Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 18, 1861, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 18, 1861 Page 2
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ARRIVAL OF THE AFRICA. THREE DATS LATER FROM EUROPE. Sudden Departure of Gari baldi fi*oin Caprera. Important Austrian Amnesty in Favor of flangariim Rcfugtes. THE SCHLESWIG-H0LSTE1N QUESTION. NAPOLEON'S POLICT I* iriLV. The American Crisis and (lie Cotton Fright. Carious Phase of the Pattersoa Bonaparte Case. PARIS FASHIONS. Oar London, Paris and Berlin Correspondence, M?i Jlc., kt. The steamship Africa, Captain ?liannon. from Liverpool at ulKK.t eleven o'i lock on the morning of the 2d instant, sad from Queenstown on tbe o\ cuing of lUe 3d. arrived here yesterday morning. Th-> ly-ndou Morni??/ Chronicle of February says tlio merchants of Manchester, threatened with a ilitDculty in tbe supply of cotton from America, are determined to take meosuiesto obtain from tbe free labor of India what has hitherto bocn drawn from tbe "Involuntary ser vitude ' of South Carolina and her sister secession States. Thus a vast field of enterprise opens out for ludia, which lias long been foreseen, as the delusions on which "tbo doaietit.c institutions" of the Cuited States wore based were cot tain one day to effect the doublo object of the redemption of Inula and tbe destruction of slavery. The London New* of Fob. 2, speaking of the secession movement, and the probability of its being recognized iu England, says that no Uritish functionary is autho rized to recognise a new government in any State bofore it is decided in the country itself ?whether the severance from tbe federnl government is actual ami complete. The secceaion movement will be looked on without inter vention , as is the case with Italy, though there can be ao doubt the preponderance of sympathy will bo ou the side of liberty. A public meeting was held at Birmingham, on the 1st iast., to i onsider'tlio propi iety of forming a Birmingham auxiliary ol the African Aid r'ocioty. The Major pce3idod, and liio attendance inn >de<l Lord Alfred Churchill and Lord CalthoriKj (who uttouded ou behalf of the society), Mr. liicliard spoonor, M. I*., and a number of the leading merchants of the town. I-onl Alfred Churchill, iu a spooc h Of great length, explained the objects of the sccie'.y aud iU connection with the supply or cotton. Alpresent there aref->">n forty to fifty thousand coloredpertom in Canada, most of whom haw escapedffrm slavery in the C'nited States. 7 hi climate of Canada icvs unruited fci their constitutions, and last year a contention tea- h id at Chatham, in Canada, Hi-ft o (i'putitu.n 10J.1 apixintcd to visit Africa uilh the view of atreitaihuij whether there was any locality to tvhich tfce negiocs Might emigrate, arA form a great iwgro rationality. Th? Iplmrs -of that deputation Kad been crowded with success. Ihey had entered into a con po>U'>r v ith (hr Kiwi an ' rhi- fi of AU<enkvta. hy nhich aj' tcU'.ert \n that dutriat woult' en ioi/full liberty ant certain priodeji. The district was fav Table to the cultivation of the cotton plant, the growth of which hod rapidly ex tended of late years, and the object of the society was to euabic the colored population of Cau&ila to emigrate to their fatherland, by advancing them h".in3 of money, by way of loan, to pay the expeu.-a. In addition to the favorable character of the climate for the cultiva tion of cotton, labor was cheap, the average wages of a la!>or si- being only 4>j*d. per day. Tbo society hoped, by encouraging the formation of u settlement in tint dm trict, to extend the growth of cotton, and thus make tbu country independent of the'United States for tho supply of th? taw material. H was also anticipated that tbe l>enedc; il influence of such a jwpulation would have con Si lerable weight in suppressing tbe slave trade. Lord Calthorpe al*o spoke in favor of the society; and resolu tion* were afterwards p.isaod constituting a Birmingham auxiliary of the African Aid Society, appoint lug a com ir.ittee, &c. Th ; loadon Standard of the 2d inst. eays ? Winchester ha? been ronsod into activity by the revo lution 1:1 the Cmtod Status. Her vast machinery is threatened with suspension from a deficient supply of cotton, and as some live millions of our people are di rectly or indirectly dcpcudcut on the manufacture, the nioni><.<>l calamity assumes national proportions, fur if l*ncusbire declines oil Kng'and must sutler. The 1 onion 7iwi? Mates that subscriptions are afloat for a testimonial to Mr. Cobden, ostensibly in recogni tion of ha services in regard to tbe French treaty, but, in rca.ity, because the money is wanted?the previous gifts of his admirers having been lost iu American rail way securities. Tae I oudon Star describes the article in tho Londao 3ii?iw a* to Mr. Cobden as downright fiction. A despatch from Berno states that the United States government has announced to the federal council that it cha.grs itself with the protection of Swii-t in Japan The -iem. official lfimau /eitvng gives * denial to the new* pub.j-lii-d by s me Belgian journals, that France had d.-ciared that sbo would consider any aid given to Attstr a by Get man federal troops in a war with l'icdmont iw a violation of tho principle of non intervention. The following note appears in the ollicial p*rt of tho Belgian H'mitcur:? In otder to facilitate international relations the Belgian government has decided that the verification of nawporta at the frontiers shall be suppressed from February 1 nest Nevertheless foreigners shm! continuo to be sub ject to the formality of passports t they require to stay in Belgium. Tho rue remains obligatory for travellers belonging to countries in which ,#ur country aro subject to thi.-i formality. Tlie except* is established in ravor of the Netherlander* and Uio inhabitants of the adjoiniug Vreuca departments and of Haenish l'rusbia are main Um'il. ltobert Frater North, of tie firm of Nlckoll & North, tallow brokets, ike., London had absconded, after having obtained, by fraudulent m?an*, warrants for the delivery of tai' <w valued at ?10,00*. The flriu was subsequently declared bankrupt, but Vr. Mckoll U is no way impli cated in his |>artaer's msdeods. Wi.eea \ ictoria wool arrive in London on the ith. pre pacai >ry to the openhg of l'arliameut on tho following day, Her Majesty ??uld driver her s|>ecc!i in |>cr*>n. Another adjournea geaerll meeting of the shareholders to the Gal way line of steamers bad been held In 1/mdon, but it was merely pro forma. It was announced that Im portaa' negotiations were iu progress, and it was there fore desirable u> still further adjourn the meeting which was agreed to. The Glasgow arrived at Queenstown at two o'clock on the morning of the 1st Uwtaut, and Liverpool ou tbe 'id. * The Nora Scotian reached Liverpool early on the morn log of tbs 1st. Tbe ship Mary Carson, from Charleston for Liverpool, with cotton, was burned at sea about 'MO miles east of the Banks of Newfoundland. All hands were saved by the Ho nr.. Bingham, arrived at Liverpool from Savannah The sh.p Black Monster, of and from Baltimore for Rio Jane ro, was abandoned at sea on the 1st of January. Crew saved and landed at yueenatown by the 3. L. IVttl gTOW, from Mobil*. The ship David Brown, as before reported, bound from P?n t raniiaeo to Liverpool. sprang aleak and foundered <*i tli" &vh ?f January. In latitude 23 North, longitude 40 West, sue left Man Francisco October II, and after betn; ? uhty fcur days at sea she sprang aleak and be gan to fill very rapidly, inree pumps were set to work, hut they were unable to ko p too wator down, and Iu three hour, she had twelve feet 0r water in her hold. Fvorything was done to lighten her, upwards of 3,000 bags of gran being thrown overboard, but it was or n-? avail; and at length it being discovered that she was rapidly sinking, two boats were lowered, and the passengers mi orew left the unfortunate vessel They had nn loft ttio ship man/ minutes before sbe *unk 1 or a pe riod of four ds;s and nights they remained t?ett?r,suffering tho greatest privations from < >ld and hunger (having bad to thr ?w or rboard tbe few clothes and provisions they mw. sge-i to got from the ship), when the two boats parted cmpaoy. (me boat, containing the (list mate (Mr Krly), Mr. He ward, Mr, Mtisgrsvo, and Mr Ptliw* (passen ???)f and sixteen of the crew, was picked up by the bark Ma *ave, from Perimmbuco, which landed them at lUverpool The other boat containing the captaia (Her 17), Mr*. lariter ana tw? thildrea, Mr-. Msriy chiM, Mrs Rjigtit and child Mrs OouWI'M *nd twe Chil dren ij'immnt i nj. ill i second uu<.la nud the rotnain4>r of the crow, to stitl missing. Captain Uvrrv was making for the nearent Wefct India uUnds Tho bark Viotor Kmanucl had bc'Jfl wrecked on tho Isle of Wight, and nfueu o?t o: uueteea uaud* ou t*>aid porwbed Our Lon<loa (orrripondfnr*. Lo.NDur, Keb 3, IS61. Afl'iiri i* Europe? WatKXe MovtPimh <>f th' Or-at 1'mo. e,_. 7* lt-ilijn EUxtiaru?Pi" Aw -rirar Critit in Enp lzn i?T>?? yew India C/ttoti Cotnpany >tc , ??< , ?fc. General Kxpectation is commandoi-;n chief of aifairs in Kurojie. We have a!l got to be kept ou tho tenter bi>oka of uncertainty about the same time tint you Uuvo?till tho Idei- of March. Tho expectant month of March .a g'eiig to perform miracles on both side* of the Atlaut.c. What your new President is tfoing to do is to n? here a matter of very profound uncertainty: but in Europe there is every judication of a siatiuiuai) war; Russia is moving and concentrating large bodies ot troojwi Au?ti ia is providing great fleets ^niarmiee. audGaribald. has not yet shown nay changeof purpose towards Venetla. It is now very certain that the Huptburga will not give up their only hold on Italian soil, at It-act without a tie mendo'.is struggle. Tho elections in North Italy have shown very large majorities in favor of thy goverumeul and Count Otvour. This shows the confidence of the ltedmontene tu the great statemuan of tliu country, aud U an indication that Garibaldi must wait the move of publio opinion before he a'.tempu to lead his legion* into the arena of tho dreaded Quadrilateral. Here in England we are waiting for Parliament to meet, and forming speculations as to the future. Parties arc not going to be quite so evenly balanced as they were laM year. Tho conservatives have g lined several members by the scattering elections, and the liberals have a settled conviction that iliey were sw mdJed out of their share of the legislation in tho last session. It I,ord i*nlmer>iUMi retain^ the support of Miluer ti.i'bou, Mr. Gladstone aud Lord Johu Kuesull, and of their colleagues, the liberals, he must do s im. thing to apjx>aso tin manes of the et'ef-uict paper duties lopeul bill. I'll at matter, with all the aid of tho Tin?>?*, will not be permit tod to re ?t a it is, and my Lord Palinerstou may as well make up his mind to it at once The most active outdoor businesi now carried on is fearful aocidc&te ou railways. There ucver wx- kaowu such asuce* ceionol theie c&iamltice, and they do uovseeui toc asi with the very cold weather Two days ago, ou the l.ondon and Southwestern line, I)r Baly, tho physi cian extraordinary to the Queen, was killed instantly, ttdacy fctellh tald no iMh m mid be takea of railway accidents t>y the government until a peer or a bishop waj killed. Perhaps the terrible death of a member of her M^jctty's household?or ouu uear to hor?will have some good etleet. The paperp are Mill dircun.-ing secession 'n ths states, but this week not so much a: foitnerly. They seem all at. ea re-peeling th<> u.-pcet oi ..Hairs at the South. They don't know whether to applaud the North or the South, 'lh" bulk of the 8j iiipnthv is with the North, but the cot tun Statef-. have a dirt.-t hold ou iho puhatmg heart?the whiels and uxles of the cotton machinery?A old Eng land that cannot be severed. The commercial it tn of most interest this week is the formation and launching ol th.1 -India Cotton Company," incorporated under the limited liability Ml Tho capital is to be a quarter ot a million sterling, with power to increase. There is evi dently to be a herculean ellort to increase the production of cotton in her Majesty's dominion*, particularly in E est India and Australia. Whether tin 0 > accomplished to ativ extent l>y a joint stock company, to me appears doubtful There are no very distinguished names on the directory, but they havo oue ol the Gurneys?of the house of Over end, Guraey A; Co , of Lombard street?as a trustee. Oar Paris Correspondence. I'xum, yob. 1, 1861. The Ilmapartf Pattinon Case?Restrictions of Iht Pre,s~ A Chang* in the tmivror's Policy?Sentiment <tf the I'arit Prets?Burial of SI. C<jtus>idiers?Affairs in I'al'j?The American Oruit, <fe., <tc. Our lively metropolis is fceldom without some cause of cxcitemeut. The trial of Bonaparte (Pattorson) vs. Bona parte wa* In process even as I was In the act of writing my lust, and all l'aris was In ecstaci'a with its now play thing. A speech of four hours' duration froai M. Berryer, who.-e seventy winters ha\e neither dimmed the bright ness of his far famed eloquence uor dulled the lucidity of his legal vislou, was a matter of far moro importance than the somewhat Jade harangues of the great acadciui ciaLB,I.acordaire and Guiiot. Ac Inch of reality is worth ait acrc of s-ham, and a peep into the interior of tho imperial family, with some line forensic tilting, brought out fiom their hiding places the deuizem. of all parties. Legitimists and Orleani.-ds have not exhibited such a front for years. They may be said to have packed the court, so strung was their muster. Evory allusion falling from the moulh of M. Berryer that could by any possibility be converted into an insinuation against the reigning dynasty was eagerly seized, and the oiBcors of 'the tribunal were more than once half tempted to clcar the court of grangers. M. Berryer was never happier in his beat day*. His sonorous voice rang through the judgment hall like a bell, whilo, without let ot hindrance, he enumerated In their order the salient points of his client's case. Public sympathy was. and is still, all on the Bule of tho Ameri can Bonaparte. But the verdict, it is clearly seen, mu4 inevitably be against him. M. Alloa was no uctMiag opponent to Berryer, and the impress ion he m *de by produ cing the remonsttauce of M. I'ichon, the French Consul at Baltimore, to the Pattersons, iu regard to the law which prevented any of Frai.ce under twenty Ave froru marrying without the content of bis parent, add by demonstrating its effect on the tatfier of Mis3 Patterson, who then broke off the match, was irresistible; aud when, afterwards, the learned advocate read that ex tract from Mr. Patterson's last will and testament, where he brands his daughter with wilful disobedience t> his commands, every one felt that the American Bonaparte would be nonsuited. Still, though Mi-s l'atters >n stands confessedly in tho positiou of a woman who perilled all on a mighty stroke, ktowmg that she did so, so un popular with all parties is Jerome N'apoloo, the King of Sardinia's son-in-law, that lew are to be found who do not sincerely regret the success which evidently attends him. Old Jerome Bonaparte, too, was so universally re garded as a selfish, narrow minded man, contented to batten on nny one or auything, at the sacrifice of any principle, so long as he might have all to himself, that many would have rejoiced to have seen him dishonored even in his grave. Tho legal decision will bo given in a few days. But M. de Pertigny, our liberal Minister of the Interior whose advent to power was to inaugurate a new era of tolerance to the press, lias suddenly dung aside hn distatf and seised his club. The Covrrierile Dimanche?% weekly paper?always well informed, and taking the advanced guard of the liberal journal*, came out with a long article or tlirco or four columns in iU last uumber, which the Minister has determined to put hia heel upon. Not only docs the Journal itself receive M. de gersigny's maiden warning, but tho writer, who Is designated as a fo reigner, and therefore doubly guilty of lex myelin in criticising tho principles of the government, is ordered to be conducted to the frontier, far from the pure atmosphere of Ut beUe Prance and the (c?no ef his presumptuous treason. M. dc Perngny thus breaks ground by a shot right and left. Many are disposed to think that the Minister of the Inte. rior has become alarmed a' the prospect of the criticisms with which the dally Journal, will be rife * boo the op pcrtunity Is afforded of discussing the parliamentary de bates, and has thus determined to give the world timely warning. The article in question was heavily written, and if left would certainly never hare been read by half the number that will now do so. As for the Jour* nal itself, such a tUlip is likely to be Its best advertise* mcnt. The Senate sat on Tuesday, wheu M. Troplong presented the report of the committee appointed to examine the tenatvi conrultvm lately presented regarding the dtbates of the Fenate and Legislative bodies This report was, in fact, an address, tn which the constitution, as drawn up by the K.mi>eror after the coup d'etat was eloquently and elaborately reviewed. It pointed out that the Kami' mo tive for parliamentary "jouats ' which exist-d formerly would no longer be present?that of paxlies *trigi{liug for the ministry?which would be Irremov able, except by the initiative of the Emperor. With regard to ttie publication of debates, there is to be no room for abuse, for the report will be made under the of the presidents of the two chambers, and aoy Jourudl pub lishing the same must publish the What* debit" relating to a particular question or Subject, or none at all. I'nder special ctrcutwtane.'i tho single upw b of a raembor may be reported, but It Bust tie done so in its entirety. There must be no suppression*, n<> garbling. Supplements rendered necessary by these reports are to be relieved frosa Stamps and e?tra postage At the instance of five members in either house uniting in a de sire to suppress the publication of a debate, it is to be suppressed. The VomtthUiofinei, directly after tho delivery of M. Troploug n most able addre?s, broke out into ocatacies; ami a- to it3 |ieroration, it opines that the sublimity ?f eloquence could go no farther. No d>ubt you will ti a tinier the aidn** in to j our own columas, and therefore It ut not DMMmrr lor me to give any e. tract? Bat I am confirmed In the !ir*t view I formed of It, by the comments crt all psi ties, that its object t* rather to cm t.. I than g ve fat cflect to the Ini|>eri?l liecree ?f the 24th of November, it ouJy proves what has more than ones b'cn phown, that Napoleon has re?U) e iti tho mil'ior. than his m maters and g?n< ral i ip? Theac men know into what clover thi" ha\ i?ea |n?, .> fit by very fties tiSMkbl?p>ri<Mial uisrit, aui the, -vl *nj in >v? khf. shall endanger their plaoee, their annuities, and the tin*. 1 wi'h which they are daubed witbaL Oue journal remarks (hat, according to M. Trep long, nothing m absolutely changed respecting the press. It is doubtful whether publishing the debates undw such restriction* will be of any advantage, and as to making a summary, such may only expose the journal, under uxLtiug reotiicuoua, to It eater peril. Tne Biecle, ou this subject, has the follow in* ?" We believe that M. Troplong has done an evil &er\ ice to the government In thus aborning to doubt its strength, and n rejecting a publicity that oould be only useful to It. The more we read this report the more distinctly do wo ->ee in it soni" oiic who Li more imperial than the Emperor, and who mounts cuard over imperial Institutions with a zetl overmuch. The complete publicity- of th? legislative debates, the report direct of the journal-, w'UlJ ^tford no menace to these institutions. Napoleon ID. thought so when he published his decree, Wo regret that M. Tropiot g was uot of the same opialon. We still believe that when the Seua'e comos to the discuasem 01 this re l>ort it w.!l be better a<lvi*ed; that It will return t > the thought of the 24th November; that it w:!l plai e no im p< d'lu i.t in the way of discussion; and thit it will rather indicate by examples, it not by a positive rto A'iat extent these discissions may be carrie r" The death and burial of one of the members of the provisional government of 1S4S, M. Caossiiiere, weut off ouic'tly enough, lu fact, ilut little episode in Freocb affairs is fast falling iuto oblivwa, ati I gre .t?r actors on the soeue than Caussidlere will cease to l>e remembered. Garnier Pages, Arouo sad other mem bers attended the funeral, and a cortege of -mi Jsx) persous beside. The police were on the alert, but there was not the remotest indication of any excitemout. <aus sidiere was an enthusiast, and there is nnUuiu to show against his honesty. The times wero out ol' jo:ut, aud the system he adopted as Prefect of Police is u>tto be ?udged after the manner of those we live ri. It is suffi cient to say that while he seemed to give w?y to the dis orderly masses he managed to lestrain them within Ih>unils, lie was driven front France with. Ledm Roll In, in June, 184V, and remained in England till within a day or two of his death. He returned to Krauce only, in fact, to lay his bones there. The news from Italy is very various. The ilmnilewr of this morning heads its bulletin with these words:?"It is not ouly at (iaota that the Htrtggle ex.-ts in Italy; a private desputch from Home, rece.ved to-day, mentions an engagement of a very serious character winch took place the 28th of January betwo u the Piedinontese and Neapolitans. Two thousand Pied ui>nte&' attacked the Neapolitans nt Canco with artillery and cavalry. The l'iedmontesc had 250 men put hers le combat. The im mediate result 's not explained. The despatch only adds that both the I'iednionteso and tno Nea politans evacuated the I'outitical territory." Tho various reports about a (la.? of truce beinj sent out from Gaeta are not confirmed. Francis II. lus uddressed a still nig procl imatiou to the inhabit in' cf Hie AIwiizji; und tiiot.gli tieueral >ie Sonnay, tho Pioduwitese loader, has obtained some successes over the Abruzzian^ they do not appear to be of such a ch.i. actor as ti prevent tho insuriecuen inc easing. Tlie Kalian elections turn out mm ti more favorable than was anticipate*! The Mazziuim in. 'y i< still pow orfully represented. MM. Itutazzi, lwpreth Oapieola, Ttachio, Pepoll and Monticolli will noi b? absent from the Turin Parliament; but at Genoa, in the Manhes and iu I inbi ia the favour candidates have beou icturaod. Garibaldi, in spite of himself, is elected jor N'<plos The following from the Smtiiflbi tfriVraw givts i ?U rlous specimen of the straits to who u Austria lsdi'vou ? ?'An order of tho day prohibits the c< mmaudant of Pea chiera ftoni allowing' the Italian Tyrolean sharpshooters in g.irr i on to quit the fortress. They aro bound to per loi ui the service like others, but tho sontinels ar t bus disposed: a Hungarian is placed ougu>trd at tlie aiwnc ed jHists- ut the'hstaace of. lifty paces i i Boheuian, who has orders to Mre on his companion ia rase he ?t tumpts to desert; at lifty paces f> <>w the Doii'imiw s aii ltaliau chasseur, who has a similar order, cO that tbs tluee are responsibly tor each other " Mr. Osbdru is stll^here on his way from Algiers. He has impressed tho Kmperor with the beleff that the arm ing man a, as be calls it, has reached in England us culmi nating point, ami that from the-present j/eriod the;>arty of economy will assert its pre eminence. The Unttiwur of tins morning devotes a whole column to the subject, not without some misgivings as to the influence Mr. Bright is likely to assert ou the snbjoct. I'or my own pint having heard in private Mr. Cobden's leaso'ns for what he believes, 1 have no faith in them. Knglund will submit to any amount of tixatiou for years to come lather than run tho chance of being bullied by Franco. AH that the party of economy are likely to edict is a tho rough o\ erl atiluif of the Admiralty , whoso admiui-tra tlon richly deserves a complete clean out. French society is incessantly occupied with the Ameri can difficulty. Its elTei t on England in regurd to cotton is a matter of lively ^peculation, and many believe that they so.'in it the begriming ot' the end of Engl ind -tum nulactttring preaomuiauce. Tlio moderation of Mr. Bu chanan i> pronourci d to be a simple r'petition ol the bluntier of louis Philippe in 1848. Tlie Porte remains very obstinate about a furthor Frouch oc cupation of Syria,and is supposod to lie secretly supported by I'nglai.d. The Kmperor is to o;>en the le gislative body in person o.i Moauay n -xt in tho Salle dos Etats, at the louvre. Madame O<stigliono, in her twenty third year, is dying of cancer at Pansy. Tie' F.mprvM Eugenie is th is avenged, for thore is no doubt <>f tbe Emperor's truancy in that quartor. Hor loveliuca-, was rciily extraordinary. Our Berlin Correspondent. Hkkiis, Jan. 30,1361. The " (if t'r-itr'j i il J'rII.if ia OtmMrli ami Policy af J'maia?The Italian Qwition?7 Us Kin>/t Sjivch?The/fact (MMStates MmUi^toBerlin,Sc.,4c. For the lost few days the bellicose ardor of the Prus sian government appears to havo been ou the decrease, and there arc some hope* that the storm will blow over. The bold front shown by the Danes and their active uavai pro paratious may hare contributed towards producing this pa cific mood, secondel, as they me, by the representations of lord John Russell, who is indefatigable in hia endea vors to effect a compromise between the contending par ties; but it is a question whether the ostentatious profes sions of non intervention volunteered by Louis Kapo'.eon have not had a moro sedative Influence on the Prus sian statesmen than any other consideration. Peo pie arc so accustomed to give the French llmpcror credit for secret designs diametric,illy opposed to the policy announced by him in public, that the friendly communications made by M. de Thouvenel to Count Pour tales, and his disclaimer of all*intention to interfere in a purely German quarrel, seem to have r-ither aUrmed than renssured the diplomatist to whom th<'y were ad dressed, and the reports that arrive from varioiu quar ters of the vast armaments that are stealthily but steadily progr ?sing in Frauco tniybave aroused a sm pici>n that lie was merely seeking to lull Prussia into a false sense of security, and induce her totake some rash step, from which he would not be slow to profit. To this should be added, that the expectations of making politicj1 capital out of the Schleswig Holstein busi ness have proved futile. The Oermau nation is nut so easily caught by line words as it was in 1848. siuoe then the governments have been laboring osaiduoti-ly though involuntarily, to promote the political eiucitioa of their subjects, and have taught them tint it is advisable to mind tlieir own aflairs before atteiidiug to other peo ple's. They are not indtil-reut to the sufferings of their brethren under the yoke of IienuiarW. but while despot ism in the form of the Federal Diet reign- paramount at Frankfort on the Maine, while German I>ukee of Modena, like the Hector of lleese, are allowed to tread under foot the constitutions they have sworn to ma'ntain, and while Prussia herself is still deeply tainted With the corruptions of the Mimteuliel regime, they must feel that it would be rather in.'licting an injury than conferring a bencQt upon . the inhabitants of Schleawig Ilolstein to bring them into clc-ier oontact with a confederacy composed of such ele ments. When a national Parliament is substituted for the federal I Met and the principles of "M for thoee of Metteruich and Msnteuflel, the union with Germany will be a boon worth striving tor; at present, exchanging the rale of Denmark lor that of the Bund would be jumping out of the frying pan into the tire. If a motfiQcatioa of the external policy of Prussia should a tually take place, It will be accompanied by some ministerial changes, among which the resignation of M. de Hcblelnitz woiUd be the mcM significant. The Prince of !Iohen7r>llern, too, la seriously 111 it ts whisper ed that ho has bad an attack of the same disease v?iiicn afflicted the lata King, and that absolute repose will bo ht(lis|>eiisablo lor his recovery. But although he occupies the high position of President of theOmnctl his retirement would i>e of tn3 nitely lese im|>ortsnce than that of the foreign Minister, espei ially if, us it is rumored, the Utter should be rue oeeded by M. Anerswald. M de S hleinit/, though nut exactly a friend of Austria, has always shown a certain hankeriug alter he? alliance, and evin? ed a conservative horror ol the revolutionary proceedings in Italy, which exhaled itseli In peevish nob-e and stUl more impotent protests. M. Averswold, on the contrary, thinks a rege ueratcd and uuited Italy might poswlbly be a valuable ally to Pri>sla, and if he has not sufflclent energy to imi tate the c^ndnct of Count f avour, 1 am out "ire that he docs rot secretly admire it. At any rate he would in fiue moie cordiality into the diplomatic Intercourse with S-ard.nia, which, under S hleinit/., bus been limited to the (oldest Interchange of mutual courtesies, and mi^bt not even have kept up a de< nnt appearance of civility If the Prussian Savoy at Turn, Count Brassier de St. Simon, who is personally well disposed to the cause Of Italy, had not endeavored to convey the morose inten tions ot his sup* rmr In the most severe and conciliatory manner they admitted of. Perhaps the reception given loGeneral Fa Marmora, wiio arrived at Berlin the other day to congratulate William !. on bis accession to the throne, may He regirded as a symptom of an improvement in the relations between the two Courts. An ambassador charged with such a mission could not he received otherwise thin i>o!lt"lv but It wss noticed that at the audience he bad of the King cm the 2(tth Inst he was treated w ith more than usual distinction, and his Ms esty, though not much in the hsbit of paying comp .ments addressed some Mat tering remark? to lnm on h'-military a< hieiements. It has been stated that beside* his ostensible errand, the ( s entrusted with ? '>mm inications or overt'irea to tli s government on the subject "f Venetta; but this is a mistake; things hav" not g ,t quite so far as that yet in fact, the tfofins of Uie line ol the Mi.icio beln.; neces sary for the safety of Germany .s m->re rdhiwslf be l'eved in In *on*e of the mo-i tnftuentiale rcles Sere than It is at Vienna, and I have hear t pets >n^ who are quite -en sible ine\ery other re ;??< t >seert veri S'?riou-:/ that If A str is ahould consent to abandon t, f'n.m a must Pi terfe'V ri >t armU to prevent the aacrlfice from being cen stimulated. 7V > committ e of the Chan.oer, ipp" -'.*d to di ,w ip nn nwiwer to the ri aiaoseeh, a e not yet#on clu J ? 1 their deliberations, w'i b at ?i i t ? very *>., ?ufl ait tare alreat/ led was . inv -a hurtn Tjjeke, the head of the Itbernl party, and hit le? ad vanced colleague*. The chief Mumbling block, watt a pa- 1 ragraph propped by the Barou id relation to the affairs of : Italy , sym:>athmug writli th? Uniuiai (a tlieir Hirudin for 1 tbe liberty and independence of tlieir country, andeschew? iug all simplicity with Au^triau jioiicy ao contrary to the real interests of ftussia. This, of course, was strenuously ojijmi-.kI by tho moderudos, and th>' paragragth wan finally rejected by a majority of one, in coi^equence of which Vineke, who is claii wan of the committee, has re- j fused to have anything more to do with tho.addres?;, and requested them to chuo.-e another reporter. Tne deb:tio \ in the chamber will not come oM before Friday, when we may look forward to a vury animated dissuasion. The addre-s presented to the King by tbe Hou.e Of Lords ! is a very different sort of document, and 5 erfectiy iu keeping with the well known tendencies of tbe du t.igui- hod body from which it cuauttles. It dwells with tbe utmost emphasis ou tho eminent virtues and merits of tbe deceased sovereign, extols his sys tem of government to tbe skies, discourse-, very eloquently on tho dangers of revolution, and de clares that the uobles will sacrifice their lives and pro|>erty to support the Ihroue against the etern:iI enemies of law and order; but do>B not say a woru alMHit tbe reforms contemplated by gj\ enuaent, and which afford the uoblo lords an opportunity, aot, in deed, of sacrificing the'.r lives and property, but at least of Contributing a srnii'l modicum to tae necessities of tho state in tho shape of a tax u|m>u their lauded ebtatea. lh' K jig does not appear to have been much editied witli their fulsome professions of loyalty, partisularly as it did n<4 require any great penetration to understand that their eulogies ou his brother's government were intended as a covert reproach to bim fcr having introduced a more libenl system; and in his reply to their magniloquent effusions he told them pretty plainly that ho should require not words but deeds, and that they would hayp to display their loyalty by assisting bim in carrying out the measures announced In his speech, which they bad prudently ig nored. Tbe nobles were quite taken aback by th.s re joinder, and sullen discontent pre vails iu tho camp of tbe reactionists, where tho King is looked upon as little better than a leveller and a red republican, for in the eyes of these gentry an attack upon the sanctity of

their breeches' pockets is the unpardotabla sin that ad mits of no expiation. Iboy are constantly lameuting tbe decline of chivalry, tbe unread of egotism, and the ex clusive attention paid to "material interests;" but no sooner arc their own ' material totervhU" lhroalened than they raise a lugubrious howl, aud talk of robbery and spoliation. The German papers say that Mr. Gustavus Kieraor, a native of Krsukl'ort, will be appointed United States Mlnl-ter at Berlin by the new President. Mr. Koorner was concerned in aa attempt to overturn tbe Federal Diet in Is32, ou tbe failure of which he llod to America, an l settled at Belleville, Illinois, where he commenced the practice of the law, was elect od a member of tho legislature, and afterwards became Lieutenant Governor. Originally a salons democrat, he subsequently joined tbe ranks of the republicans, and by his influence among his countrymen, who are so numerous iu the Western Wates, contributed not a little to the triumphant majorities obtained by Mr. Lincoln in Illinois, iu liana, Wisconsin, &c. Ilis services have been rewarded by the pest of Ambassador to the Court of Berlin, aud tbe pro scribed exile will thus return to bis uj'ivb land 111 tbe rcsp< usible character of a high diplomatic functionary. So at least it is atlirmed in a iottor received from Belle ville by a connection of Mr. Koern?r. You will know bptter tban 1 can tell you whether there is a?iy truth iu tbe report. EUROPEAN OPINIONS ON THE AMERICAN UNION. Speeches of Messrs. Boston and Bright on Our Rational Troubles and the Cotton Supply, &c., 3tc. VIEWS OF BKITI8H STATESMEN'. MR. Bl'XTON, it. P., ON OCR NATIONAL TROUBLES AND TI1K COTTON B0FPI.T. On the 21".h January Ml . C. Buxton, member for Maid hloiie, addrcs-od a crowded mot-luig in ihu WoBkingSSM'S Institute upon the disruption or tne United Stitea and <ts probable eflect upon the supply ol" cotton to Kngland. Jr. Buxton, who waa warmly received, observed tbat it uxio mmewhat rt marl able that w should at the same mo torhi l<r Iw/.i/w at i>"o morements in tv? Iwling comU'iet? om in llais the junction for the time, since tb> Herman empire of the various States into one kttig it'll?(he other in Aorth America, th<? falling a tinder of those which had hern to hug joine>t toaiAtr. Ike latter <>~erU iras uniuestiimwly one of t\e maddest, one of the Musi imortifying, that had ever otvitrral in ?r> time. Wo might have hoped that acioes tho Atlantic, wLere trccilon Imd a fair lb-Id and no favor, where a uem and vigorous society hid piiahed itself lor ward with such amaziug lapidily, wherethe old grievances of K.urope wore fctill unknown, where there wore no am bilious neighbors to threaten the horrors of war?we mi^lit have hoped to see thai people rising from height to height in tho gioutness of power and showing t j the world what boundless blessings freedom ant peace could shower upon mankind. But it was mortifying to find that in left than 100 years fivni their fmi ileilaration of in-'c pevdence these fair pro'pects w* re so darMy clouded thai aire 'd/i th' mighty fabric va* rent "tond>r, ami that jtoisHly war might (Tea/. l?rth?ear 01 the /not! drerptful l.inl? ciiil nar among truth r n. One fatal crime hid wror.gbt all Ibis evil?the stain of one sin hut been enouish t<> cloud all th'- greatness and glory of tho 1'i.ilcd States, and to withhold them trom setting a noble example to the worid?iho cur.-e of en slaving th( ir brother men had been strong enough to ruiu all their greatness. But for slavery they might have remained great and independent bejoud any empire in the world. Vr. Union, after denouncing slavery in strong terms, irrocecded to remark upon the supply of cotton. I ft said th y were not at nil likely to ha< ' the whale jityply of cotton from the -lire. States brought to a sudden termination if toe worst cume to Ok: uvr>t. they might still, in all jrrobabtiity, es/*cl to ob tain at lead one-Aird or one half their jrreu-ilt sumihi. Now, lit ordinary years they obtained fully one-fourth of their supply from elsewhere. Supposing they obtained only one additional fourth from North America, ir-tead of the three-fourths they now obtained??tlll, even in that extreme ca:e. th >y wnuld?iare half ^liclr ordinary sup ply. (Hoar, hear.) Hut. <A>eyond th.s, experience had shown thai whenever tho crop in tho United Stato fell short tho oiuall rlie of price tliat took place at once cre ated an. Immense uiflux from other countries, only three jjears ago India sent us half as much us t!? tiiited Mates gent us. (Hear and cheers.) II the tailing off from the I nited Mates were .-Ml g: i?> r there seemed little doubt that India could fend i very much larger supply even thin that which .-he furnished two yearn ago. fcypt, Bra -il, North Afri ca, West Africa, and many other quarters of the globe would al-o furnish their quota, aud, from all be could loam, it seemed clear tbat the deficiency at the very worst would not amount to more than a quarter of our usual ?ii|>ply. (I'ear, hear.) Hiat, no doubt, would be a prions evil, but the calamity would not be a crushing one. The general prosperity of the country wottll re main untouched, and after a year or tw> enormous re sources would lie opened in different parts of the world. (Che- rs.) As an illu.-tration be might mention that a few years ago a lady a' h.s acquaintance sent out ii0 to a missionary ir West Alriea, with the r< quest that ho would M>end it in promoting the growth of cotton. Th* trilling beguiling soon produced so fair a prospect tbat Mr. CtM, DBS of the are it cotton miltowuors oi Manchester, and two or three oilier gentle men, t'-ok the subjcct up wumilv, and already the trade from Abbeokouta, in Went Africa, had bocome a very cc'iio;d> ral?!e one (Cheers . Th re had now been sent out seme hundreds of cotton gins, wklet had been pur chased by the native negroes, who had learned to clean their own cotton four of the chiefs had or dered out from Kngland and thenselves paid for hydraulic presses to press the cotton for exportation; and, in fact, there could be no quo*tion tbat, uulc?s the slave trade should interfere, In a few years tie quantity of cot ton exported from that part of Africa would bo of great mngmtude, and he need not observe bow much it would be stimulated by even a small enhancement of the price of American cotton. (Henr.) //? felt n > douU him S'[f that in the long mn (ke p-mtpn dy of the world icould be largd t increaj'd ly my ennt that vwM himter the produc tion "f eott'-m in the Vnitsd Stoti f and t ins stimulate itspro dmlitm byfrieUt'vr in >4' ?? pi-'iimt nf the .jlebe. (Cheer-.) In cr>ncli ->ion he wished to express a hope thai the facts, dry a& they wcre( which he had laid before them would make th"m more than ever In the thought that Knglat.d had cleared herself of the gr -at crime, thesr-'st folly, and the g'eai misfcrtiuie of hildingmen and women In bomlage. uud he thou^l.t the laTTCTM had WMOl the results of tbat crime in thelniled States must tend to impress upon them more deeply than ever the truth of the maxim that in the life of uations. as well as of indi vidual nun, "wrong never comes right." (ijoudchocrs.) At the close a vote of thanks w*? unanimously passed to Mr. Ruxton for the address which he had delivered. SPEECH or MR. MtmnT AT BIRMINGHAM ON THE AMIRICAN COM t OF RACY. Messrs. &bo1Hlcld snd Kright. the members for Bir mingham. met their constituents on the evening of Jann aryat the Town Hall, which waa densely crowded in every part. The Mayor, Arthur Kyland. Ksq., presided. Mr. Itright. on rising was received with loud a;>planso. Tho honorable gentleman said ?7he pe<n is railed a year of //rrst froqierily. sud in lane*.hire (I BpsokSf taSyOMf which has |?i> -kh! 11', has been a year ot unusual prosperity; and during thai period heavy burdens have been borns without much outward complaint, livt thi-re are tloads, clouds particularly in the vet!, which promiv affreat change of eirr^mftarfes, aful I Miere that every tkmnhtfisl win at this monunt it deeply anrinus <w to the future, and the question is pasting from mouth to m?"th hire long will the ChantrUor oj the Krcti-ijuer be Me to raise te> nt) mil lions per annun'i on the imtustry nf the country. (Cheers.) I am about to make a cimplainl against the governing class of this country, and tnat is, that It Is guilty of a wasteful expenditure of the public reeources. and that it must necessarily lr?e the confidence of ihe people if the wasteful course be |>ersisted in. I said the governing classi*. What is the meaning of Hie word to govern* What do you expect of tliat which is calls 1 govern ment' If "we a ere emigrants settling in a new conn try, and undertook to form a government as colo mats have often done, what is it we eipect from that orgsniiation#but this, tbat wc should establish -ome central power which should k?ep the peace in ternally amorgst ourselves, which should dnpen.-e justice, and when occasion nroee take means thtt were necessary for our defence. That Is aboul the whol? Object of government?of an honest government?in any country. But how do we govern ourselves? In tnls countiy there is a government in every place there is a magistrate, and there is a constable. In every borough there is your chief magistrate, there are your aldermen aud councillors, there is a corporation managing your police, and taking care of the peac? and of the alfalrs of the town. In your counties you have, for the most part, a police r?tnbli?hment under the conirol of the magi. wtiales of the county. I'eace, therefore, is provided lor, and it is provided for at the expense of 1 >e il rale* ft it, in this country, a> many of yoti know, the local rate for one pi.rpope or another connected with government >nd the p'.blic convenience amount to ?*\enieen or eighteen millions <-terling a year. regard to the dt?p"n.?at on of instire. that is not an enormous matter In any country if there be an honest dtspo?H;on to do It promptly, cV.eaply and Impartially. But if government ti tb'S country is so much transuded m i>ar ?hes, nad tn boroughs, and in o?untie., what s left tor I. e ettrsl )?. ei<iI tj do ?w'.Jit 4 '.9<t f >r .? r V<:. Tfi Qoi jwv' tta Hoeaa ff>thag but this a senerai bupervlftton orer tbe who to Ther! ..iarcW ^H^ taportaat, ui a MUo?al pouit <* vu>w, wrart? fine, gene I eo whn the <BthortCr oj f?,?errf "e1t' C%lleJ 10 B,Jt lb?l o^trai after you have carried on your affairs in you, n ?r your municipal borough and ia yoar countiL ?le^nrT't^iL"hi > UU h"" thumo,il industrious'and da en? and tractable and well ordered dodmI iti-m in ia? Ml^f &W ?a *? LJin li ? ^nguage when they ask Tor your WrTJir^r thfl? g0V' rB,meutiuk,-'s Ml .000,000 *,Uta Lu'eol u~ h?rrtiP |X*e carrying ou iWairs, which none ol us hardly can comprehend, und whic^ if we W" ^ ^?7or thS i i ? i entirely unneoesaary. fU-ar hoar I JMiallaskyw, to go back with me a few vJa'rswwe gi ieyoub mistakes we have been making withte gard to thw question of expenditure. I am aTLxious a my honorable friend that no man or no body of men in a wr^i iV laud ob the** .shores. (Choorg,) r would have our island to be n?t in poetry only great ia the free and i a villain out as there are foes of our own household in a political and a natioual point or view, li-hali take the liberty of i^iutm,} mie ? "wi ,blfori' 1 have dona. Go back to IfJt.iV rabout waen Birmingham became ?> u? & year 1*30 The expend! \Z\? ,'h,hBg0!l*rn?ent <* l?>w country, inciu hn ue cost in the coliectloa of the revenue amouuted in Jh^y^tothesum of ?6*000.000 sterling, or which miilionM h?H9 in iL ^ w^?"e ?*P*nditure. twenty eight millions had to be set aside lor the debt incurred in ad ' ertskeflTiu?'i''Dg* rU'cb our ^rerMhers hid un ortaken in the aflairs of continental Huron* If th*n we oeduct twentyeight millions frmntheX. ttoUm 5"1 lions, the actual expenditure or the gov ernUnUaThe aniianentb and so forth o? this country in t?t war wm miUioLs. I should like you to keep'htt sum ml"Utri ?1D<to- ,Kour Jears afterwards, ia tho year <>f ?M 000.000 had t'alleu to 1.4# 000 OCO? four million* less than in 1H30?and J rtIn* ned ?49.000,(100 for three years the years ISi an* l*?- Kecollect at tuT momST although you had a Parliament constituted as It is now gently yet ,t had only just been so ZmSuml There had been no political agitation; there was irreat r?*JiD8; there had been a gioat popular cryTor rJr ' r5 onc,iment and reform." You got a partial reform, and y?u got some retrenchment, and so ion-- as the popular voice was so raised, so long you round that tlimg like a moderate amount. (Hear, hear.) }Vhu ?if"?j cou,ntl~* ?w the urn Id tokert there is a self \ v-htrt thi< vtut spend i'u re U incvinyl. tVe i ?f a >*r twri yvj?;Ve. H'l hai? ? I ^I'vUxraf Smt^lan.l ,wil ?r ha?, lrr, , ?t dZli 't?C UnUtd St"tM' Tkev are u-ilk | mil aoult the rnnil cheaply amrrifil of eu-Utv<t <iaI [truhan ?"<">**. They art tho* tf v'hkk? taw mtw particular detail* than rfV any othe^ Now you r^colw/ihV T tht ^ nf ?*?* bin L? ,;rUrti ,hat a. w "10 Reform I HI political fcelmg 8ul>Pided, and the torv oarLv liecame much more powerful in the House of Commons ml ? yea? ;l,U'r t0at they ^re able to g? H^.'f thcmselvM Pal7tl^he.r,frt?n oflic? 111111 Like ulll< 0 w. uvefl. At that time tho exoen^cs be^an to rre^n t?-' "ecm t^rT6' y?U. '??!f y0nr cves 0,r 11 ? ( vpen l? I . ,e ? ? r'' B' a"'J lu IS40 and 1S41, tho exDea ditnre liatt risen again to ?i:i .ooo.ouo, the sum whicS^it nt tin nod previms to tbe H-form aot It rolo to "f.f " r' '"aiaed at that amount, or thereabouts Vii;, ^ wi,h ,b'' ?*ceptlou or the two years ls<* and aii ^D' fs >'ou W'U reoolk'ct, there wt>re revolutions all ovi r the Continent or Kurope, anil governmei t von kn. n . always likes the opportunity or nnythtag that ia g".i g on upon the Continent to ask you to nav more MT1, (aU,f1"C., ) ?N0*' '^n, " come toSKal j car 1So4, when in the spring ot' that year th^ Tuscan P^T'o hare^hfh't Uf"(l'le 0,lJ'n'iry I^raso "brokeout, jieoj o have j halut of fancying that wars ire so n>.tu-nl and mailable, that they'talk oT them j^ i thev fik^?LU'e, K;;irl;ain-'1 ^ sniallp?-YUughter;Z the rficlera broke out?ihc itussinu war broke out Cl'e newed iaugbter.) But ?he Kusflian war was much wor^e ?! ,e ?,her tllic?!-' and might hare lx?en easily f" ?05 iOO COOMn^Ms' 1? "le eTP^"diture went up ?'? ii i 1 ,'5 " WCDt UP t0 ?88.500,000 and a ?75 f 00 0' 0 ??V V?ttr Kb? W*r C",SOd' U fo11 t0 x.iu,1.00,0 o. During those three years there vu an er L?unuvrw0h fO OOO COil ni0r? tban the taxatTou oC tho MWraeirt hv .1 madt' up nu,itl3'>1 presume, by loans by the government. Now, look at the eflect hi. .. i ?"s taxation. It is like a man taking a bur house, liavng a great number of servants, and fettinf Wdhaf tn rt*e . n roal,y b<? haB DOt 80t the where withal to do it continuously and honestly but he lic.ia lt extren, ly difficult to come downTtho oriitoal ujsexpeuuuure to Its original and due oronort: >oh in ISM, although the war was at an end" the eToou.iiture still remained at ?68 000 000: in 1958 it was ?64 mo I "2 '' ?? ?69t0OX00, ^ the . um* icfat tor the Chine<e war, / telia-e it v til te atvut ?70,000 0C0 1 tUnk there caii be nob^v h ve uhn?eti muci! ,lp ma> difl'er from me on any qistion' w ho will say that it is not -leMrable and pr<Zr taTt you' we vour'^L S.r?Untry' l0H the ro"Rti-iiency and te sr.'avilVK tr:r (l from tho van ri 'Tn l,caut!rl!llJ, f,n the whole this land is culu i wat;y laborers are eiig^erl In its culture r ?ion t know the exact number; but there mav be ^ ainmg wttet?',orn^IJ,,d Wh<if "r? thos# 'borers ob. nr 0#ft? WtaUier and other circumatatjces } u and fcT"f ""oruuUural laiore,? of Kn.jlanU and. Walesu ill not amount to wn/re iter head than ili'5 r*-r m ar,s:'^vuyz?is;izz:z f?d<hn?f?Ut *4 hCi-K " hai yOU rtchvn for yo? u-ill ?r**0iat. "'c** If the whnle Of the Uihor nnplZd in ft"?. ta/um rtthi- ml in Great liritain and Ireland, in the rour e T, Ir i s no* amo"r't t? More than mie halt ,>f >),, Z7 ha^r'-:^ hmy . "" ?^cet?a*,?i i " . . i incredible pahence. to pay. (Cheers ) I fCheets sJ Zn>1 Cr^'bie thal t,lis^ wSSSmry? ratlonal'peop'je-rorerer tole^ate^'0^!,id*0" o^t ?fo? t.n ju?1 as caryfl'1 alK)ut tho public expond). i m??i,?? L,^aboulo,hw ""Ue?; and your mK fhi ?gK 18'' woul,J l00k t0 w hat is necessary f^ meS 'bIttnftbf hTld' t0 the *^??TSlWe rxiem, nguten the burdens upon tho^o whom n,?. oTW}L7SL irr51? rKPrtst nt- (<-Ti?>rs.) If the agriculture ft' is tfetowns th^TY ^'8 'l'1lrden' ilC0!lld not be borne your exeiseable and customs burdened articles thev are sscr jsai ja5yS? in Lucashire. \oi; know In that county there is carried the worM?hMl:^n'IO,1S maD'lf*< turin? industry which *i tver pern?the manufacture of cotton t rr^.f'tal a m*n,^acture, it sustains so mauv i^v.ple K J^nev*r ,liat industry is ffln^^wSS^er it strip?' X&rjrZSPi d<mi? /?itrry ,lh0"?.hflll1throughout tiie thr'ee king doms. (Hear, hear.) Well, but if vou will tnk* thi. k ? produce or cotton or'tho rutted sat ?<* astSL-rsae, negroes in America engaged in the pr^cti^or cotton < oo/j ULt'aT Ify?l fHfUyed, all the leapt paid, all t',e dnulluZm ,L"? Vli,: TaUe 1"Jm f&r ,Kni ?"l** rJ liJr??!; rri ', .1of matJiaU ,,, ^yj.2, if IW tflu antic manufacture, Uprodnc-i nnPL iT a /?."! rmrnt'''f fcwt'wMinj rjienexm?hoK " r? mL'"'/ i Ji n a"","?' -?70 iSy0 OtXJ tnorth ,tf ?.r r,ul<- '^"V. dyed, jirinti-J r nhattnr $h >j<f it u brought ti the cwtoiisr in thr wr,? ? mark* in th. ,.arid. Well, th. u, tbut governing cl^T our ruleTS, with the most docile people In th<> woi M the most industrious, snd m >t chun-fiaSdVhap? going S^Te W,U KUDd"rJ"ke to?' the moaTorteS W. in Kurope_(hnar. hear);?with stich a pr?a|e m rW0 '*,anu3 w'th no neighbors except on nmnil' V i a src,,t T<m twenty miles wide Tt the narrowest point, v</ur 'T-ii?mi-i-nt ei?ry ifear such hnt ha* 'e&ZZ ^JS-y v>*'n,k xn*Mr'J '*"< ? ioi it CIVIL WAR IN AMHRN A DESTRUCTIVE TO BRITISH INTRRENTB. [From the Ijondon l*o?t, Jan. ro. 1 Tkt jr,r'-nt mruion moremml in oa<v L'mi-1 8(<tfrl aj'pmrr d'.itinrd U> r-t> II in Ik- "taUuh Jntr.t ?/' tkt-r i'/>t rafe <j*d indfi rnilrnl rnmfilnatitrrr rnmpwrd rt jv?f{tWy f Ikt (?vlt,th>- border and Ik? Xorthmi S**l . Tho dlatriott twti of territorial power which is iml to take piac is a matter whu h deepiy find Intimatelj tonccra.i the people of this country Knglmd haa no dostre to witness toe national degra<lat:on oi her greatest commercial rival. If any yartwn nf Ik' I'niltd fttat't hmild tr trpmtd to Ikf korwrt nf rtrit trar end jernV inturre 'ion. Uu cut lrn tradr Hfwl'l t* j>arabr*1.anJ tkr "ttttrd tin -id and Uiror viiktn" would Ml iriih mudHf dititbyiut f/frtl funtcuhirr a J t'n fhnt)t Carolina. We boliev" t:iat the revdutioimy pirty in the S >utb whcee t'mporiry sucr. is sololy nttr butable to the weak and he*itaiinc policy of dm President, have not counted either the c<*t or Hie probable oooaoquctcet ol civil war. They may rmijratulato lhenu-rlve? upon the acquiH-.tiou of sovereign Indepenlence, and upon th" nbrtnlon of all authority which hi-retofoie belonged to the federal government. The caiiLon shot* whieh were flred at and an ve bin lc the War of the West may have an effect winch the Sou to in ItK ir.omtnt of triumph never anticipated. The legislature of New York, for ln?tan"e, has place<l lioth men juid money at the disposal of the ntlldnk Now, if the slave States from Texas to Georgia should all proa unce In favor of separation, and ol>tal? pos session of every military poet and uv.-al arae ual, m they have done at Baton Rouge aud JVnaecola, the Notth h*? only to block ide the laaurfent p^* t* to destroy and rum the cotton tra>Ie. No one can imagin e that in?n of the rarae race VMM voluntarily c irryjh* calamities of otvll war into the bosom of their common country Bat writ I me operatic n? ar? r.ot Km e tectual than iho?o vh ch are con l icted upon lanl, l> th' nf A'mc I'o- Mitinr <tm' otktr frtt JNMiu mdttinm*qffwri-vifif) rtmlt'm, tkri hn<- nnl<; >.? -<-\i n mi *} (? Vt&t ***i; pott trhfh bfilt"'!-''<? V'l firrjmt 3Milk T* ? /???*???*, # WW tit r-f'-y I I,, rut* to Uutl ar'vl- ?}/ tkt 1r? tty rf /'in vh\ ' ' i ??/ Ihct|?rft?te *t?7 ' <? a ""fi'V- ?iim'Wi < " 71"' p-im frrr; f>i * Aw I*"*" W *fhip Wr'</ !) -I tij yiflt the fweKMI |MNf j t *, cdton W?iV tvt ef pr t? a Souther* p But wo eee no eviJeuoe that ihe i*reatd-ut u adopt th.s obvious Mul MMMry policy. In thr prs^n of civil war. tnan-forted by the exercise of extreme b liferent rights on the part of Sooth Cm-niiw. t thmrf.aud the Congress atsiats him in doog no'hi But, if the North ii earnest in its dealre to maintain fc'nloo, mar itmie war must com*, and then it wiM to talk of free trade with England, especially at ** when i.o Southern ship can put to sea without the . capture. Miinchetter uill feel the effect j thir.g*, no(uithstar>'ling its desire to get cotton from /%,< or Xatal Kngland, there/on, indejenUenUy af ajj hii/i amnderationi, has u ul/nA motiir w preferring the jr. and jof the. Vwited Stat't. The object of Mr. Se aid b late sfwWcli caunu'. lie Ttiat goaU.inau<1 not attempt to conciliate ai.d appeas<> thi SVi-ith, h rather directed bin eiloi u to the task oi preserving' th siu'us t/tio uiiinDKBt the border Sta'es which ho believ may be f:?vor.i'o.e to futuro compromise. llo expe that the Northern and border Stales will eventoiilly bri back the South to the Cnnu. Thuotytct can only be ohjd j'tn/i.'t try a n-u' ivufrderatum based upon te< nu u*Aic<W * te aim viW'1 /?) eitiy secti-m of jmUw opinion America. Wf beliete that the <pir,JU'i hos tony titw ?.'? lh? domain if diplomat} and compiomit. Trcasou tun lie put doMU, und if the head of the Kxecirtive liad poaae rod v gnr and determination the question of aecefc>?tc might save Wen n:ppeti #1 th" bud. But if theio aro tot tin oe separ it<' and iuJep*udeut confederations the nati nul power of the American republic would be certaiuly d btroy ed. The South, with ilaeerj and the tlare trade, *?/?? t utak aid imecure; th- border StaLt, loith flarery m . omettie Mutiution. vxvld command little authority #n<l > pert; am' tin A'urih, fnedfrum the cvne of slovery, kwej. y xtt wealth an-! pmijserity, Uxxme dominant rjim the Xor Am-rvan continrnt. Hui eat h uf these tonfoder itvms uxm ai r hostile tariffi, $ttniHng armiet, am' 'mutual jealoww lid thus .*hotv that rrjtubh'ctM inUUution, twti"'hjtan-Ju he latuJatii iu ?J Mr Urxjht, art in realti y at htth likely fnrne freaUm, rhrajmem, <*??' peace at the dnfw'i- g?"r menti of Kim.* * IM it it curiouj to remark that whk n\a.~'/n is suarti/ulfy Mailing through the Und*i St 'tei, U /ij>le of Ihilith Aoilh Amrrita are iianutr<iut for <*? federation At the present tiwe Br.tif.h North Amark pW -I Sr-3 .? pop'!. It.on equal iniiumber to the MNMIH ? the thirteen coloulcs which achieved their mdepeudeu> when (leorge 111. was king. iVe hope lhat the C'ulcm:al oji* nil! lifti ti to the wishes vf Hritlth Xorth America., 'i a wif" una c< uciiiatory policy, ma> comnuu;d the ot power u|H>n the American continent, aad prove th mooaicbkal '.L.-tituiiens, with responsible seir * inoiit, aliord the best guarantee of ratk>cai iibert lnde|>et lence. We do not anticipate that the No? Suteb will fruterniic and unite with Canada, but l*:it oar belief that Jfritith Arcrih Amerit o, \f left i cut its (run de*iiri\,, will emntvally become the 'lorn PtMtr tmiht continent. Tims it will le proved that monarchical wttifutions ore brought face tofacwith r t, lican institutions, t)u latter is ytlloly unmUe to t<ear the uh-' p.w ure of u I'tliiicai crisis or of revohUionary fw:e. I'rtmh Policy tn Italy. rKrom the Journal des DebaU, 1 ob. I.] The manifesto publujhed by the I'jiiiwror ou open > the Ci<n>|oigu >>f 1 h5i<. bind, "Italy must be tree from li ? Alps lo the Adriatic " This programme could uot !>?> ?? t.rcly carried out. The Ka>i>eror himself, at st. Clot expressed his regret on tbut account, and admitted ths many generous hopes hud been disappo.ntc-d. Yet it wa uot iu rain that the purest blood of I ranee Ilowot ou Ui battle tieldsol Wwuunn, Mage uta ami Solferino. It the ws did not free Italy lioui tho Alps to tho Adriatic, it never thele*s eiltet.. da great resnll?greater, porhapg, thin wa believed. Fionce restored to Italy sell consciousness aa freede m of movement; It burst the borniR that held he captive, and baiJo tier i ise aLd walk. Such w the way i which the prcgrnmme of 1H6!) has been carried out fm ther 'ban iH thought. If the war has not liberated tii whole ol Italy iu a direct way, it has put her into a coo dition tor liberating herself, uud iu the month of Marub 1800, the ICinpctor could i ay in his message, 'Italy is o. the eve ot freely c instituting herself." The programme of Villsfranca was quite different. I was a pnject oi Italian coniexior-itfrti, of which the 1'op wa? to have tho In norary, and iuto whici Venetla was to cutcr. This project at that period mlub appeal sjieciouB enough. In the opinion of many peraoi. Italian unity was a chimera; the Italians were btill enjoy ing that ancient reputation. according to wnich tiny a*' only lit for devouring one another, and in virtue of theV hi.-tory they wore not doomed capable of anything bu forming a collection of petty nationalities, each of whici r< quired a foreign protector. Ilaly has preferred boini one gieat nation: she has triumphed over her reputation her history, forgotten her old divirtons. sacrificed eve? her doareet historical traditions, and tho particular ni tionalitits have preferred abdicating freely into thi hands of au Italian King than retaining a nominal in lo pcndence, which uiade them the psey of every foreif intervention. 8 nee that time, It is the unity which ha? become reality, and it is the federation tfut has become ? chimera, this federation we believed an iuipossibilitj win n it WU i?opo?ed; it is sufficient to say what w< think of it now. Yesterday it had reab~>n against it; to aay it hue against it both reason and events. An Italian confederation would be at onto contrary M tbe interests of Italy and those of France. A confedera tiontowh:ch Austria would have free eutiance througl the ir cans of Vetietia uni'er tho hybrid form of an Au? tro Italian State, and in which it woulJ be sure, througt its all ai i'cs, of having the preponderance, would create for Italy a state of thing? ten timos worse than she w*< inbefote the woe Kor If, before the war, Austria wai paramount at nearly all tho Italian courts, that w?fi no1 merely through'.'yallianoee or in virtue of those trea ties of 1815, which Krance was obliged to submit to, t>u< also thrr ugh private troaties or secret ones, fo which Eu rope bud giveu no Irgul sanction. In a foderation.uuio tinned by treaties, by public Kuropeaii right, she w<Mil< ' have been, she would be. the fatally preponderant powei of It?ly. ,lshe would enter it not only with her owt strength and fortfc-afce, but also with the powers whicl the prftcett, her aMit s, nor va&sais, her satellites, almost her subj< cts. would hasten to placo in her hands. 8c that Piedmont. whi< h before the war was alcno but fret would be after the victory annexed to on Austrian dial and swamped in a foreign majority. The siime >eas<>us tbat are valid for Italy are good f . France. In the pr< sent 6titc of things, ?l>rn Austria, orcign l'ower, wishes to meddle with Italian affair* France bos the richt of opposing it, or at all events nkirg her t wn guaiantees against this intervention, b if Austria, an Italian Power, were to cause such or sue olicy to prevail in an assembly recognized b Kuiopc and Krance herself, where would b France's rlghf Whero would be her remedy And such would be all that Piedmont and Franc* would have gained by the war?Piedmont to tlnd herself with oce vote against four or five la a Gerniano Italian diet, and France to have confronting htr a new Germanic ooufederation, under tho honorary presidency of the Holy Father, and the virtual prusidea cy of his apostolic Majc -ty. It is only needful to put ths qui stlon to obtain its solution. , ir, then, this protect or confederation was thought of; elsewhere, it would not be France tbat would hive to lx> charged w:th its realization, but Austria. And, in fact,' we quietly see plans set forth, the tcndo.icy of wliioh would be nothii g less than to make Austria an instru ment of general restoration in Italy. The plan is simple. It is still sgreed upon thst ths Italians will be sure to ruin themselves by thoir owa faults. Ihej have done nothing yet that way it is trae,but the idea Is deeply noted in many minds,from which It ran never be extirpated. <>n this hypothesis, Austria being pro\oked, returns with ail her forces into Italy; 3he takes care not t<>i,i h 1/ mbardy, which she has cedod to Krance, and which is preserved by the treaty of Zurich. But she goes beyond, she reestablishes tho Grand Dukes at Florence, the authority of the Holy See in the Komaa States, ntd King Kraucis II. at Naples; then, at the cl>w? of this brllllint campa gn, there is brought up on tho green table of a congress the project of confederation And dur ing that timo what is Krance doing? France i? collectirg herself: as Russia said. Vranoe mounts guard for lombardv. which is a pledge for tho cession of Nie and Savoy, and quietly regards Austria manipulating th< ri -tofltily First ot all. there ts In this byiwtbesu an error as to fact. The cefsioc, of Nict and Savoy to Franoa was not a e< mpcnsation for the cession of lombardy l# Piedmont. It was not by reason of the annexation of lonibaidy. but of that of Central Italy to Peidmoot, tbat tbe 1 nip< ror demanded a re establishment of th? (fiillbrlni n UwftwMn, The kmperor said in httI niCFsag< i;i^t j' <; ot. the 1st of March:?"In the present of this transformation of Northern Ilaly, which gives to a powerful State all the passes of the'Alps, it w?s mw duty, for the safety of our frontiers, to demand the Krrooi siojm s of tbe m . nt. ii-. and, m the explanations e*- I changed on th s head between the governments of Franoe and tlgland, M. "Thouvenel said to I/ird Cowley, '-it <ra? |s?sible that Fiance and Sardln.a had contemplated be fore the war, as the consequence of certain eventualities, the cession of Savoy nnd Nice to Fiance, but that thosa e?eiitu?lit'es had not occurred at the < ouclusion <tf ths peace " He add^d tbnt enlarged alone by I/imbardy, and a member of an Italian confederation, was nut powerful e'< ugb to make J ranee uneasy, bjit that sinoa thin ever' thirg had changed its aspect, and that as I'ng land heiself encouraged the annexation of Centrsi Italy to Sardin.a, thi* annexation compelled Krance to rectify her fronlltrs. If. then, people wlrh lo talk ab'wt pledge, guaranty, fad* mmty, it u< ni t as compensation for lx>tnbardy, bat a* a o?.roil?r? to the annxation of Tuscany and ths Ra msgnat), that Nice and ^avoy wore cede<l to Franco. But this is reducing a grand question of general policy to mlssrab'e proportions. To Imsglne that Francs *? golnn to iet \utlr.a do ali she like* in Italy, on the simple ix onlt.i'n of respecting lombardy, ia the samo as to ssy thst 1 ranee waged the wai of 1H59 for the Platonic I rati.-'aitInn of gral:l> lag Sard nia with a n<*w province. Wh. t' liaa. e bas carried on war, that great war, caused the d nth ?.f tii- .nds of men and shed her bevt hlo wl, has spent hundreds of millions, alarmed Ktirope, and c?io jur?*?t up the ?pectrs of coalitions, merely for th? sake off plucking t ie eat of the artichoke for the h.vise of Ssvoy Ne?.heic were other results, other ideas, othc principles at tin* bottom ol that war. We havo already said it, that war was a revolution not only iti Italy 's condition, but also ;n Kurope s. Its obi cl wis, and so ought to be its result, to withdraw Italy from tbo esclu-ive domlnat >u of At:stria In Tuscany, at Taima. Mo-iena, Boloffna, H una, Naiies, cveiywhere except at Turin, Austria was all powerful, and re ,med by her vass .Is, gre?t and small The war of IV.9 was made ta liberate Italy It was f a* thtse ressens of general policy, nnd not even for tltA ?<c< mlary reasons ot rectifyiiig the frontier*, that Franoi made tlic Itaiian can>paign. Hie equilibrium of F.urope, that equilibrium so much talked of, was TitiaWd by tho exclusive pie|?rder*rco of Austria in Italy; the lata war restored the balance, and In this sense it wsa ? measure of order. In delivering the Peninsula from foreign domlna tion Vratxe did rot with to substitute another ta lis place. Hie does uot Wish Italy to remain an Austrian provnc, but she does not demand thai Italy should become a French province let Italy ?** Italian, that is all we require. But the work which France his inaugurated and Italy Is ae c ir.pllshuig ,i er her protection, this work would b? de stroyed if An?t ,a were permitted to realise herself iba P' ^grsnme of \l1.ifranca Kor the confederstlon ooul I not be iv * rst?b'l-h*d unless by the intervention if Aus tr i it ' ie t Krance who will go and seek Ihe Grand I'uke- t V" >n i for replacing th'm on their thrones, ti I i? not Krat.ce who will send an army of occupation Into Hi . tn.ig: a , t?> rs rstabUsh tliere a form of gov rnrnee i ud a ogisl ?? mi that have forever f<11^; i' is not Kranoe , who W lad '.?ck the King Francis II. to Naples Tb co'-'ed atirn would r.ow be merely an Austrian Ir s'.orat.on edocled aga.nst Krance, aul wnich WfW , l a ic> in :u.) thaa tl* wn