Newspaper of The New York Herald, November 12, 1861, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated November 12, 1861 Page 1
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THE NEW YORK HERALD. . \ WHOLE NO. 9194. NEW YORK, TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 12, 186L PRICE TWO CENTS. MAP OF THE REBEL CAPITAL. Topographical Sketch of the City, of Richmond, Virginia, with the Surrounding Encampments. Y ym NEW FAIR GROUND A ENCAMPMENT A A A A A A A A A AAA A A A wVX ?fi?NCHMENT PUSH HILL BAPTIST COLLEGE A A A. A A A A A ^ RICHMOND | % A HILL AJ 'P/'&ia , ,7/ < lf??? SCALE OF FEET* 2000 Jiiiiiimiinl IiuiiiiiiiibJ- ? ? Irmiiiaai p A A % A * ? A A | ?% "<<% k * Al ^y/i A,.. "^L itfPf / Sfcfc I 0' ?StMwj;! % x m * Jjh , /< r- * j # #v ' ^ErlCAHPHEHTS A ^ fen . A A A ? F ## A A A#/ .g! It STREET rA AA AAA V # mmowjzQ e Railroad ^4?w E <iill(0> ENCAMPMENT :"*^ib?JahVlh A A A A. A. SPRING HILL [( ! cc u WATERS & SON. wmrUm ROCKETT'S ? ?/MZ? A.?Capital square. X X X?Tobacco warehouse*. B.?Capital. Y Y Y?Sheds for wlnt?r. C.?Governor ? boose. D.?Washington'a. ?Statue. E.?statue of Henry Clay. F.?City Hall. Q.?Freemason's Hall. H.?Episcopal Church. J.?Catholic Church. K.?Railroad depot. M.?Spottswood House. 0.?1'osl Office. Q.?Ballard House. J.?Theatre. L.?Jeff. Davis' residence. N.?American House. * I\- Excbango Hotel. R.?Flour Mill. 8.?State Armory. T.?Tredegar Works. V.?Almshouse. W W W.?Hospitals. THE REBELS AND THEIB CAPITAL UCHMOND AND IT8 ENVIRONS. The Union Prisoners of War, Their Sufferings and Claims on the Government. "Intrenchments and Camps of Instruction. Barracks and Huts for Winter Quarters at Richmond. PiMc Works, Hotels, Business, Currency, Shtnplasters, Social Life and Han* ners In the Rebel Capital. Relations of Jeff*. Davis and Gov. Letcher. A Continuous Camp from Rich ir*jad to Nashville. Sketches at Lynchburg, Loudon, Chatta nooga and Nashville. Fortifications and Transports on the Mississippi Knmerical Strength, Distribution and Equip ments of the Southern Army. Supplies, Means of Transportation, Gene rals and Munitions of War. The Questions of Cotton, Negroes and the Maintenance of the War. SOUTHERN MTRED AGAINST THE NORTH, &c., See., Sec. NOTES OF A RECENT TOUR IS TI1K SOUTH. Thrw weeks ago I wan In Richmond, now I came to b?*thero, what I was doing, and how 1 made my way Into the light of clvilizutlnn and froodom, it u no part of my jjpresrnt ptirptao to?tnte. Nor would it bo oafo or pru "dent for m? to do ?o, b' CC.tiso, the fates willin,,, It is my 'nloitiiwi?n. it is au ?Ira> el absolute cessitj ior mo I to be toon back again within tho Jurisdiction of Mr. J of ferson Davis. Enough to say that I spent several weeks recently in the capital of the Confederate StitoF-?for hero I may say, In parsing, that ml over the Soul li tile pretty little city on the left bafck of the James river is spoken of as "the capital," Just as Washington used to bo in the United Ptates, and ?till is in the loyal portion thereof. 1 was rof an idle or uninterested observer of men and things In and about Richmond, and in that sec tion of the South through which 1 mad!' way "over the border," and if ycu consider my enervations of sifTl clcnt interest to Oiserve a corner in the Hkiulo, they are most willingly at jour service RICHMOND AND ITS ENVIRON?. The principal feature ihat strikes every ono who sees Richmond for the flist ttrne Is Us curious topography. From the James r;ver, which, tumbling over its rocky bed, makes a wide bend here, with It9 convex face to tho city, riso, without any regard to uniformity of direction, some half dozen hills, of gravel formation, and of pretty consid erable eleva?on Thcro has never been any attempt to grade them Into level streets, but the city is scattered promiscuously up and on and over them, just as fashion" taste or business may have happened to dictate. Tho principal part of the city, however, occupies actually only one of thoso elevations and the garden spot of that one Is the Capitol square, where stands the bnHdiig of which Jefferson procured the design \n France, but which, however magnificent it may hove been deemed in the simple, unostentatious days in which ft was built, is certainly not to be laaded now either lor its beauty or for its adaptation to tho wants o( a State Legislature, much less to those of a Congress of Confede rate states. Within the same enclosure is the Governor's mansion, where poor John Letcher, badgered and bullied and blackguarded on all sides, rosigns himself to his fate, and, if all bo true that the Examiner charge?,tries to beguile it with Jolly living. In the centre of the square is the beautiful < questrian statue of Washington, looking as calm and sorenc and commanding as if (he city which h* overlooks was not the centre and hotbed of the foulest treason that ever showed itself In the light of day. The pedestal is designed for eight other statues of dlstingui-hed Virginians, but three of which havo yet been put in their places. These are Jefferson, JTenry and Ma on? not the arrogant self-conceited blockhead who recently represented the State in the Senate at Washington, and has now gone seeking recognition at London, as the dtplo malic representative of seenssiondom, bnt a far purer, wiser and more patriotic namesake of his. Here alao is a small statue to Henry Clay. THE VNIOK PRISONERS OP WAR. Richmond has really but one business thoroughfare. That Is Main street. Most of tlie hotels, hanks, news paper offices and stores are located 011 it. It extends northward into tho openoountry, and southeastward to a suburb called Rocketta. In this latter section of it aro situated somo of the tobacco warehouses where oir Union prisoners are now con lined. [The map which we publish will show the points referred to by our corres pondent.?Kn. UKRAt n.) These are large old brick edifices, of mouldy, dilapidated appearance. Tliey stand throe to- | getiier en ono side of the str eet?which here Is of a most dingy character?and two nearly ophite. Those on j tho north side aro ovorlooked by the bluffs In which Church Hill here terminates, and which supply gravel for tho city, while those on the south side of the street have the James river and Kanawha Canal, and the river itself immediately in their rear. I have often passed by these prison houses, and had my feelings lacerated by seeing tho condition c-f the brave men who aro Buffering here for tlioir loyally and devotion to the country. It is hard to And out anything relating to the affairs of 'bo govern ment, -nnd mqnlsltWeness Into public matters Is not a j safe wiuknoks to Indulge In. Observations have there foro to bo mirle quietly, patiently, and on whatever Flight datamay bo casually pvoscnted or acquired. My observation lcada roc to think that there are, on the ave rage, two hundred men confined in each of these ware, bouftcf, h'iddlod together, with not much more regard to heullh than a humane aptain of a slaver would show to his freight of emigrants from tha Congo river lo the Havana. The lower tioors are as signed to the officere, tho windows home strongly gratod; the uppor ones are occupied by the [auk and file of our men who fell thq rebels' bands at Manassas and else where. Tl.o condition of all,officers and men, Is pitiable and deplorable to the last degree, and not another day should be lost without our government adopting some means by which its faithful but unfortunate adherents in Richmond may be rescned from their miseries and re stored to the light of freedom and the comforts of home. These men ought not to be sacrificed any longer to a mere diplomatic or political technicality. Humanity, reason, justice, common sense, all apponl in tones that should not he ignored, for a prompt termination to the senseless quib' blool wh:ch those bravo men are the victims. The rebel lion am be quelled just as effectually after an exi han^e of prisoners is* effected as before. I believe there are one or two other warehouses and mills in I ho western part of tho city, near the canal basius, whore more of our Union prisoners are confined. The bulk of them, however, have been sent furthor South. cbvbcb nru. akd the uosimtalb. Near the tho elevation known as Church IIIU . is a large, old fashioned brick building known as tho alms house. It has been converted from Its ordinal purpose, and now serves as an hospital for our sick and wounded. Sisters of Charity come and go, untiring angels of conso lation. and the hearse is kept inconstant requisition, so great is the mortality that prevails here. Many of the private houses in tho vicinity are also converted Into temporary hospitals. As u general thing, the former re st icnts of this part of the city have gono elsewhere since the location of the hospitals hero; and now on every tenth house or more you see waving a little dirty, whitish-yel low flag, denoting a lazaretto. The Odd Fellows'llall, on Broad street, is also used us a general hospital. A great deal of sickness prevails in the Confederate army. Some while regiments have been completely ravaged by small pox. Muehofthe sickness is ascribed to tho putrefied state of tho atmosphere around Manassaa, arising from tho unlmried bodies or men and horses killed in the bat tlo of Bull run; and groat dissatisfaction was expressed against Beauregard for keeping his army tlilre instead of advancing against Washington. On tbo most commanding pirt of Church hill still stands, in g'>od preservation too. the church in which l'atriqk Henry made the famous sikccIi *t the commencement of the Revolutionary snaggle, wliero ho used that rnemorablo and oft-quoiod

phrase, "Give me liberty, or give mo d.ath." Around the cburrh are tho graves of the in-t generation of the people Of Richmond, a'el 1 was no llttlu disgusted to ob serve that few of the headstones had escaped tho profane vandalism or somo scoundrels, who, as a proof of their wit/fcut tho figure "1" before the ligures recording the ages of the deccnsod, miking it appear that those who rested here from thoir labors had enjoyed incredibly pa triarchal length of years. TnR JAMES R1VKR ANP KANAWHA CMA1.. Between (his hill anil tho rkketty suburnkn >wn as ltocketts there is a large encampment, and I bellevo there are also batteries here, for the defence of tho river. 1 know that there certainly are batteries on the bluffs, Above and beyond Rocketts. Near here tho few steamers and sailing craft that used to tradoto Richmond had their mooring places, and here also the James River and Kan* whn Canal has its southern outlet into tho river. This n great, work of Internal imj rovenieut, so far as tbe design is concerned; but, unfortunately, for Virginia, her cxocution does not keop pace with her plans, ami lbs canal, though open for many years, does Dot come within a long distance of the Kanawha river, which it was intended to lap. If it ever will do so, it must be after secession is crashed and the Union restored. IKTBKNCHMENT8 AND C Alt PS OF INSTRUCTION. But Richmond is not, as seems erroneously to be con sidered, garrisoned by a largo army. Iso for as I could see there are only camp3 of instruction maintained here. The recruits are sent for drill and equipment, and wiion they are considered tolerable in those respects they are forwarded to Managua or other points, and their placo supplied by now comers. One camp of instruction is a level tract of ground )>vtween the penitentiary and the new cemotery, which used U) be occupied as a fair ground. Another, and more oxtefislvo one, in on the north side of the city, about a mill and a half out on the line of tho Fredericksburg Railroad, where there is an enclosure of about a mile square, sometimes used as a raco course. I believe it is called the New Fair Ground. Near it is the Baptist College, an institution for tho wholo South. Tho onljr extcnslvo in tronchmcnts in the neighborhood of the city are als > in this vicinity. They extend northward for half a mile> commanding the railroad, but even they are not mounted with guns, so c/icQdeut are the military authorities of the strength of tho rebel army concentrated around Manastsus, and which must be defeated beforo an army can peiio irate from the northward to the environs of the Confede rate capital. It would be vain to attempt particularizing tbe locali ties of the encampments. Richmond, like ancient Rome, is seated on her seven hills?or more?and whorever there is space and eligible ground for camps, they are co vered with tents. Tho soldiers aro not allowed quarters in the city, but are kept strictly to their camp life; but the officers?scions of all tho first families?are treated with more consideration, and are allowed to consult their comfort so fur aa to occupy town qearters. Tho hotels are consequently crammed with them from garret to basement. Thero may be from fight to ten thousand soldiers around Richmond, but tlx s > are not regarded, as I said, in tho light of a garrison, but only its apprentices acquiring th ir initi atory lessons in military life. Thoy are, therefore, kept constantly on tho move; those who have had the advantago of, a five or six weeks training giving place to new hands. They have commenced to erect wooden hat racks and huts for tho soldiers at the various encampments, tho most numerous and extensive being on tho fair gfounds to the north of the city. Those erections are becoming so extensive as to lead to tho idea that a largo part of tho rebel army in V irginia aro to Winter In Richmond. OOVKKNOR LBTCIIER AND PRBSUMNT DAVIS. I do not beliovo that very friendly or confidential re lations exist between John Letcher, an hoad of the 9toi? government, and Jefferson Davis, ns head of the rebel confederacy. Th* former ran, by no proof of his sob servient}* to tho rebel cause, prevail upon tho ultra ne ccsakoo element to place confidence In him. Hesfdes, he Is altogether too plebeian in origin and appcaraiico, and too democratic in his tastrs, to suit the delicate faHtkltousnosa and tbe exacting requirements of pure Mod, on which the chivalry prWo themselves. 1 will not say that any decidedly hostllo fooling is man i - fi sted in the relations of tho State and Confederal# cxpcm lives, but I am inclined to bellove, from all I can gather, that thoso relations are the reverse of friendly. Tbo citizens and the soldiers treat Letcher with tho uuHbxtcn tompt, while Davis has from them demonstrations of re spert and confidence that might (latter (he vanity W a European despot. When Davis camo first to Richmond) he put up at the Spottswood Hotel, but this resldenoo was too public Mid too vulgar to suit either faii< taste or ne cessities. The citizens, tberefftre, procured Tor him and fitted up In the most expensive manner, a very large and beautiful residence ou Mai shall street. I believe it Is built of white marble. It occupies a largo plot of ground, the garden sweeping down, terrace like, in the direction of that deep gully which separator this part of the city from Church Hill. Here ha holds bis court, and Is all tho time surrounded by military officers and ciVil dignitaries. Ho him but recently recovered from a sevaro attack of intermittent fever, tho umo from which he wag reported to have died. AKSKSAL, IRON WORa . WATER WORKS, ETC. In the western secWm. of iho city, on the bank of tbo James river, is tho State Arsopal, a larije, substantia] building, where arms are being manufactured. Quite close to it are Win Tredegar iron works, an extensive con cern, which lias done nothing since April lost except cast cannon and balls for tho use of the rebels. The same day that tho nows of tho fall of Fort Sumter readied Richmond tho rebel fl.'ig was hoisted from the grounds of (ho Tredegar?not, however, by tho proprietors, but by a party composed of several rebel members of the State Convention then in session, one of tho oditors of the Enquirrr, and Colonel Moore, of the First Virginia Mi litia. This latter gentleman Is an Irishman by birth, long resident In Richmond, where ho Keeps a large hard ware establishment on Main stroet, and is a gonial, high minded and high-toned man. Ffe win wounded at the battle of Bull run. On the bluff rising above the Tredegar works stands tho penitentiary, surrounded by a hlg!i w. 11, and somo dlstanoe back of it is the new cemetery. Tho level space between Is usod a*. a camp of Instruction. A little higher up the river, Just where the grounds of iho Cemetery come down, are the water<vorkt. Tbo concep tion of them is very simile, the water from the James being made by a dam to flow into a basin, from which it Is pumped to a reservoir in an elevated part of tbe city. fThe basin and other points referred to by our corres pondent are shown in tho accompanying map.?Ed. lllltALl)] BISINKRS AND CURRENCY. So much for tho topographical and other prominent features of the city. I wish I could present them more clearly, but I still hope that they are sufficiently mtclli glblo. A9 to buslnoss, It Is generally revres-nted as completely ruined, axeept those branches of trade that are connected with the equipment and supplies of tbo army. These are flourishing, but the only currency to bo had is paper money; and when the war ends th'*u who have appeared to drivo the meet thriving business will probably tlnd themselves rich only in worthless shinplMtars. Nevor Ibeass the people do not seem inclined to look far Into the future, and as bank notos, issued in unlimited tup;il>^ ami without any regard to a corresponding capital, will)* pass current in trade, there do nol appear to bo very hsrd times, 'lluwe bronos of trade that are connected with articles of luxury, or articles not of the first necon sity, aro entirely ruined, and many are the empty stores that can lie soeu in Malti street, silt nt witnesses against the madness of tho hour. Still tbe sidewalks ore crowded w ith |>ede(trMuis, aud on tbo whole Richmond m*y bo paid to be a got THEKN %OMBA8T. Ihn jieople are carried away with the flush of tHe par. tial successes of the rebels, and moro than ever vaunted in tbo vast superiority of Souterners over Yankees. Oh. how 1 havo longed to see a chock given to this brava do by a triuui[>H ot the national arms, will' li would bring these people to their sensi s. 1 think thai otic grmid bat tle and decisive victory In Virginia would burst the bnb b e, dispel iho Insanity that has seined upon tho popular miud in tho South, rtlse ,'cui,ze thetr immenso army iuid : load to a speedy restoration of peace, order and obedleme t? '?w. B"t every llttlo cheek that our arms sustain Is magnified by these boasters, and Is an additional olistae.lo In the way or pcaoa. Kvery party of Union soldiers that Is paraded through the streets of Richmond on their way to prison appears to there American Gascons Incontesta ble <tvidenoo of their great superiority over the m>n of the North. Captivity itself is hard to bear, but the sting is made doubly severe by the taunts of the women and negroes, and by the fading that every one of these un avoidable incidents of war is taken as a proof of Southern ru!<ir. I have often thought that the negroes, with the cunning of their raco, make a show of hostility to North' ern prisoners only the better to ward off suspicion from themselves, and gain the good will and confidence of tho white folks. HOTELS. ? The hotels are doing a thriving business, as I said. They have increased their rutos for board from twenty flvo to fifty per cent. Tho Excliango and Ballard's? which constitute really but one establishment?charge two and a half dollars per day, and tbo Spottswood' which is now the resort of the elite of Southern society, three dollar*. The American used to be tho headquarters of the Western anti-secession mcmbors of the Conven tion, but now it is among the most pronounced of rebel establishment*. Little secession flags flutter from every window, while larger ones are displayed from all tba principal buildings in the city. Payments are all made in Virginia and Tennessee currency, and change given in tb? shape of shinplasters, of one of which, for twenty-flve cents, I give you a copy:? twwtt-mv* ntwr siiiwruksrm. ?aT" Riomoxo, LNo. 11,281. Aug. 1,1861. iiSY $ TIIR s MFTROTOI.1TAN SAVIN08 HANK, \ Will pay the bearer Twenty Ave Cents in current > lull do, when presented in sums of five dollars or its > > mulltple. i ^NiT. W. Hart, for Cashier. W. P. PITHING, for Pres't.^ Home of these promises to pay descend to the low figure of five cents?(he lowoat coin that practically circulates in the South, for copper and nickel cents are entirely be neath notice. But all specie circulation has really ceased, am', nothing but |/a[)cr payees from hand to hand. Won't there bo a universal srawb up in the South when the hour of redemption?in a financial as well as a politics, sense arrives? But I verily believe that it is onoof the delusion? of tho hour which have got hoid of tho public mind hero' at.d which encourages ibis rebellion, that when the pipe of peace comes to be smoked, Uncle Sam will be liberal enough to pay the piper on ail sides, and %on?e<|u?ntly thHt they who hold sheaves of worthless paper money will, at tho end of the war, Und thorn converted into shiuiug heaps of gold and silver. POSTAL AKKAIKS. The handsome edifice erected by the gfneral govern* ment a few years ago in Main stmt, Klchmond, for tho purixises of a post office, is still applied to the use for which it was deigned. Prstal arrangements In tbe South, although sadly shorn of their former compietencfis, still preserve an air of regular existence. To be sure it I sometimes takes the mail from Memphis a week or tea i duys to reach Richmond; but then the answer to the I grumblers is, that even in tho North tbo regularity j of tho mails is, at present and on account of ilie i war, sadly deranged. There is ?till an apparent postal i system in the South. Muny of Iho eontrnctors tor carry ing tho United States mails conlluue to perform their contracts under the Confederate government, receiving bonds in payment. Others have thrown up their con tracts rather than take sach problsmatical remuneration, and besides that, a larg; proportion ol the mill routes havo been discontinued, l'orh.ips there is no deprivation resulting from this w^r which

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