NEW YORK HERALD. JAMES GORDON BENNETT, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. OFFICI M. W. CORNER OF FULTON AND NASSAU 8TS. TERMS rath in cufvaiM. Honey eenl hy mail uilt health' ritk of the under. Ktme !>u< Batik billt current in New York TBK DAILY IIERALD. ?wo erntiper copy, $7 p*r annum. TBK WEEKLY HERALD, every HUurtlay, at elzrenti tier fifty, or tHf?r annum, I he Kurnptiun Edition every Uedneetlay, of ??jc cent* pet copy; $4 per annum to any pari of Oreat Britain. nrMHlo any part of the Continent, Mh to include poeht</e; lie California EtTifitm on the lei, 1 If A utwj Itlet of each month, at ?to cnieper ?my, or $2 75 per < in num. TltE FAMILY BERALD, oh ITeJneetlay, at /bur tenia per ' ?%> 'lVK KY^CORRESPONDENCE, containing impnrt'int nnei, mtliriteti from any quarter of the tnorlil; if uteri, trill he liberally paul for. W&- Oca FOBBIO* CORBESroHniCNTS 1K? P*nnrtTLA*i.T Requested io Seal all Lurrtitii asd 1 ace ages sent ca . NO BOTlCt taken of aifwyinoue oorrcepotvlcnre. I'?<*> not rrtum rderted ctmimunimtione. , , JOB P HINTING executed uilh neatneee, rhtapneee ami de rpal<A. Volume Ko. ?T3 AMUSEMENTS THIS EVENINO. ACADEMY OF MUSIC, Irving Plao?.?Afternoon and Evening? annum. Festival ik Aid or tub Koban Catho 140 OllJ-UAH AjlYtVM. WINTER OABDEN, Broadway.?Actbbss bt Datuoht? ClNDKEEI.LA WALLACE'S THEATRE, No. 8? Broadway.-Taa New Pbksipent. LAURA KEEXE'a THEATRE, Broadway?Beveh 8ojfS. NEW B >WERY THEATRE, Bowery.?Tubee Thibtxs? JOCBISSK?1,'LUU.f AKB TbCJKI'S. BARNl'M'fi AMERICAN MUSEUM. Broadway.?Day and Evening?Ail I'b ?t Gutters is Not Ooi.n?Iuontkd Chamber? nirroroTAMUi, Sea Lion, and Oiueb Coiuoii TIE*. BRYANTS' MINSTRELS, Mechanics' Hall, 473 Broad way.? songs, Dances, Bublebques, Ac.?Down in ulu Kr-ET. MELODF.ON CONCERT HALL, No. ?S9 Broadway. - Songs, Dames, Burlesques. Ac.?Rival Artisans. CANTERBURY MUSIC HALL. BBS Bi-oadivay.?Sowof, Daboes, Burlesques, Ac. GAIETIES CONCERT ROOM, <16 Broadway.-DBAWINO Kooa Kktbhtaikbemtv fliu.tr!. PAJCtoMium, Faeces, Ac. AMERICAN MUSIC HALL, HI Broadway.?Somob, Bal lets, l'A.ttobibes, Ac.?Robert Maee aius. CRYSTAL PALACE CONCERT IIALL. No. 45 Bowery. - Burlesques. Sonus. Dances. Ac.?O'Flakn io an at tub Paib. METROPOLITAN CONCERT HALL, COO Broadway? Songs, Dances, Fabces. Burlesques, Ac. ACADEMY OP MUSIC, Brooklyn.?Paor. Hrrrbank. Sow York, Thursday, October 3,1861. NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS. I We hare again to impress on oar basilicas pa trons the necvf*ity of their sending in their adver tisements in good time?at the latest before nine P. M. Unless this be done we cannot answer for *heir being classified under the proper heads, or, Indeed, for their appearing on the following day* The enormous circulation that the Herald has reached?exceeding that of aU the daily newspapers qf the city combirted ?obliges us to go to press at an earlier hour. Those, therefore, who wish to ?vail themselves of the extensive publicity offered by our columns will find it to their interest to com ply with this notice. THE SITUATION. We hare received information from Norfolk, by Tray of Fortretss Monroe, of a moat important Character. It appears that great preparations are being made by the rebel authorities at Richmond, along the James and York rivers, and at Norfolk, for some purpose of an offensive character. It ia their intention to send down the James and York rivers a strong body of troops, accompanied by heavy ordnance, for the purpose of occupying Yorktown and other positions on both rivers, and for siege operations. Indeed, accounts have ?already been published of the arrival of troops ;>nd Columbians at Yorktown. They are also (putting the steamers Jamestown and Yorktown in jSghting condition. The Merrimac has been under going thorough repair, is nearly completed, is iron clad, and powerfully armed. Two sailing vessels of-war, which had been sunk at the Navy Yard at Norfolk at the time of the evacuation by the Union forces, have been raised and put upon a thorough war footing. It is also stated to be their purpose when all this is ready to throw a large land force upon Newport News, with heavy artillery, at the same time the Merrimac and the two sailing vessels are to leave Norfolk, and the two steamers James town and Yorktown will come down the James river. The rebel vessels-of-war are to engage the fleet while the army are attacking Newport News by land, preventing the assistance expected from the Union vessels-of-war, in case of any such an attack, reaching the troops. If these plans prove successful tho rebels in tend to assault Fortress Monroe itself, as they now consider that as a strategic point of the highest and most vital importance, it being in connection with tho free entrance of the Chesapeake Bay, the base of operations by which the Union government can most effectively carry out its course of actiou along the Southern coast. The rebels, however, intend to wait for such an opportuuity to carry out their plans, when it shall so happen that, by some naval movement, but few vessels will be at Old Point, and these they expect by this sudden inanseuvre soon to conquer. Doubtless this, in connection with the facts developed by the authorities at Washington, will explain, in a great measure, the recent movements before that city. The rebels have found that they cannot safely attempt to enter the capital; they have also found they cannot cross the Potomac river in conse quence of the recent cquiuoctial storms aud freshets, and the presence of General Banks' column, nor can they easily cross into Maryland from Aquia Creek. They have therefore adopted this method of attack, as it would doubtless strike both ways, by giving them a more probable chance of taking the city of Washington, and also check ing the operations of tho government along the Southern coast. Tho victory at Hattcras Inlet is evidently vi be followed up by another expedition fri m New York city, if wc may judgo by th* signs around us. Five steamers liavo sud denly been chartered within a day or two past, and are now coaling for a voyag. and fitting up with berths for the accommodation of a large number of troops. In addition to these transports some six or Beven gunboats are at anchor in the waters around the city, all ready to sail upon receipt of orders. Governor Morgan and Adjutant General Ilillhonse arrived in the city last evening, aud to-day will commence tho consolidation of the miscellaneous incomplete regiments in our vicinity. All this looks lik carrying out of some plan determined upon V. government for another naval expedition. ?nnboats are for bombarding and attacking I'? looses, and it would seem as if the transports, which ?ro now fitting up, we intended to carry the regi ments resnltln? from the consolidation commenc ing to-day. Tlio news from General Banks' column shows that a large and armed rebel reconnoisaance, if nothing more, has been moving along the Virginia shores of the Upper Potomac. As the results of the balloon ascensions In the neighborhood of Washington have proved so successful and satis factory, It would be as well If General MoClellnn would send La Mountain, with liis balloon, along the northern shores of tho Potomac river, and by making aerial reconnoissances definite informa tion could bo obtained of what the rebels were really about in those regions. Jolm Wise and his son aro also experienced bailoonists, and it cer tainly would not be amiss if they were attached to the army as a portion of the corps of military aeronauts. The Niagara, off Cape Race, brings news from Europe which is of an important character. The advices are dated on the 22d of September, and state that a number of French army officers, par ticularly in the artillerist arm of the service, were anxious to enter the United States Army, and had reason to hopo that an Imperial permission to do so would have been accorded; but on making ap plication at the War Office in Paris, their request was refused by tho Minister in the namo of the Em peror, who had forbidden his officers from accept ing commissions in tho federal army. It was cur rently reported, and believed, that a Spanish expe dition against Mexico was being organized in Cuba, and it is alleged that live thousand of the Queen's Boldiers, supported by a strong naval force, will soon land at Vera Cruz and commence a direct march on the city of Mexico. The Queen of Spain had proclaimed in Porto Rico that when ever a slave touched the Spanish soil ho was free, despite any claim of hiB former master or owner. The London Times is exceedingly caustic and un friendly in its comments on Secrotnry Chase's late financial circular recommending patriotic Bub' scriptions to the Uuion loan, tho organ of the Stock Exchange asserting that if the loan were a popular Investment tho official appeal was unne cessary. Mr. Laing, Financial Secretary of In dia, made a stirring appoal to the Manchester spinners and capitalists to continue their exertions to obtain a supply of cotton independent of the Southern rebel States, declaring that the question was of a range of importance more elevated than thoso requiting a merely commercial considera tion. Garibaldi's acceptance and uon-accoptance of an American army commission were still as serted in Turin and Paris. An article in tho Paris Moniteur, on the subject, produced the impression that Napoleon would be pleased to sec tho Libera tor of Naples out of Italy. THE NEWS. The Niagara, from Liverpool on the 21st, and Queens town the 22d September, arrived of Cape Race yesterday morning, on her voyage to Halifax and Boston. A summary of her news, which is two days later than that brought by the Bohemian, telegraphed from St. Johns, Newfoundland, is pub lished in the Hjcbald this morning. Prince Alfred of England is a passenger In the Niagara. The Frince received great attention in Liverpool, where he was entertained by the Mayor? when waiting the departure of the steamer. The Great Eastern was safely anchorod inside the harbor of Queenstown on the 20th ult., having been obliged to pat off again on the preceding night from the coast owing to the prevalence of a heavy southerly gale. It is a highly gratifying faot, and exceedingly complimentary to American skill, that the temporary steering gear by which tlio mammoth ship of England was?with the lives, probably, of all on board?saved, was devised and put in operation by one of our countrymen, Mr. Hamilton, of Boston, Mass., who wai returning to his native land in the "big ship." An attempt had been made to shoot the Queen of Greece in Athens. The would-be assassin ? a student?was arrested. Consols closed in London on the 21st of Septem ber at 03x/% a 93% for money. Cotton was firm in Liverpool on the 21st ult., at an advance o? one-half penny per pound on the market for the week. The price wa3 still going up. Some re I ports state that the sales of the staple on the 20th of September footed up 67,000 bales, including 2"> ,000 of Surat to arrive. Brcadstuffs remained quiet and steady at the date of the latest transac tl?The United States mail steamship Fulton, from Havre by way of Southampton, is now fully due at this p- rt. The Fulton was to sail from South ampton on the 18th of September, and it is to be presumed that she has experienced very rough woather, which delays her somewhat beyond her usual time. The Fulton lias on board thirty thou sand staud of arms purchased iu Europe for the use of the United States government. These weapons are of the most improved patterns and perfect finish. The sltip John Bright, which arrived at this port yesterday from Liverpool, had on freight one hun dred and eight bales of cotton. The schooner Daniel Trowbridge, at this port from Demerara loth ult., reports that tho steam frigate Powhatan was signalized off Demerara on tho 14th, in search of the privateer Sumter, and proceeded towards Surinam, at which place the Sumter had been a short time before. The bark Hyperion, at this port from Barbadocs 11th ult., reports the arrival there of the schooner Edwin, of and from Newbern, N. C., having run the blockade. She was sold at Barbadocs to an English house, although she had nothing but a coast wise license. The different recruiting stations and points occu pied by rebels for offensive operations in Kentucky are supposed to contain forces numbering as fol Hickman, under Gen. Polk. 10,000 Bowling Green, under Gen. Buckner <,0(K) Cumberland Gap, under Gen. Zollicofter? 0,000 Owen county, under Humphrey Marshall... MO Warsaw, under Jesse 1). bright............ 400 Near Hazel Green, under J. C. Breckinridge M)0 Near West Point, under i^a Peille *>00 Bloomflcld Total rebel forces in Kentucky 21,.100 Of the seven members of Congress composing the Missouri delegation, one, John B. Clark, was ex pelled during tho extra session in July; F. P. Ulair, Jr., is a colonel of Union volunteers; James A. Rollins is organizing a regiment of Union men in Boone county to attack Steiling Price; Elijah II. Norton lias tumbled into the recession pit; John W. Reed is at the head of a party of rebels; and Johu S. Phelps and John W. Noell are remaining quiet. Gen. Price, in his official report of the battle of Lexington, nays the largest part of his lofcen hail been thirty-six hours without tasth.g food, lie nlso says he drove the armies of General-. Lane and Montgomery out of the State, after chastising them, and before commencing the attack on Lex ington he intercepted a detachment of Union troops who were on their way to Warrcnsburg "to lab the bank and plunder the citizens." The report comes to us in various ways that ex Governor Jackson's rebel legislature convened jn Lexington, Missouri, on the 2.r>th ult., and passed an ordinance accepting the secession proposition of Jeff. Davis & Co. There are now at Paducah, Ky., the Nuiih, Twelfth, Fortieth find Forty-flrat Illinois regimonta, the Eleventh und Twenty-third Indiana, tho Eighth Missouri, Bueil's battery, Thlelmau'o cavalry, tho Chicago Light Artillery, and two oompan e? of United States cavalry?in o!l about eight thousand men. Hon. Charles Case, who represented the Tenth district of Indiana in the last Congress, lian been commissioned Adjutant in the Forty-fourth regi ment of that State. , The town meetings in Conneoiicut for the nmni nation of candidates for tovrn officers are nc rly all culled by Union men without regard to party. Here and there an old Rip Van Winkle democrat Is found who claims that the played out party usages shall still be observed. The Union papers of Kentucky aro calling upon the Legislature to elect a United States Senator in place of John C. Breckinridge, who is non est in veniut. Major General Morgan is first in the field with his Thanksgiving proclamation. He has recom mended tho 28th of November. Let the other Governors now follow suit aud designate tho same day. Yesterday was a dull one at the Custom House, and quiet reigned in Warsaw, Collector Barney, Surveyor Andrews, and the other prominent oiH clnls at the Custom House being on board the steamship City of Now York, on her trial trip down the bay. The new steamship City of New York, of tho Liverpool, New York und Philadelphia lino, went on an excursion down the bay yesterday, having a largo company on board of our leading mercantile and professional citizens. According to tho City Inspector's report, there were 317 deaths in tho city during the past week? a decrease of 27 as compared with the mortality of the week previous, and GO less than ooenrred during the corresponding week last year. The re capitulation table gives 7 deaths of alcoholism, I of diseastw of the bones, joints, &c.; 77 of tho brain and nerves, 2 of tho generative organs, 10 of tho heart and blood vessels, 81 of the lungs, throat, Ac.; 2 of old age, 21 of diseases of the skin and eruptive fevers, 2 premature birth , 107 of diseases of the stomach, bowels and other digestive organs; 18 of uncertain seat and general fevers, 16 of vio lence, Ac. There were 239 natives of the United States, 4 of England, 73 of Iroland, 19 of Ger many, 2 of Scollaud, and the balance of various foreign countries. The water in the channel of tho Ohio river at Wheeling on Sunday measured thirty-seven foot. The market for beef cattlo yesterday was much the same as on the preceding day, the demand being moderate at a reduction of about %e. per pound, priccs ranging from 6%c. a 8c., 8%c. a 8%c. Milch cows were unchanged. Veal calves were plenty, but steady. Sheep and lambs were plenty, but in good demand at full prices. Swino were dull at 3%c. a V/?c. for corn and still fed. The total receipts were 4,774 beeves, 109 cows, 922 veals, 13,465 sheep and lambs and 7,854 swine. ? The cotton market wits stoady yesterday, with sales of 450 a 500 balos lu separate lots. Wo centinuo to quote middling uplands at 21 >40., and tolerably Aral at that, under the influence of the foreign now* by the Bohemian and some relaxation In tho firmness of freight to English ports. Flour was firmer, aud closed at an advance of 5c. per bbl., and In some eases 10c. higher was paid. The Niagara's news oarne to haml too late in the day to oxorcisa any Influence; and, in reality, it differed little from that of the Bohemian. Wheat, from tho samo causuo, was lc. a So. higher, especially for good shipping lots. Corn was firm and in |>kkI ro?iuosl for the Eastward and for export, with sales of shipping lots or Wostorn mixed at 54a 55c I'ork was firm and In steady request, with sales of mess at $14 02)?,andor prime at $9 75 a $10, chiefly at the latter figure. Co die was firm, wlthasalo of 300 bags prime Rio at 10c., and 14200 mats Java at 18c. Sugars were firm, with sales of 500 a 600 hhda. Cnbaa, 500do. molailo and 200 boxes, at prices given in another place. Freight engagements for Knglish ports were limited aud rathor huayy Tor grain to Liverpool, while they wore active for the Coatment at full rate*. The Latest Foreign View of American Affairs. The great crisis through which the United States is passing, continues to attract undi minished attention on the other Bide of the At lantic. Every event that occurs hero, is can vassed by the London and Paris journals, with an anxiety that can only be accounted for by the intensity of interest with which the states men and people of Europe, contemplate the mighty struggle, upon the issue of which hangs the future fate of democratic institutions in the world, that is convulsing the North American continent. Tho cspecial organ of Lord Pal. merston seizes upon the ill-judged proclamation of General Fromont, and, with malignant sa gacity, forbodes that it will render all hope of compromise or conciliation between tho States impossible. The wise rebuke, was then un. known, that was administered, later, by the President, to tho cammander of the federal forces in Missouri, and this disaster has been 'averted; but tho prediction of the London Times that England, by an expenditure of only nine or ton millions sterling, may relieve itself from all need of American cotton, is a startling warning to Southern rebels who confidently look to the imperative wants of the Lancashire mills, as a guarantee of the final independence of the seceded States. Spinners have disco vered that Surat cotton makes beautiful cloth* and the East India Btaple generally is increasing in favor. The French govern ment has prohibited officers of the imperial army from serving under our federal authorL ties; and there is a continued disposition to prognosticate anarchy and a general breaking up of the American nation. Tho London jour nals speak slightingly of tho Cape llatteraa vic tory; declare that the South has demonstrated her ability to resist subjection; and manifest the most benighted prejudice and ignorance con cerning what is transpiring at tho seat of war. In another portion of our paper, we publish the declarations that have been made, since the commencement of hostilities, by different foreign Powers in relation to tho attitude of the States towards each other. England led off, of course, by prejudging the whole question, and by an ac knowledgment, in the proclamation, last May, of Quoen Victoria, of the right of Souliiora traitors to be considered as "bolligerente.'' France fol lowed, a month later, with a declaration of neu trality and an imperial decree against privateer, ing. Prussia, at the fame time, took tho oppor tunity of urging the United States to accede to the treaty of Paris, of 185G, and, in July, Prince Gortchakoff despatched his famous letter to liar on Stoeckl, patronizing this country gene rally, and instructing our statesmen how and when they should bring the civil war to a close. The Queen of Spain had already como out with a proclamation of neutrality, forbidding enlist meat, by Spanish subjects, on either side, and denunciatory of privateering. Last of all we have a similar decree from the Kiug of Portugal. Thus all of the priucipal European Powers have deemed the efforts that are boing made by this country to suppress rebellion, a fitting occa hion to make an exception to the usual rules observed by diplomatists in relation to rebel lion and civil war, and to present their opinions to the world. Insurrections have taken placo in Ireland, Italy. Franco, Germany, Hungary, Bosnia and Poland, without a sign of approba tion or disapprobation on the part of the states men of the various foreign nations. Observing 1 events closely, they Lave, nevertheless, abstain ed from official comment, wbilo events hero ! have startled them from their reserve and caused them to broak forth into manifestations which, in other cases, would have been consi dered indecorous. Tho fact is that, for three-quartern of a cen tury, the world has regarded with amazement the grand spectacle of tho triumph and onward progress of free institutions in the United States. It has been the most wonderful politi cal experiment known on the globe, since it evolved out of chaos. This country has pre sented an ex imple of liberty, and civilization emancipated from the shackles of traditional misrule, which has cast terror iuto the hoarts of the kings and aristocrats of the Old World The masses have learned a lesson of self-go vernment, by which they havo not been slow to profit, and the revolutions that have convulsed Europe since the close of the last century,have, one and all, owed their origin to an awakened intelligence that was born with tho Declaration of Independence by the American colonies, in
177C. At last, a convulsion has token place in our very midst. No blow has beon struck from without; but the murderous hand of treason ha8 been raised, and stands ready to strike a death blow at freedom and human progress, and scatter to the winds the proud inheritance which we have received from our fathers. It is no won der that the fossilized enviers of our prospority abroad, lift up their voices in derision, and still less is it surprising that tho advocates of liberty in Europe, think to share our dangers and to save a fabric so glorious as that of our federal government. Hence it is that the whole world looks with breathless Interest for intelligence from this country, and that every item of nows is canvassed with such greedy avidity. The revolution of the last century gave to the United States the energies and the fame of Washington. Tho Father of His Country, through years of trial and often of disaster, looked steadfastly forward to the bright light which would pour Ks rays over the land, and illumine the whole continent, so soon as tho victory over English despotism should have been achieved. No man was more slandered in his day, but he pursued his course straight forwardly, influenced by extremists of no fac tion, but considering solely the welfare of the great whole entrusted to his charge. His suc cessor, who now occupios the Presidential chair is emulating his example; but tri umph is tenfold more certain now than it was previous to 1783, and in what a grand and mag nificent attitudo peace will leave ub! With a thoroughly drilled and disciplined army of over half a million of men; with a navy able to cope with that of any other Power; both thirsting for new fields on which to display their valor, we shall be able to sweep every vestige of foreign rule from the American continent, and democratic institutions will be firmly estab lished upon a basis which cannot be shaken while the world shall last. Tiie Hon. Charles Scmnkr on the Emanci pation Quhstion.?Senator Sumner has been harping again upon hla one idea, the extirpation of Southern slavery. He has just delivered himself of one of bis characteristic speeches on the subject at the Republican Statu Convention at Worcester, Massachusetts. After describing the "unprecedented, auda cious, unhesitating and unscrupulous charac ter" of this rebellion, with its causc of slavery and how it is besieging the government a* Washington, at Fortress Monroe and in Missouri' and in Kentucky, and how everywhere we are reduced to the defensive, Mr. Sumner proceeds to show that the Alpha and Omega of this re bellion He in that one word slavery. He then pleads the absolute necessity, not of "carrying this war into Africa, but of carrying Africa into the war,'' and brings forth Greek and Roman precedents, constitutional arguments, the law of nations, military authorities, and the usages of war, to show the propriety of making this wt?r a crusade against Southern slavery. Upon this point he says:?"Feeling most profoundly that there is now an opportunity, such ns rarely occurs in human annals, for incalculable good? seeing clearly that there is one spot, like the heel of Achilles, where this great rebellion may be wounded to death?I calmly deliver the whole question to the judgment of those on whom the responsibility rests, contenting my self with reminding you that there are times when not to act carries with it a greater respon sibility than to act." Then ho prays that Provi dence may save our government from the ever, lusting regret which will follow the failure to seize this opportunity for the extirpation of slavery; and, falling back upon Holy Writ, the Senator puts on the mantle of the prophet, and warns us that ' Saul was cursed for not hewing Agag in pieces when in his hands, and Ahab was cursed for not destroying Benbadnd. Let no snch curses over descend upon onr government'' "So many slaves, so many enemies." "There are now four millions of enemies intermingled with the rebels, being four millions of allies to the go vernment." But, notwithstanding all this, the conserva tive war policy of the administration seems to have had some Influence even over the fanati cism of Senator Sumuor, for he concurs in the equity of compensation to the loyal owners of slaves for their slave property. " Better," says ho, " an empty treasury than a single slave. A bridge of gold would be cheap if demanded by the retreating fiend." Now, we beg leave to submit that this speech, from this Senator, at this crisis, comprehends an abolition warning to the administration, and a warning to the States involved in this rebellion. Mr. Sumner is supported in his views by an ac tive abolition faction, extending from Massa chusetts to Missouri, and with this faction an exterminating crusade against shivery is the all absorbing idea. Let the President and his Cabinet, then, exert their energies to the utter most for a speedy blow or two which will break the backbone of this rebellion, or we know not what may be the consequences to the administration from the fanatical hostility of this abolition faction to the conservative policy of Mr. Lincoln. On the other hand, wo would appeal to the Union men of the border slave States to turn out at once, and en masse, to the active support of the government, and thus restore the Union in its integrity, including the integrity of Southern institutions, in the speedy expulsion of the rebels into the cotton States. With the border slave States rescued this whole rebellion will soon fall to pieces from its own weight; but every day that the rebels continue ^o menace Washington, to desolate Missouri* and to hold a threatening lodgment in Ken tucky, the danger to Southern slavery is in* creased, and of a protracted and desolating war of sections, factions and races. InCUJUME IN TUB COMMfcRCK of Naw York.? The Custom House returns of entries and clear ances at this port set at naught all the specula" tions of Southern rebels, and all th# vaticina tions of Northern croakers. According to both those classes, the gecessiou of the Southern States, or an attempt to force them into respect for law and government, would be followed by the most disastrous results to the trade and commerce of New York. The idea of grass being allowed to grow in our streets was a fa vorite one with the fire-eaters of the South. But how is it being accomplished? Why, in stead of the trade of this port being ruined or diminished, it is larger than it ever has been, even in the most flourishing years. This is shown conclusively by the following table, de rived from the Custom House returns of the entries and clearances for the month of Septem ber during the past five years:? Entries. Clearances. Total. Septombcr, 1857 257 238 495 1858 326 232 558 " 1859 2:H) 229 619 " I860 325 301 626 " 16G1 391 368 769 This forms a complete falsification of all traP torous and cowardly predictions, and givos most satisfactory assurance of the general prosperi ty of New York. These entries and clearances are entirely of commercial vessels in the foreign and domestic trade, and do not include the go vernment vessels arriving and departing. Ac cording to these returns the commerce of the mouth of September, 1861, was greater than that of 1860 by 133 vessels?an increase of twenty per cent; than that of 1859 by 240 ves sels?an Increase of forty-six per cent; than that of 1858 by 201 vessels?an increase of thirty six per ceut; and than that of 1857 by 264 ves sels?an increase of fifty-fivo per cent. The ex ports of last week amounted to over three mil lions of dollars?an increase of from half a mil lion to a million over the average for the corres ponding week for the last five years; and this, too, without any of that cotton which used to form the bulk of our exports, and without which New York was to sink into ruin and decay. If this be the sort of ruin that is to befal us, we would be fools to grumble overmuch at it. Tub Cheat Eastern Disaster.?The de tails ?of the disaster to the Great Eastern which we published yesterday were well calculated to arouse a painful interest and inspire n feeling of regret that so great a triumph of science and manual skill, and an enterprise upon which so many fortunes had been boldly staked, should have been attended with a series of such heavy misfortunes as have fallen to the lot of the modern leviathan. Wo | are the more sorry because these misfortunes, which have persecuted her from her cradle on the Thames to the present time, have arisen from circumstances of a preventable character. We do not propose enumerating the various accidents and losses referred to, but will con tent ourselves by saying that they were the di rect or Indirect result of negligence or mis management on the part of the com pany of owners and others concerned. The great ship, instead of proving herself a failure, as some may imagine, has been a great success. She has crossed the At lantic several times with unusual ease and com fort to hor passengers, she has sailed quicker than any other vessel afloat, and in this last terrific trial has shown a strength that more than sustains the testimony of the most sanguine advocates of her superior qualities as a sea going steamer. As a ship she has realized all, or nearly all, that those who built her aimed at. But, notwithstanding, she has met with more to [ shake the public confidence in her and empty j hor owners' pockets than perhaps any other steamer ever built. The Great Eastern ha3 been the great mismanaged. It is somewhat singular that every voyage she has had a new com mander. No wonder, therefore, that with such a grievous system of mismanagement she was found wanting in the hour of danger. The putting back to port is of course a matter of minor conscquence, as the beet steamers in the British and American trade havo done the same. But we trust that the example of the Groat Eastern, viewed in all its aspects, is one which will make her owners and builders more careful, both iu management and workmanship, for the future, and at the same time convince the public that she is none the less a success because she has met with reverses. The Corporation Advertising Dodqk Again.?We notice that a resolution was offered In the Board of Councilmen, a few evenings ago, directing that the Corporation advertising should be taken from the papers which now enjoy its pecuniary advantages, and given to tho Herald, TiibuM and Metropolitan Becord, at the regular advertising rates of those journals. If this resolution were passed it would be a good thing, not only for the papers named, but also for the city. The papers would gain from twenty-five thousand to thirty thousand dollars a year from tho advertisements, and the city would save more than that amount, besides giving its advertising a greater publici ty than it can have under the present system Am for the rate of pay, we have always urged that the city should get its newspaper business done just as merchants; grocers and chamber maids do?by selecting the beet journals and paying the regular rates. This trick of offering such a resolution Is so stale and transparent that it should deceive no one. Tho resolution was never meant to be passed. It is always offered just before an election, in the hope of scouring tho support of the journals namod in it When the election is over the resolution is never heard of more. But do the Common Councilmcn really think thoy can throw dust into the eyes of the editors in this style? Why, if the Corporation advertise ments wero secured and guaranteed to us, it would make not the slightest difference in our views, our expression of them, or our support of particular candidates. Kentucky.?In the Kentucky Legislature the other day the Senate passed a resolution, 20 to 5, requesting John C. Breckinridge and La zarus W. Powell to resign their seats in the United States Senate, and (if they dccline to comply) asking this Senate to inquire into their late conduct, and to expel them if found to be traitors. Next morning, in the other branch of the Legislature, the House rejected, 40 to 30 not two-thirds?a motion to suspend tho rules in order to consider said resolution; and this vote is taken, as we have been apprised, as a bad sign for Kentucky. We, however, do not so understand it. Doubtless Breckinridge and Powell will be requested to leave their seats in the federal Senate, and will leave them; but tho members of the Kentucky House are not yet j prepared to vote upon the subject, because , they yvant first to count nofltti uud compare notes as v0 4116 new Senators they will be called upon to elO\ This, wo tliiuk, is the true statQ of the case. __________ Spies and C<jk TKABJlNM-?Our readers will have remarked tha.4 during the last few days, and since the ovucuaJ',,u of the hills along tho Potomac by tho rebel fu rcea, tho number of de serters and contrabands who have come into our camps from tlu.>se of the enemy has been unusually large- II is a little curious that they should drop in upon us just at this time. If their object was to escapw from the rebels, coukl it not have been mora easily accomplished when the opposing forces were nearer together? The information they bring is always more or less contradictory, aud never very new or reliable. Gen. McClellan had better keep his eye upon these fellows, and have a few nooses handy in case they should be merely spies sent over to learn what wo are about to do, and with instructions to desert back to the rebels again at the first convenient opportunity. The idea of setting the contra bands to work is also a very good one, and we are glad to see it acted upon along the Potomac. At any rate, keep them under your eye, Gen. McClellan, for so many body servants of rebel officers and surgeons do not visit yon for no thin sr. THE POLITICAL CAMPAIGN. Republican Senatorial Convention*. FOURTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT CONVENTION. The Fourth Senatorial District Conveution, embracing the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Kighth and Fourteenth wards, assembled last evening at tho Fifth Ward Hotel, for tho purpogo of nominating a Senator to represent the district in Congress. All llio delegated but two answered to their names, and an ad journment was hud until next Wednesday. FIFTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT. The republican delegates a:v^itdod to nominate a can dldato fur the Fifth tinatorlal district, oon.istlrg of tha Tuuth, Eleventh, Thirteenth and Seventeenth wards, mot last evening at Runk's Hotel, 274 Grand street. After balloting several times, iu which Messrs. Andrews, Will man, Thomas H. Little and Andrew Craft received the highest number of votes, tlie Convention ajjouinod without a choice, to meet at the call of the Chair. SIXTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT. Tho republican delegates Cor the Sixth Senatorial dis trict, consisting of tho Ninth, Fifteenth, Sixtoouth and Klghteenth wards, met last evening in the rooms of tho Central Committee, corner of Twenty-third street and Broadway, and nominated Mr. Wwjniuglon Smith as State Senator for that district. THE SEVENTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT. The Republican Convention elected to put in nomination a candidate for the Seventh .-euatorial district, mot last evening at No. 436 Fourth avenue. The mooting was called to order by the election of Mr. Jonathan Trotter aa Chairman and Mr. Alfred IjwicaKter us Secretary. At'tor considerable talk and discussion a motion was made and carricd that a committee bo appointed to confer with tho various Union organizations, with a view Ufcunitlngon a common candidate. The following gentlemen were named by the Chairman as tho comtniiteo:?John M. Reed,N. T. Anderson, Gumming* H. Tucker, W. B. Rasterbiook and lieqj. Firth. Tho Convention, after some discussioi# relative to tho propriety of naming candidates informally, adjourned, subject to tho call of the Chair. The following gentlemen wore named in connection with the nomina tim:?W. A. Darling, John H. White, J. G. KUig and It. H. Shannon. People'* Union Convention. FOURTH SENATORIAL DISTRICT. At a meeting of the Fourth Senatorial dlstriot Union Convention, held at 374 Hudson street last evening Johe M. Costa, of the Third ward Chairman, and Casper C; Chi'ds,of the Eighth ward, Secretary?after calling the roll of delegates tho Convention proceeded to ballot for a candidate for State Senator, which roaiilted in Mr. C. B. Woodruff, of the Fifth ward, receiving the nomination. Tho vote was as follows:?C. B. Woodruff, 44; base Cole man, 8; blank, 2?total number of votes 54. SEVENTH DISTRICT UNION SENATORIAL NOMINATION. H?e Seventh district Union Senatorial Convention mot last evening and nominated Dr. B. B. Bradford for the State Senate. New Tork State Politic*. Ai-bakt, Oct. 2,1861. The Democratic Judicial Convention held hare to-day nominated Theodore Miller, of Columbia, for tho office u( Supreme Court Judge. Tho Republican Convention also met and nominated for the same place Erastus Cook, of Ulster. The Republican General Committee have called a coun ty convention for Saturday, October 17. Tlie Poople '8 Convention has been called for Thursday, October 10. Trot, Oct. 1,1801. Tho democrats this evening appointed Alderman Tho*. McManus delegate, and Robt. Parmenter alternate, to the Third District judicial Convention. Tho republicans ap pointed n. J. King and C. S. Tracy delegates. SvTucirat, Oct. 2,1861. The People's County Convention was held hero yester day. It was preside ! over by Hon. Charlu* U. Sodgwlck. There was a largo attondauoe, tho majority being republi can*. George decides was nominated by acclamation for Senator. Judge Shankiaiid, Jeromo J. Hriggs and other prominent republicans took the lead in the proceedings. A straight-out Republican Convention was alsohclJ, and Alien Munroe renominated for Stato Senator. On mo tion of Hon. Austin Myors.tho Convention warmly en dorsed Benjamin F. Bruce, the republican candidate for Canal Commissioner. Kmostos, Oct. 2,1861. Theodriek R. Weetbrook has been nominated as the Union ooudidate for Stato Senator for the Tenth district. The Wisconsin Democratic State Con vention. Mil WACKRI, Oct. 2, 1801, The Democratic Stato Convention at Madison to-day nomiuated B. Ferguson tor Governor; J.H.N, Billing", Lleutonant Governor; Chas. S. Benton, Secretary of State; H. L. Dowman, Treasurer; P. A. Or ton. Attorney, General, and .Tamts Jollman for Hauk Comptroller. Resolutions were passed to sustain the present war policy. Custom House Sale. OKEAT GATHERING OF THE CHILDREN OF ABRAHAM ALL HANDS IN SEARCH OF A BARGAIN?SOLD ALL HOUND, ETC. Thqro ha* been great excitement ia Israel, or at least Chatham street and its purlieus, where Jews "most do congregate," during the last week. It was causod by the announcement that all goods remaining in tho publio stores would bo sold, in conformity with tho law gulatlng the storage of merchandise. Yestei diy was tho one fixed on by Collector Barney for the snlo to take place, and the timo half-post tea o'clock A. M. At the hour appointed a large crowd flllod tho sales to m at the United States warehouse, No. 8T Pine street. The majority of those present wore evidently tho descendants of Abraham. No other men sport such massive rings and watch chains, or Bleek down their hair with such a quantity or grease; and from the re marks made it was oaaily seen that brilliant visions of '?great pargains" and "shoep goots" had lloated through the brains of these men during the last fow days. The room in which the goods were sold was light and airy, and the intended purchasers could examine tlie out sido of the packages far bettor than iu tho dark colar where these sales were formerly mado. The goods were sold by Mr. F. H. Ludlow, and Mr. J. R. Leydeckor, tho Warehouse Register, managed the sale. Thore wero two hundred and twenty live lot*offered for salo, and tho bidding throughout was remarkably spirited and lively. The lots comprised as miscellaneous nil assortment of goods as was over oflered for sale. Chl-kory. matting, crockery, feathers, orange peel, dry goods,tamarinds,tape, branny, pickles, whiting, hops, piper, ploughs, nuts, preserves, rattans, herring*, claret, black lead, plaster llguros, champagno, so.ip, sweet oil, beeswax, vinegar, plckld plantains, hoops, drugs, nutmeg, tea, straw goods, engraving* and undershirts, are a few only of the ar ticles knocked down In quick s icoession to tha eager crowd of bl'lde.s. The appraise I value of each 1 t was road out as tho number was rea> hed, and, as m .ny of them wore appralsod a year ago and have since much deteriorated In value, the purchasers and goods wore often "sold'' together. A bale of cloth was appralsod a year ago at Ave hun dred dollars, and Hir.re that lime may have furaUliod many s good meal to u hungry rat, and thus have ita value reduced to shout one-Wili of the amount. Packets of champagne, generally valued at live dollars, on b ung opened by tho purchaser, are olten found to contain but one rull bottle; tho rest Is accounted for by breakage or leaking. Tlie result of the salo was a complote success, so far as the government is concerned: for in.staue.e, three cssks of wiuo appraised at 16 cents per gallon sold for 23 cents: thirty cases of bitters, appraised at $3 60 sold for $3 76; six cases of felting, appraised at $12 brought $60; four casks of brandy, valued at OC ?. per gallon sold for $1 25; twenty four casks of wine, vaii ol at 75c' sold for UOc., and so on. Tho bargains secured at this sale belonged mainly to that class of g>?> Js which w era sold below their tppr. Jted value. For instance:?-Lot No. 8 twenty cases of piims, was appraised at $25, and sold for$18 60. Lot No. 15, six esses of ponknivos, appra.ood st $600, sold for $360. Wlien this lot was sold tho pur* chaser was Informed by tho crowd that ho would bo obliged to reimburse a claimant uovv CB his way to New York. "Nofftr you mint," cried oat some invisible per son although evidently a German Jew. '? .?? shcntle man I know fterry well myxheif; he Is tot, an if he come aftor he goods, 1 makosh it all right mil h n. ::i." The purchasor of lot No. 13, personal ??, paid seven dollars more than the appraisemoi.t .or his p>ir chaso.andthe crowd ironically congratulated him on hi# good luck, crying out that hero was a gold watch and chain in one of the oltocfs p ckets. The lots wore all sold, on i ho average, ah<ve tlieir ap praised value, and the whol< amount realized was abo U $5,300. In future no packages will be opened for s>etn;iles before tho sale, aa tho Custom House authorities ure convinced the plan 1s s had ou?.