Newspaper of The New York Herald, October 22, 1861, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated October 22, 1861 Page 2
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^ iron clad ships. y IRON CLAD VBS812L8-OP-WAB IN ENGLAND, FKANCB AND THE UNITED STATES. The e*por Intents now going on in Hie construction o( kon clad ships, and the experience wu already possets this s b eot, Impart an interest to the subject wl)ioli ih? positimof tho onomy against whom we have to contend, a* w '11 ns I he geography of tho country he occupies, in calculated to increase. Whotber on a river or on sob, he fore a fortress or close to tho shre, as a protection to a landing or as a floating fortification, the iron clad ship seeuw dwtmod to play an important part in military ope rations, but especially in those concerning the ?iege tt city or oi a stronghold. Though the experience in the use ( of this kind of ships Is n short one, we know already | enough of them to entertain (Us highest idea of their use fulness, Hud we are sustainod in thia by the example of j the nations of the l'.urope, particularly of England, whose haste In casing her ships with iron and In plating her old wooden vessels, shows better than any argument we could advance how unsufo she feel* behind the wooden wall? of her navv. The great utility of the Iron-clad ship consists in Its being able to stand uny length of time before a fortress and to sustain its tire, which, since the discovery of the explosive unnon ball and shells filled with liquid Iron, to say uothing of red liol <4tot, was looked upon by all naval oincars as the most hazardous of undertakings. How^ for instance, could a Secretary or the Su> y send a man of. war, valued at a million of dollars, to tho siege of a fortress, with the oonvistlou that a single shot from a yalxhiui gun would sink her in five minutes , and endanger the lives of a valuablo crew and still more valu able officers? There was a time, indeed, and that not long since, when the wooden walls of a man-of-war would stand without much injury the lire of the strongest fort iftc-ationa. This was before scicnce had undowod the cannon ball with the faculty of blowing up and setting tire to any quantity of iullammabie matter. Hut those 1sy8 are over. Instead of tho comparatively harmless globu lar ball? tho hole of which nearly closes itsolf? wo have c,,? the couicat uid explosive ball, which leaves Isiluud It a passage sufficiently largo for an elephant to gut In Who does not recnl cct the terrible etlect they produced st tlio time of tho Crimean war, when the Russian fleet armed with I'aixhan guns, sunk aud buruod, In a few hours, the whole Turkish fleet anchored in the harbor or Sinope? But groat calamities aro often productive of much good The .'.master of Siuo|>e was to bo the starling point of a complete revolution in the navies of the world. The saga clous mind or tho Knijioror of the French, (truck with the perilous condition iu which the raixhan gun constructed for firing shulls iuto ships direct .like solid shot, had placed the wooden navy, sought ror a means or obviating this danger. Forttnatelv the French anuals supplied him with a pr?ce.i in applicable to the circumstance. Iron ossed "blps hail been used by the French at tho siege of Gibraltar ; ?> M a.< team had not j ot boon applied to navi gation . st .1 th y were ton clumsy to obey the wind, they HO*' j to ver y little use, and woro llnally aban. a., Led I. i ?t? dilllculty which existed flrty years ago hut*, l- . u leiu ivod by the introduction of upowcrtu* nwttve power, there wore no reasons for not renewing th ? attempt . th s time with complete miccoss. It is onu of 1U0 glories of Louis Nsuoleon that ho solved this problem. A few days after tho naval battlo or Sinope ho Issued a decree ordering tho construction of three iron clad steamers, which wero oalloa la Devastation, La lave aud La Tuunante. Thoy woro of light draught, with bombpr-of decks, and eased with iron all over, except in the neighborhood of tho prow. They had a single range of cannons placed a llttla above the water od go, with a very low porthole. They wero sent to the Crimea, and co-ope rated with the Anglo-French licet, in front of which they ?Uk >d on tho 1-Ub ol' October, 1856, at the bombardment of Klnburn, then occupied by the Russians. Such was the edict of their Ore that in twenty-live minutes the enemy was silencod, his gunners nearly all killed, his pieces dismount nit. and tho ramparts themselves pa; t'.y demolished. This was due to the advanced posi tion they occupied In front of all other vessels? a position which enabled them to atm with moro accuracy snd to car.se greater dam age ; but , before all, it was due to th? impunity with which thoy stood the lira of the Russians > whose shots, falling powerless against their iron armor, allowed tho officers and gunners on board to act with por feet com insure. This success caused much wonder among the Allies, especially among the Fjigllsh, whom tho appearance of the three French iron clad vessels had nol at all convinced of thoir power of resisting, unin jured, the powerful batteries of the Russians: though, previous to their construction, the French government had sent a communication to the English Cablnot, In forming It of tho successful experiments made at Vln cenncs In testing the power of Iron plato against cannon balis. and or its intentlen to send a small fleet of iron plated craft to the Crimea. The fact of iron plates resisting the largest balls having bocn satisfactorily tested , another problem re ma. nod to bo solved. La Devastation, la lave and 1* Toiinoutc, having a special object? that or serving as flor.ting batteries ? had not been built In Tlew of going U> tea; their machinery was in consequence, small and of very little power, and their shapo rough and heavy. The Id. a of a fa.Mt sailing iron-plated vessel had not yet been reilized ; anain.it tt was arrayod the majority of theolll cera or the nary, who did not think it posaible for an iron steamer to |>ossess the aamo speed as wooden ones. The Iron frigate La Gloire, built a yoar after the Crimean war, showed how groundless was their belief. La Gloire, entirely clad with Iron, proved to be as swift a -vessel as any other vessel of tho same burthen, and waa, beside*, proof against red hot bullets, round and conical cannon balls ? In fact, against all kinds of projectiles. Her appearance in the English Channel caused a profound sensation among Englishmen, who did not hesitate iu procliimmg her superior to any wooden ship afloat. In their eyes, as well as In those of tho world, the ex|*rri ment waa a successful one; henceforward irou was to bo considered as a better material than wood in the con struction of tho steam navy. It was not long before Kng laiid, following the examplo of Franco, built the Warr.or, an iron-plated vessel, of a larger size, and said to be superior to Ia Gloire. Then the Dofonce, the Resistance and the i:lack Prince followed the Warrior; and six new eh ips of the same description were aftorwards ordered" and are now in progress of construction in the English navy yards. Br the Loudon Times of October 3 we have the following intelligence; ? Yesterday the operat Ion of 1 dunking the Iron cased steam friKuto Royal Oak, 61, building at Chatham, was com menced by the shipwrights employed In her, of whom there are upward* of two hundred. The planking on which her iron plates will be placed will be of teak, twelve inches in thickness, tapering <iown to a minimum thickness ol Uve Inches at a depth of five l'cet helow tho water line. 'I ho object of bolting the Iron plates on teak instead Ol oak piankmg is. that the peculiar oil from the former wood ' in expected to act a? a preservative to the in n, while the acids from oak planking are found to be exceedingly injurious to Iron, on whu_K ihey have a sin gula/ ly destructive rffnt. The energy with which the buildlt'g or tho Kejui Oak is now carriod on leaves little room t'> doubt that she will bo completed and alloat in very little more than twelve months. This hint ought not to be lost sight ol by our govern rocnt. If we must bel lev# the fear lately manifested by Lord Pa merfton in hlr visit to the Cinque Portland iu the epe< ches he pronounced on this occasion, France lgac lively engaged in covering hor navy with an iron-plated armor. It is, however, difficult to know exactly what has been the progress of France in tliut way. So profound Is the seciesy observed on this matter that it is almost irn pos' ible for unv one to know to what degree of perfection the improvements in iron-clnd navy have been carriod on, nor to ascertain the exact number of iron-clad vessels she now poss -see. The port of Toulon, on the Mediterranean, is tho place where most i f these vessels are building, and we sef by the pupers that it is crowded every day by Kug.is .men, hanging about in hope of lifting the myste rious veil wh.ch conceals tho operations of the French coustructors tiooi the eyes of the foreigner. And as mys tery appeals more or taia to the imagination, the English papers, .^noraut of what was going on, supposed that the French government had ordered the razeeing of Its wooden \ ei-sels and con vur ted them into iron-ciad ones j but as no facts have hitherto transpired calculated to In spire with ct nlideiice in this supposition, we mustat tribut it, till farther inlormation. to the panics which uyst*iu .tically Uke hold of the English mind wee or twice in a year. Notwithstanding the success which has attended the consti nc'lou of iron-clad ships, it would be wrong, l ow. ever, to Imagine that they have reached at once to the last stage of perfection, and given all t?o results which those they have already given entitle us to expect. M?uy objections are now made against I hem, the chief enr being the great draught of water to which ihi y are subject in consequcocc of tie weight of their armor. At first, the English eon. tructors sc ght to overc mo Him objection by sul s .i ting for the old can: us > wrought iron rifled guns, of hall the wylit. and h> ?asiug only the eidet d <;.? ??! n ? ? ? cud ? ffcsir oxtrsralUeR witntui j-rvt- l. Hut th.. i i : government, having hoard that the Fronch vessels were covered all over with au Iron armor, has ordered the sow ships now in construction to bo ola>1 in the same w.iy. Of courHO the weight of .inch vessels 18 prodigious. We can form an idea of it by iookiug at the steel plated ship Warrior, tho sides of which are two feet three inches in thickness ? about as thick, in fact, as the wall of au old Norman castlc. Of that thickness twenty-two inches aro wood and tho balauco iron. It is a question now whether it would uot be better to replace this onor. minis muss of woodwork by a corresponding wolght in the thickness of tho iron, the thing seoms to bo per fectly feasible, and, to Judge frcm the capacity of tho iron plates to resist powerful pressures, tho result would be superior to that offered by wood. It is not without some misgivings that wo liavo seen tho iron-clad ship now built by order of the foderal government at Mystic, Con necticut, provided with a wooden frame and beams o' huge dimensions, and porfectly solid throughout, while In many iron clad vessels built In Franco and England the frame is hollow , largo spaces being left between the ribs and timbers. The next question to be solved is the Axing of the armor plates to tho ship.-', and the relative position they occupy ono to the other. Experience proves that in tho resist ance of the Iron to tho bullet much depends on the way In w)ii<h the armor plates are attached to the vessel, and a1 what angles the sides should bo incllued. The thickness of the plates, nu well us the quality of tho wood to be used in tho frumo of the vessel, has also not yet been decided upon. But the most important of all consideration* Is that relating to the spend. Aro small vessols construct.*! to carry a few guns of large calibre like the one now in con struction at Mystic, with only S,000 tons in weight, swilt er than tho Warrior, which carries 8,000 tons ond thirty two pieces of ordnance of the largest calibre * To this tho answer has been, that small vessels are not necessarily faster than large ones, but rather the contrary. Still, the question is, whether a vessel larger than a gunboat, but smaller than the Warrior, might not bo propelled at a greater speed, though ablo to carry ono or two of the heaviest cannon. The fact that a ship-of-war is no more rated according to the number of guns she carries, but | that a small number of guns of a largo catibrc, like the 1 Dalilgrens which are ou board tho Morrimac,aro more efficient than tho 1U0 guns of a man-of-war, would sacm to settle that quostion in f?vor of the small vessels. Howovor, none of these quest Ions have yet received a satisfactory answer. Tho experiment* of Kngland ou this subject (nn'l she is the only nation we can speak of know ingly, France not allowing any one to got hold of hers) go to prove that all that has hitherto beon done in tho construction or iron-clad ships may be lookod upon , not as settling tho matter, but rather as a series of compro. mises. Let us look at somo of them. Out of tho four complete iron sidoa she now possess, two? the Defence and the Resistance ? are already silicon of as not lit for the line of battle, nor suitable for any other sorvico than the coast defence. Tho Warrior and tho Klack Prince which aro fine vessels, but which aro partially covered with armor, are likely to be superseded by tho new ones now on the storks, the whole surface of which will be plated. Then thero aro five woodon ships, or rather trames of ships, not originally Intended for that purpose, wh.ch aro to bo lengthened by a fow feat beyond tho original dimensions and then platod with armor from end t<> end. These rough and ready specimens will, it is said, be superior to ths French iron steamer La Gloiro, u vessel built in tho same condition and with thosamo materials as the live vessels alluded to. We are now building at Mystic, Conn. , a thoroughly clad iron vessel, with portholes of a new pattern, of which great things are expocted. She will draw not less than teu nor more than sixteen feet of wator. .She will have no beak projecting under water in front of her prow, and is, therefore, uot lntendod as a ram to run down vossols at sea. She will be armed with a small bowsprit made of iron, to project forward, and her bow will be cased and made extremely strong; and, whatever position you may placo her In, she will present nothing but curved lines. As -to her armament, it has not yet been decided upon ; but In all probability she will carry two pivot rifled guns of the largest calibre? say eighty pounders, and twelve thirty-two pounders, also rifled. These pieces will be so disposed that no one will be obliged to stand on the upper deck when the action will tako place. The information wo possess ou the construction of that vessel is, however, by no means positive. Our Navy Department, like the French, keeps silence as to tho improvements contein plated, and we aro uot sure that even tho shape of the ship or tho system of plating lier is known by the public. We do not Ima^ino that anything reliable can be said of | her till she Is finished. I Numerous inforences can be drawn from the experi ments made on tho Iron plates. Besides their property of resisting all kind of projectiles ? a property which the trial made lately by Mr. Whitworth seems to place beyond doubt ? they can adapt themselves to all sorts of wooden ves?"ls, small or large, so that a gunboat takan out ot one of our navy yards may be covered with iron armor and converted into an iron-clad vossel. They may also be adapted lo floating batteries, and, liko I.a Devastation, La Lave and La Tennante at the siege of Kinburn, bo most eflJcient in storming stronghold* and cltlcs. Suppose, lor Instance, a flotilla of gunboats, placed under the protec tion of some small Iron-clad vcbsqIs of light draught, or nutter that of some I if? tit floating batteries, and there ?re no cities now in the pca.se us Ion of the rebels which wo cannot attack and carry. W? may ascend their rivers, take their batteries ami storm the cities situated along their shores. We may operate u landing in any place wo chooao, with tlio assurance of success. We may lay siege before their fortresses, and stand under their walls till wo take them. We can embark an army on steam iron-clad transports and paralyse their operations by causing their forces to be dispersed in every direction ; then land with impunl' ty under the Ore of their own batteries, which ours, belni? Invulnerable, cannot fail to Bil<>nce. In fact, there an- few military operations In which an iroa-clad Meet cannot' participate, and few which, according to what wo already know, it cannot mako successful. Let us hope that, beforo long, tho Northern States will have en sea an Iron (loet capable of com[>etilig with tb.nl of tog laml or France, not only for the sake of competition with those Powers, but because on that day rebellion will bavo been defeated and the Union restored. PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED IN THE TRANSPORTATION OF TROOPS BY SEA. TO THK i-PH'OK OK THK HKHAI.D. Permit me to offer some remarks In regard to the trans portation of troops, suggested to nit by my experience ut, an executive officer when engaged in this duty in the Mexican war. Precautions Against Fire. ? As the troops go on board let every knapsack bu examined and the lucifer match. <, be removed from them; but, to enable the men to smoki-, let a lighted lantern be at all timoa on the forecastle, In charge of a sentinel. Smoking should be prohibited be low. Select the uon couimissioned officers and best troops for firemen, and station them in each gangway in single file, to be there on the alarm of Are. Troops who are not firemen will lie directed, on the alarm, to that part of the vessel where they will not Interfere with the work of extinguishing the Are. Splicc lanyards or draw ropes to as many buckets a3 will be required to draw water. At sunset collect the ship's buckets together in thair appro, priate placet, having half filled them with water. Station seutlnols at tho boat falls, with orders to shoot any man who may attempt to lower a boat or jump overboard. On tho alarm of lire the ship's company should go to their quarters, and the troops to their stations. Say, for instance, that the Arc is on the berth dcck; order the crew of guns No. 1 and 2, or moro if necessary, to man the fore chains and " draw water," and a llle of troop* to form line from tho lore chains down tho lore hatch ladder or ladders to the Ore, aud " jmiss water." Occasionally in the dead hour of night give an alarm of fire, by Bounding the boll, for the purpose of putting tho officers and troops in practical working order. If there bv an engine on board, It would not of course be necessary to use buckets to obtain water, llave a num ber of tiretubs tilled with water below or between the d?'ks. If it blows fresh whan the ship is on tire keop before the wind. Sanitary Regulations. ? Station tho troops is three watches, one ol which should he always on dock to assist in tho regular duties. Wash clothiug every morning, re quiring the men to take o IV their shoes and stockings, winch will bo dry enough to put on alter tho deck is washed down. Kvery morning, during hut wouthar, direct the watch to baihe themselves. A man stripping himself to bis (wuitaloons can easily drench his bead and body with a bucket of water. Having washed aud dried himself, let him put on clean clothes and then wash or scrub the dirty ones. The Officers of the troo|* should innjiect their men twice a week, by cum pau ies, and not permit a dirty piece to be In a kna;S.ick. Kvery Saturday air blankets and woollen clothing, aud whitewash and ventilate below. Clothing wotted by rain should h i hung up to dry as soon hs the weather i?ornills. Tho ship's crew always perform their custHmary duties. Ina \e?sel of about six hundred tons, with the abovo rcgrialloi s enforced, five liuuurod troops were embark' d al New York for Texas. Al ter a passage of thirty days ?li ? rea hc l her liestiaaton with all the tro i] > In te nia! ably lino health. sV'iii ? old ami trusty soldiers, w ho were in f ?bi - health, and believed by their Ollicers to b" '?>? '< f. k f"r the vu . e;e. recov red entirely tin h In ilth. l.'r' officers and trm |;s ? lea pi' Mlncnf :wrt In tit i hrll hal t victoi i of Gen i ,iriiiylor,nnd < f the un Iviu* <-' bus be re rebel, mul It I be,' |. .Iiel THE WAR AND COMMERCE. Importation of Article* of L uxmry?Dv crtta.se In Importation of Dry Good it Value of (ioodi Imported In Septem ber? Comparative Value of Silk* Im ported In 1839, 1860 and 1861? Dlmin Uhfil Importation of Llneiu, WooUrui and Cottons? Increaie in Kxports of Produce, <Sic. Tho war (or the Union hu brought about a revolution In commercial mattery which could never have been accomplished by other meaug. The people have ceas<d to spend their money Id flno clothing and expensive articles of adornment, and have set about retrenching their expenses In every possible manner. Ladivs no longer call on their labor-worn Uusbai.ds and loving papas to furnish money for silk* and satins, ring* and bracelets, to the extent they have bcon accustomed to. The putriotism which leads the male member* of the family to shoulder tho muskot and march to tho battle field impels the gentler ones to lay out their (pending money in articles of comfort for their absent friends. It U gratifying to see how the ladies have come forward, and have employed their tlmo and money in making clothing, scraping lint and aiding in a thousand ways those who have In charge the welfare of our noble army. Tho extant to which tho retrenchment in exponsive articles for clothing has bcon carried by the ladies of Now York cannot be better ex emplified than by a comparison of the value of tho Im portation of silks, the article In which they most dolight, to this port the lost three years:? In tho month of Septembor, 1WI (wo take tho mouth last passed at random, without searching for a better ox ample), tho value of tho allies brought to this port and ontcre/l for consumption at the Custom House was $571,65,1. In the samo month of the year 1840 the value reached the enormoiis sum of $2,1)30.271, and of the year 1859 tho sum of $1,998,329. The difference, then, bo tween the imporlation of this article in September, I860 and 1801, reaches the large amount of $1,487,718, or, in other wordy, we have lmportcd|but llttlo more than oue quarter of the sl'ks that we did last year. We have not taken Into account tho goods which have been ontered for warehousing in the above statement. Their value, how ever, does not materially alter tho results arrived at. Again, linous or manufacturer of flax may be regarded moro as nn article of luxury than woollens and cottous. The falling off In tho Importation ol' articles of this textile has been ..'most as great as thoso made from silk. There wero entered tor consumption in September, 1R59, g< ods manufactured of llux valued at $614,0, "0; In September, 1860, linen, &c. , valued at $544,315, und iu tho same mouth of this year only $190,857 worth. If-wo tako Into account the gooos of this description ware housed the difference will bo increased by about $150,000. Tho importation of tho more useful and loss ornamental dry goods has also dimin'.Fhed, but not to as groat an oy.tent as inthccisoof the articles of luxury. Thus, in the cose of woollens we tied the value of those imported September, 1801, to bo about one-half that of those brought to this city in I860, and to sustain about the samo relation to thoso imported In 1859. With cottons tho figures aro as follows:? Cottons Imported Scptomber, 1850 $958,046 Cottous Imp rtsd September, 1800 92.1,135 Cottoi'8 imported September, 1801. 327.950 Anothor reason exists, howover, for the falling off in the importation of tho articles last referred to ? vi?: the high rate of duty demanded for these articles. With woollens this le particularly noticeable, inasmuch as there never was a time when more goods of this material wero consumed in this country than the present. The predictions wo made last spring in refe rence to tho importation of those articles on which such an exorbitant duty was levied have been verified, and wo cannot but believe that had the old tariff boon in ope' ration at this time tho figures wo should have made would have been much more favorable, and that the United States government would have recolved a much largor revenue than it has so far done. On the articles of luxury It is well, perhaps, that these rates have boon Im posed , for the high prices they cause are an addltiona' reason for the retention of the money whloh would other wise leave the country. Cotton fabrics of foreign manufacture have bcon made so high by the prospective failure of tho great factories to procure tholr supplies of tho staple, and by the high tariff, that, of courso, we could not expect great quanti ties to bo sent here. Tho tale which the figure* given above tell Is rattier en couraging. It Is true tb? receipts of the Custom flows bavo diminished, and tbo revenue of tbo government from duties on foreign goods has consequently been much smaller, but even this is an evidence of lh* spirit which animates our people. They aro determined to livo more economically , and (spend less on useless articles of dress and food. Tbc war hart taught this lesson. The money has been turned Into a d liferent ohnnnel, aud instead of passing to foreign lands has been poured into the United States Treasury, go that what tho govern ment lias lost in one way it has gained in another. F?r convenient reference we give the results already stated in the torra of a table:? TUTAt. YAIXR OP DRY OOODS ISTHUll FOR CONSUMPTION AND WAiif.mn'sixo in TDK months or uptsxbir, 1899, I860 AND 1861. 1859. I860. 18C1. Manufactures of wool $2,198,193 2,691,279 1,448.483 Do. cotton.. 977,526 923,135 327,958 Do. silk 2.006,776 2, 085, 7.1# 773.449 Do. flax 795,018 552,8-14 218.355 Miscellaneous 548,666 647,388 1 Of,, 142 Total $6,680,088 6,740,186 2,9;J4.305 AMOUNT or GOODS THROWN OS thr MARKET AT Till PORT or NEW YOKK Uf THR MONTHS OK HKlTRMBEll, 1869, lb80 AND 1861. 188f>. 1880. 1861. Manufactures of wool.... $2, 322.850 2,882.932 2,251 269 llo. cotton.. 958,(116 907,544 622.349 Do. silk 2,075,001 2,173.605 1,175,780 Do flax 724,544 021,240 397,514 Miscellaneous 520,864 664,427 176,137 Total $6,601,905 7,149,748 4,522,029 The above tables show that tbo total value of the dry goods imported hers in the month of September, 1861, was $3,865,820 less than in the corresponding month of last year, ami th.it tho value of the goods thrown on the market wan $2,627,719 less. In addition to the encouragement derived from the spi rit of retrenchment, wo have the satisfact ion of knowiug that our exports of produce have never nearly equalled those of the present year. Vessels which come to our port* with empty holds, or only partially loaded, return laden with our ;<rain. Thus, while we are not buying, we are selling goads to an unprecedented extent, and it requires no great |>olitieal economist to discover that, our wealth in consequence Ik constantly increasing. The short crops of.Kngland and Frauce wore most providen tial for us. creating, as they did, such a demand for tho great product of our Northern States. Much of what we have lost by not sending our cotton to F.ui'o|>e wo have gained by the Increased demand for breadstuff. OUR PHILADELPHIA CORRESPONDENCE. rmi.iDKUTUA, Oct. 18, 1861. rrocffdivgt Agai-.ut the. United. Statu Martha I and Depu ties ? Ciitet of, th* Suppressed Newspapers, ? Fauagt of 2Voflj s Soiitlivxird? Effect ? of Secretary Seuiara't Letter ? ?ilrrimln of fugitives, tfc., rfc. Warrants were eerved to-day upon United States Mar shal Wm. Millward, and the deputies John Jenkins and Wm. Schuyler, on oath of Mr. Hodgson, publisher of the Jeffmonian newspaper, charging thorn with trespass. The writs are returnable to the Bupromo Court early In November, complaluant being represented by ox Minister to China William B. Reed, tho first friend of James Buchanan aud George W. Blddlc, Esq. As an offset to this proceeding the marshals will obtain the necessary warrants to transfer Mr. Hodgson and friends to Fort iAfayrtte before the warrants shall be returnable. They are looking out for tho iirst number of the revived Jeftersonian with a view to seize upon trea sonable passages and forward them at once to Wash ington. The Christian Observer, recently stopped, has been re vived at Richmond, Va., with the- Reverends Converse as editors. Regiments continue to move southward daily. A splendid regiment of light cavalry, under Colonel Rush, is ready to move, fully supplied with horses. Colonel Geary , who has achieved a series of gallant successes with the Twenty-eighth regiment at Harper's Ft rry, was .joined this week by his fifteenth company. Hie democrats of this Stale are clamoring for Colouol Geary's promotion to o Bright lership. Secretary Seward's letter has produced a depression in money ami stocks corres|>ondtrg to that in the market of New York. The commander of the Home Guard hero, In Imitation of the Secretary, has issued a proclamation, calling upon the citizens to organize and arm themselves. Six thousand muskets, belonging to the Philadelphia Home Guard, have be- n called in liy General Ripley, and taken to Kentucky. Immense numbers of bridle bits, saddles, musk' ts, sabres and Uorscs go w> siward daily, and some of the rallrmd.j refuse to carry prlvftto freight , as all their facilities aro taken up by govertini, at. Transport vessel* are loading immense quantities of coal at Kichinoi.d for tho gr< at Southern raval expedition that will soon sail conjunctly from New York aril Anna polis. The St. Louia lies at (lie Navy Yard where she Is being relttfed. The.JunlafA h'istill her timbers m plc< a, and the Tu?carora taut received her mwii, boilers and engines. In view of Iheexpooted construction of ironclad vessels at tb<s station, th" yard, it - boll, vet', will bo greatly enbtt'c ?? A o niol" of f live; fame r., rthward bst ?!),!it. with their b-a-tssb ved, destitute and otbirw 111 ,. ;:,e 1. Oil' V ? a I'd i i.ro bo.tli b ? fhi, op at tie'' M <it' on" . (n.vciuriieiit b brail Vtro's CUSTOM HOUSE AFFAIRS. KltMit ol' Importations? Effect of the Tariff Act of August? Duty of the Go vnmincnl?ilaKKitiitluiiti for Aincndiurnti to the Tttrlff? I'll# Duty on Sugar? Ship ments to Canada? Kai?in?? Iiigh Price* whrn Ilctalled? The Importation of Coffee? Continued Arrival of Anns from Kurapc? Armi for Kentucky? Btmovkli liy the Collector? Decision* of the Secre tary of the Treasury?' The Miction* or the Tariff Act Atl'ectcil by Ilia Decision** The receipts of foreign goods at this port continue to he very light, the principal articlus imported being those <J nee* illy rather than of luxury. The effect of tho Turin ait or August lias boeu to diminish greatly the importa tion of snmo articles which would have beou brought hare notwithstanding tho existence of tho wnr. it hus aU", together with the economy Induced by thu war>

shut o'lt many articles which wo can well d . penso with, and for which money would, at tins time, bo foolishly spent. The duty of Ihe governiueut now is to oonsldor in what way a revision of tho act now in force will bene" fit the p. oplo nud lighten the load of direct taxation whii'h must bo imposed upon thom. A trial ol two months has Biig>;cUed the following improvements: ? On a igar a duty of two cents per pound is now levied. To be sure thiH article is one ol' necstity , in a measure, aud mult be imported, but its uso can be greatly re stricted. Many who at this time of thu year use large nuautit.es of this article for the purpose of preserving fruit, kc. , will uow do without It, and content themselves with plainer articles of diet. Sugur aud molasses are used in a thousand different ways by all classes of society, when cheap, but the purposes for which they are used are such that when the prlco is high the consumption greatly decreases. In the case of these articles wo think the oxisting rales are loo high for the good of tho govern ment, and that by a Judicious reduction at the next meet ing of Congress the revenue would bo increased. Again, raisins aroused to a considerable extent, and in the course of tho year quite a largo sum of money is realized for the Treasury by their importation. Tho ex tent of th sir importation may be seen from the fact thai not long since (he duty ou ono invoice amounted to $20,000. This, it is true, was imported under the now tariff, and lieuco the large amount, but the goods we e shipped from Spain before the news of the passage of tho last tariff bill had rcachod that country. This article is ono the consumption of which is capal le of being greatly diminished, aud, unlike the other of which wo liuvo spokim, can be done away with outtrcly. Th'; high rato of duty levied ? viz: live cents per pound? is almost prohibitory. TLe raisins hardly cosi as much as that in the countries whore they are produced. By the tlmo they reach thin country their original value, together with lb" commissions, freight charges for a long voyage,, duty, brokerage, Ac. , Sc., muku the selling price very high. Tills, of course, is greatly Increased by past ing through tho hands ol the importer, wholesale dealer and retailer, each of whom must make his profit on thotu. By the time they reach the hands of tho latter they have attained an exorbitant prlco, such an ono, in fact, as to prevent half of those accustomed to their uso from purchasing. This, then, is au< thor article on which the duty could be reduced with profit to tho government. When the act referred to first went iuto operation it took somo dealers by surprise, or, rather, they had not become convinced that such a law would pass in time to countermand the orders they had given. Thus for some time sugar continued to arrive here, which had been shipped under the supposition that the rate of duty im posed by the act of March would be levied. When Uie cargoes arrived tho owners or consignees found that in stead of three-quarters of ono cent por pound, two cents must be paid, If they desired to sell their goods In this market. The rise In sugar had not then been sufficient to warruiit the payment of this duty , inasmuch as there was, at that time, a lurgo sti ck on hand. The goods were consequently bonded, and most all sent, to Canada whero they could bo sold on more advantageous terms, Hera the government lost many thousands of dollars, for tho Bugar merely passed through tho country to a foreign land, and henco did not have to pay auy duty to th0 American government, but puid it to the Canadian insload. The Importation of coffee will always continue, inasmuch as it has become an article of necessity to almos, every ono. The imposition of a high rate of duly on this article, as u temporary tax during the war, was Judicious, The i' Joct of tbo warehousing clause has been good on this article at leant, however it may have affoctcd others. Large quantities arc now placed in bond ? a practice ' rarely followed under the old tariff acts; but, by the ciauseof tbe August bill Juat referred to, thoy can re. main in store but three months, so that tbe government is not long kept out of the duty by this disposition or the goods. The importers, moreover, have that length of time in which to And a customer. It has been found arl. vantageous to send considerable quantities of this article, also, to Canada. Arms continue to arrive from Europe by tho steamers, nearly overy one of which brings somo accession to our stock of Enllold rifles, ,Vc. Tbe Ed in burg and the City of Washington brought some, which wero sent to aid the cause of tbe Union in Kentucky. Wo see, al?o, by the local papers, that large num bers of Enfield rifle? have reached Boston by the steamers running to that city. These liave been distributed about ns fast as they arrived among the New England troops. In whose hands they wilt no doubt do great execution. The following important decisions have been mado by the Secretary of the Treasury, as will bo seen from the subjoined circular to Collortor Barney. Wo insert, tbo articles of the Tariff act referred to in the circular, in i order that Importers may soe at a glance their bearing on his decisions: ? UklTLAB TO COLLBCIOn lMKNIt. 1 have had under consld?raticn an appeal of Messrs. Elliman Bros, from your decision, subjecting to duty , at the rnto of ill) per cent, under section 24 of the Tariff act of March 2, 1861, certain tirec'.ay gas retorts, the appel lants claiming entry thereof, free of duty, unjji-r the pro vision for "stoneware, uot ornamented, above the capa city of ten gallons,'' in section 23. Tho claim of the importers to onter tho articles in ques tion tree of duty, under l ho provision iu section 23 of tho Tarltr act of March 2, 1801, of stonew are, not ornamented, abovo tbe capacity of ten gallons, Is inadmissible. Thoy are not, it is believed, commercially known and recognized as stoneware, nor would tho use to which they are to be applied indicate them as belong leg to that class of articles embraced under tbe designa tion of loueware, mentioned in the twentv-thlnl sec tion. In my opinion, the duty was properly assessed at the rate of twenty per cent ad valorem. Imitose-I by tho twenty fourth section of the Tariff act of March 2, 18til, on all articles manufactured in the whole or in part, not enumerated nor otherwise provided for in that act. I hare hud under consideration an appeal of Messrs. Benkard A: Hutton from your decision, subjecting to duty at the rate of thirty per cent, under the Tariff act of March 2, 1*61, worsted fabrics, imported by them, tho appellants claiming entry thereof at the rate ot twenty per cent, un der section twenty-four, as uon enumerated. The Tariff act ol tho 2d of March, 1801, doos not, as a general fact, make a distinction between woollen uud worsted fabrics, but embraces them all under ibe terms woollen and wool. The merchandise in question was, in my opinion, correctly charged by yon with a duty of thirty |>cr cent a I valorem, under the third subdivision of tbo thirteenth section of that act. The following tertlons are the ones detlncd by the abovo circular:? Soc. 23 merely provides that certain articles shall bo admitted free of duty: among which is " stoneware, not ornamented , above the capacity of ten gallons." Sec 24 m a* follows: ? " And be it further enacted, That from and after the day and year aforesaid, there shall be levied, collected ami paid on the importation of all raw or unmanufactured articles, not herein enume rated or provided for, a duty of ten per centum ad valo rem; and on all articles manufactured in whole or in part, not herein enumerated or providod for, a duty of twenty per centum ad valorem."' The last clause of the third subdivision of the thir teenth section of the act of March reads thus: ? "On bunt ing ami on all stained , colored or print*!, and on ail other manufactures of wool, or of which wool shall be a component material, not otherwise provided for, thirty per centum ud valorem." | It has been decided that " burlaps" shall pay 26 per cent. and that gin and other liquors under Urst proof shall pay 83 1-3 per ccnt. Tho heads of the clerks under the Inst administration continue to drop off quietly , quito a number having thus disappeared during tbe months of September and Octo ber. In addition to those whose names wo gave last Sunday, the following have ended thnir offt clal existence during the time mentioned: ? lebenturo clerks ? E Allen, H Humphrey, G. C. MebPerd, H. Simp son. Inspectors ? II. C. Burnham. W. Cantwell. John Turren, R. Kurcy, P. F. Root, P. Kignov, F. Kelffert, G. II. Ross, A. H. Stewart, W. Seubach, I). Wittue, A. Scher xmger, H. M. Cohort, W. Joyce Storekeepers ? J. Harbor, M. Iloland, A. Uoese, 1. A. Benrdaley, J. W. Van B ireom. W Olmsted, A. S. Martlndalo, John 1'iarse, F. A. Ward, E. Pavis..!. Trnu, John Sf.ephons, G. Sanger, H. A. Wart, Jas. Murphy. LOOKING AFTER BRECKINRIDGE. [From the Cincinnati Gazette, Oct. IS.) Colonel I -en. Harris' Second Ohio regiment Is under, stood to have gone to Olympian fcpringa, liath county, Ky. , for the double purposi of pr otecting Mount Sterling from the attack whic'a has been threutenod by Breckia ridge's recruit? ot. tho Big S.indy.and, If It. should bo foi.iid po*?ib1u, of iiipperHttig Breckinridge's tore". Tho rebels, at last advices, had advanced from I'restonbnrg, on the rig Sandy , as far r.s Hazel Green , on tho road to Mount Hterilnf TUi ir numb", s have boon variously re j> .rted at froii three l.undi eo to three thousand. ft n ot: eci from tli<> Sec -mi v 'iirned he,. (n great haste yesietdnj lv?r an v it!" ' -.oeplyo! timn uitU li. This would inr.jly t hut an l u--!o' ammunition was becoming i isei nibW Tw wore rudiments were so.it yc.<t r '.ay t omatioh r p .m to ?'UW-vrt Colonel < irns, !o it ?s- ot it, i t-oba! le t aw t,i ?y h::ir of 'Otu-Uitufc I* t' ?t 'irw.tiot hi u- ? '' " SUB-TREASURY MATTERS. Important Action of the Government? The Six Per Cent Notes Received In Payment of the Iioku? Efftct of the An nouncement on the Rioten? Their Value? Reasons for the M?vniw?t? Jnte??tlnj Statistic* of British Expenditure? Over S5.000.000 a liny Expended Before the Battle of Waterloo, i&c. A m '8t tmportaut notion wax taken by lb* gov eminent about a week since, through Its agent, Mr. Cisco. We refer to the Intention to accept, in future, the nix per ceut notes, now in circula tion, tn payment for the 7.30 Treasury notes. It will be rocollected that. Mr. Chase, at his lirat mooting with the bankers of the North, in this city , agreed totuke these notes In pas t payment. During the period between the (list ami second loan by the lmntcs, the question was raised whether it would be right and expedient for Mr. fhase to make the game stipulation when the time should come to request the second loan. The consequence of tho discussion of this question was to cause tho value of these notes to fluctuate, and, when tho decision to receive them was announced, to raise their value ouo or two [>or cent iu s day. The decision mado known a few days since to roccive them from tho people has caused another rise in their value, and they arc now Worth their face, tho merely nominal sum of % per cent discount being d.'inandod. The rise in tho value of thm-e notes has been attended by a similar one In the value of all tho govern ment stocks, pUinly showing how the conttdttnce of the people iu tho strength and stability of tho government is daily Increasing. I<et us glance at the causes of this de cision on the part of Mr. Chase to receive the six per cent notes in payment for the 7.30 notes. At llrat sight It would appear strange to many that such an arrangement should be entered into. It would seem as though the government was receiving back in'tos which it would not be required to redeem for clgbte n months, and for which it was poyirig interest at the ri.to of on'y six t>or cont,and giving in return notes bearing au interest of 7.30 per cent, an increased interest of 1.30 per cent, without receiving any equivalent. The reason of this is the following: ? Tho Bix per cent note:; have been issued about six months, and liave but eighteen months to run before maturity. Tho 7.30 per ceut notes, h wever, arc jutt issued, and have three yours to run be fore maturity. Thus the United States liavo the use of the money already borrowed for double the time i.liey had before tho exchange took plaoe. Surely, in times like these, the pooplo will not doubt the proprie ty of giving the small additional interact of 1-30 for the extended lime. Anothor advantage which th-; government will h:ivo by the recall of these six per ceut notes is, that the duties on imported goods must then he paid Iu specie. Now the larger part of thoin Is paid in tho Trea. sury notes. It n'ight possibly be exceedingly inconvenient, to say the least, to redoem all the outstanding six per cent notes eighteen months hence, whatever turn tho affairs of the nation had taken in the meantimo. Tin cc years, however, we all hopo, will place us again iu a nourishing condition, and enable us to made arrangements for tho return of the borrowed money. The ofltert of the rise in tho value of theso notes will be seen by a comparison of tho following tables, showing the amounts of gold received at tho Sub-Troastiry of this city before snd slncc they have attained th<sir increased value: ? AMCC XT or GOLD IUt< K1VEK Monday, Sept. 30 $8,000 Tuesday, Oct. 1 7,000 Wednesday, Oct 2 8.000 Thursday, Oct. 3 10,000 Friday, Oct. 4 11,000 {Saturday, Oct. & 17,000 Total $61,000 ?AMOUNT Of UOLD KBCtVEB. Monday, Oct. 7 $12,000 Tuesday. Oct. 8 10,000 Wednesday, Oct. 9 11,000 Thursday . Oct. 10 24,000 Friday, Oct. 11 17,000 Saturday , Oct. 12 29,000 Total $103,000 AMOC.VT OK OOI.1) nCRVID. Monday . Oct. 14 39,000 Tuesday , Oot. 15 29,000 Wednesday, Oct. 10 39.000 Thursday . Oct. 17 48,000 Friday. Oct. 18 78,000 Saturday. Oct. 19 27,000 Total 1260,000 It will bp Interesting for our readers to make a com. parlson of the receipts iu g( 1<1 between the woek ending October 12, 1*81, and tho corresponding one in 1800. Tho table for IStSl is al>ove; thut for 1880 is as fol lows: ? Monday. Oct. 8 $98,000 Tuesday, Oct. # 114,000 Wednesday, Oct. 10 87,000 Thursday," Oct. 11 87.000 Friday, Oct. 12 66,000 Saturday, Oct. 13 90,000 Total 1546,000 The difference in the amounts of gold is found In the value of the Treasury notes received. Those received in the week of 1800 amounted to only $6,000, while those taken in that of 1861 were worth $036,000. It luia been orroncouWy stated that our expenditures havo been greater during tho war than liavo beeu those of any other nation, either at peace or war. The follow ing statistics will f>how how miK'h faster England rolled up her debt than wo have been doing:? Botween tho years 1803 and 1810 the average dally ex penditures of tho British government wcro $1,300,000. This continued for thirteen years. The population of the country w?3 then only 18,000,000; that of our own loya' Status is now over 20,000,000. Again, for oue hundred days before tho battle of Waterloo the English spent $5,000,000 per day. If England could stand thin enormous expenditure for so long a period, cannot wo bear tho ex pense of our war for the little time necessary to crush out this wicked rebellion and restore the country to its formor greatness* AN INSIDE VIEW OP THE REBEL CAMP AT COLUMBUS, K Y. The Cairo correspondent of the St. Louis Republican visited Columbus, Ky.. on the 11th Inst., m the character of a country clerk, and gives the following inside view of the rebel camp at that place: ? The houses of the town are generally small, many painted white, and some few showing good taste by their surroundings of shrubbory and cultivated grounds. On the river bank is the depot or the Mobile and Ohio Rail road, a commodious building, and the chief ornament of the place. No passenger with carpet sack in hand, or porter with trunk on shonldor, were visible; but instead, a repiment of gray uniformed fellows, from Louisiana, I undet stood, wore oecuj ymg the depot. A locomotive at tached to four platform and one passenger cars was stand ing idly on the truck, but biew its tvhistlo uud started off shortly after. It soemed strange. An enomy's camp, and yet all Americans, in tone, speech and action similar to yourself and those iu Union camps at other places. In stead of being a bloodthirsty, hoofed, hornod aud tailed multitude, there arc good looking boys, effeminate men with downy beards, laughing. Kalstaflian individuals also, as well as those of true military cut, among the rebol multitude. As there was danger of incurring suspicion, my explo rations were limited, and I was unable to visit all the dif ferent points of interest. About lialf of those soldiers I saw were uniformed, while of the balance many had an army cap. a coat, pants with a stripe or military mark of some kind , and the rest simply ordinary costume. Their arms were decidedly mixed . some of those in tents or hands uf sentinels being revolving weapons, others brooch loading common muskets, hunting rides, kc. I picked up one with the stamp "Harper's Ferry" upon it. Tents wore of the old style; some tattered and useless , others strong and new, but pitched in regular order. Discipline was evidently moro lax than in federal camps, and the men appeared to take thing" In a free and easy style. Shoes gave the most melancholy effect of tho biockado. Those of leather showed numerous pitches, and tho lung haired captain said a stylo made of thick cloth were being used Instead. None of the uniforms of the soldiers were new, and a pinch will evidently come when they are worn out. Blankets were also scarce, and preparations for win ter scenty. A proclamation posted on a hoard proved to be from Ueuoral Pillow, forbidding the inhabitants of Mis souri or ports on the Mississippi sending any more bacon or provisions of any description South, as it was needed by the forces "iu this department. ' ' The fortifications that defend Colnmbus are situated on tho bluffs just above the town and along Lucas bend. Tlicy aro so placed, and the natural advantages of the ground are such, that any Attempt to tako them without the coojicration of a powerlul land foico will prove un successful and disastrous. I notice.' but' one camv.n on tho banW in front of tho town, and that was a snmll one. Oeaei al Johnston commands the forces there, and lias with him nllow and "hoatham. The number of their troops wis stated at 35,000, of whom 25.000 were then at Colum but. eight repiment li.iviug started the day before for some (M)lnt inward. From all npponrances tho secession forces were themselves afraid of be inn attacked, and as long as they can kf'p the federals, by feints and ether - wise.from marching ti|K>n tiiem, tliey will be satisfied. There w 'H unite a shade of anxiety on the face of him of the long hair when he ask"d. " Is i! true they have taken New Orleans?" and remarked." If they have we will wel come them with hospitable Iwnds to bloody graves," which,, besides being an incorrect quotation, was not ft e-U nOUgh to excite the admiration ?f his hearers. Obituary. Tun Princess Miry of Solms (nee Ronaoarte) died at Ha ,1 l Mlen.Oetrber 1 , at th<; a of 27 . "f inflammation of | the hr: .n.fr-m win. h ? s . . red f .r a in. nth. The I prtaM i had mm lona r :y f. m France. Btrilatar was recently uarrtea tc/c: ?. ?P irr. NEWS FROM BALTIMORE. OUR BALTIMORE CORRESPONDENCE. Haiti mom, Oct. lfi , 18?1. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to be Reduil' from Harper's tfrrry to Cumberluml ? Why the Ouarnment J/us Nat 2VtA.fi the Matter in Hand Before ? An ln*id e Vicuuof Public Feeling in Baltinurt ? Sectuiuii n Sl.it Jiairij-ant ? The torts In and Around BaUimre ? I'm pertly of the City uttd r Union Protection, rfc. , rfc. Tfie readers of th" Uuhai d do doubt wonder why it is that the government boa so long permitted a tew mile* of the lialtimore and Ohio Railroad, west of Har per's Ferry, to remain in virtual possession of th# rebels That break in Iho road, although only a few miles in ex. tout, has completely broken up the business of the com pony us a through route from tho West, and the com plaint# of Western merchants for its repair have bean long au<l loud. The facts of the case, ascertained from the highest authority, are these;? The portions of the truck that have been injured ? only about thirty miles lu extent ? lie between Harper's Ferry and tha Cacajxxin river, which Is fifty miles (by the railroad) east of Cumberland. This portion of the road crosses lour oon" sideruble streams, the bridges over which ? allot' them costly and expensive structure ? have been destroyed. It also crows a immborof smaller streams, and scve eral "dry runs'' (that is, deep hollows, whore streams of witter are formed in rainy seasons, but which are usually dry;, by means of culverts built of stone. All of these culverts have beon blown up and destroyed. Tha superstructure of the road itself, the rails, crossties and sleepers, have been carefully taken up and carriod away on th'? railroad leading from Harper's Ferry to Winches, tor, theuce wagoned across to Hlrasburg, and transported thence to Munassas Junction and Gordonsville. There is a railroad surveyed and laid out from Fredericksburg to Orange, 'tear Gordonsville, a distance of thirty-lire miles. This was duno two or three years ago. in 1880 the road was graded; but whan this was done, the c< m jauy who had charge of the work wcro compelled to abandon thi enterprise fur the waud of funds. I understand that tho rails and ties thus taken from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad truck are now being used to finish this roud lrom Gordonsville to Fredericksburg. A glance at the map ol Virginia will show the great inij>oruun;eof Much a road to tho rebel cause, in connection with tha line of dofenco which they have established. It will be remembered that this defensive line, beginning at Leesburg (the headquarters of General tiustavus Smith, commander of tho left wlnjr), passes tnrough Fairfax and Manassas Junction, along Bull run and the Occoquon river, and takes in the line of buttories erected along the Potomac, from the mouth of the Occoquon to Matliias Point. When it is necessary for thorn to fight in defeuco of thai lino (for tlie necessity will surely arise), this new.uil road will greatly increase the facilities which already exist for bringing up supplies and reinforcements from Richmond, from Norfolk and from Southwestern Virginia. But to return to tho railroad thus denuded of its rails, croesties, sleepers, bridges and culverts. It has boon virtually in possession of the robeis for many weeks past; but there h ive never been more than a low hundred rebel troops batweeu Ha: per's Ferry and Cumberland at ani time since tho Ivitt o of Bull run. Three regiments of Union troops, stationed one at Martlnsburg, one at Har I er s Forry and < no at Cumberland , would bo sufficient to drive from to neighborhood all the rebel troops in that part of the -'iat?. The company will begin the work oC rebuilding tho road to-morrow if the government will assure tbrrn of the necessary protection. The reason why the government buve not taken hold of tbo matter before Is on account of its complication with the mditary movement now in progress in front of Washington. Johnston's loft wing, nuuor General Smith, Is ut Lees burg, only flfteeu miles from Harper's Forry. True, s river and a range of hilix separate hiin from the latter place. Rut thn military t?.ithoritiC3 an- determined that when they move this time there shall be no mistake and no repulse. When a movement is made, therefore, for taking |wsw Ion of that f?art of tbe road, it will bo made from tho direction of General Banks' division, and with such force as to overcome all possible opposi tion. Once m posso-sioit of the road, the government will bold it. and protect the company in rebuilding it. Th* company have provided everything neoessary on their part, and will put a force of several hundred men on at once. Both the government and the company understand the necessity for Immediate action in the matter. The present weather is splendid for tho purpose, but it cannot last more than six weeks The toad must be opened by that time, and 1 have no doubt it will be. lialtimore is a slumbering volcano. It may be thought that the secnesion cuuiw here has been rooted out by the strong measures that have been taken for Its sup pression ; but such is not the case. Its head was cut off when Marshal Kaao was arrested, but It survived that adverse blow. Its heart and brain were extracted when th ? members or tho Logislaturu were planed In durance vile, but it Btill concocts treason, stratagem un<l spoil*. Its tongue was slIOLced when the Ez. hanpc anil the Sjuik were suppressed and the.S'im compel 'eJ to shiue by borrowed light, but it finds a thousand mode* of uttering its treasonable sentiments. Its arms were paralyzed when its muskets, cannon and ammunition were dis covered and seized ; yet there is rcM-.u to believe there nro still more of those articles yet undiscovered than have yet been found. To drop the metaphor, I!altim?re Is secession to the core. Tlio only change in the senti ment nf the people here, that 1 can discover, is that those bow love secesh who never did before, while tbeso who always did now love it more. Tho proof of this fact is to be found every morning, iu a walk through Baltimore street. Let the papers contain ac counts of a Union victory in any part of the country, and nine men out of every ion you meet l<?'k mad and croie but lot the news be that Billy Wilson's Zouaves have been licked, or that a dozen Zouaves at New;*)/'! News lost their axes and a wretched pair of horses, or that tha Iron clad steamer Turtle had .sunk a United States steamer at New Orleans, and tho nine men will wear faros radiant with joy, and little parties will mael and hobnob over brandy smashes In honor of theuews,and even the ladies will clench tboir little hands and say they are so gladt No wonder the Union men here take you out to Federal Hill and show you the great fort thore cover ing four squares of ground, with its walls on two slues rising forty, fifty, perhaps sixty feet above tho stre"t, with its black bulldogs poking their long noses out of the embrasures ami owning their yawning jaws eleven inches wide, and then point you to Fort McHonry to the southeast, with its cannon pointed a littlo to our right; to the three other forts recently thrown up to the north and oast of tho city, and to tho fort at the Relay House, Bouthwest of us ? the largest and strongest of all ? and toll you that the jieace and quiet and peaceful industry that yon see all through the city depend on these. On whatever it does depend, it is certain that Baltimo.e is enjoying this autumn a great degree of material pros perity. Many large govuraraeut contracts wore obtainsd by loyal Baltimoreans, and 1 will dotbern the justice to say they have been faithfully performed. Tho Princo do Jolnvllle, at one of tho curlier cavalry reviews at Wash ington, complimented particwarly "tho appenranco and action of one squadron of cavalry. The nurses had all ccmc from Baltimore. Tho wagons that wore buiit in ..his city have proved among the most serviceable in use' and, from what I saw in certain provision houses ye?torday, I am sure that the government will get the worth ot its money in tho provisions it gets from Baltimore. Then, again, there aro many branches of manufacturing that are doing well hero. The manui.tcturei 8 of shoes and ar my clothing, of saddles and liarn >ss, of naval machinery and naval equipments, of military accoutrements and of firearms, are all doing well. One Arm In this city hag the contract for making carbines for (ion. Sickles' brigade, of a pattern that has been severely tested by the proper of ficials, and pronounced unequalled ? a docislon endorsed In still hither terms by Oen. Tlx, after a personal and careful examination on his part. I beliove, also, that this carbine ic to be used by tho regiment now serving on the Eastern slioro. Tlie commorco of Hie city is oxtr mely lively, and the South American trade especially is very brisk. Vessels arrive and depart every week for Valpa raiso, Hio Janeiro and Havana, all loalod with valuable cargoes. Bai.tmobe, Oct. 17, 1801. Prrparationi of the Rebels to I'revent the R;ccn*'ru<.tion rf the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad ? A Sharp SkirmitH There Probable? Tin First Or. at Rattle xtrill be at Ma nassat ? Mure Cavalry for Washington ? The Fbrmaticn of Corpi d'Armee ? The Slept Taken by General McCleMm Before Vhit Could, be Done, <tc. The dovelopemcnta of tho last day or two show that there will bo some sharp work west of Harper's Ferry before tho rebels will give up the advantage they now hold there. Tlie rebel leaders are fully aware of the Importance of retaining control over that portion of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad now In their possession As long as they are able to do so, the United States are deprived of the use or the most important military road in the country, a deprivation which will be felt more In the winter than it is now. Impressed with a sense of thia fket, the rebel force stationed at Winchester and Romncy hns been largely increased during tho last week by some regiments sent from Strasbnrg and Front Royal. They were somo new regiments that had been in camp there only for a few weeks, but they are described as being well armed, In a good state of discipline, and comfort ably clothed. The party of rebels that advanced up to the Potomac from Komney a few days ago, and burned o railroad bridge over Patterson creek, was not apart of this force, but was a company that hns been at Rum my for a month past. They are ragged and dirty enough. But I am satisfied that arrangements have been made to throw into Hampshire, Morgan, Berkely and Jefferson counties, from Johnston's reserve. i at Manassas, ten thousand troops, If necessary, to provent the reconstruc tion of the road. At the same time t learn that a portion of General Banks' division has been sent up to Williams port, and that another portion took possession or tho town of Harper's Ferry yesterday, after a sharp skirmish with tho rebels, In which there was Rome loss on both sides. But as tho War Department has fully determined to reopen the road, and as there are troops in any number at Its disposal at Wellington, the result cannot bo doubted. Tlieve will probably be a stand made, and a battle fought, and f' n tho Vobela will give it up and ret .oat to Manas - i. -ip sain. There, alter 1 11, the first gn u l battle of th*

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