asks for twenty-five millions of dollars as a begin ning ! Is this intended as a war loan, or only as the first instalment wherewith the mouths of the more rapacious of the spoils seekers are to be stopped. NEWS FROM THE STATE CAPITAL Jill JURATION rot UNITED STATES SENATOR. The Excitement oh the Senatorial Ques tion?(Jurat* Holding a Levee?W??4 on the Anxloua Beat?Hoile Looking after the Collectorahlp?Actions of the genate on the I'onunlMloneri to Washington, <M., ?W. Amurr, Fob. 2, 1X81. Ycetorday morning the Kvarts figurora were auxioon cing numerous accessions to Ibeir ranks, anJ gaw namoa of members and the persons that had prevailed upon them to change their votes. This, with the activity of all the State officers, with the exception of Lieut. Got. Campbell, for Kvarts, led mo to believe that the tide waa strongly setting that way. Last evening I discovered that the numerous changes that they counted upon bad not all been made, and this morning, from personal inter views with the members, I further ascertained that they had made no accession; and, on the contrary, I dis covered three members that were run for Oreeley, that I put in my list yesterday against him. This, with other circumstances, among which is the statement of Weed that he hoped to succeed, but it wax doubtful. ' When the Warwlcksof the republican party doubt, then j ou can rely upon it that there are broikers ahead. The content is a close one, and there will be cheating on aM sides. ^ lifts were offered last night, two to ono, that F.varts would be Senator, and wore quickly taken by the othe slue. The thing is considerably mixed up, and all sid<* are bound to be disappointed. The politicians that have Ix* n influential and ull power heretofore llnd themselves without any now. The famous letter t I t.^eeley to Seward^nng notice of bis retirement from Uio Arm of Seward ?eed* k Co., has been printed in pamphlet (tinn amif circulated amongst the member*. The sentence, i;t? trust thai v?e shall be evon no the first TuowiaJ^jf Abru*ry next," has been printed In smal1*caps aoi'-iyl<>ok?d,uiM>iK,iia ap plicable now, inasmuch as the da a t'or^ oloctng the lulled States Senator takes places ou the lirst Tuesday of February. A |?'titi<>n has been sent up fro ? New York 11 one of the republican members, signed by sevural hundred oltl sens, Imploring him to veto foi Horace Ureeley for United States Senator. The lobby Is not by any means all on one side. There Is a strong force for Ureeley, from New York. Among tbe number acttvoly at work I noi>?) Alderman Pay ton, George Opfyke, fiavld Dudley Field, ex Alderman I'arnigh, Hugh Gardiner, Councilman tlrton. Charles A. Iiuna, Supervisor Dutchur, ex Member Cooper, and several others of that stamp, all of whom are m busy as mortals well can be. Attorney General Meyer h is a String going back and forth between bis offl e and the Assembly Chamber, imploring and plendlug in behalf of Evsrls I have tot yet itseettamed any real impertunt change that be ban brought nk?>ut trails is holding a levee in tli" St*te Library this morning, and bis agents are running the w?rnbfrs In one at a time. W'^ed has be. n In the Capitol ail the morning, and ** flying about like a general on U?o eve or a bauie wblth there Is a great danger of Insotng. Taking tnem hi re t.noer the shrd has b'ttn the ordxi ut tlte day, and It would not at all surprise me to see a ipwet (bany changes made by this sloe door operation The r*wn manner in chief hits ad of his gen<-ra s, celoocIs. captains and ilea teiiNiits on band attending to tblt duty, doing all thai the) can to pttvent the elate I rum helaff broken. Iloxte has returned and 1s on aetive duly for tir*?ley There I* a nicely printed pMitlon- circulated amongst the members on theiepubiiMUMte, praying ttv* Ilwloent elect t" appoint Joseph Hu?i* 0>l octoc of lh? IH>it td the i ity of New York. Mr KoLImmhi offered ?? the Hour* Uin morning raaoiu tl<'Ds of tlie same nature of thoeo pixcM*-<J by Senator Manierre In the Senate ji aterday I'pWMroe ?>f thlity bills were iutrodMred In tte Hwt to.day, irmkirg nli sens at for the rwlef ?f sundry indlvMusto, tiiOOrporn?m? works aivj varlot* other com pan lis as assoclatiowe, ami ahout the sams number ?ape notfc ed, ?la?win*Nneeie?lvelv Ulnl tliere Is n e Mr m>i dinar y ncsoent of ?*ask marked out for Ui* : balance of Uie s>ssira ' I he re pelt of it* W?IU>t appointing the OnW ' sitters to Waehi'igfoti wvr% ^akun to ijc> Si-rj?t? this morning, and lhn-*rsn?d? iu%f the stoat? ruled llat tney ' luu'd nut bo csnsiderei wdthout unaamvtus consent. r ?)!>)( ctlens were reisnd mutt t'ne resolutions laid over until Monday. Afte?wai*s *??*?'*?? Spli. ua w>v'<l to suspend the teles in o>oer to takn-tAHiu up, aa. Mum a> was the ?':? 5 ,lk"" '? ?4'et n,.a m Hon w<? tost by a vote '4 vate?i to twelve lau-r m the see tion lie reiewed lu.< n<Aiou, but vnhotit *?i ompiisbing enjthirg. the r?pih;,far, s?n<Uer? wrncv^d in the Cbi r?(0 P'atfi ?*i, ?>e\#e*w,g tl^st U? be the HH>I? sent luw'. by Angel t.uhnel to therji, onrj ti.sl the ilepwtur#"!?. it .a lrem the ratt.ral i/jti.r pi et^ti n at iliat innl ruw'4 weuld be a b gk ?>n Hi the st?lu .,| lt?MVeii Hut, wbted tbey ob(< rt tn ?ty ?v p for cofcrUlatter. and reject ad n><-a. an * te roatatQ pence and harmour to the country, lliey have lerwa.d tho bill apitfop-la.u.j $W)0,W 0 fo( the et|tupm< lit awl armaiaeut Of tbe militia, nnd h?ve made It the speoutl ordrr fcr nrxt Wednesday they are determined to lit'Id up t>jf sword but no conrillatKtn The action of Um K-i?l? uj aim<et|i tpiivalent to a dofeal of the Umu?l?