Newspaper of The New York Herald, August 28, 1861, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated August 28, 1861 Page 2
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2 ADDITIONAL FROM EUROPE, The City of Washington at New York nd Teutonia Off Cape Race* Mr. Russell Writes Again on the ull Run Battle and the Strategy of the Two Armies Since. j He Exposes the " On to Richmond" Cry of tne flew YorK ADonuon organs ana their After Attempts to Deny It. He Reports Treason in the Government Departments in Washington, unri a Strange Scene in the United States Tost Office. THE BLOCKADE AND SUPPLY OF COTTON. British View of the Financial and Commercial Effects of the War. flie Coming Alliance Between Austria and Kngland, lie.) A c.j he* At screw steamer City of Washington, Oapt. Brooks, ] which sailed from Liverpool at ono P. M. on the 14tli anil from Qoccustown on tlio 15lh inst., arrived hero at half put four P. M yesterday, bringing passengers, specie tad II le.s of Eu roue an natters. A den patch from St. Johns, N. F., of the 24th of August, lays:?The steamship Teutonia arrived oil'Cape Kaon at bur o'clock this (Saturday) afternoon. The Teutonia left Hamburg on tho 11th and Southampton on tlio 14th ln.st. |or news is anticipated. Tlie Teutoniahas 248 passengers. Tho Asia arrived at Liverpool at four o'clock on the tnorning of the 12th Inst., having boon detained outside several hours by fog. Tho North American arrived at I/mdondorry on the 13th and at Liverpool at half past seven on tho morning of the 14th irrst. The news by the City of Washington has beenanticlClpated by the very full telegraphic report of the Hil>er. nian, furnished fram Father l'olnt, on her arrival there, and published in the Hckxld yesterday (Tuesday) morning. Our Iuro|iean flies by tho City of Washington contain, however, the details of the advices by tbe Hibernian, of which the annexed compilation will be found to possess much intorcst:? The prospect of a coming struggle between France and Austria is fnreshadowod in the following extract from an articlo tu the I'arU Siecle, of the 13th of August. It says:? j Austria is trying, but In vain, to concentrate around her the heterogeneous races which are escaping from her domination. Hungary dares to rosist Iter opculy. Venetia, bent beneath a yoke of iron, and regarding with gloomy anger tho cannon pointed on St. Murk's square? Venetia will riso to-morrow, and will in her tnin resist. In Croatia. In tho Tyrol?everywhere. In fact?the same symptoms are manifested. AmI u afraid. Austria crdcs, Austria gran's constitutions. She mutters, UIUUKII 1.IIU.UUWI Hi mix v, tu? nvi?n mm liberty. What hut happened? What htgnides this sudtlan conversion? Austria, designated by lie Moist ra as the great enemy of mankind, has become liberal. Tit* sho bocoine so willingly or unwillingly? No matter; t .e fact le there. Th* rhattitrmmt injli- ted on the.fie.ldt of hattle of Magenta ntul S< lferi;ui it producing fruit. Austria bown down before what she formerly cursed; sho adores what she burned. Catharine Hayes died at Sydenham, England, on the 11th Inst., aftor a week's illness. A female rival of Blondin, who essayed to cross the Thames on a roj>e, opposite Cremorne Hardens, came near meeting with a serious accident. She proceeded half way across hut was unable to get any further, owing to the rope having become too slack, some of the guy ropes having b"cn stolen. She dropped astride the rope, and as it was found lm]**siblc to throw linos up to hor, she ultimately flung herself upon one of tlio gay ropes and gradually lowered hersulf into a boat amid the cheers of excited thou? amis. The Rus-ian and Swedish governments bad declined to support the English project for a submarine telegraph in the Baltic and over Gothland to I.ihau. Tho intciliget.ee from New Zealand Is again gloomy. Sedition was spreading among tho natives. Tho Governor has issued a proclamation demanding obedience. The City of Washington hus brought tho following SrKCIE LIST. Edward Rough ?500 ,1. 11. Brower & Co.. .?1,200 Halstead, Chamberlain Win. lbbotson 300 A Co l.ooo Snow ft Burgess 1,000 T. I)., No. 1 I,0f0 Nesmith U bona 3,388 J. ! '. Kri cmau & Co... 800 ? Total ?8,688 THE AMERICAN REBELLION. Mr. Russell to tlic I.nndnti Times on tlic Defeat ut Manassas. TUB RKIIKJ ARMY COI I.I) 1IAVK fc.MTilUU) WAM1IS0T0N?HE SI'KCtl.A'IKi AS TO Tllk RKASONS WHY IT BID NOT. WASUUMJTON, July 29. 1801. On thin I'ny w . ok the Confederates cuuUl haw marched into the < a} ital <f the United Slates. They took no immediate step to follow up (heir unexpected success. To this moment their movements have betrayed 710 fixity/ ;nwjy-se or settled plan to pursue an aggressive war. or even "to liberate Maryland if they have the means of doing 80.'' And, indeed, their success was, as 1 suspected, not known to them in its full proportions, and their loss.combined, perhaps, with the condition of their army, a.i much as political and prudential motives actuating thenleaders, may have had a fair share In producing the state of inactivity with which tho federalists hnvo no reason to be dmsatislied. tllK "SPECIAL CORRESPONDENT'' ATTEMPTS A MFLOXAIIC VIEW or otTR vnion position. lot us lortk around, now tluit the smoke of battle has Cleared away, aud try to examine the condition of the ground, ? First as regards foreign relations:? The personal good feeling and perfect understanding which exist between the representatives of the great Ku ropoan Powers directly interested in America are founded on an appreciation of tho exact demands of the Interests they represent, and on tho necessities of a common honorable policy. England, havmg a vast commorro directly involved in the contest has naturally been' the first to provide for its safefy in American waters, and has also felt it desirable, in the fare if theilesjiera/e cmtnseU which haw been given r.n this side fifths Atlantic to furnish a trifling reinforcement to her small military establishment iu Canada. Tho fleet at present 111 ei.?rvatioti is neither powerful nor offensively disposed, and no exception call he taken to the mode In which It hr : acted by the most sensitlvo Americans, although attempts have been made to arouse vulgar pre Indices hy erroneous statements respecting tho views and declarations of Admiral Milne. The authoritative a.-sections on tliat gi.tiject in some of the journals here are destitute of authority, except that of the writer. What is of more consequence, perhaps, in i cpect to the preservation of friendly relations between Kneland and the United States. Is the fact that a great change has come over the viev t of the m'/nlert or member of the Cabinet who was tupposed to seek the renmstruction0} th f'niin in a tear with Great Ilritniv. and tlint ttie most favorable disposition is Wnced to cultivate our good graces, not by auy sacrifice of principles. but by the adoption of a tone at once calm, just and digniQcd, which will ho appreciated hy the Foroign Office. It is not probable, either, that w e shall hear much more about the immediate annexation of Canada, and the fury ol 750,000 "better llinn French"' soldiers with which wo were thicateiicd will he for a time averted. Tint MOKItltX TAWFF AS A CACSE OF EMP.Iinil.MEVr. But If there are such pleasant changes in the diplomatic and press world there in nothing at all like them in coin mercial relajtons. Is the Senate it iB proposed to clap a round ten si rent ou all the duties to bo levied under the Morrill tar?, and Mr. Simmons, th" father of this wicked little bit of political economy, declares ho will thereby raise $15,000,000 of additional revenue. The Houso of Representatives, on the contrary, propose to raise revenue by taxes on coffee, tea, sugar, pepper, spices anil articles of the sort, not of necessity nor of luxury, but in the intermediate position, so lb it every 1 no w h i us. s tlioin now will continue to do so. notwitstftndmg the lax, and 110 one will bo the worse for It. Oil thoso plans it is probable there w i'.l lie a oonference between the two branch' s of the Legislature, in which the conn 1. ling systems may be adjusted or nma'.i moated. Tic ivorac tax to be iideiito.l will give some $ !(>.OOO.OOO, according to tlie calculations of the designers, uml the people fondly believe 11 wiii be removed as soon as the war is over. ATTICSfr TO INTLAJ1B THE IWKMVriLB 1 YTEI1F.STH OF FfUMT AND Rt'SSIA?AUJWSU OIIMOK8 OF TUK M1NISTKKS OK I10TU THKSK COITNTBIBS. If the increase of len )>or cent on the Morrill tariff bo Actually passed, it is difficult to h p bow Kriuico ean continue to regard with friendly feelings such a direct attack on ber great article of exportation. Kngland is accustomei V> bear these things I rem tlio United States, hut France fannnl afford any meddling or mischief in Iter n-'ne trade tnd fur tiibaocn tiumiijeiiy. M. Merrier, tho energetic and Ible representative of our ally, is said to cntortain strung lotions that the. om'etl now waging cannot terminate in the fKeeom qf IM North in what it jrojotet to iitelf. U- deHtoeckl, the Russian Minister, who baa lived long |n America, knows ber statesmen and the genius of her people and institutions, and Is a man of sagacity and yigv fW (| boHtoodi to Jtotd tfti icihm N P?rlm|>s the only minister who has really boon neutral, observing faithfully all engagementa to aetuaiiy existing Powers, and e ediiluusly avoiding all occasion ol otleuce or Irritahiilty to an Irrilabla jieople, rendorod more than usually so by the evil days which bavu falleu U|K>n them, Is the discreet and loyal nobloniau who represents Great Ilrituin, ami who is tlio only one threatened with u withdrawal of passports and all sorts o< pains and penalties for the presumed hostility of his got eminent to the United States. IS Tim NORTIt nn MKKKI.Y TtlR I>ttWVWT?t Tlie world sees tliat the North has not treated Iho Southerners as rebels?w will not my it hut nut daunt h> iloso. lint Iho federalists have treated the Confederates III) to this iiioiiii.iii -111 1.1.11ln..r.11I11 if nlmln urn inii, imprisoned, and shot at discretion. Their llugs uro not received; tho exchange of prisouerg with rebels is ridlouIons. A rogular "blockade" of robol port* Is quite ntiomalous. It ri'imiius to bo seen, after Mr. Davis' recent lilnt*, what the tforenniunt dares tut to in the. case tj' the "pi raitat" whom its cruiser* caught in Uie ait, ml handed, of jiriratotring jnlicp. Meant into tlto urm raised to rhastiso unil subtitle has been struck down,and the attitude of the North is just note deftrsire. There will be on tho part of the one pooplo whom the American prtts has most lusulted and abused every dis|*)slUoii to give fair play and t* llsteu to llio call for "time." Hut the quarrel must lirive its liuiita?the time must bo fixed, and the sponge , must be thrown up if one or other of the combatant* cannot "come up" to it; nor does it seem a case in which any amount of "Judicious bottleholdlng" run prolong the fight. Now, nt the present moment the North is litis able to go into tho contest than she was a month ago. She has suffered a defeat, she has lost morale, and mateHeL He,-ides killed, wounded and prisoners, cannon, arms, baggage, she lias lost an army of three-months men. who hnvo marched away to their homes at tlm very moment the capital was in the greatest danger. AXnTIIKR SKIER AT TIISI KKOKKAL IIKI.NIOKi KMKMS. I'p to this period the reinforcements received do not bring up the federalists to the strength they had before tlie light. Nnouc can or will tell how munv have strayed away and gone o(T from their r< gunents sinco they returneil to the camps here, but the actual number of men w ho have come hero are less than those who have gone away homo hy fully 8,000 rank mm Hit). And tlio change had hoeii by no moan* for tho better, Tin-throe months men at least had been three months under aruiq, They wore probably tit least as martial aritl as ready to light as the n si of their iieople. Just us they aro most required ami likely not to bo quite unserviceable, they retire to receive ill deserved and ridiculous ovations, us though lliey hail been glorious conquerors and patriots, instead ot being broken and routed fugitives, who marched nlf from Washington when it might ho ex|>ected the enemy were advancing against it. In their place come lovtes who have not bail even the three months' training, uud who are. not as well equipped, so far as 1 can see, as their predecessors, to faca men who are elated with sue- i cess and tho prestige of the llrst battle gained, anil to be associated with regiments cowed, probably, and certainly, in some instances demoralized, hy defeat. The artillerymen vim cut the timet if their horses from caisson and rarriay at least Knew more about gtins than the nan wlu) unit he )mt to I to nao fold batteries which government are getting up as fust as'they can; and the muskets, of the best description, left on the tlelil or taken, cannot be replaced far a lono time to ccme. In fact, much of this army must lie reorganized in face of an enemy. That enemy is either incompetent or artful; it is quite certainhe is not netuiited by dement yor a gent rout jrdy. Engineers aro hard at work strengthening the jm?silionoiitho south hunk of the river; but forts do not constitute safety. Without stout hearts behind their lines anil breastworks, abattis and redoubts avail nothing. A GRAND PLAN OS ATTACK ON WASHINGTON MAPPKll OUT WY TIIK L. L. I).?GKNKKAI. 1IKAI IlKtlAUD WON'T VKNTIKK 1'M.KsH AI.MO.NT CKKTAIN OS MJCCUSS. It must he that the confederates aro deficient in the means of triuis|ort, or In actual force to muko an attack which is so obvious, if they desire to show tho North it is not (hissIMo to subdue them. Tho corps which went from Winchester to Manassas under Johnston is put by the federalists at 40,000. l.et us take it at half that number, iieaureguro and Ian> are said to have had 60.000 at Manassas, including, I presume, Ihe forces between it and Kichnmud. Divide that again. There were certainly 'JO,(KM) hot ween Monroe, tho Court (V) and ltichmoml, of I u-' IS ltd .11 l,A Ulw,.n.l . .iii.l #... I ol.l., M.t I tiio capital of tin' Confederate State* there was available at least another corps of 10?000, which rnuld have been readily strengthened by 10.000 or ld.OCO moro front tho South in case of a supreme effort. There serins no reason, iu.t conn-rtest with transport. equipment, or discipline, why the Cemfedrrates shun Id mi lui t* been able Inst week to take the fhl'l with 7A.IN.0 men, in two rnijui ; one quite strung enonyh to menace the farce en the rigid hank of the I'ntomac, aud to hold it in check, or to prevent it going over to tho other aide ; the other to rrvts ir.to Maryland. which tit now in parti miiy kept quirt by force, ami to advance down on Washington from the west and north. In the evi ut of success the political advantage* would he very great at home and abroad, and there would ho a new base of operations Rained close to the enemy's lines, while the tub atitujpK of holding the 1'otomac and < h sapcako Fay would bo inueli neutralized and finally destroyed. The Mary Yard wotlid fall into thr enemy's hands. Fort Washington would probably soon follow. Fortress Monroe wuuld be coniieinncd (o greater isolation. Philadelphia itself would bo ui imminent danger should the Confederates attempt greater aggression. But, for one, (ienernl Beauregard will consent to no plan of operations in which success is not rendered as certain as may be by all |Kiesiblo precautions,and be might not lavor a proposal which would lead to dividing an army into two parts, with a river between tliein ami au enemy on each side. Monroe ami Ifamptcn. which are tho true bases of operations against Richmond, have beeu weakened to reinforce the army covering Washington and Iiarp'T's Kerry, and yet I doubt if theroareon the south | hank of the Potomac ut this moment 40,000 men nil along the lines who could movooul and offer au enemy battle, leaving any adequate guards iu the trenches und gurrisons in the te'.e du-js.nt and works. THE CAVALRY OK TIIK SOCTI..IIN AIIWT AND LOSS OR MAVT MOUNTED " tirSTIiMKN. ' The Confederates,as you were informed from Ihe Sonth, have enlisted men to serve for liiu war, ami take no others. The staple of their army will undergo no change, and as 11 grown ohli r it ought to gel better, unless it.bc beaten. You will pardon mo for referring to a romark in one of my previous letters, lhut there might he tierce skirmishes, and even Hani;Miliary engagements, hetwoen the two armies, lint Unit these would be followed hy no decisive results, ow ing to the want of cavalry. Strange to say, though the panic and very discreditable rout was caused by alarms of, an 1 might have been prevented hy tho presence of cavalry, no steps are taken to remedy that great deficiency. The wluntrert who were at Vantutat will nertr stand the itum on horuhaH again,nml I believe tho Confederated are quite aware of thoir advantage, though th y may have had to mourn Ute loss of many gentlemen who fell during the day. MILITAUY KXAIMIKRATOITS NOllTIl AMI SOrTH. The Northern (vipers are increasing tho amount of butter in proportion as they decrease the losses of their leaves, and they do not appear Ih perceivo that the smaller the latter w ore the |<: s should ho the layer ol' the former?for it is no credit to au army to lose Its guns, abandon its positions, threw away its muskets, leave its wouuded in tho hands of the enemy, and run scm- thirty and odd miles from front of t'entreville, not merely to Arlington, hut to Washington, without any cause at all; far without loot there mtu no ratine of retreat, and ther'fore no izruse_fnr panic and unit. Again, they say there wa> only ii portion of their army engaged, lba.groater shame lor those who were not engaged to run, then. Kut beforo the battle, whou Mellow . li s force was enumerated in terrorem at 60.000, it w as said lift, on regiments had subsequently .joined. Now it is averred only 16,000, IS,000. or 2U.000 were in action. What oil earth And I am obliged to say that Mr. Davis' statements are quite as startling: lor. while lie declare* the enemy were "5,000 strong, lie astonishes us by assorting that of all his host only 15.000 took |uirl in tbo battle. As to losses,of coirs) it is beyond auything but imagination to give an estimate. Regiments reported to have been annihilated have turrnd up, quite ha o and hearty, neat as imported, on tlio day of marching homo; and l'ond parents, wivos and relatives will he spared mauy pangs and a great deal of mourning. I think my estimate of killed and wounded was nearly correct. Tlio prisoners may amount to more tlian 900 or 1,000, hut tin1 feeleralists hare Inst more heamly than the to/all under these heads would show, prrhajis. It would he rutiler ridiculous to calj it either a hard fought, a bloody, or a glorious Held; but it was an important one; it was a most trying otic to tbc federalists, who were badly %ftd aiul hard worked in a icaterUn country, on a July day. for ticeli* hours; they were exposed to the demoralising eijerls of long continued curtilbryfin. lu spite of their want of discipline and the very unaccountable rout, the federalists at lirst showed alacrity, hut after a time they became torpid aod dilllcult to handle. Noouo questions the general bravery of Americans, native or adopted, on either side; hut a defeat is rendered worse than ridiculous by attempts to turn it into a trintiiph. Let the unfortunate bravo rest content with the sympathy they deserve, and shun the ovations which are the due of the conqueror, l'raiseand Hattery cannot relako a gun, nor save u staodard, nor win a battle?oven if it be from voocpnpuli in Broadway or liowory. ARMT AMI FIXAXCJAL MKAKTRKS OK TTOt WASntVOTON OARrXET. The government in sumo measure let the world poo what they think of the charges made against the otllcers of the army in reference to the lalo battle. Here is an order just published. [Mr. Russell here gives tlio order (July 25) of Adjutant General Thomas. T'nited States Army, directing that volunteer officers shall undergo an examination, as well as the reconstruction of the military districts iu Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and Pennsylvania.?En. IIkrami.] lie then continues?Yesterday a hill was passed by tlio lbiupc of lb preventatives InqioBii g a tax on carriages of from $1 to $50; gold watches, ?1; silver watches, 50c.; excise on spirnuons liquors, 6c jer gallon; and on l'er mono d liquors, 60c. per barrel, or 2c. a gallon. All inn.tiii i ,,v..r ?.i,n I..... ..limit.i If.r.w. tu.r it,,.'..,'...,. m< nev ut interi I. \c. Kvory interest in the count iy is t ix . Including a tax <D tlie Bet iMOOt of tlx bnki, but not on ihmr cirnwytf bank circulation. Inn .-<1 estates are likewise taxed, and if it bo accepted by the othor branches of the Legislature, Uta people of the North will lir^in 10 fool that lighting Is au expensive luxury, i art. ; u iy t: it be unsuccessful, umiaut.* ranks, in tick, axi> tub fortifications of Formal us toi ma hihmji op jambs mat It w ill tie we. ks tieforo we have done bearing and pee. ing accounts of l'.u;l rni1. ne us it may bo bettor cubed, ot Manassas, unl ..souie other action intervenes, as is rent likely tndu -d. t'ctt. liauk". i finding at.y ndvantago In occupying n pouit iti firollt of-liar per'.- Kerry, on the Virginia side,' lots. it ie iflhrmed, withdrawn ell dm troops to a poattnata Maryland, which ctininiaiiui-tho p ages from the Kerry; iiudi.it.. I * . tier, at Kurti" s Moans?, feels himself cor.t|. Ill d to abendon bis a hauci it works at li.itti|d<; which 1 iles.cn:ied hurriedly Ike ether day .anil to retire to the oover d th< pas of Uiaplaea. rnrli taa Mtaii na li nulla imprecnub'e to tho enemy, for they have not thi ,,H.ang of undert. king a regulai . ego. If they grt heavy pun* end mortar*, tun nr, thry mn certainly make the iiii'i ior unpleasant. and should they open trnu h<s the ./Im,means may hare a Sebastii} - ! in ;war Otd J'uint Comfort. Meantime tho command of Colonel Phelps, at Xcwport News, consist tug of four regiments, is threatened by the enemy. Hib camp is intrenched and furnished with a few howltxers and Held pieces, and heavy guns on the river face. I beard him apply to General Butler, when I was there, for horses and harness for his guns, as if he wanted to mote IbeoudUele e grim, dour, ?teru soldier EW YORK HERALD, WE 'i' of the old Puritan typo, and If attacked ho will defend hie rjun|i to the U.?t. Should he b$ teuton, the Confederate) will have both notro of James rufkKKI-.TIVK VA] UK UK UIK <>N IIOTil RIPCS?SONG OV tiik '' MRSr I llll i itu i i I I'll torn than UHKK IKUAli OK GKHNaKM. The more elorcty thiwonnseiiiienecs of Mannnsas are in v?Kti|taled. the more eerioim they eeera to he. ]t uiuMt ha grunted that the ronlmlerntes loel their Iokjoh more ovorely th in the North Mima. Their colonel) and officers are mm if mark, and oven of privatoH killed or wounded ant ee onAdr. > tmfdjfhtp thai V belong t<> nood fhniili" and mr. irotj Jtniwn jieyp*. The ()'? end Maes ami Veils (tee of Mm letter!, the Corcniaiit, Cameron* ami Brii(y(ei *, prlwaters Wounded (it killed, ore of I*** ronemjurnce. In the hnrtat Ai,.fun iu the h'urth M"in do Hovijttnne. J'reetone and Moioonqn arr te ' South. Air. Davis .ni'l u few .>r III* hOdorx \\t-re to fnll in huttlo there would bo less chance of tlin South continuing itr< struggle with the Harm- heurt tuiil confidence; hul i 'I'' 1'uHiirt trior in i/o to-mnrnnr Horn U'lihhingtoo. tSe rpm of If" fr'nrthrm Slatm iruulU mil hr ilrminirluil on* iota. ASNOCXUiMlltlS OF TliK VICTOR* HY TIIK KKIiKI. CIIIKSS. From the South, an yet, wo have only a few sciUorod details of llio Unlit unci of Its results; but it can bo Boon dial Ib'To wan no very grout exultation over the victory. The following lutoroHling extracts from the Richmond In quirtv of July 23 will furnifh a good idou of the munnur In which the news was received:? [Mr. Russell gives hero.the despatch of Jefferson Davis to Mrs. Davis, announcing the triumph; nlso his olllolul report to Ailjutunt General Cooper at Richmond, the speech of Mr. Mcmmingcr in the rebel Congress un nouncing the news, with the resolutions |>assod by that body on the occasion.?En. Hkkai.ii.) He then adds?It will bo observed when Mr. Davis telegraphed to his wife he spoke of u dearly bought victory and a close pursuit. Of (lie latter thorn are no evidences; many troops remained till next morning in Ceulrenlle, nut tour miles from the scene of the tight, and General Schouck's re|s>rt states he w ithdrew his innn in good or der at his leisure, it will bo seen, too, tbut all wliieli bus been soul of Hie enemy outllaiiking the federalists' left is rubbish, and that the main contest was, us I slated, on the right of the line. Mr. Davis returned by train to Richmond on tbo 23d a conqueror. Jlut conduct Is thus described:? [Here be gives the account of Jeff, llavls' reception, with the report of bis remarks, already published.?Eni Hkiui.ii.] TUB MKMCAt. AFTt.lASCRS AXD Nl'RRHOXH OF TUB ARMY. The "luxury Of ambulaaOM" is a now and curious Kriiuiiu "i compiaini, iiiKi i sus|n'i i nun mere wi'i'o ii"t many articles of the kind in the rear of the Confederate army. Ajvrnpas at this subject, I must remark I hat one clan of oflloors in the federal army diil Iheir duty nobly?Hit surf/tons nniuined on the Jield u hi n all olht.i t were retiring or had trft. One is tipotM killed : -it are prisoners in the hands of lim enemy, engaged in attending the wound eil i f both sides?an iiivaluahlu aid to the scanty medical alatrof the Confederates, There is no reason to believe the treatment of wounded or prisoner* was what it was reported to have been. There may have been some isolated act* of atrocity in the heat of battle or pursuit, and it is only too likely lh.it a building in wlneli wounded men were placed was set lire to by a shell, hilt it is only justice to the Confederate an tliorities to say that they seem to have done all they could for those who foil Into their luiinls Much irritation has tieon created by the fatso statements circulated on this subject, uud the soldiers on guard over Confederate prisoners here would not permit them to reeeivo some littlo luxuries which had been ordered by syimiatliizlng in hahitunts, ou tho ground that they did not deserve them after the treatment given by their friends to the federal is is. TIIKASOV MISTS IN KVKI1T WtrARTMKNT OS TIIK FKOt.ltCI. GOV KKNMLUCT.?WHAT Mil. Kl'tWKU. SAW IN 11IK ll.MTKII STATUS l'lisr OfFICK. And as 1 have used the word "sympathizer*," let me ?dd the expressloiimr my belief thrt. I hi re it/cartel y <i department, high or low, of the public terrice of the United Slatrt in whisht here it not "treason"?I mean the aiding and abetting the em my by Information and advice. It it openly tnlleeil in society?its work is eeident on all tides. I went into the private department of the Pent Olllee the otlier ilay, and found therm ipnilcmanbutily rnnaurd in sorting lel'er* at a desk. The last lime. I rgw him was at dinner uith the Commissioner* of the Cool' derate State* nt Washington, ami I ira< ratio r lurprtml ta see him voir in the sanctum of the Post i 'flier, uHhiu a/tie/eet of Mr.Blair, of tlie sangreatol of abolitionism. Said be, " I am just looking oner the. lettert here to pick out some J'or our Southern friouls, ami I forward them to their owners as J Jtnd them;" and if the excellent anil acute gentleman did not also forward any little, scraps of new* he. could collect I am in error. Again, a series of maps prepared with groat rare, fur the use of General McDowell's staff, are given out to be photographed, and are so scarce that sii|*>rior officers cannot get them. Nevertheless, me isfmtnd inateMaf a Con federate ctfhcrr, in tlieadcauce of Fairfax Court Ihruse, which must hare hejn tent to him as noon as it teas ready. It is also asserted that General Beauregard knew beforehand el' McDowell s advance; but the Confederates left in such has to that much credence cannot be given to the statement that the enemy were fully informed uf the fact any considerable length of time betorehaud. TUK "ONTO XICHXOSlV' CRY OS Tlltt AIIOI.ITION ITS"8 AND TtlKUl MIAKY DKNIAI.SOr IT?RKVKLATlONfl OV TUB "t-ITfUt VHJ.AIS," SRFSII SROM l.KNKRAL SCOTT'S DINNKR TATUS. The battle having been duly fought und lost, the federallsU are employing their minds to llud out why it was fought at all. The convulsions into which the New York press lias been thrown by the inipiiry resemble those produced on a dead t'rog by the wire of (fulvaiii. " Who or led ' On to Richmond r' " " .V?< I, 'port my honor. It was shouted out try some one in my house, hut I don't know who. Ineoergave him authority, /won't rlunit anything any more." " Who urged General Scolt to light I lie balMe, and never gave anylxdy eny |ieaeetill ho was ordered to do itf " Nobody!" ' It sea* that other fellow.'' "l'leate,sir, it wasn't oie." " I never approved it."' i ii nt-ii-i raj 11 maa la'a sooner again. "Mr. 1'reiidmt knows I didn't." It in really a most curious study. I begin to think that the host possible instructors may sometimes bo in the wrong at tliis siile of the Atlantic. * The Tribune declares that General Scott, lining absolute master of the situation, is responsible for the battle. But the New Yort Timet gives a statement of what took place tj'fore the battle at the (Imural't talAe. which, therffirrel in probably published with his sanction, as it is impossible to .<"/ ;?..v a gentleman would print it without express permission, from which it would certainly appear that the veteran Commander was not, as 1 hinted, a freo agent in the matter. Here is the statement:? [Mr. IhiS'-oll here furnishes Raymond's Waishington letter t > the New York rfaxt.oommancing with:?"Qeneral Scott, it Is said, discussed the whole subject of this war, in all its parts, an I with the utmest clearness and accuracy, lie had a distinct and wrll.dclincd opinion on every i?iint connected with it, and stated what his plan would he for bringing it to a closo if the management of it hail been left in his hands," he.?Fit. IlFKAin.l CAN Tim UOVKHNMtNT >1KKT A UK At HON??11 FN Kit A I, MCLKLI.A.N AT WORK. It. remains to he seen if the plans of General Scott can now he followed. The reaction along the Mississippi will bo grunt. and Major General Fremont, with grout rospi it for his courage and enterprise, is not tho muu, I fear, to conduct large columns successfully. Missouri is any thing hut safe. Cairo is menaced, and my friends at Memphis scctn to be stirring from their rest under their General. 1 regret ll at I cannot give any more interesting or important intelligence, but I have not been able to go out lor the last two dnys to the camps, as, In common w ith many people in Washington, I w is suffering a little from 1 rod i ice tin? usunl results In garrisons and ill drained cities. However, it is somo consolation that there is nothing of consequence doing. There was an alarm the night before last. Pome foolish people got the loan of a steamer and u big gun, and went down the river with them. When they were op|iosite one of the enemy's batteries, some throe or four miles away, they fired their big gun, and "Oh'd," no doubt,at the shot as it plashed short in the water, tlio enemy treating litem wilh a proper silent contempt all the while. Having done litis, they returned in the evening and amused themselves by tiring away as hard as they could just below the Long Bridge?I believe without ball?and it may be imagined there was sontu commotion, as the reports shook doors and windows. Geuoral McClollou Is doing his b"6t to get things into order, and the outskirts of tho city and the streets are quieter at night; but there is rough work with Zouaves mid others lu Alexandria?houses burnt, jteople shot, and suchlike sports of certain sons of -'citizen soldiery." Th'-y vill nm.n be. shouting "Money or blnwt," if not kept in order ami paid. These men form a marked exception to the general behavior of many regiments. An Rdltorlal Defence of Mr. Russell. THE IMPRESSMENT OP -BRITISH SUBJECTS IN NEW ORLEANS. [From the London Times, August 13.1 There are no |teople so thoroughly on their good bovnvlor iteforc all tho world as the two unfortunate parties in the fratricidal contest now raging in America. They have to prove not ouly their sense of justice and their regard for truth, uud also that they arc not needlessly sensitive or too ready to fall Into a quarrel. There is a general Itcrsuasion in this part of tho world?indeed, all over the world, except between Niagara and tho Gulf of Mexico, that lite present State Of aulrs there is the natural result of a ileliant, offensive, and intolerable tone of talking and actiug on all matters whatever. The American is rather too apt to consider himself absolutely right, and is pleased to think lie is so occasionally to the confusion Of oihnrs. A high civilization holds it in thegreatest ol social misfortunes that there should be n diflerciice at all. An American does not regard this as so great a misfortune. com pared with having to own himself a Utile mistaken, or misinformed as to a trifle. With such people, when a quarrel lias once arisen, there can be only one ap |?-UI ? Ulilt Bin 1-111 m ill nil". V.IUIU hub 11..? u.-BUiiiru euuu terrible pro]xirlit'i;8, and the issue of which no nmn car venture to foretell. Iltit if there Is any hope of n compromise?if, even in own time, we nrc ever to gee the Northerner ami the Poutiiernor discussing their <li(l< ,-enccf amleably in Congress it can only bo by the introduction of a lent wmitire, Ujw fiomineerinff, IrM prucnkint/ tone than that on which the American* have hitherto pritjrtl th'Vixelrte. Mr. Ktissell hn.s been for gome time in the United Plates discharging for tho British public, not to gay for the whole world, the samo t 'vices that ho did so well before in the Crimea and in India, lie has everywhere had to perform his laborious duties under uilllculties in eoncoiviihlc to most ofliis readers, and little shared bj writers eompiling narratives at a library tattle, or takin'j; down tho words of gome customary informant. Ho lint had to write in haste, in exhaustion, in lit Uo, in danger tn the very turmoil of war, with disputation and ever menace still in liis ears. He has been occasionally con Uadicted, gcnerrlly confessed to 1?- right, nnd seme tnos ho frankly .aid e.atrt - -ouslv avowed himsel to ho mistaken or misinformed. His letters are nov before the world in the form of volumes, and, hnv lug passed through the ordeal <f criticism, tin part of the literatnre of his country. Nowher has his lihettj of speech been so f-jrio -'y arraigned, ant bis vocation so denounced, as in the United Siatis. j corres|iondenoo in another column will show how litth support, truthful, exact and candid as he is, ho Is likol; to receive there, even front those who might he suppose! above tbe matlness of a mob. He bad stated tliat at New Orleans British subjects ha been foroibly impressed into the ranks of so called volui eers. Oe their resiataaoe he said that tbey had bee ^ nocked da|M and drafted off, and only released after et DVKSDAY, AUGUST 28, 18 i?- representations by th" Rritish Consul to the autlioritii-?. When we Hint it admitted liy Colonol Manning, Aid-de Camp to the Governor of the Stain of louislana, that there <lo exist nt N w Orleans volunteer corpa called 111 Carroll Guards. wlin It lie admits to be without any rocogmzod military inuuDi'/.ution, to be so far beyond tho control of the authorities, and for whom, therefore, he wisely declines to be responsible, our readers will easily understand how liritish subjects, In couimon with other people at New Orleans, would be liable to ureal outrase, notwithslainliuu earnest wishes to the contrary on tin- part of the authorities. Those authorities wish two tliiiius not easily compatible. As politicians they wish to enjoy the bencllt of a strong popular feeling and u la rue force of volunteers. As the conservators or public order, they wish no iitati to l>e forced, and liritish subjects, at

all events, to he left alone. Mr. Kussell frankly admits \hut they acted on tho latter feel nu as soon as the opporteuity occurred, and that he erred in charging them with a degree of evasion before they released the liritish subjects wuo nun appeaieu 10 ioo <<? sinar uiu. Tlicy Had been roll-used, itaq p u s, with iin In tin delay us was necessary to receive thn statement or their caw. Thus fur tbostory is very Intelligible. The Carroll Guard* go abooi the workshops ami w harvi'H of Now Orleans compelling this man or that to join their ranks. They meet with occasional resistance mill excuse, particularly lint of being subjects of the Ornish crown. They ilou't eare nunh for this, perltupe because they don't believe it, iicrhaps becaiiM they have heard the American theory that every person who lauds in America w ith the intention of residing there acquire* the rights and the duties of an American citisen. The Consul is asked to appeal in their fayor, and tliu Governor, on beuriug their statement and tliat of their captors, lets tin-in go, but uot till they have suflored sonic detention and outrage. When tins is undisputed, when it must be admitted that it was mutter lor record, and when the Governor oi Isiuisinua cannot Ihiuk himself ill-used, we do not see why he should sei/.e on the admission thai no evasion had heeu practised to invite general d is belief in Mr. Kussell'a statements. In every gissl imclely in tins country, when a man frankly confesses that subsequent information leads him to withdraw or qualify a word, the conclusion is that h" sacrifices everything to truth. In the deportment of the Governor of I. misiuna the conclusion is that lie may be sufeiy put out of the question altogether. This is a mailt r that should tie known,for il helps to illustrate the state of tilings in the United ir-'tah s; and tin- government of Iiouislana lias uot mended matters, or served its cause, hy attempting to discredit the informant who lias told the simple truth. British Interest In the Wnr. THE UKNKKAI. OPINION OK AMKltlCAN DEMOCRACY. [from the London Times, August 14.1 Never was there a war in which the people of this country t<s>k a greater interest. We watch w ith the utmost solicitude all lis- proceedings of thn belligerents, and observe not only the operations of their armies, Imt iln; manlfcstat.on of |*>;>ular fooling, with sentiments which no other struggle could excite. Wo cun suy moro. Though it is impossible to avoid reflecting thai lite 'MifitR ii/'iAl Union into tiro ureiit *s/atee fji'1 V reliere uafrum many yl tin t rootle* with vhirh inn vrre vnnucni by the over Uorino i>oUey of the oht/eih ral yorrrnioent, vu can safely assert that PJigllshnu u desire nothing moro than to see the gimrrol ti'rminatcil and the strife appeased. We wish bo harm to either party, ana wuuid far railier sua America strong, nnitod and prosperous than tperuo'le on the a vnntuyr* irhivh it* jonmi. hire ihiot&irm toiylit ptwoVy briny to it* neiyhlior*. li.it when wo have said this wo have said ail that the Americana are likely to hear with much satisfaction. For the rest, our conclusions arc certainly not favorable to those Institutions under which this grout catastrophe has been matured. What the Americans call freedom, but what wo call democracy, does not show to advantage at this critical time. The theories cttrihulirip immeasura ir/nMiutim jurmn t'l pmnKm nuiv-uu '" n folrijh d in Hi / iainert and nui.it striking manner, and iliu Inst six inniHli huve proved beyond ail question Unit the preponderance of |*>piikir will without check or limit is at least as likely to hurry a nation into war and debt as the caprice of Hie most absolute di spot or the intrigues ol' the most Hellish of aristocracies. Wo are not finding fault with the Northern States for going to war. Wo have repeatedly admitted that the federal party could not be expected to view thu dismemberment of the Union without un eflbrt to avert the loss. Iiut, though civil war is the most frightful of all wais,the Americans plunged into it witli less concern than would have been shown by any European State in adopting a diuiouiaticquarrel. Though the |ieuple of the 8011th wore of the same tiesh and blood with the people of the North, and connected with them tiy a thousand links of interest and feeling, the Northerners instantly heaped . -. y conceiviitde opprobrium on the heads of the Southerners. lf lhe-reader will refer to any speech of any Manchester orator lie will find the government of the United states extravagantly euloyized for the very tjualities of which it is noio pruned tn be. utterly institute, and the Americans exalted beyond all other people 011 account of gil ts which it is plain ttoev never possessed. H i- this, if tho Americans w ish to know the truth, which poiuts the remarks of Englishmen on their civil war and its incidents:?It is not that they are any worse, or moro foolish, or moro intem)u rate than was to he expected under the trials to which tliey havo hern exposed, hut that they have been held up to our admiration by.a certain party among us as a people in whoso counsels no intemperanco or h lly would ever bo likely to prevail. When we see that unlimited democracy oonveys not the slightest security against the worst of wars and the most reckless extravagance, we may apply the moral at home, on<i ci/ngratulate ourselves that the old British constitution has not been precipitately remodelled after a Manchester design. The Financial Aspects of the War* MKRCANTII.fi SECESSION SYMPATHISERS IN NEW YORK? DISCOURAGING FINANCIAL REPORTS TO TIIE LONDON TIMES. [From the Ixmdon Times (citr artl< io), August 13.) The mercantile loiters from Now York by the present packet drecribe grrmt tlfMpondencu, oirintf to the impre ettion pro'hi*!1! t>y th i* bad iiiriiiiigrwriit atui int ,'Vt. ... 7/ nhtnt ri a! It'I It run. Profdr it in KtiiJ, itr** toning ryit\ji*1rii*'e in th*- gorrrnmrnt, ami another detent would bring a large number over to the imlicy ol' allowing accession to luko plan peaceably. Some persons how express a belief tlmt ihu North will have to acknowledge the South before the end of the year, but the real tendency of events seams to bo more and more in the direction of the state of allairs that will reuder b'dh pnrtles glad of a compromise. The federal troops are stated to have evacuated both Harper's Kerry and Hampton, and much anxiety was evidently felt as to the safely of Washington. The opinion was, however, that it would be a great mistake on the iwrt of the Confederates to attack that city. If defeated, they would lose all the prestige gained at Hull run; and, i.' successful, they would again unite the North against th in as one man; while, if they abstain from needlessly arousing animosity and remain on the defensive, llir Xotih. 1' in atntr'.rd, ml! soon diride. into two jartiet,*u event which would greatly interfere, not only with enlistment, but \v ith the raisin;: of money. The expenses of th federal government are enormous, being estimated by a good authority at considerably more than ?'J00.000 per diem. The six per cent Treasury notes are already al four discount, and, as they have only twelve months to r,:u. this is equal to the rate of ton per cent interest. As they were being issued as fast us jhjssiblo a further d proc iation set mod imminent. The nbnudaace of money ut New York was much in their favor, and it is 1 !oai*thut if, owing to tho scale of expenditure, this abundant].' should not continue, a rate far above ten per cent will speedily bo fouttd necessary. 77,.' 'ut*1 of tmil* in nil lUfiirtiiiriit. inn. moat hnrawiing owl lomditfortori/, and heavy failures wore again taking pluue, especially among the dry goods Jobbers. W A It EXPENSES AND WAlt TAXES IN AMERICA. [Krun the I/melon Times, August 14. J Every Englishman knows, by tho exiierlcnce of bis own country, whero the shoo would begin to pinch the American belligerents. In that country, as elsewhere, any number of men can Ik1 procured to light, after some fashion, In any cause, good or bad, if they are only well paid, well fed. well clothed, well housed, and moderately well commanded, with some prospect. If not of booty, at least of a whole skin. S> it becomes aquestionof money. A confidence in money alone hs always proved false: but money there must be, nud there is no country in which It is more necessary than in the United States, whore wages are high and work is abundaut. A war will oost there almost as much as It did here, for if the work is nearer home, and the area of the war somewhat less i than the whole surface of this terraqueous globe, i still, for that very reason, there is much interruption of the ordinary pursuits of life. In the , first place, all the bonds of debtor and creditor, whether i puliHc or private, and a'H the relations of business in coti ton and jother cultivation, are at an end. The State govI ernments themselves set the example of repudiation by refusing to cash bonds, or coupons, whleh ran be traced i to the jKwseesion of the other ]>orty in the struggle, i Searching interrogatories are put, ami must bo answered on oath, before a State will pay interest which may (lnd its way to hostile haads. Meanwhile commerce Is Interrupted by blockades and privateers, and immense works rommcnced in the depth of peace are stopped by tho withdrawal of hands and resources, and not less'by a general diminution of conlldence in the prospects of tho country. At Washington, flnaneo observes tho old forms of Union, and supposes a tax to bo levied on all tho 1 Statw. It is obliged, however, to comlcscead to fact, and calculate on tho certainty that only half tire States will respond to (ho call. So the Congress of Washington is looking the difficulty, ' as thi'y suy there, "square in the face;" not so "square,1' > lfmvnvnp iia thnv will rnn ri*v hnvfl to liink if Thorn i appears to tic no diillculty in tho authorization or loans to nny amount; indeed, at thin moment government has large powers for ihu Issve of Treasury notes for tliree years, anil has found tho market, we presnmo, unfavor1 nble for the exercise of its powers. Tho real question is how to ilnd a proper basis for loans in an angnn nted and well paid revenue. This involves taxatIon, and, unfortunately, taxation appears to be a jKdnt on which the Fnsteru aud Western States of the federal Union are ahndet as much at variMtOO as both nre with tbe i Southern confederacy. Tho Western States have a particular objection to taxes; and when we read the war 1 budget which the Congress seems finally to have decided 1 on one feels that sueh an objection may be expressed not only in good sentences on the lie sir of Congress, but also ' In a uot less formidable manner far West. Besides a dl1 reel tax of f'JO,000.000 apportioned among tho states, and 1 exinrled from only ball, the new budget propp? a tax 1 upon e,arriages, varying from one dollar to fifty; a tax I upon watches, an excise duty on spirituous liquors of five cents a gallon, and on fermented liquors of sixty ccnls a I barrel; and a general tax u|ion Incomes, the rate of w hich, , as well as tho incomes liable, is not yet decided. Meanwhile the Morrill tariff is untouchetl exert* ly the imparl| thin of additional duties. Ererp item in this budget suf/rprtsa finaneinf irur, as difficult, i/ not so samjuinary, as the tear in the I open field. i But there is another question which presents itself to , tho capita',st before even the solvency of a State, or l the yield el' a tax. or the linal success of a cause; and that is the number nod frequency of similar calls. If we lire to Judge from the Immense figures en pa;>er paraded bv 1 1110 ,"Vimil ! laws. U1IS i: n v? ;o miiv liilov Willi i nn> <>r oure?with tlie Kumjonn war. which cost ns from lirst to Inst more than a thousand millions of money, or e the Russian war. which cost tis a hundred millions in two b years. Tf tho government of Washington is oblige ! to 1 oslc for n hundred million dollars to-day, when nn I h"w t soon will it have to repeal that demand: and how many b such demands will it have to make this year, and for how y many years? Kvcry such demand will compcto in tlio it market with the bonds of the last, and our old folks can remember with wliat celerity a promise to pay d SA a year became worth not so much as ?60. l'rui dent people do not like buying stock at Its present n price when they know that twenty or thirty i- million! mors will soon be thrown on tho nvkst for what 6L it will fetch. Nor Is this the only apprehension to damp the courage of (he lender Already. while this war is still iu its very cradle, the bankers of the seaboard State* uro suggesting, in the lonn of Ireaaun bonds, a very largo increase of (ho paper currency. How long would this lie convertible? We may safely pioiiiet that if the war lasts lis long as It now threatens to last, laitli sides will bo driven to the same pitiable expedient of a depreciated paper currency as the mother country was iu a similar extremity. No doubt there are eulhusiasls in Hie United Stales who will lend money and buy Treasury bonds lor three or ten years, all the more freely because tbey feel deeply the social and religious aspects of the quarrel. There may, bo, for aught we know, it al/olttinnirli anil philurt h rupi in thin country irho will buy Ar" riVfjfi no!1 J m it ml/iii'/ mariit, ti/ul yrr/tr In yirr a goliti pr inn fur thnn rather liuiii u hml on'.htfuurr Ihru cur* viorr for flit creilit uf lie lijn ul mum Ihnn tin y flu Jnr the amount of their own juriunc. no cannot iniuic, nowrvor, more arc go muny Hiich people us largely to ull'oct the quotation of American gocuritieg in our marlcut. Lord Pnliiicrsfon'g Opinion of General Mcflcllun'g Appointment. [From the L ridon l'o.-', (Government organ,) Aug. 13 ] The appointment of General M'Clellan to the command of th" Inderal uriny Is u circumstance which not unnaturally hue exalted considerable discussion iu the Ni'W York papers, lly one ho is degcrih d as a military dictator, who is to act entirely froo from the control of General Scott and the War Department; and by another a loud complaint is raised because the gallant general, in compliance with the intrigues of certain sellish politicians ut Washington, is to be hampered In the selection of the general ami regimental oUleers who arc to serve under his command. Hut all the accounts agree in one particular, that General Mct'lellon, having accepted the responsible p. st of Oommandcr-iu (Jhiof, is examining everything with his own eves, anil Is endruvorit g to en force that stern ami rigorous discipline, v. itl.out w hich, ns the disaster at Hull run shows, a great army may Hi>CcJily beer me a disorganized and panic stricken rabble. * * Rut when the New York (tapers talk of n military dictatorship, we hardly know what they mean. Civil war necessarily implies the sus|uhsion of ordinary law, and the subhlilution of the rule of tile sword. In Ciik nil II.i> ml...,,.!.. ..I* II... \l...il. ..............a it matters little whether this extreme power is wieliled by the l'r<s ili-tit lit Washington or hy the general at the head ol the army in the Hold. Mr. Lincoln, it is admitted, hus travelled fur beyond the principles of the constitntii n. He has proclaimed martial law. he has suspended the habeas corpus net, und he hus deposed and imprisioned the niuuiciiuil authorities ut liultiinore. ItV <Ui not .oiy that these meiuurrs art nut perfectly juslijiahle. The indomuity nets of Congress prove them to be so. Mr. Lincoln ran delegate to tho chief of tho army any |iower w hich tho head of the executive government Is permitted to exercise; and for the piir|sisi s of the campaign it matters little, we ropeut, whether Vr Lincoln or General Mct 'lnllan exercise powers which are beyond the strict letter of the constitution. It still appears to be doubtful whether the Confederate troops, Hushed with sucress, intend to attack Washington. As their object will ho accomplished by elearing the aesesaionlst States of fedoriil troo)?, sound policy would seem to dictate that tho enemy should bo quietly left to impiovo their organization in the comparative security of Arlington Heights. Actual warfare In the United States hus now hreu wage 1 for several months. Krery advantage, with tho exception of General KoOWhss successes la Western Virginia, has been on the side of the South. What has tho North gained in exchange? A disgraceful defeat, an amount of taxation which is unparalleled in the history of Kuropean nat ions, t he utter subversion of constitutional liberty, and, by means of prohibitory tariffs, the alienation of tho sympathies of their best customers and friends. It appears, further, that slavery is not the cause of this lamentable contest. It mitts from cimmirrial jialmry, and thus ur see. thai in America Ifir great battle of free trade as opposed to protection is fought out, not by hustings and jilatfurm speeches, Out Oy the ultima i alio rt'jum. The Blockade. ADMIRAL MILNE HAS NOT REPORTED IT AS INEFPIctknt?England's inikkests and duty as a NEUTRAL TOM KR. [From ttie London post (government organ). August 14.] Wo behove that we are only stating a simple truth mlieu we say that every dispute which has existed lie tween this country and the United .states, during the present century, has arisen from tho susceptibilities of the American |>oopln with respect to some supposed invasion nt' their national dignity and rights. The war of lSi'2 was occasioned by the right of search?a question which the treaty of Cher.t and the Ashburton capitulate 11 alike left unadjusted. Tho affair of tho Caroline. JTLuod's trial, the Ma.ne boundary and Uregon disputes, and tho recent Puu Juan difficulty (now happily forgotton), are all exainples of the boastfulai d offensive S|iirit in which successive I'resiib nts have endeavored to assert the nationul dignity and rights of the once great American |ieopl?. In the civil war which at present afflicts tho United States the Cabinet at Washington hat artctl in strict conformity Il lias adhered to the declaration of neutral rights annexed to the Treaty of 1'arlR, it ha* ohatiehe.l the odiau* pruetirr ot private rina.nnd. In imitation of the policy of European nations, it lias practically conceded bc'.iigercnts rights to the enemy. It has not treatod captured secessionists as traitors, but liis extended to them the usual rourteriet of war. The Southern authorities, oil the other hand, have commissioned letters of marque, and these sea rovers, If the account be true,have proved in a very satisfactory manner that the federal blockade, extending over a coast of more than two thousand miles, s only valid on paper An American correspondent, writing from I'ensacola the other day, not only stated, hut professed to give, the text of a letter in which Admiral Milno, the commander of tho liritish squadron, had oltlcially not died to tho Admiralty that the blockade of the Southern |x,Tts was altogether ineffectual. On a former occasion we expressed a doubt whether so discroot and experienced an oihoor as Artmiial Milne could liar* committed an art to obvimtly be>j<nd the pale nf hit duty. The authoritative contradiction which hat k-rn gi*en lo thit clever American fabrication teat scarcely nei-fjuary, because everybody knows, as a matter of fact, that the- federal government does not possess at present a naval force sulflcient to close all the Southern jmrts from Virginia to Texas. All thut it can In pe lo do is to blockade the most important points, such as the mouths of the Mississippi, and the great seats of tho cotton export trade. We are, however, now Informed that by means of gunboats, anil other vessels of littio draught, an attempt is to bo made to enforce the entire line of blockade. If the federal government can accomplish this object, neutral nations will have no cause of complaint. because the blockade would then be ctlbctual. if. on tho other hand, the attempt should fail, merchant vessels would nracticallv Rhnre in the immunity which the Southern privateers appear at present to eujoy. Of course it in extremely annoying to neutral commerce lo be warned off itio coast ami compelled to rcturu homo, or lo 3ail to Now York or Canada, whore I he freight may be at a discount, and a return rui go cannot bo obtained without a groat saenllce of time and money. But these. are necessary erils whuh sprint) from a state'J war; hard, we admit, to he endured by innocent parties; but so long as the action of the federal government is in conformity with public law, no one has a right to complain. WTifit the American courts condemn foreign vends for t he I,reach of a mere fxijier Unlade, the inlerxcntinn of tliylomacy will tlu:n he requisite, but at present no case "hits o< cuiTed either lo meril or command the interf'>reuco of neutral T'owe. s. If Admiral Miino had made the report which has been attributed to hint, the federal governne tit would have a just right of complaint, because questions of the validity of blockades are not within the jurisdiction of nn admiral eommnndlug a squadron in the neighboring sons, but belong lo those greet tours which, either in belligerent or neutral countries, administer the law if nations. Knowing and fully appreciating the feelings with which the people of America regard every expression of foreign opinion, wo are. upon the whole, glad that this idle story has received net only timely but otlicial contradiction. If Admiral Milne had volunteered the statement which has been attributed to him, llio Northern people, who are not likely to he much pleased with English criticism and comments upon the recent battlo of Bull run, would say that England preferred the pursuit of cotton to the obligations of honesty and fair play. As Ix?rd l'almerston at the commencement of the contest stated, every question of neutral rights must ho decided when a fitting case arises. This contingency has not yet arrived; anil if tlio federal government ran succeed iu efficiently maintaining so enormous a blockade, it will in ail probability never occur. II is the duty of this country, In the forms of her Majesty'3 declaration, to observe strict and imimrtial neutrality. For simply doing this England has been abused and villifled by the Northern press, and (amadu was to be annexed lo compensate for the loss of the South. Wo ran afford to despise all this ludicrous and impotent malice, but an happily wo have hitherto escaped all difflenltirs nhnut American native dignity and rights, let us leave ti e two contending parties lo fight their battle as best they may, without the slightest interference or even advice on our part. If the blockade he ineffectual, neutral commerce trill comparatively mffer little injury; if effectual, flic fird prinrhletof pullic law tell tu that we tain' obey with a good grace. however disagreeablc the restriction maybe for one great staple of British industry and British wealth. The Anstro-KngUsh Alliance. IMTORTANT SPEECHES OP THE ARCHDUKE MAXIMILIAN, Mlt. ROEBUCK AND THE AUSTRIAN MINISTER. The promised visit of tlio Archiluke Maximilian,of Auslrln.'to the docks at Southampton, took, plane on the 15th inst. The Corporation presented him with an address. In reply, ho said?My country is now constitutional, liko your own, and is full of aptitude fer freedom. and in many respects resembles England more ilian any other land. I live in (ho conviction Hint each day will see stronger sympathies spring up between (Ireat Britaiu and Austria, and that, therefore, the two etnpires will ic jey li'irally and ci.mmercial! y drawn towards each other. At tlio diji-unrr Mr. Itocbuck s|H>ke at considerable length eulogising tlio attempt of tho Emperor of Austria to Introduce constitutional government into his dominions, and denouncing the prejudices and ignorance bo bad met with in carrying out his design. Mr. Kocbuck said the Emperor would he opposed by faction and demagogues: would tho people of England support him in nil tlieso difficulties ? The Austrian Embassador spoke and expressed his belief that Austria would I e more eloS'iy mtnUltled upon the institutions of Kngiand than any other Continental State could be. Cotton Does Not Rule (lie Inclinations of Englishmen. [From the Enndon Herald (l)orby organ), August 12.] 11 is nuite true that many ntiIIions of people in England earn their broad by cotton; and that cotton wo must have. But it is equally true aiul apparent that the Southern Slates of Am1 ilea are not tlio only Holds from which rotton can bo got, and that since the employment of several millions of pooplo involves the investment in tho rotton spinning trade of a great many millions of capital, that capital will not allow itself to jiertsh, and will find rot ton elsewhere if America raises to furnish it. If tbe bikers in London warn to strifes and shut up, we do not imagine that thoie ore i/wrton would ha lot g without bread. Nor need the Southern States imagine that they hold the Keys cf all tho cotton reserves in tho world. Vjigll-hmen would desire of all things that this really fruitless war should cease, and that cotton should still come to them from their kiismen. Hut Kngl ahmcn repudiate, <m the other hand, baring fattened ujxm them a pro slavery interest and a pro slavery symfalky, by the enunciafitn of the unfounded notion, that if they cannot get toton through slavery they mmt go wiltotd. Supply of Cotton In M??rp?ol-Ilow Long It IMuy Keep the Mill* tiulng. [From the Loudon News, August 12 J *he computed stuck hi cottou at Liverpool on list Friday evening wus USfr.070 bale*, agumst 1,203.'120 at tha sainu |KTlod of laat yuar, when tbojpiaiitny wo* unusually large. A* regards the American qualities ike stoitc is equal to about twenty weeks' ooiuumption at !'. rait lately wi/neued; at this time last year it uu> afUal to tuvnly eiyht wert-i' annum/1 ton. Tliere then remaitm llio mi|-.riant difference, us determining llio market price, that last year there was every prospect of tha American supply coming forward its usual, whereas now that supply is ordered to bo stopiied. Amu her point to ba weighed is that the draught ii|sui our stock for ux|Hirtation w ill probably lie larger this year than usual,lis continental, and. iierhags, even American consumers will fall iqvui our market. Tins renders it the more requeue that we should diminish our own consumption. As Ihe home "trado" have of late |>nssosaed themselves of u considerable sup Wy try buying at Liverpool, it is computed that the stock wliii'ti they huld u of about tbo some uuiuuut an last year. These are only a few of th" more p-omincnt consideratioiiH, jrro anil con, which havo to be estimated in attempt ing to arrive at conclusions respecting t!io probable future course of tho cotton trade. Wo have adduced sufllciont to convince tlie general reailor of tho serious, not te say critical, character of the present condition of all'aira. At the game time, although the progress of apprehension is broadly indicated by tbo unprecedented extent of the business done in I lie Liverpool cotton market during the last six weeks, it would bo wrong to omit from the account a number of points favoring the presumption that we shall yet tide quietly over a considerable pel rati before we arrive ut the much dreaded cotton scarcity, whiuh si ems to be gradually creeping neurer uud nearer. There remaius, then, only the anxious qncstlons, never absent from the mind of the cotton speculator?Will any portiuuol tho American supply come forward, uud If su, what portion? Will llieblockade be mtiintainnl in a teay U secure ill continued rec< tjnitiun by England, Francs ana other Stales? Assuming that this jxiinl is rent red in Ike of Jt rotative, what quantity cf coll on will run the paunlM <y the blockading squadron? Given, n scnrclty of the article ad a high price at Liverpool ?ed Manchester, at liuvre and Mulhouso. together with an abundant supply in the Confederate Slates, and what will b? the result? Tlu-ee are a class of questions the solution of which rests with the future The British Fleet for North America. [From the lioudori Times, August 12 ) The screw steam frigate lmmortalitie, 61, Capt. George Hancock, left Plymouth Sound on Saturday tuoruing for North America. English Artillery from India for Canada* (From ttui i/tndnu Times, August 12.] Throe batteries of Royal Artillery liavo been ordered from India to tCanada. The force will proceed overland upwards of 1,000 miles. Two hundred horses for the Royal Artillery are oil passage for Canudu. Krwi from the Coast of Africa. TI1K SbAVK TK4DK KXCKBD1NU L.Y ACTl VIC. The royal mail steamship Kthiope, ( antuin French, has arrived at Liverpool with a mouth's lator advices from the West Coast of Africa, and 2,500 ounces of gold dust. Her Brittanic Ma.iesty'g ship l'rnmethous, Commander Beding field, senior oillcer of the south division, ariivcd at Fernando I'o on the 27111 of June, from the seuth, having been relieved by the Alecto, Commander Raby. she reported the South coast \ery uuheallhy. Several F.uropeans had died on the Cougo, at Fish Bay, and other places. Tlie sluve trade is still very brisk, and in consequents legal trade dull; it was anticipated that some of the factories would havo to close. Captain Bedingflcld had been in nrtlve cooperat inn with the American squadron, and hud taken two vessels lined for slaves In the Congo river; als < a Spanish schooner, ths Jacinto. The Wrangler, R. N*., liad tuken an American bark, supposed to bo the Ardennes, with 4!)5 slaves on hoard. The notorious slaver Storm King hud coine into ?i V.I ..liviv. n mil a IVS-" ipwuci IV.I1U i..vK ,iu i |?pers). but hearing there wore slaves to b' had, pitched her cargo overboard, shipped a large number oi' slaves, anil got away clear. The steamer General Mlramon (formerly the Greenock) had shipped a cargo at Kusindu in Tour Lous, using Ame* ricuu. Portuguese and Spanish colors to suit the cruiser* she happened to meet. Everything is done under the American (lag until the slaves are actually on hoard, ao that two or three English cruisers have very little chanc* to lake prizes or check the trade. OUR ARMY CORRESPONDENCE. Ukaoqi artkrs Thirty -seventh Hkoimk.vt,.# Arlincton Btom, August '23,1601. J Graiul ragtanl on Arlington Heights?A Day at the Sea of ITar?March of Out Thirty seventh Regiment from Alexandria to Arlington?Hospitable Ecccpticn by tts Michigan Second, <tc., <fir. McCnnn's brigade has bcon distributed among other brigades recently, and the Thirty-seventh regiment, which Colonel MrCunn commands, is for the present attached to General Richardson's command. Yesterday,* little before noon, tlio Thirty-seventh regimonl received orders to move from their encampment outside of Alexandria and march to Fort Albany, on Arlington Height*. The march commenced within four hours afterwards. Tlio distance was some ten tniles.over hilly roads, crossed by rivulets in several places, and muddy everywhere, owing io me rcceui rums, i uo evening was sunry ; uui( notwithstanding, not only waa every man In lbs corps ready to turn out, but not a single man foil out of lb* ranks from fatigue till we readied our present camping Urnunrt. One of tho streams which we wero obliged to cross was some two feet in depth, anil the scenes at crossing it wore very ludicrous in some instances. An attempt was made to pass over dry shod by taking down part o' tho neighboring fences and fastening planks to form n bridge; but, though some time was spent in this way, the bridge was a failure, and the majority had to dash through the water. This was done amid roars at laughter, as the men sploshed each other, or ''nocked one another down in the water. Til# bridge gave way, precipitating Ave or six mot broadside into tho stream at one time. At Inst we readied our destination, and thoro the scene was grand. All the regiments in tho vicinity were drawn up to cheer us as we passed along them, and the Michigan Second was drawn up to receive us. (hmeral Richardson invited Colonel McCnnn and his officers to 1-ave suppor with liim?an invitation which was accepted without hesitation. As the night gave signs of rain Colonel McCuna labored without delay, and successfully, to have the men of his regiment under cover. After arriving at Arlington the scene presented to my v i< w is the grandest I over boheld.ntid for that rea-en I will give some idea of what it was. The Thirty-seventh was drawn up in line near headquarters of (Jenerol Richardson. The headare m a fine octagonal house, with a cupola, Hiding a splendid prospect, surmounting it. On I his waved the regimental flag of the Thirty seventh: underneath were tho guns of many fortifications, the tents of many brigades, mid the soldiers of many gallant reglCui'ilmi* ntvni*ctinriA tlio en! t lirii'lil waters of the I'otomac, and beyond thorn tho capital, which it is nur prido and privilege to defend. As soon as tho lisg wai rnlsed over the headquarters and unfolded to the hreene, tho regimental band struck up tho "Star Spangled liannrr" and many other patriotic airs. It was grand to see tho regiment as it wound its wuy through the woods, with Its music playing and banners flying,.as it wns cheered and bidden farewell by the huzzas of other regiments and the roar of artillery during lis march; but all wan culminated, all was exceeded iu the mngiiillreuce and brilliancy of the pageant on the summit of the Heights of Arlington, when the scene 1 havo described occurred, in view of Ilia capital?the city bearing the name of tlia greaf military chieftain who founded the republic which the troops then in view are assembled to preserve. Tbia morning ail goes well. The touts of tho reglmont aro beiug pitched, the rain is over, the sun sliinoa brightly, and the men are refreshed and merry. Many of the regiments at Alexandria, as well as ours, hara been recently removed to the vicinity of Arlington Heights, which you may be assured arc now impregnable Law Intelligence. IN ClIAMBEIta. Before Judge Sutherland. The Truth** of the Columbia College, li'eu York, w at. ward C. Delavan.?Judgment for plaint Iff. E. Pearson vs. George M. Munstm?Referred to Mr. B. I.tppingwell to tako process on tbe question of the place of rosidence of defendant, Jane Wilson, and to report tlx same, with his opinion. In the matter cf Louis Caloni.?Certiorari allowed. In the case of James C. Willet, Sheriff, vs. theEqstUa table Fire Insurance Company.?The amount heretofor allow ed is reduced to an allowance of $50. SPECIAL TERM?DECISIONS. I.sGRAiiAM, J.?James Gould vs. Samuel F. Butter, worth.?Judgment tor defendant. Opinion.?This was an action commenced before the code. The declaration was for moneys had and received by defendant for the use of the plaintiff. The claim was for moneys reclved by defendant on an order by Stark on the I'ost Office Department, on account of eon. tract made with Stark and the plaintiff after, as plaintiff alleges. Stark had transferred to him the use and interest of the contract. Was it not material at this time to inquire whether laaH dhopcrpH on thn clrfi?nil/int nn int?>nl to defraud him, by obtaining the drmft, with the know,edge of ttie plaintllf'H rights, lie might not recover. No Bucil allegation is made, anil there is no evidence to warrant such a conclusion. Ujton the facts, as proven, my conclnsions arc:? 1. The assignment by Stark was only a part of the contract as mado with the United States in October, 1837. If so, the interest under the new contract w aa not transferrins. 2. The parties by their acts sanctioned the drafts by each portion of his half of the proceeds undor that contract. 3. Subsequent notice of the name of the firm to the plaintiff does not alter the rights of tbo parties. 4. The payment burg made to a c: editor for articles originally furnished for carrying out a contract, without, notice or a change in the rights of tho parties, will not ....i..??? action for money had and recovered by tho plaint'ifl'" Tiu- plaintiff's remedy U against the partner ot the United States. 6. No presumption of frnnd on the pert of the defendant can he Indulged. The money was nut ; aid through any frr.ud or concealment of the defendnitt, but after full notice to the parties. The Claims of all were submitted beforn the payment. If tho plaintiff's claim lo tho money wm valid, then the United States paid the draft 011 their own wrong, and tho plaintiff a claim remuins good against them. Tho money paid under suehtcimmistancus wua the money of tho United States?not tho money of the plaintiff. If Improperly paid the United States should sue Aw it?not toe pUUbIUl Judgment for Uu do"irtrnL

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