Newspaper of The New York Herald, September 22, 1861, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated September 22, 1861 Page 2
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2 PRINCE NAPOLEON ON THE WAR. HIM THIRD LETTER. Sketches and Descriptions of the Generate and Armies on Both Sides- Importance of West rolnt?The Spirit North and South) he?j kit) At* i ^Translated for tho N*w Yo?k Hkimid from the Opinion Nationale, Sept. 4.J WiSOiaaiW) Augutt 18,1881. I poke In my last letter of tho governmental element in tho United States, which I have found infinitely inferior to the important mission oonflded to It. I ball speak to-day of an element dilleriog essentially from it, and to which the events transpiring in America at this moment have suddenly givin a very great preponderance' I mean tho military element, of which Generals .Scott, McCloMan and Mcliowell in tho Northern aruiy, and Boaurogard and Johnston in the Southorn army, are the highest and complete*! personification. 1 shall begiu l?y occupying myself with the first named generals. GENERAL SCOTT. General Scott Is a man of enormous height and corpulence, aged about seventy Ave years, gouty, worn out, almost ended. Ho is Lieutenant General, a grado corres ponding to that of Marshal, and to which is attached tho permanent command of the regular army in time of police as well aa iu time of war. In tho Uniuul States there is but one Liuutenaut General, and ho is in perpetuity Commander-in-Chief of tho army, a sort of war minister for life, while the Cabiuet olllcer, who Iim tho title of Minister of War, is more specially charged with the military administration. General Scott, therefore, directs all the operations of tho present war, just as in Fraufco tho Minister cf War directs tho armies in the Held commanded l>y generals-in-ctiiof, General Scott is, or rather has been?for X repeat he has the air of a man whose career is ended?a true gentleman, the mnnuor of an'Euglish general, well educated, enlightened, and belonging, as well by his age as his manners, to quite a different generation than tho present one. He lias never commanded any but tho regular army, in contrast to the militia. It was at the head of tho regular army that, in 1847, h made the splendid campaign ofMcxteo, landed at VeraCruz, marched on the capital, which he seizod after an obstinate battle, while General Taylor, on tho frontiers of Texas, and at the boad of American militia, won'flio victory of Bucna Vista. General Scott, who is a very gallant man, has, besides, au excessive eelfli-ve; his country nun have so often compared him to Napoleon that the ci m; ariion has ended by making some impression on him. Ilo likes to rec.ill the fact that Ue lius i.ever been defeated, and even tliat, in his military career the enemy has never tak^u freui bim either a detachment or a pest. (JEN. M'CI-ELLAN. General McCleOnn commanded, some days ago, in Western Virginia, a province hail si Reeled and half revolted. Charged with tlio duty of pacifying it, he acquitted him self of that mission with the greatest success. Or the two ' secessionist genera's who opposed him one was taken with his whole column, the other was killed and his troops dispersed. Those successes, which American ox. aggeration has transformed iuto grout victories, have given from day to day au immenso popularity to McClel" lan You see his name nt New York on placards, on banners, in the newspaper headings, with -the phrase " McClellau?two victories in one day." AIter the battle of Bull run, to which I shall again refer, the I'resideut called McClcllan to tho command of the conquered and demoralized army. He lias, therefore, under h,s orders at ibis moment tbo troops reassembled on tbo PoUmtic, from Harper's Kerry to the sea. Ho has the tulo of General of Division? Major General?a position which corresponds to ibut of General of Division, having commanded, or commanding, a oorps of the army. There aro at present only two otllccr* of that grade in (bo United Slates?McClellau and the celebrated traveller known under the name of Colonel Fremont, who h.is once been a candidate for tho Presidency. He commands tho small federal army which operates against the secessionists in the Mississippi valley, in the t'tate of Missouri, around St Louis. It is, therefore, ill tlio bands of tieueral McClellau that the North has placed its military destinies, and the care of avenging tho shameful defeat of Dull run. The connections of Goneral Jlc( lel.'un with General Scott are almost those of a general i.l the army with the Minis tor of War. General McClHlan, a pupil of West Point Academy, is a man of thirty live years of ago, very small in stature, with blackball- ami moustaches, an inteih gent, open und most ..g te ible c< untenain-e, and a simplo and modest bearing. Should you Bie hioi pass in tho street in I'aris you would certainly take him to bo a French editor of (U,lneers or of artillery. GENERAL Jl'LOWELL. General McDowell commands all the troopa on tho right bank of tho Potomac. Ho 'S u inau of forty two years, tall aud large. His face is uot particularly Hue, but it Is remarkably open a<td sympathetic, through its air of frankness and kindness. If McCle'.lan re*. mbUs one of our engineer officers, McDowell resembl. s me of cur infantry i llicers. Did I not dread roducing to puerile shades the search for resemblances and assimilate ns, 1 should say that McDowell I..is the type of a chief of battalion of foot chasseurs. His conveisation, his character and his principles ure still luperior to his appoarancc, favorable as that is. He is ono of tbo bonestest, truest, simplest men that you can meet. He sustiinod a terrible check at Dull run, and ho speaks of it without bitterness, without recrimit.atiou, with an accent of sincerity and an elevation of sentiments that do him the greatest honor. Deprived of tho tupreme command in cor.sequonco of that reverse, be has seen McClellan, bis follow student at West Point, younger than himself by several years, inherit his honors, his position and his growing popularity. Ho has taken, without complaint and without murmur, an inferior place under him whose mission It Is to repair tho misforti.ne attached to his name. Well, no one doubts that McDowell will be tho most submissive, most devoted of McClellan'B lieutenants. McDowell has, besides, a reputation in the army of being a sort of stoic philolophor?a reputation sought aft' r and more or 1cm deserved by a certain number of West Point pupils. Ho drinks noither wine, tea nor cofleo, does not smoke, and has habits of sobriety and self denial quit* in keeping with his Puritan principles. wkst point academy. I bare already referred several times to West Point, niit establishment, the nrlde of tho L'nlted Slates occn pics a position between our military school of St. Cyr and our Polytechnic school. It impresses on Uicso lot mod by It a distinct character, which makes of thorn a separate class In the midst of the three great American divisions? the Yankees, the Virginians and the Western men. Th? West Point jHipil speaks foreign languages, Frcnch priuOipally. Ho has been brought up, In regard to literature, science and military art, in the culture of the great European models. So lie is a stranger to that narrow and mistaken patriotism, that puerile vanity, which concentrates all the ideas, the studies and tho admiration of Americans upon America. The study of pw? sciences and abstract mathematics Inspires him with a taste for disinterested speculation; and the military profession which he embraces, without Stifling his liberal instincts, Imprints on him ideas of order, of rack, of respect for social or moral superiorities, little known to the rest of his countrymen. To a stranger's eye these fundamental differences aro interpreted by an absolute contrast in manners. The Wo.st Point pupil is polished, reserved. He knows generally the art of appearing modest, and of making himself esteemed by * skilful simplicity. He knows how to conform to iho usages and habits of the strangers with whom he comes in contact; practices all the rules of tne most scrupulous urbanity, with a certain admixturo of republican boldness, which lacks neithor charm nor distinction. It required the test of civil war, of governmental anarchy, and of the humiliating position in which the people of the United States tlud themselves at this moment in tho face of tho rest of the world, to show rising to tho first rank quite a pleiad of new men formed by West Point, eome belonging to the regular army, others having belonged to it, all fashioned on an almost uniform type. It it, at first, cn the militaiy slage that they appear, but every one fed* that they will ntl be long in passing on to the political one. JIPFKR80N DAVIS. The South has already chosen a West Point man, Jefferson Davis, for President; Tor West Tolnt is divided like the rest of the nation, and furnishes chiefs to both parties. Generals Beauregard and Johnston are at the head of the secession movement; McClellan and McDowoil are the Onion heroes, and their nanus take the place in every owe'# mouth of thnee politicians whose weaknrts anil incapacity have brought the United State* to the brink of an abyss. The war appears to be between comrades. In Western Virginia McClellan has had to operate against two West Point companions, one of whom, as I have said, was killed and the other made prisoner. Beauregard and McClellan, military leaders of the two opposing |*rtlos, were not only companions but Intimate friends. When Heauregard went to the North ho went to no other house than McClellan's, and when Mc'Clcllan went touth he stayed with no one but Beauregard. Ono Side and the other are acquainted In the most intimate luoiiuoi, own rt<utiiii<yiia ui cuivuiruua cau'pm are found almost everywhere la both camps, for former friends now become Implacable enemies. Such are the mon whom the force of circumstances calls to direct the great revolution which at this moment upturns the l'nited tftatss, and which will propably cud in reforming them. THB HOSTILE ARMIES. I pass now to the details I promised you of the armies facing each other. The federal troops assembled on the line of the Potomac are composed of the following sections:? 1. At Harper's Ferry, twenty-five leagues (seventy.ftve nules) abovo Washington, where tho AlleghanioH debouch, a corof eight to ten thousand men. 3. Kour leagues above Washington, and on the left hank, a corps of six to eight thousand men protects a bridge thrown acrot-s the lvtomac. 8. In tho rear of Washington, in Maryland, reserves or corps In formation echeloned as far as Baltimore. i In front of Washington, on the right bank, a corps of 20,000 men, facing the enemy.cutting him oil from the bat ks of the river, and relieving tho representatives of tl.a Union from the humiliation of. seeing from the wiu<J as of the Capitol tho smok<i of sscession bivouacs. * KB Tin DBFBNCR8 OF WAMIWOTflK. The poaitioaa occupied by ike federal troopa on the right beak of the Potomac t-inbiace a front of Marly three league* parallel t? the river, which lie* to the roar. Ob tbti right they are supported by heights or Inconsiderable eminence, called Arlington Heights, aud ou the left by the little city of Alexandria. Between those two reflating muses stretches a low, wooded, broken oountry, Into which leads tbe only regular communication there Is between the right and left bunks to Washington?that Is to say, a largo wooden bridge, twenty Ave hundred yards long, l'rom Arlington to Alexandria the position Is fortiII' d by tie id works, redoubts, redans, batteries and abattis, constructed with a great deal of care and armed with siege pieces taken from tbe naval arsenal*. The upper approaches are defended by a tct' tie pint, flunked at aome distance by u large closed redoubt. Finally, the outlets well arranged and sufficiently supported, are enabled to have tliolr outermost pickets at a distance of three leagues at least fiom the linos proper. All that is generally well contrived, aud presents all the olemeuts of a serious resistance. AHHI UHUtRlZATlUII. Cavalry Is very scanty. As to Held artillery, there >8 scarcely any to be seen, which proved that tho losses iu tho battle of Bull run have not j ot been repaired. There remain*, then, the Inlantry, encam|>ed in an Irregular, but sulllcieutly comfortable manner. In u former lettor Isjioke of tho volunteer organlzation, and I need not revert to It. 'flieir militant bearivy is very initiJjernH, owing at much to the farU of the m 11, who npj-ar to be strangers to the duties of military clennline'S and the keeling of (heir arms, as to Hie of the administration, which in far from hao\nj i mpleied in a proper manner the mode of furnishing dr'hill ft <(i;v til id thoft. Tht inftructimof the soldier it rent indifferent, almost not/lino, and 1 do not believe they are actively occupied tv'iih it. In general, the apiiearance of lliu camps is sad. duo us mi ch to their sombre color atal bad condition nl tlx-materials as to the ntlitudo even of tho men, which is heavy, without animation and without cheer1'uIdcss. TftE BATTLK OKOCND. Between tho two armies stretches an unco upled and, to gum ' extent, neutrnl 7.0110, which separates them. This portiou of Virginia is dreary and monotonous; the land,slightly undulating, presents nothing as far us the eye can rem li but woods, interspersed with cleariugs and a few country houses, the greater part of which boar truces of recent devastation. TIIK SOUTUKKN AltMY. At Ove leagues from Alexandria tlio first vldettes of tho Southern army are met with. Farther on, Kali-fax, an advanced position, is occupied by considerable forces. Colonel Stuart commands the camp. Finally the bulk of the Southern forces is posted at Manassas, the approaches to which are del ended iu a very formidable maimer. At first sight an idoa may bo formed of the accession soldiers' exterior. The question of uniform, not fully solved in the N >1 th, is not thought of at all at tho South. It would seem that the attempts at uniform have not got beyond 1 ho distribution among some corps of a kind of facket of a heavy gray cloth, manufactured In Virginia. The clothes, whether of regular uniform or fancy, aro all in a very bad condition; tho soldier, nevertheless, preserves beneath his rags, au aspect sufficiently martial, and perfect order reigns in the camp and at the posit. TlfK SOUTHERN cavai.ky. What strikes one most is tho cavalry, which Is very numeious, admirably mounted, nnd composed of superb men. It is plain, at the first glance, that those men are tliu sons of farmcis nnd landowners, tlutt their horses aro their u>vn, nnd that they are accustomed, if not to arms, at laust to a rough country life. Besides, nothing is more picturesque tl.an those Southern cavaliers. They wear the most impoFsihlecostumes, wofully diiapidati d by a tl roo mouths' bivouac; hats without ciowns. boots without soles, with an air and heroic bc iriug that l>on Ciosar do Bazon would have envied. And sirco tlioso ragged cavaliers have as line, cnorg'M ic, Virginian faces a-; their horses are magnificent, wiiii h 1 hey manage with great daring, ( ne is llilod with admiration, just us we admire the fantastic figures of the warriors created by t-'nlvator Rosa. the soutueun staff officers. The siafrj of the generals iu chief (Beauregard and ;oiinston) aro remarkable, II the United States were not a republic, 1 would Bay that th> se stalls arc compoeod of the flower of the Southern nobility. Most of them possess enormous fortunes. Disinterested iu this civil war, a stranger to the li-ilrclR. I lie tmmlor.H nnd tlm itiitirpsl.fi wliirh hni-A in. Uamed it, I could not feel otherwise than touched at tho s i k li t of some of those white moustachcd inen of military, aristocratic hearing and distinguished manners, who have left their families, their llrcsides and high social positions to servo as aids in the rudest of wars, to young generals, hitherto unknown. THE ariKIT OF BOTH AKMIES. It is incontestable that there is much more passion and ardor among the oflicereol the Southern than among these of the Northern army. It is insisted in the secession eamp Uiat this ardor, this disinterested devotion -to tho common cause, are shared by tho soldiers; that in the South they servo through honor and conviction; that among the foilcrals the soldier knows no other allurement than pay, no other impulse than that of want?tho best recruiting ofllcoramoug the populations i^ho large cities Certaiuly it is going too far to generalize a fact which may he true to some extent. Individual bravery if ivcoti totally superior in Ike Confederate camp; but the l/viirn nrmy malts up for lltu disadvantage iy a more 'idcanced military organization and Icr.mvlnJge, at least among the wldier::; so that matters being almost equally balanced It is ditllcull enough to foresee towards which si.le the fortune of war will incline. It is true tho victory of Hull run is of a nature toexclto to the highest pitch the confidence and enthusiasm of the Southern men, but 1 And it Impossible to see in theresuit of that battle one ol those solemn Judgments, without appeal, which coudemn one sule to bow tiio head beneath tho Irresistible ascendancy ol the victor. These men, alter all, are ncaily of the same race, or the same mixed races, uuU, despite the divergence of opinions, they have a common fund of ideas, manners and reeling*, which docs not permit a line to bo drawn through tho thirtieth degree ot latitude, aud to have it said- All thut is north of this line is inferior to all that is south of it. to estimate the event or July 21 we must leave a wide margin for the local incidents, the chance and unexpected encounters on the fiokl < f Initio, the unforeseen events which take bold of the imaginations of the masses?all .secondary causes which operate on the war by so much tin'more as the minus have less experience, discipline mid knowledge. REN'EliAL IiKAl'RIIQ ARD. I hive told you of ihe g -nerals commanding the North01 u army. The details ?hich 1 send you would bo incomplete were 1 not to s|*mk also of those who command tho Southern army?Generals Beauregard and Johnston. General Beauregard is of French origin, that is to say, his family emigrated from France to Canada about a huudied and fll'ty years since. His father left tho English colony to become a citizen of the United States, and sotiled in Now Orleans. He there changed his religion, abjuring Protestantism and embracing Catholicity, which Is the religion of tho Genoral and his family. A pupil of West 1'oint, Beauregard was a Lieutenant Colonel In tho regular army when the war broke out. He had Just been aiipointudSui.vriuiendeut of the West Point Acadcmy. The government of bis State, Louisiana, recalled him, ninde him leave the fodcral army, and President Jefferson Davis immediately couforred upon him tho rank of General and tlio command of the troops at Charleston. We know that that command gave him tho opportunity of firing tho first cannon shot which rent the flag of tho thirty-four stars. Iln bombarded and took Fort Sumter, a success which i chieved him nn immonse popularity. When tho secession army formed to march on Washington Beauregard was invested with tho grado of General of Division? Major General. Beauregard is forty years of age. Hois small, brown, thin, extremely vigorous, although his features wear a tired exprefeion, and his hair has whitened prematurely. Face, physioguomy, tongue, accent, everything about him is French. His bravery Is great and undeuiable, find evorything denotes in him, if not a superior geuoral intelligence, at least a vory remarkable military aptitude, lie is quick, a littlo abrupt, and although well educated and distinguished In his manner?, he must sometimes oifend, lees by what ho savs than by his manner of saying it. Perhaps he docs not repress with sufficient care the manifestations of an ardent personality which knows its worth, and to which an immense military success may have given a legitimate self-confidence. Ho is extremely impassioned in tho defence of the cause which ho serves; at li-ast, he takes less care to conceal his jiassion under a calm and cold exterior than do most of his comrades of either army. To sum up all, the South has found in him a man of an uncommon ardor, a ceaseless activity and indomitable power of will?characters by which we recognise the men destined to win tattle* and to lead partite. GENERAL JOHNSTON. General Johnston, also a pupil of West Point, 1s a little older than Beauregard, and was Colonel In the regular army at the period of socoeslon. He served very brilliantly in the Mexican campaign, and enjoys in the United States a great reputation for capacity and probity. An extreme reserve, a modesty no less great, causn a sort of sadness to appear to paralyze in him tbe brilliant qualities which every one recognizes In him; but place him In the field of battlo, and then the true warrior reappears In him as if by cnchuntmeut. These are the two men who oommand the Southern army. I say "who command," bccauae in truth It Is pretty difficult to say which of the two to in possession of the veritable chief command. Both have the same grado, and it appears that, either through right of seniority or in consequence of a special commissi* n, Johnston Is, In the camp at Manassas, the superior of Beauregard; and yet, notwithstanding the prctvuus ui iiiiuiidkuu ni iuo uihuu ui duii uu. i? is numiited by every one?by Beauregard first, and afterwards by Join stoc?that it was Botuiregard who conductod the buttle, and has all the honors of tho victory. It has been explained to me that Johnston, having arrived only the previous evonlng at Manassas with a portion of his troops. did not assume the supreme command till tno day after the light, and acted on that ^ay merely as a support to his colleoguo. Bat these are shadows which only a military man oan seise, for the*" attributes of rank and tho constitution of command form the obscurest part of tho military organization of Americans. For tho foreigner, whom theso professional qucstiins do not Interest?who is content with hearing what may be told him and wllh soeing what may be shown him?Beauregard is tho Southern commaii'ler-in-cblcf. It is ho who gained the battlo of Bull run. and it is he who will gain the next battle that will be fought. SOUTHERN SESTtintNT. I shall soon, perhaps, havo leisure to write to you somo words on the manner in which the secessionists look upon their situation. Tb-day I can only report to you its most salient features. Tliey affect to set aside os questions that are secondary, ended, adjudicated or reserved, th(?e of slavery, of tariffs, of Lincoln's election, even that of the right of secession. They raise the question to a height which appears to them unapproachable to all discussion or cor, trove-F.y. They hare vowed a mortal hatred against the North, and the y make an implaenble war sgMsnst It, because tho North li.i? Invaded their territory, their native soii.rtrnis in hand, and because they bnvo to defend against It their flr?sldca, their honor and their liberty. From the ral in-Chief down to the humblest soldier, all, with a remarkable unanimity, hold the snmo language. That aj'|iears to be tho parly watchword; per hai? I ou^ht also to say it ta its conviction. W YORK HEBALD, STJNI position or thb mm iwnr, I have already told you what are the present positions or Ike Northern army. They an tba aauie aa U occupied 1 on tho 16th of July. The secessionists have alao resumed almost the same aa they had at the same date. Affair! are therefore found now in the same condition as bofore tbe fight, and tf it baa bad a great moral influence, it has had no strategic conaoquence. Bull run la a rivulet which runs parallel to ths Potomac, and which Is separated from It by an average distance of twelve leagues. When I speak of the Potomac, I mean that portion of the river's course which is above Washington,from thereto Harper's Ferry. That is the veritable Northern Hue of defence. Tbe secessionists have chosen Bull run for their lino of defence, because Its banks are a little higher than tho otber streams that traverse tho country, aud are covered with thick woods. It offers, besides the advantage of covering Manassas, a strategic point of the highest iin|M>rtauce. because it Is tbe junction of two railroads which lead, one towards tbo West, through the Alleghuuics, and tho other towards the South, to Richmond, tho present rosideuce of tho President of tho secessionist Congress and government. AbattU have beeu constructed on all points of Bull run siwcoptibls of offering practicable passages to the enemy's columns. It is |Kfcsiblc that the force of circumstances may again place tho two armies In hostile array on tbesume fluid; but at present an overwhelming heat renders the great operations of war almost impossible, aud nothing serious noed bo expected before the autumn. GREAT UNION SPEECH OP GEN. WALBRIDGE. MirriNO or thk fifth wahd people's union association. An adjourned meeting of tho above association, which haa been organized within tho past week for the purpose of placing good Union men in nomination for office, without respect to party .was held 1 hursday evening at the Fifth Ward Hotel, Dr. Eager, presiding. After tho preliminary business was die] used of, a large number of citizens enrolled their names as members of the organization, which Is one of sevoral U mbs erected in tho city sacred to the memory of old iwliCTcal party ism, and ou tho other band, one of the many pillars erectod to support the dignity and power of tho government throughout the whole Union. While the names were being enrolled thero was a sudden murmuring at tno door, and it was whis|>ered around that General Walbridgo was present. A motion was imme dlately^nade to Invito him to attend the meeting, and this boing carried with applause, the Chairman ap(>olnted a committee to invito him. When General Walbridgo entered he was loudly applauded, and boing called ui>on to make a speech, ho asseuted after u little hesitation. Goneral H. Waliikbigk was Men called upon and proceeded at length to traco the hist.' ry of tho formation of tho federal constitution and the benefits it had already conferred, and also to Investigate tho al'oged cnus. a which arc urged by those engaged In the present rebellion. Th".?o causes,said be, cannot exist in the non-ex ecutionofthe Fugitive Slave h.w, for that measure has been legally executed In every Northern State: ai d luthccxlnmo Southorn States, where tho rebellion originated, no slave ever escape, nndfr* ni the border States the number of fugitives escaping during tha la.=t ten years is thiity-three per cent less than in the decade from 1840 to 1850. It ought not to result from the structure of the constitution, for that Instrument gunr.'s with equal jealousy the rights and Interests of each : oction of the Union. Nor has any Injustice ta'cen place from federal legislation on the rights of tbe South, i it months have butji.st elaptod since the entire Corgriss o| the United States, without a single dissenting voice, inissed a resolution rcc'gnizing the institution of slavery on it exists in the States, and dclcartng they wero willing to sio the' organic law so amended that it never could be charges inihis partica.ar. At the adoption of tho constitution seme of thoStates desired to an nex a condition that they might withdraw at pleasure from the federal Uniou; but this authority was promptly deniod, and when our own State suggested a desire to annex this condition, Mr. Madison wrote to Alexander Hamilton that such a conditional ratification was worse tlian a rejection. Rut ir a State may secrde, who shall pay the debt rhe aided to create? We gave fifteen milili>118 for Louisiana; can she sece<'e? Wo gave ten nilllii iis for Texas; (an she accede? l ive millions for Florida; can she or any of the balance secede? They may and they have attempted It, but they will surely fail, until every loyal constitutionalist has formed with his own body a rampart over which no rcbo! secessionist can prevail until his feet first rests upon a patiiot'g grave. No, fellow citizens, the normal condition of our country is union. We are emphatically one people?speaking the same language, possessing similar forms of State government, citizens by birth or adoption of free institutions, and sharing alike in the traditional dories whicli cluster arcund tho foimation of our constitute nil fabric. Wo arc, aud ought to be, one and indivisible as a political community In tho temiKsrate region of this hemisphere, us well by political as by natural and artificial causes. Our rivers, mountains, plains, lakes, cabals ai d railroads are all constituent elements of one blended whole. Ibo diversity of products grow.ng out of a diversity of climate, soil and location, and the stern necessities under the laws of trade calling for an oxebnnge or commodities. A unity of interest, therefore, in nil tluso relations of life, demands a unity of government. 1 lay th.s down as a propicillin which the experience and obsorvatU 11 of every man will verify, and which 110 transcendental vagaries of government, whether nullification or secession,can successfully gainsay or controvert. Now, without any real or tangible wrongs to redress, we And a persistent, wicked and widespread insurrection, in formidable proportions, arrayed against tho constitutional government of the Union?a government the best over conceded to man, framed by the wis lorn of the Futhcrs of the Revolution, after the melancholy cxperleuco In history of the oarly republics; a government productive of the highest goi d, now drawn in peril, by the most malign purposes, seiking to destroy aud subctitute'in place of it, what* Some theoretical league, possessing no cohesion r.or unity, to 1)0 sepai ated and broken up at the first caprice, or to sink in the estimation of the people at homo, end to he the contempt of the world abroad. Tho weakuess and imbecility of such systems have been demonstrated in almost every age. Our own experience proves it. Under the articles of confederation the union then fell to pieces from inherent weakness, and was found unfitted, after a fair trial, for the purposes for which it had been established. With olov n States in open revolt, their rebel soliiiory within a du; s march of the capital, their treasonable banner discernible from tho I'rtsldentmi mansion, there is still no occasion for unnecessary alarm, though tho necessities of the case demand the uncomprr.misiug and heroic oxortions of every loyal citizen to give complete triumph to the great principles of republican government. When wo contemplate our resources, our numbers, and the cause in which we are onguged, wo cannot but believe that tho government has tho power, anil tho loyal American people tho will, to demonstrate to the world that it has the capacity for Indefinite duration. Cannot a government and people, capable of resisting any foreign aggression, howovcr formidable, subdue and quell a wicked and infamous conspiracy among a portion of their i w i citizens? We lielleve thoy can, and we never intend to be driven from this position until this rebellion Is thoroughly put down, ana the old American (lag floats again over every portion of the present revolted territory. Tho nations of Europe aro witnesses of the struggle aud anxiously awaiting tho result. It involves tho whole problem of constitutional representative government, and for all time. Let us estimate tho resources at our control, and the prodigious growth of free institutions on this continent since our ancestors laid broad and deep the foundations of our expanding republic. In the year HVlfUMlJ VIIU I1UI1UIVUUIIU DI.MY } I'tllD u?"t Lilt) UUIITU population in (ho then eleven colonics was but two hundred and sixty-two thousand souls. In 1749 Georgia and Delaware wore added, and the number of inhabitants in the whole was one million and forty-six thousand. In 1775, at the breaking out of the Revolution, tho thirteen colonies bad increased to two million three hundred and three thousand whites, and hair a million of slavos?in *11 not quite three millions combined. Upon a principle that lay at the basis of freedom- tho issue between (lie colonies and tho mother country was then made by this small population, without estimating tho cost, and the seven years' strugglo of the Revolution began. The closa of the conflict found tho American colonics in debt on* hundred and thirty-five millions of dollars, according to the valuation of money in that day; which, In view of the great decrease in value ?of the precious metals since that period, by the enormous products of the gold discoveries since made and devolopod, would bo equal, according to tho present relative value of money, to two hundred and seventy millions of dollars, or nearly forty millions annually, and in the annual ratio of over seventeen dollars to each white Individual. The debt which Great Britain contracted by that war was flvo hundred and fifty millions of dollars, which she sunk in the vain effort to destroy the rapidly developing forms of free government. Now, by tho ben ign workings of tho constitutional government of tho Union, the annual tax upon every individual In the United States Is less than two dollars each; fnpon the basis our peace establishment te sixtyflvo millions per annum, or but three dollars per individual, If our ordinary expenditures should attain ninety millions per annum, and with prudence and economy the expensos of the government may bo kept within the formor sum. Congress, a couple of years since, having expressed the popular will for a reduction of our expenditures to fifty millions per annum. Now, what Is our capacity to defray the augmented expenses nece?sarily growing out of this rebellion? And let us see if we are not abundantly able to prosecute this conflict till treason is annihilated, the federal authority everywhere re.eetablished throughout our territorial limits, and theconstitutlon again the shield and protection of tho loyal American people, between the Gulf of Mexico and the great Northern lakes, and between tbe Atlantic and tho Pacific. The presont peace establishment of England and Franco, respectively, may be sot down at an annual oost of three hundred and fifty millions of dollars. England, with a population of twentynlne millions, and Franco, with a population of thirty six millions, or about twelve dollars a piece for each individual In England, and ten each in France. This is the cost of the peace establishment of tho two great Western Powers that at this time control tho policy of Europe. Now we havo the recent estimate of the enlightened Secretary of tho Treasury that the value of property, real and personal, in the Union, is sixteen thousand millions of dollars, of which the loyal Union States havo eleven thousand millions. The surplus earnings of tho latter being estimated annually at $400,000,000. The Bame responsible authority estimates the year's cost of tho rebellion to us as not exceeding the cost of the ordinary auuual peace expenditures of either France or England. Should tho expenditure, .however, reach the aggregate of one thousand mlllious of dollars in quelling the rebellion, three years of taxation, according to tho peaco scale of tho Western Powers, would clear off the cntiro debt. Tho

United States, thus stundlng upon an unshaken basis, need apprehend no disastrous result, while sbo makes a vigorous, energetic and determined effort to assert tbe supremacy of tlio federal laws. Th> present debt of Great Britain is lour utoumna minions ot aonnrs; that or France, perhupa, nearly half the amount. In England no new lauds nro added to lier agricultural territory, nor any new cities built. She resorts to fertilising processes and improvements in agriculture to extort a larger production from tlio earth, whilst hor teeming population are crowded Into still m< re limited quarters. With us, the Immense extent of our territory opens continually new avenues to industry in all the department* of life. New farms are Added every year to the wealth of tho country, and new cities spring up near coal fields, in iron and copper regions, where Improved machinery is in rapid motion In advancing the mechanical and manufacturing iny " ' - )AY, SEPTEMBER 22, lfl Uresis of t|? country sat adding to the wealth of tbs republic. Ike domestic trade of the oountry approaches ? thowandi millions auooally, lake trade and all, wbNst the value of the steamers in the Mississippi ?nd Its tributaries may be estimated at seventy live millions,-with a fleet of two thousand steam vessels? twtoe the steam tannage of England, and equal to that jwned in all other parts of the globe. With such resources, the debt incident to this wicked rebeUKm is not to bo considered as ground* of hesitation or delar. The llrect taxation of the country will become less burdenmine, as we are able to leave a large portion of tbo extraordinary debt resulting from the rebcllioa to those who ihall come after us; and the complete character of the security, the pledged faith of the government, with most iberal rate of lnterrst, will, lu all probability, as it is now loing, bring out the unemployed and hoarded gold of tho ountry, and be found tho most satisfactory Investment. L'lif direct tax upon the country is now Increased beyond what it will bo at future |>oriodR. The economy and judgment Of our morrhnntH hnv? rnntrWnH munv nf #h?Tr 'oroign orders to the ?nallest proportions, looking to the nii.ro limited demand by our domestic disturbance,and Llie closing of tho ports of tlie refractory States has ex-ludod our revenue supplies from Imports heretofore collected there. As these restrictions are removed,trade will not only resume Its usual channels, but seek out additional avenues after the triumph of our cause, and the consequent restoration of peace will pour augmented supplies into the treasury from Imports necessarily diminishing dtroct taxation. Our Imports this present year, It ts fair to estimate, will beat least one liundered millions less than even last year, and our exports from the loyal Stat's at least fifty millions greator, exclusive of specie. The balance of foreign trado thus usually against us, will be laigcly In our favor, and tho demand for breadstuff consequent upon a partial failure of the gtain crops in Kngland and France, will still further augment the resources of the North in quelling this re- I hellion. At no former period in our history has thore boenpresonted, by thepurchaso of government securities, an opportunity oqual to an interest in the present government loan for a large and certain return for the use of money,now offered to every humble individual as well as to tho largest capitalist or tho wealthiest moneyed corporation. The country once relieved from th'i pressuro of moneyed n^ccssiti's, resulting from th.- rebellion, tho public securities will alvauc to tho enormous pre mining they attained nftor tho Mexican wir untf prior to tho present domestic disturbs:**, ranging from eighteen to twenty per above par even for ordinary six per emits Follow citizens, the path of duty is plain. Ko: jetting all local and personal considerations, we should rally to the rescue of the country, Its violated rights and tbruatenod liberties. In our day. and by tho men of this ago Is the question of the permunency of constitutional free government to bo decided, if wo are untrue to our trust or falt r in tho present hour, accumriated niis;orti:nes and ruin will gather upon and around us, and thgenerations that are to follow. If wo succoed, ns snccoed we must, for our can. e is just, we shall once acain pr? s nt U>6 Mpi ating spectacle of a free and united pe. pie, under a clearly dollned, well regulated government, prosperous beyond example In the history of our raco. The speeches was frequently Interrupted by loud bursts of applause, and at its conclusion three lusty chsors wore given lor the speaker. UNION MEETING AT NEW LONDON. New London, Soi teinher 10.1S61. Tho groat Dickinson meeting took placj this aftorcoon, ami resulted In the oocgrogatioa of tho largest number of poop to that over assembled in New l/iudon. Tho occasion was a glorious cue, and the mooting a decided success. Ton thousand pe pi attended. About two o'clock, on the arrival of Governor Buckingham, the procession formed in trout of tho City Hall, under au cscort of about llvo hundred men from tho Fourteenth regiment United Status Infantry, M^jorGldd.ngs commanding, and proceeded to the immense sto imboat ;u;<l railroad depot. Captain Francis Allyn.tho chairman of the Commlttoe of Arrangements, callod the mooting to or lor, making an appropriuteand oloquont speech. Governor Buckingham presidod au 1 addressed tho meeting. lion. 1). S. Dickinson made ono of tho best speeches of his life. lion. S. P. Ilall, of Blnkhamton; Hon. I). P. ly'er, of Brocklyn, and J. F. Trumbull, of Stouington, i-ddrcssed the meeting. Tho enthusiasm wus Intense. THE SOUTHERN LOAN. CIRCULAR OF TUK SECRETARY OF TUE TREASURY OP THE REBEL STATES. CoNKEDKRATR STATES OP AmKRICA , 1 Thkasi-ry Department, Klin mono, Aug. 22,1801. r The Congress of the Confelciato States lias authorlzod the Secrotary of the Treasury to issuo bonds to an extent not exceeding one hundred millions < f dollars for tho mir. 1-.S0 or funding its Treasury notes, and for making"exi hang' 8 Tor the proceoels of the sale of raw produce and manufactured articles, and the purchase ofspecio and military stores. llueler tho authority of a previous act the Secretary splinted commissioners, resident iu diflhreut sections of the several States, to solicit in advance from planters, waaiifaoturors and others, subscriptions of the proceeds of tho sale of their crops and ctlier branches of industry, to bo i aid for In bonds of the Confederate States. To tho patriotic aud zealous efforts of these commissi' nan, na less than to the lofty patriotism of the people, the government Is indebted for an aggregate subscription whii li roaches already many millions of dollars. The IIbjiv.lity of every class of tho community has been evinced. The cotton, tho rice, the tobacoo and the sugar planters have vied with oach other, aud iu the first named staple ali.no tl.e subscription in several of tho States reaches from one-third to one-half of the entire crop. It U not proposed, as has been frequently explained, to interfere with the usual and customary arrangements of planters and othci s in making sale of their produce. This is not necessary. It is only asked that each individual shall indicate in advance the proportion of tho same which he is willing to subscribe, tho lime and place of delivery, tho factor or met chant in whose hands it is to bo placed fi r sale, and who is authorized to pay over tbe proc o Is and rcceivo in excliango Confederate bonds. Ti e bonds carry Interest of eight per cent, pavablo semiannually, and *:e not to be issued of a less denomination than one hundred dollars, except where the subscription is for a less amount, when tho limit is fixed at Ufly dollars. The payment of the principal and Interest of the bonds is secured, as will be pcrc.lvod, by special act of Congress. Tho agricultural and manufacturing Interests which have now tho opportunity of contributing to tho wants and sustaining the credid of tho government, weie not ia condition to uiako cash subscriptions to the loan previously authorized. Their surplus capital was already Invested, und tl-.eir command of resources, In the nature of things, was mainly to bo loeked fer tn the future. Upon such future resources they are authorized safely to draw, and tlie investment proposed, aside from its claim on the score of patriotism, may be regarded altog tber as advantageous and as safe as any other business transaction. The time of sale roferroil to in the caption of tho lists which are sent out, is intended to indicato the usual dato at which the crop is broeght to mat kct, and will of course be subject to those considerations of mutual interest which would postpono a sale where tbe property would be sacrificed. Special agents have boen appointed, or will be appointed in every county and district of tho South. They will be furnished with subscription lists and requested to bring the stbjoct before their fellow citizens in every proper manner, by personal appeals, public addresses, or throuph the instrumentality of the press. Tho results of their labors will be communicated f rom time to titno to this department, and it is roquesto 1 that agents will endorse upon tho lists tho namo of the Post Oflice, county and Slato to which they beloi^g. Tbo sections of tho several acts of Congress which relate to the subject cf tho loan are herewith aunexed. C. G. 1IEMM1NGEK, Secretary of the Treasury. BILLS PA88KD BT TUB RKBBL CONGRESS. AM ACT TO Al'lHORIZE A I.OAX, ANT) ISSl'K or TKEASt'RT NOTES, amd PRBscsnc the rrmsiiMurr fob forging the sake, and FOR FORGING CERTirCATSS OF STOCKS AMD BONDS. Section 1. Tho Congress of the Coufcdorate States of America do enact, That tho Secretary of the Treasury may, with the assent of the President of the Confederate Stales, issue fifty millions of dollars in bonds, payable at the expiration of twenty years from their date, and bearing a rate of interest not exceeding eight per cent per annum, until the>y become payable, tbe said Interest to be paid semi-annually. Tbe said bonds, after public advertisement in three newspapers within tbe Confederate States for six wcoks, to bo sold for specie, military stores, or for tho proceeds of sales of raw produceor manufactured articles, to be pa id in specie or bills of exchange In such a manner and under such regulations as may bo prescribed by tbe Secretary of the Treasury, to report at Its next ensuing session to tbe Congress of the Confederate States a prcciso statement of his transactors under this law. Nor shall the said bends be issued in fractions1 parts of the hundred, or be exchanged by tbe said Secretary for Trossui y notes, or the notes of any bond, corporation or individual, but only in the manner herein proscribed. Provided, That nothing herein contained shall bo so construed as to prevent tbe Secretary of tbe Treasury from receiving foreign bills of exchange in payment of these bonds. (ActMay, 1841.) A BILL TO BK EMnTLKD AM ACT TO ACTBOBJZB THE MSTE OF TREASURY MOTES, AMD TO FBOTIDB A WAR TAX FOR TUX1R REDEMPTION. Section 1. Tbo Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact, That the Secretary of the Treasury bo, and he is hereby, authorised, from time to time, as the public necessities may require, to issue Troasurr notes, payable to bearer, at the expiration of six months after the ratification of a treaty of peace between the Confederate States and the United Slates: the said notes to be of any denomination not less than Ave dollars, and to be reissuable at pleasure, nntil tho same are payable; but the wbolo issue outstanding at one time, including tbe amount issued under former acta, shall not exceed one hundred millions of dollars; the said notos shall be receivable tn payment of the war tax hereinafter orovieiod. and of >11 other public dues, except the export duty on cotton, and shall also bo received in payment of the subscriptions of the net proasoda of sales of raw produce and manufactured articles. Sec. 2. That for tho purpose of funding the said notes, and for making exchange for the proceeds of ihcfalo of raw produce and manufactured articles, or for the purchase of si>ccie or military stores, the Secretary of the Treasury, with assent of tho President, is authorized to Issue bonds, payable not more than twenty years after dato, and bearing a rate of interest not exceeding eight per contum per annum until thoy bocomo payable, tho interest to be paid semi-annually; the said bonds not to exceed in tho whole one hundred millions of dollars, and to be deemed a substitute for thirty millions of the bonds authorized to be issued by the act approved May 16,1861; and thla act ia to be deemed a revocation ot the authority to issue tho said thirty millions. The said bonds shall not be issued in less sums than one hundrod dollars, nor in fractional parts of a hundred, except when the subscription Is less than one hundrod dollars, the said bonds may be issued In sums of fifty dollars. They may be sold for specie, military and naval stores, or for the proceeds of raw produce and manufactured articles, in the same manner as Li provided by the act aforesaid; and whenever subscriptions of the Fame have been, or shall be, mode payable at 'a particular dato, the Secretary of the Treastiry shall have power to extend the timo of sale until such dato us he Bhall see fit to indicate. Sec. 4.?'That for Ihe special purpose of paying tho principal and interest of the public debt, and .if supporting the government, a war tax shail be assessed and levied of Qrty cents upon each hundrod dollars In value of the following property, *c., kc. [Act August, iSOl] SVTSM8B 10.1801. 51. * *' Yerfc Mrdlcal College. FIRST LROTUKB OK TBI FALL COURME?OR. CARKOOHAM OK AMPUTATIONS? IMFOKTAKCK OF TDK SUBTROT?MILITARY SURUKON8 IN ATTKNDANCR, RTC. l'l>e flrit of the fall course of lecture* of tho New York Medical College waa delivered on Monday by Professor Carnocban before numerous audience in tbc amphitheatre oT tho Institution, East Thirteenth street. Tho subject selected for the occasion Is Invested with peculiar Importance at this time, from the fact, aa alluded to by the learned lecturer, that a Uestructivo war la being waged la our midst, and It, therefore, became the imperative duty of all young students to prepare themselves to treat aoeceesfully the dreadful casualties which must arise therefrom. To tho military medical studeuuespecialiy tbia was a subject for most earnest inquiry and study, aa upon the extent of his professional knowledge much suffering or alleviation of suffering must follow to the victim" of the battlefield. Among the audience on Monrfav were soveral modical raon In uniform, denoting that the Invitation exteudod to them through tho IIkxald was accepted in the spirit in which it was given?thai of sympathy with our bravo soldiers who may be maimed ou the held of battle, and for whose succor we would fain socure tho best nitvlical aid. That our army is attended by able and competent medical men thero is little doubt, and it is gratifying to see those young men who have not yet gone to the soat of war, exhibit a desire to lope no opportunity of acquiring information to tit than for a faithful discharge of their humauo duti< s. The lecture won entirely cf a practical character. All tho appliances for illustrating the different points of the discourse were provided. The lecturer w.u> agisted iu his operations by three of tho students of the institution. Dr. Carnochan, aftor tho applause which greeted him bad subsided, addressed his audience as follows:?I have been requested by my colleagues to open the preliminary course of lectures in this institution for tho present seasou, and in tli. name of the Kacuty I otTwr congratulations to those gentlemen who reappear after the 8 tnmer vacation, as well as to those who, lor the first time, present t lien is- lv<s for the purpose of pro-ecu ting tiioir studies. Tl.o exigencies of tho times appear to require 8]>ecial attention to somo branches of Uie healing art, and more particularly to tho department of surgery. Tho extensive mutilation of tho battleHold often demand tho sacrifleo of moro or les.i portions <>f the human meohanism in order to save tho rest from destruction, in civil lifo, also, on account of the accidental lesions or morbid growth, or other pathological conditions, the surgeon is obliged to perform the operation of amputation or the removal of a part from tho body which is no longer usoful to tho general economy. It is only Within a comparatively recent period that tho operation of amputation has boon performed iu a suitable or proper manner. Up to so recent a time as the sixteenth century, surgeons wero afraid to amputate through parts which were not already mortified or dead; or, if venturesome enough to cut into the living tissues, they had no resources with which to arrest tho hemorrhage but by such painful applications as the actual cautery, heated oil, or boiling pitch, iuto which the stumps of tho unfortunate patient were dipped. AYo are indebted to the famousFrench surgeon, l'are, who flourished about tho year 1562, lor the inveutir.n or adoption of the ligature upon tho arteries, in ftrder to arrest tho bleeding after amputations; and thus was laid the foundation cf that degree of perfection which this class of operations has acquired up to tho present time. The operation of amputating, though crude, is ono requiring great care and adroitness; for upon tho manner iu which it is porfoimed inoet frequently depends the lifo of (ho patient. In other words, the patient may die from the oper ation, and not from the injuries which demanded a recourse to the knife. Kor tho moro clear exposition of his theory the Iccturer first divided the subject of amputation iuto two classes? one of continuity and the otbor of contiguity. These, ho said, wero conventional terms. The first applied to am putations when the bone is cut through, the other to eases where amputation is performed through tho joint. There were four methods of performing amputation. These wero designated in tho college ns tiic circular, tho iucision with one flip. th-.> incision with two flaps, and the oblique or oval. Tho.-e different methods had their own particular advocates and followers. The great object to secure in the operation is to have a sufficient coveriugfor the bone so to prevent any excoriations from foroign bodies. This was not so easily performed as was supposed, and, InuO'd, it was wiih tho view of rendering this part of tho oparation more easy of attainment, that celebrated surgeons had adopted charg-s from the original method. Tho difficulty arises from inflammatory action seizing upon tho tissues, sometimes from tho convulsive action of tho stump itself, frim too great a suppuration, and from gangrene attacking tho margins of the flap. Great care should bo taken in selecting the time for tho operation. On this point tho lecturer said that military and civil practitioners disagreed ?military men favoring an immediate operation. There wero shocks to the system oonBoqwnt upon these sevoro accidental injuries which demanded consideration. In 8 'me cases a to.lapse Is manifested. There were a^alu instances where tho system failed to sympathize to my great extent. This is generally the case with gun shot wounds, which at first cause but little sympathy of the system, but tiion the result always shows that a reaction taki 8 pk.ee in about forty-eight boors after tho infliction of the injury, and a high st ile of inflammatory constitutional fever succeeds. Thoro wore soma good reasons for the position assumed by military surgeons, ti.at a.i immediate operation gavo tho patient the befit chance. The fact of these wounds being received o:i the battllleld almost necessitates immediate operations, on account of the difficulty of convoying tho patients ' ff the lield. There are rough roads und rougher fields and by-ways to cross, an I the patients tiro subjected tr> painful and dangerous jolti? gs. Ti.ou, indeed, tho primary operation, as it was called, wus necessary. In civil lite it was wed to give a patient the bourflt of time, for there is always a bottor chance of surviving the amputation performed in tho ?e condttry or Intermediary state. Amputations, with reference to time, were divided into primary, tho intermediate and tho tortia: y. For himself, the Iccturcr said ho bcliovcd that In sudden injurks the habit of waiting for a reaction on tho system of the patient was too prevalent. Patients have frequently dkd fiom tills delay. Tho nervous system in those cm s loses the power of receiving impressions, and cannot be influenced by the operation. Particular Btrcssi was laid upon the use of chloroform. 1 his, when applied, had a depressing influence, and frequently patients had died from being subjected to its influence. It was dangerous to uso chloroform at a time when tho body was air. ady tending to a state of collaj s?. In those eases he must eny be would leave chloroform out, except, indeed, when tho nervous system w..s still susceptible. The lecturer thee proceeded to impress upon his younger hearers tho necessity of bnit g always fully prepare-! for any emorgeacy, for*any accident that might arise in the com so of tho operation.* Everything a joJi'ul ought to be placed so near that the operator could himself take up the article he wanted. Assistants ought previously to be well Informed of nil that was exp. ctod of them?the nature of the operation, and the nat iro and degreoof assistance th y wero to render. The ro!ative positions of the operator and his patient were al;o described. The preliminary preparations, such as the examination of tho instruments, the application of the tourniquet, tho u?e of which was aiso described, tho caution to tho assistants to omit nothing necossary, and the scrutinizing glance to satisfy himself that ovorytliing was in its place and ready for use. All this having been gone through, the lecturer then proceeded to the huto illustrative part of tho subject. A double amputation was performed: cnc according to the circular mode of incision, the other according to tho double flap mode. The manner of manipulating and holding the limb was treated on, and particular attention called to the manner of using tho sharp instruments. The operations wore performed with great dexterity and celerity, and elicited the applause of the critical audience, who throughout paid the deepest attention to the words and operations of tho lecturor. This closod tho lecture. SHOALS OFF NORTH CAROLINA. to the editor of the herald. Chicago, Sept. 15,1861. Some time ago, and while with the army in Missouri, Isawlnthe columns of the Herald a report from the Coast Survey that in consequence of representations being made to that department from various sourccs of the existence of shoals or bars off Cape Hatteras, that the Superintendent had ordered surveys and that the officer detailed for that'purpoES had reported that no such shoals or bars existed. I beg to state that I for one am satisfied that there are such in tbo neighborhood pointed out, and that on the night of the 28th of March lost I was a passenger on board the bark Washington, of Baltimore, bound from Rio to Baltimore, when the bark drawing about fourteen feet struck on the shoal hcavi'y at oleveu o'clock P. M. We had made the Cape Henry light before daik, say at half past Ave o'clock, and laid our course for the entrance to the Chesapeake, and as the wind blew steady all the timo wo knew our exact position; but, on looking at tko chart, found ton fathoms water in the very position we were in. Cipt. White had bofore heard of the existence of tho bar there; and, on taking a pilot the next morning, bo seemed familiar with the fact, and stated that a large ship had been lost on the same place where we had struck not long before Judge, therofore, of my surprise upon reading tho report from the Coast Survey Bureau. Capt. White, of the bark Washington, lately cleared from New York for Baltimore. Sho is ownod by J. Hooper & Sons. The captain will corroborate my statement. Hampton Roads occupying tho same relation to tbo United States that Cbwes does to tho Uritlsh isles and the Continent, it is of the highest imiortance that the maritime Interest should by properly informed on the existence or non-existence of impediments to commerce; and I would thank you to go behind the report referred to, and you will And that it is in error. THOMAS J. RAEHOW HARPER'S FERRY WAS TAKEN. The passnpe of the secession ordinance by the trnitor convention of Virginia was at first a secret; and before its promulgation at Richmond the delegates from the Harper's Ferry region had returned to their homes. The instant of their arrival there they summoned together tho militia o!licern of their neighborhoods, tuld them that "another John Brown raid" had been made at Harper's Kerry, and that they had been sent by Gov. Letcher, in obedience to a requisition made by President Lincoln, to call out the militia to repel tho Invasion. Tills appeal was promptly responded to, and Harper's Kerry was taken possession or by a body of men who believed they were acting under the authority of the United states government, and who never understood their true position until, after a few days, they found pt.ra15.-rs. secession leaders from tho South, superseding their officers, and strange soldiers from distant parts looking with suspicion u[k.u themselves. onk ?IrVT?RKD axd FllTT CaRUOSIO* grain ix PonTV-kictlt 1I.?. R8.?The Detroit Adverlitrr, of the 18lh ir-st., s.iys:? "The fleet of vessels which loft Milwakee and t.'hicago a few days siuee, have boon continually prt 'ine at short Intel vals for tho past two days. Up to this evening not less than one hundred and fifty had (tone by, and pn>hab'y the largest quantity of grain which lias' over passed this 0011 during the game number of hours before." FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL. Batubday, Sept. 21?? P.M. The money market continues very dull; tba amount of paper In the market is small, and rate* aro barely maintained. Foreign exchange closes steady, with a general unwillingness on the part of bankers to sell, in con. sequence of the difficulty of obtaining suitable mar* oantile bills. Stocks are firm, with a small bnsinees doing. AE descriptions are very scarce, and a very moderate increase in the inquiry would lead to a general ad* vance. The new government sixes were firm at the first board, and tho five's of 1874 wore % batter. State stocks were steady without change of prico. The railway shares were gene* rally steady. Erie and Central were both % better; Burlington advanced Y% and Rook Island %. Tho other descriptions wera without change. After the board tho market wa^ firm, and at the second board without change; it closed steady, the following being the last quotations:?United States 6's, registered, 1881, 90Jf a 90% United States G's, coupon, 1881, 91; United States 5's, 1874, 80% a 80%; Virginia ?% 51% a 52; Tennessee 6'b, 43 a 43%; North Carolina G'a, 61; Missouri G's, 43% a 43%; Pacific Mail, 8S a 83%; New York Central, 73% a 73%; Eric, 26% a 20%; do. preferred, 46 a 48; Hudson lliver, 33% ? 33%; Harlem, 10% a 10%; do. preferred, 25 a 25%; Reading, 35 a 35%; Michigan Central, 41% a 42%; Michigan Southern and Northern Indiana, 13% 14; do. guaranteed, 30% a 31%; Panama, 109% ? 110; Illinois Central, 65% a 66; Galena and Chicago, 60% a 69%; Cleveland and Toledo, 29% a 29%? Chicago and Rock Island, 43% a 44; Chicago, Burlington andQuincy, 62% a 63; Delaware, Lackawana and Western, G7 a G8; Milwaukee and Prairio du Chien, 17% a 18; Illinois Central bonds, 7's, 91 n 1*3; Delaware and Hudson Canal, ?3 a 84%; Pennsylvania Coal, 75 a 77. The business of the Sub-Treasury to-day was M follows:? Total receipts $1?S,881 tt ?For customs : 7,000 09 ?Treasury notes 108,000 00 Payments 608,476 11 Balance. ' 15,541.307 OS Mr. Solomon Sturges, of Chicago, has taken $100,000 of the national loan. Mr. Walter L. New* berry, President of the Galena and Chicago Rofl. road, $10,000. Mr. Wm, B. Astor, of this city, It reported to have taken $50,000. The Boston Post of yesterday reports:? The bunks gained $120,000 yesterday. As was then romarhed, thu tide in on the turn. The Treasury payments in the next w< ek will le extraordinarily heavy, aud moat of Ihem will go into thj bunks of the three cities. Hm Boston bunks have paid about fifty-six per cent of the whole tin millions subscribed, aud have only diminished their specie about two millions. The government baa already returned to them fifteen percent of tlielr entire subscriptions, fay $1,500,000, end another million will probably come back within a week. The Chicago Tribune of Thursday reports:? Tho money market to-day has boon steady, the only aotii-eablc feature being a more active 'lent snd for oxchann. Kates were therefore firmer; and while sevoral of the banks supplied easterners at p, cmium outsldeis wort generally charged The struct was par a about X being tho ruling price. The amount now making is enormous, anil tho favorable news frcm Europe to-dsy will stimulato fhi] met.is of pro<iuee enstward. Every means of triinsjiort to the seaboard is taxed to its utmost capacity. TKa ? 1 A. Trt-JI *uu iuavn4i>5 oiiuno mu uUOiUVOO Ui kUC l UUr delphia and Reading Railroad Company for tha month of August, 18G1, compared with sama month last year:? 1880. 1861. Rocolved from coal $260,073 71 194,314 17 Do. do. merchandise... 49,100 38 3*2,108 7$ 1)0. do. travel, &c 38,320 85 38,608 6* Total $337,494 94 266,358 II Transportation 147,368 68 134,332 M Not profit for the month 190,136 36 131,026 St Previous eight moults 879,491 83 892,661 11 Troflt for nine months $1,009,623 19 $1,023,680 41 The annual meeting of the stockholders of the Hartford and New Havca Railroad Company wu held at Hartford yesterday. The following are tha statistics of the year'B business ending September 1:? Iucomo from pnssengtra $405,384 67 Income from freight 202,169 48 Income from ntailj, ko 45,371 66? 712,876 VI Expanses for the year 353.710 46 Interest paid on bonds. 65,100 68? 413,937 M Not earnings $298,938 M The gross income for the year has been $31,391 T8 less than last year?of which decrease $22,707 T3 was on passengers, and $58,684 05 on freight. Tha decrease is owing to the present stato of the conn try, which has affected all kinds of business, baft is mnch less than might rea?onably have been expected. The working expenses have been considerably rcduced, and were $29,991 less than laaft year. The whole number of miles run by traiaa during the past year was 323,491; the whole na? ber of passengers carried 499,888. A quarterly dividend of 3 per ccnt is declared, payable October 1, making 12 per ccnt for the year. Tha directors in their report say:?"Whether this rata of dividend will be continued will of course dapend upon the future receipts of the r *ad." . it is siaica mat uio xenuByivania ucnirai uauroad Company refuses to participate in the fight for Western bound freight which the two New York roads have been engaged in for some time past. Ik is probable that the negotiations now on foot will close the quarrel entirely in a few days. TLj Galen* and Chicago Railroad earned the firat week of September 1M1 U8.3M 1800 TO>00 recrcaso $32,000 The Chicago and Rock Island Railroad Company earned the first week of September:? 1S61 $20,67? 1800 87,678 Decrease $8(10# ?One working day less this year. The total receipts of flonr and grain from the 1st of January to the 1st of September, at Chicago, Toledo, Milwaukee and Detroit are 63,704,161 bushels. The following is the amount received at each port:? Bushel*. Chicago 82,416,989 Toledo 8,679,404 Milwaukee 8,632,001 Detroit 4,170,219 Total 63,704,l?t From the above it will be seen that Toledo BtiB keeps the position of being the second oity of th? West in the grain trade, and Milwaukee the third. The receipts at tide water of flour, wheat, con and barley for the first week of September; 188? on/l ldAI htmi h*OTi nn follows:? Flmr, Wheat, Cam, Barlef, bbU. Inuh. busk. bush. 18C0 29,100 810,100 663,000 2,209 1801 21,900 820,500 470,500 12,109 Decrease 7,200 489,600 103,100 Inc..9,009 The Aggregates of the receipts of the above articles for the years 1860 and 1861 have been:? Flnur, Wheat, Corn, Ma. WA*. buih. biuh. bulk. 1860 4.-6,100 5,648,000 10,246.600 87,409 186 1 650,000 13.343,000 11,058,000 199,799 Increase. 214,200 7,696,000 806,400 112.M9 Reducing the wheat to flour, the cxccss in th* receipts of 1861 is equal to 1,753,200 bbls. of floor. The receipts at tide water of the principal"articles of prodnce, from the opening of the canals to and including September 7, have been as follows:? Canal Ojien. April 15,1859. ^j?t?/25,1860. May 1,1861. FHjr, bills 222,300 436.100 650,309 Wheat, bufchols.... 812,400 6 648.000 13,343,009 Corn 1,730,800 10,246,600 11,053,009 Barlev 163.800 87,400 199,700 Ry?..". 111,000 140,000 416,009 Oats 2,471,000 3,918,000 3,114,009 The Chicago Tribune of Monday remarks:? The ilrmncss In the market for Enstern exchange ?M . even more marked, and wo quote an advance in rates of a ii per coal. Tlie banks were selling at V per cent premium, and buying at X * '* per cent, while street ni s were par a X per cent premium. Although the ablp. m 'Ms of produce at present are very heavy, there is loss exchange making than for some time past?the grain now lcavirgonr port having boon mostly drawn again.st and iu store awaiting freight room. The Cincinnati Gazette of the same day says:? Money continues to Qui more employmont, &3 business

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