Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 4, 1861, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 4, 1861 Page 2
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??,! i <i i oourags, the prudent: i or tt?o loyalt j to roslit the ln;i >.???? .if their vile seoe?ei'"i organ, tlic Avatanrh- iuirt o' tfcu lire iting* ? li la they ustaiuod unJ ?u t Mirijud. Th > ini?;> of Memphis, we publish to day, will give our loaders a fair Idea ft tho general plun of the c iy utd 111" rebel fortlfi > .cu that have been erected on the river bilk Just above : The princii>ul business Mtroat : - vtut street, one of the feature* of which Ih a Iiii n i ? ? quadrangle, cnl'i' i Court square , which C'Ut- j tain i am ble statue of Geii.-ial ,lui'ki?o?, inscribed with | the ?.?ivi>!ary motto, "Tho ! nftttt, It mii't and bhali be . pre* . I." I A-t Ma;, an iut'm'iated mob trailed iu the du? i it Mampod ijloa the I ui tod Plate* flag opi?Mil0 Uih ? statu*. The due. building* on tit Is street are (m i- .: , m shoe and clothing factories for the rebel gov eram it lu the Adutim bl irk a rango of Iron buildings, Ihera.oo twelve sowing muchliifg constantly at work nnku ,' 'thing for tho soldiery. Hundreds of ladies give tlier ' 'ufi and labor to tins work. All the no^'ro women who 'e?ve any (kill at sewing are employed in auother fiotliiij. factory in tU < (Sayosn lmiiding (not to bo 0 mf >un I -d with the Gajoso Hou^e). Tho Gayoao House, ? mag li'irent building, which stands on the blulT, quito ct.w- lit tlm river aide, derives its chief patronage uow from 'lie crowds of offlcei < who c mie in from tho neigh bono; camps. General Polk has hist headquarters here. Tho O.or'on House, a new anil elegant building, leased to n g ' itii'man from Philadelphia, formerly proprietor of the Cirard Howe, stands unoeeupied, but it Is to be con Verio t tnloa hospital for tho afc'initaodation of the Hirk aoMi t'u. sifirneas in the camp* .vm fearfully on tho iu crcitw, ? oucli ho aa to keep two Iwupiula crowded, be aid*, a u.wScr of prlvat" ho*:-.-.-. Here, ? . o'bewhere tlirouv'u th ? South, the must ardent ?sees-.- i >t? are ladles. Tli ';. ha . ? lormcd societies for tho tv w il ding of the rcbol c:i': o. The old ladio* moot ?t Odd fellows' Hall, on Court -qunra, where they look ?Iter the wants of volunteer* from all tho Ft ale*. They |?rov ute clothing for them, furnish and mend liuou. and l"ok after their want* generally. They fctyle thorn ?sires " The Society of Southern Mothers." Other lades ftave constituted themselves into Hewing socii'fles, knit, ting *->cieti?a and spinning societies, tho latter manufac turing a eoarso description of cloth. Some la.ii.s are Carried so far by thoir enthusiasm for the rebellion as to form societies for practising the use of firearms, iu order, M (hoy say, to be able lo protect tti.-ir homos lu the ab seucnof tho male population, in av of negro insurrection. It would be impossible to di scribe l'ully the reign of ternn' which exists in Memphis. Not a word dare be Uttered in condemnation of any act of tho rebel govoru men t , ho ? over arbitrary; nut a word iu fnvor of the <pe<?p-.9 oi tho North. Tho most bitter cars is and dentin eiatu us, and foulmotithed eplthe s are heaped ujioti tiro frtcva Northern people, and tho charitable wish to be ab.c to pot .011 all of them is ever in their hearts and c"n ?lantly oji thoir lips. ThHie i? undoubtedly alargecli'H of the community t'iat in h^rtily Rick of this reign of terror, anil who would fcladiy ?"0 aii and put to ; ; ' nt they are powerless and ternlied in tho universal m.dness. l(o?i ies. they U.ivo been discouraged by the poworlesaness of tlie tiatiounj ? pms in Missouri, and tin* abau Ion mailt of t'u ion men in (??astern Tennessee and es white Ibera ?re (wo foundries iu Memphis for the costing of caution and halls; but the arm-, turned out here are of very inferior quality. It required over a week's export Bi?n(ins before they succeeded lu casting bomb*. The ? STy yard, established at great expense by the general govcriiuvnt, but abandoned mauy yoars ago on uucouut of II.* utter uaelessncss , and which, with all its buildings, tin >g" *as generously donated to the city, 1* now occupied ?s a foundry and gnu carriage manufactory. His 'tail/ newspapers, now rnducod to three, and re duced iu }>zn, i?guo, besides their meriting editions, smal' ?trip* as extras, which sell at Ave cents. Printing pa|?er la very : otrce. What there is of it comes from Nashville. The publishing bouse of Fieligh & Co. lias tabued a fourth edition jf '-Hardee's Tact ics. ' There are besides n j_f- -;i t nomtor of Kngllsh and French military books in the city' The Bi-vi i of all sorts or arm* iu Memphis arc long since ?utirely exhausted. ImtmjiUatoly after the battle of Hull run, which seemed to frenzy the community to the highest point and to deprive them of the last vestige of common sense, tiny became possessed of an absorbing d asire to seizo Cairo liy * tud'leu movement , and would h:ive at least made the attempt had it not been reinfo.-ced by General Fremont. The street' and bluff in Memphis were all barricaded with cotton bales, protected by a revetment of planks; but the barricades have all Iteou removed, with the ex caption of that at the fool of Madison street. They were removed by General I'olk wheu he took command. The ouly earthworks thrown tip by thu rebels at Mem |>his aro just above the city, at the mouth of the Wolf river. This is called Fort Pillow. It mounts six cannon and two mortars, aud is sheltered by an abatis of cotton wood I roes. It is not of very formidable strength, and is liable to tie war hed away by an over (low ot the Mis ?Uriippi Within a week after the fall of Fort Sumter, and lie lore tha occupation of Cairo by Union troops, this system of Mississippi fortifications was commenced under the ?uperiutendenco of General Pillow. It was ho who sug gested the selection of the first and second ChickHsaw tttuflb as the location of tho principal fortification.-. Hut ?troug and extensive as these wot ks me. we think it pus ?iblo that they havo been erected to no account, so far as ?topping an expedition down the river Is concerned; for the troop# can be landed on the Arkansas side of the river, at some distance above those works that aro too ?trong to be carried, and marched to a point below them> win u tho iron-clad gunboats, having landed their troops, <ian run the gauntlet of the forts, or they may land on (he Tennessee side and storm tho forts In tho rear. At Sill events wo have done our part towards furnishing in formation that will be of advantage to the Union c.-tuso ; it will be for the principal officers of the expedition to profit by the facts and hints we have given. Booksellers' Winter Parcel Sale. The catalogue of the parcel sale, to commence to day, has been issued. U contains a little ovor one hun dred snd fifty pan*") emhraciug lists from some of the principal houses in the trado, and opens with that of ?Is*. Hogg A Sors, of Iximlviti, followed by those of Clark, Austin A Co., and Dak A Fitzgerald, of this city. J. 13. (.ippincot A Co., of Philadelphia, have aline Invoice of food books, occupying eight pages, and consisting of seve ral works of ? miscellaneous character. Including Pres (iott's Works, Wsverley Na vels, Klder's Biography of Dr. Kane, Great Truths by Great Authors, Juvenllos, Ac, Among the military books are "Hardee's Tactics," "the Un i to J States Infantry Tactics," "Cavalry Tactics," "In struction in Field Artillery ," General McCiellan's "Armies tif Europe,'' McCiellan's "Regulations aud Instructions for tb? Field Service Of the I'nited States Cavalry in time of War," ''Kuropean Cavalry by the same author, and ?evera'. other military works of a like nature. Thisli-t was followod t>y tboge of Brown ATaggard, of Boston; DeWitt of New York; Butler & Co., of Philadelphia, and I.lttle, Browu A Co. , of Boston. I). Appleton A Co.'s list em braoe* 40 ven pages, and contains a good assortment of their stock. This is followed by Gregory's list, ei^bt pagei, Fullarton's, four pages; Cowan's, four pages, and Ward A Parry's, nearly ten pages. These, with a few km All invoices interspersed, form tho first day's tale The remaining days will be occupied with invoices or holiday books, Ac. Jndgtug from the success that attended the fall sale' there seoms to be but little doubt that the catalogue wilj produce good results to buyers as well as sellers. H??it|e of Uu Governor of Delaware. The legislature of Delaw are assembled ai Dover in ex traordinary session on Monday, 25th alt. On Tuesday Oov. Burton sent in his message, which relates entirely to the national troubles tad the position of the State in re la' ion thereto. The message opened as follows:? "It is with unfeigned regret that I cannot address you with the usual congratulations on the peace, prosperity and happiness of the country; but notwithstanding it is unfortunately involved in a civil war, one of the most de (ilorabls calamities that can any country . we have prnat reason to render thanks to the Ruler of the Universe Delaware Is not tho scene of action, and that wc are not hi the midst of its horrors and terrible rava ires. Our citizens have acted in a manner hignl.v'e to them, and well deserve the quiet tbey have enjoyed. Tli>?e, If there be anv, and douhtl< ss there are some everywhere, ?hcse sympa tbies lufllne to the South, ate quiescent, laying no im pediments in the way of the government, nor aflerdlcg Im enemies any son of aid. Some of the innumerable rumors afloat throughout die country may, e resent a different state of things, but were the test of ruth properly applied to the-e reports, most of them would be found wholly unreliable." The Governor dt ?lines to discuss the causes that led to the war, and pro ceeds to recommend the enactment of such laws as are rondwed necessary by the direct taxation laws of tho late extra session of Congress He also makes mention or the late seixure of arms by military officers without tho usual established forms, and recommends that bills be passed relieving the State Officers charged with the cus tody of the same of any responsibility hereafter. The tooesage conoltides by expressing the desire that the jLsglslat are confine Its action to subjects of a special cha racter alone, and not at thl* time to outer into general ftflslation. STAT! OF THE Clll TIT. nii rmsm wem U. The Reports of tlie Navy. Post Olliue and Interior Departments. Splendid Array of Facts for the People. 4. How an Effective Navy Can Be Improvised. Six Hundred and Fifty Thousand Union Troops in the Field* OUR PUBLIC DOMAIN. Improvement in ihe 1'onl Office Department, &c., &c., Ac. THE PRESIDENT'S Fki.low Citizens or tub hk.natk ani> Houmx or ltlSl-RKSKKTATlVKS: ? In the midst of unprecedented political troubles we have cause of great gratitude to <iod fur un usual good health and moat abundant harvests. You will not be surprised to learn that, iu the peculiar exigencies of the times, our intercourse with foreign nation* lias been utteuded with pro found solicitude, chiefly turning upon our owu do mestic afthiis. A disloyal portion of the American people lmve, durinir the whole year, been engaged in an attempt to divide and destroy the Union. A nation which endure* factious domestic divisions is exposed to disrespect abroad, and one party, if not both, is snre, sooner or later, to invoke foreign in tervention. Nations thus tempted to interfere are not always able to resist the counsels of seeming expediency and ungenerous ambition, although measures adopted under such influences seldom fail to be unfortunate aud injurious to those adopting them. TJ1E lir.BKI, INVOCATION OK I Ol'.fclON itl>. The disloyal citizens of the Uni ted States, who hare ofl'ered the ruin of our country in return for the aid and comfort which they have invoked abroad, have received less patronage and en courageinent than they probably expected. If it were .just to suppose, as the iusurgents have seemed to assume, that foreign nation*, in this', discarding all moral, social and treaty obli gations, would act solely and selfishly for the most speedy restoration of commerce, In cluding especially the acquisition of cot ton, those nations appear as yet not to have seen their way to their object more directly or clearly through the destruction than through the preservation of the Union. If we could dare to believe that foreign nations aro actuated by no higher principle than this, I am quite sure a second argument could be made to show them that they can reach their aim more readity and easily by aiding to crush this rebellion than by giving en couragement to it. THE QUESTION OF INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE. The principal lever relied on liy tlie insur gent* for exciting forcigu nations to hostility against us, as already intimated, is the embarrass ment of commerce. Those nations, however, not improbably saw from the first that it was the Union which made us well our foreign as our do mestic commerce. Thoy can scarcely have failed to perceive that the effort for disunion produces the existing difficulty, and that one strong nation promises more durable peace, and a more exten sive, valuable nnd reliable commerce than can the same nation broken into hostile fragment*. COAST AND UEKERAL PUBLIC DEFENCES. It is not my purpose to review our dis cussions with foreign States, because, what ever might be their wishes or dispositions, the integrity of our country and the stability of our government mainly depends* not upon them, but on the loyalty, virtue, patriotism and intelligence 1 of the American people. The correspondence itself, with the usual reservations, is herewith sub mitted. I venture to hope it will appear that we have practised prudence and liberality towards foreign Powers, averting causes of irritation, and, with tirmncss, maintaining our own rights and honor. Since, however, it is apparent that here, as in every other State, foreign dangers necessarily attend domestic difficulties, I recommend that adequate and ample I measures be adopted for maintaining the public defences on every side, while, under this general recommendation, provision for defending our coast line readily occurs to the mind. I also, in the same connection, ask the atten tion of Congress to our great lakes and ! rivers. It is believed that some fortifications and depots of arms and monitions, with harbor and navigation improvements at well selected points upon these, would be of great importance to the national defence aud preservation. I ask attention to the views of thc.Secretary of War, expressed in his report upon the same general subjects. MILITARY RAILROAD BETWEEN TUK LOYAL PARTS OF TENNESSEE, NORTH CAROLINA, KENTUCKY, ETC. 1 deem it of importance that tlie loyal regious of Hast Tennessee and Western North Carolina should ^>e connected with Kentucky and other falthfnl parts o- Ihe Union by railroad. I therefore re commend, ar a military measure, that Congress provide lor the construction of su''h road as speed ily as possible. Kentucky will no doubt co ox erate, and through her Legislature make the moat judicious selection of a line. The northern terminus must connect with some existing railroad; and whether the route shall be from Lexington or Nashville to the Cumberland "Gap. or from Lebanon to the Tennessee line, in the direction of Knoxville, or on some ntiii differ ent line, can easily be determined. Kentucky and the general government co-operating, the work can be completed in a very short time: and when done, it will not only be of vast present usefulness, but also a valuable permanent improvement, worth its cost in all the future. NEW FORE ION TREATIES. Some treaties, designed chiefly for the interests of commerce, and having no great political impor tance. have been negotiated, and will be submitted to the Senate for their consideration. Although we have failed to induce some of the commercial Powers to adopt a desirable melioration of the rigor of maritime war, we have removed all ob structions from the way of this humane reform, ex cept such as arc merely of temporary and accident al occurrence. THE DETENTION OK THE .-II IP PERTHSHIRE. I Invite your attention t?> tlx t opespondence be tween her Britanuie M^esty's Minister, accredited to this government, and the Secretary of State, relative to the detentien of the British ship Perth shire, in June last, by the United States steamer Massachusetts, for a nipposed breach of the block ade. Ah this detention was occasioned by an ob vious misapprehension of the facta, unci oa justice roquircs that we should commit no belligweut net not founded in atrk t right, as sanctioned by public law, 1 roi oiumoml *t!iat an appropriation be made to satisfy the reasonable demand of the owners of the tassel for her detention. SUKrUfS OP CLAIMS AOA1N3T CHINA. I repeat the recommendation of my predei esso r, in his annual Message to Congress in December last, in regard to tho di sposition of the surplus which will probably remain after satisfying the claims of American citizens aguiust China, pui <u aut to the aw ards of the Commissioners under the act of the 3d of March, 185?. If, however, it should not be deemed advisable to carry that recommendation Into effect, I would supgest that authority be given for Investing the prin cipal over the proceeds of the surplus referred to in good securities, with a view to the satisfac tion of such other just claim of our citizens against China as are not unlikely to arise hereafter in the course of our extensive trade with that empire. pkotkction or commk^ck on tub ska s mow POtATKB. By the act of the 5th of August last Congress authorised the ['resident to instruct the command ers of suitable vessels to defend themselves against aud to capture pirates. This authority has been exercised in a single instaneo only. For the more effectual protection of our cxtORsive aud vu limbic commerce, iu the Eastern seas especially, it aiewn to me that it would also bu ad \i table authorize the commander* of sailing vessels to recapture any prize * which pirates may make of the United States vessels aud their cargoes, and the Consular Courts, established by law in Eastern countries, to adjudi cate the cases, in th? event that this should not be objected to by the local authorities. BJCOONITtO* 01 Tftf! SOI.EKKIONTY OF HW'i'l AND MBKKl V. If any good reason exiuts why we should per severe I on gar i? withholding our recognition of the independence and sovereignly of Hay 11 and Liberia, I am unable to discern it. Un willing, however, to inaugurate ? novel policy iu regard to them i* ithout the approbation of Congress, 1 submit for your consideration the expediency of an appropriation for maintaining ;i Charge d' Affaires near each of those new States, it does not admit of doubt that important commer cial advantages might be secured by favorable treaties with them. THE TAKING 11' 01' THE NATION l.OAS. The operations of the Treasury during tho period which has elapsed since your adjournment have been conducted with sig nal success. The patriotism of t ho people libs placed at the <li>?po-Hl of the government the large mi-. ?ns demanded by the public oxigcncius. Much of the national loan Iras been taken by ell irons of the industrial dam*, whose confidence ia their country's faith, and zeal for their country's deli verance from its present peri!, have induced them to contribute to the support of the government the whole of their limited acquisitions. This l'act imposes peculiar obligations to econo my in disbursement and energy in notion. THE RUVV.NI E um.c.U'TS TO ,11 NE I. AST. The revenue from all sources, including loans, for tho financial year ending on the liOtli of June, 1*61, was eighty-six millions eight hundred and thirty -five thousand nine hundred dollars and twenty-seven cents, and the expenditures for tho same period, including payments on ?coount of the public debt, wero eighty four mil lions five hundred and seventy -eight thousand and thirty-four dollars and forty-seven cents, leaving a balance in the treasury on the 1st of July of two millions two hundred and fifty-seven thousand and sixty -five dollars and eighty cents. For the first quarter of the finaucial year ending on the 30th of September, l&Ol, the receipts from all sources, including the balance of July 1, were one hundred uud two millions five hundred and thirty-two thousand five hundred and nine dollars aud twenty-seven cents, and the expenses ninety eight millions two hundred an<r*tntrty-nine tnou sand seven hundred and thirty-three dollars and nine cents? leaving a balauce on the 1st of Octo ber, 1881, of four millions two hundred and ninety two thousand seven hundred and seventy -six dol lars and eighteen cents. THE ESTIMATES TOR TUE FORTHCOMING YEAR. *TC. Estimates for the remaining three quarters of the year and hit the financial year of 1*62, together with his views of the ways and means for meet ing the demands contemplated by them, will be submitted to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury. It is gratifying to know that the ex penses made necessary by the rebellion are not beyond the resources of tho loyal people, and to believe that the same patriotism which has thus far sustained the government will continue to sus tain it till peace and union shall again Mess the land. rni: STUENOTH OF THE UNITED STATE* ARMY. I respectfully refer to the report of the Secretary of War for information respecting the nniM-rical strength of the army, and for recommendation* hav ing in view an increase of its efficiency and the well being of the various branches of the service en trusted to his care. It is gratifying to know tlmt the patriotism of the people has proved eijuul to tin occasion, and that tue number of troops tendered greatly exceeds the force which Congrcv} author ized me to call into the field. I refer with pleasure to those portions of his report which make allu sion to the creditable degree of discipline already attained by our troops, and to the excellent sani tary condition of the entire army. The recom mendation of the Secretary for an organization of the militia upon a uniform basis is a snbject of vital importance to the future safety of the country, and is commended to the serious atten tion of Congress. The large addition to the regular army, in connection with the defection that has so considerably diminished the number oi' its officers, gives peculiar importance to bis recom mendation for increasing the corps of cadets to the greatest capacity of the Military Academy. MII.ITAKY CHAPLAINS FOR HOSPITALS RKCOMMKNUKD. ily mere omission, I presume, Congress has failed to provide chaplains for the hospitals occupied by the volunteer*. This subject was brought to my notice, and I was induced to draw up the form of a letter, one copy of which, properly addressed, has been delivered to each of the persons, and at the dates respec tively named, and stated in a schedule containing also the form of the letter, marked A, and herew ith transmitted. These gentlemen, I understand, en tered upon the duties designated at the times re spectively stated in the schedule, and have labored faithfully therein ever since. I therefore recom mend that they be compensated at the same rate as chaplains in the army. I further suggest that general provision be made for chaplains to serve at hospitals as well as with regiments. emcmtCY op the i sited whs navv. Th" report of the Secretary of the Navy pre j fonts in detail the operations ol lhat branch of the service, the activity and energy which have cha racterized its administration, and the results of measures to increase its efficiency and power, fcuch have been the additions by construction and purchase, that it may almost bo said a navy has been created and brought into service since our difficulties commenced. Besides blockading our extensive coast, squadrons larger than ever before assembled under our flag have been put afloat, and performed deeds which have increased our naval renown. A- MOKK TKBPKtT ORGANIZATION OF THIS NAVY RE COMMENDED, I would invite special attention to the recom mendation of the Secretary for a more perfect or ganisation of the navy, by introducing additional arrades In the service. The present organisation | is defective and unsatisfactory. and the suggcs I lions Hubmitted by tho department will, it in be lieved, if adopted, obviato the difficulties alluded to ami promote harmony and increase the efficiency of the navy.

TI1K k AOAKC1KS ON THK UKNUU OV l'UE rtl'WUtUK COIWT. TLere arc three vacaucies ou the bench of the Supreme Court? tw oby the decease of Justices Daniel and McLean, and one by the resignation of Justice Campbell. I have so far forborno making nominations to fill the vacancies for reasons which 1 will now state. Two of the outgoing judges re sided within the State# now overrun by revolt. So that if successors were appointed in the same lo calities, they could uot now Berve upon their cir cuits, and many of the most competent men there probably would not take the personal hazard of accepting to i?erve oven here upon the Supreme bench. I have been unwilliug to throw all the ap pointments northward, thus disabling myself from doing justice to the South on the retnrn of peace, although I may remark that to transfer to the North one which has heretofore been in the South would not, with reference to territory and population, be unjust. TUX WEalKKN CIRCUIT TOO I.AKUE. Duriug the long and brilliant judicial career of Judge McLean his circuit gTew into an empire al together too large for any one judge to give the courts therein more than a nominal attendance ? rifing in population from one uiillltfh four hundred and seventy thousand and eighteen in 1830, to six million* one hundred and flfty-one thousand four huudred and ilve in I860. Besides this the coun try generally has outgrown our present judicial system. If uniformity was at ull intended the sys tem requires that all the States shall be accommo dated with Circuit Courts, attended by Su preme Judges; while, in fact, Wisconsin, Min nesota, Iowa, Kansas, Florida, Tuxas, Califor nia and Oregon have never had any such courts. Nor can this well be remedied without a change of the system, becam-e the adding of judges to the Supreme Court , enough for the accommodation of all parts of the country with Circuit Courts, would create a court altogether too numerous for a judicial body of any sort, and the evil of it be one that will increase as new States come int o the Union. Circuit Courts are nscful or they arc not use ful. If useful, no State should be denied them: if not useful, no State should have them. Let them be provided for all or abolished as to all. MODIFICATIONS OF THS SITREMK COtTW. Three modifications occur to nie, either of which 1 think would be an improvement upon our pre sent system. Let Ihe Supreme Court be of con venient number in every eveut. Then. fir*t, let tbo whole country be di vided into circuits of convenient size? the Supreme Judges to nerve in a number of them, cor. responding to their own number, and independent Circuit Judges be provided for all the rest. Or, secondly, let the Supreme Judges be re lieved from circuit duties and Circuit Judges pro vided for r.ll the circuits. Or. thirdly, dispense with Circuit Courts alto gether, leaviiur ,in?tu-iul functions wholly to the I?ir,trict Courts and an independent Supreme Court. liF.HEl>Y FOll TIIK PRESENT INCON VENlKNtlES OF THE STAT! TE I.AWS. r respectfully recommend to tiro consideration of ( ougress the present condition of the statute laws with the hope that Courtis will be able to Ami on easy remedy for many of the inconveniences ami evils which constantly embarrass those en gugod in the practical administration of them Mm e the organization of the government Con" gres* has enacted some five thousand acts and joint resolutions*, which fill mote than ,ix thousauJ closely printed pages, and are scattered thronch n?any volumes. Many of these acts have been urawiim haste and without sufficient caution, ho that their provisions are often obscure in them selves or in conflict with each other, or at least so doubtful as to render it very difficult for even the best informed persons to ascertain precisely what the statute law realv is. It seems to me very impor tant that thestatute I"*- ? ?)HOl ?i?u intelligent 83 possible, ami be reduced to as .-mall a compass a* may consist with the ful ness and precision of the will of the legisla ture and the perspicuity of its language; these, well done, would, r think, greatly facilitate the labors of those whose duty it is to assist in the administration of the laws, and would be a lasting benefit to the people, by placing before them iu a more accessible and intelligible form the laws which >o deeply affect their interests and their duties. TUK ACTS OF CON'GRKSS TO UK CONDENSED INTO ONK Oil TWO VOLLMRS. I am informed by some, whose opinions I re spect, that all the acts of Congress, now in force and of a permanent and general nature, might be revised and rewritten so as to be embraced in one volume, or at least two volumes of ordinary and convenient size, and 1 respectfully recommend to ( ongress fo consider the subject, and if mv suggestion be approved, to devise some plan as to their wisdom "hall seem rnosl proper for the attain ment of the end proposed. IIMI JISTUK St PPKKS3KD #1* TI?K REBELLION. One of the unavoidable consequences of the pre sent insurrection is the entire suppression in many places of all ordinary moons of administering civil justice bv the officers and in the forms of exiting law. This is the ease in whole or in part in all the insurgent States; and as our armies advance upon and take possession of parts of these States the practical evil becomes more apparent. There are no courts, nor officers to whom the citizens of other States may. apply for the enforcement of their lawful claims against citizens of the insur gent States, and there is a vast amount of debt constituting such claims. Some have esti mated it as high as two hundred miliums Of dollars, due in large part from insur gents, in open rebellion, to loyal citizens who are even noiv- making great sacrifices in the discharge of their patriotic duty to support the go vernment. MILITARY l OI'RTS TO BE TEMPORARILY J3TABU8HKD. ludcr theso circumstances I have been ur gently solicited to establish, by military power. courts to administer summary justice in such cases. I have thus far declined to do it, not because 1 had any doubt that the end proposed? tho collection of the debts? was just and right in itself, but be cncs.' I have been unwilling to go beyond the pres sure of necessity in the unusual exercise of power. Hut the powers ol Congres*. 1 suppose, are equal to the auomalous occasion, and therefore l refer the whole matter to Congress, with the hope that a plan may be devised for the administration of jus tice in all such pulls ol the insurgent States and Territories as may be under control of this govern ment, whether by a voluntary return to allegiance and order or by the power of ortr arms: this, how ever, not to be a permanent institution, but a tem porary substitute, and to cease as soon as the or dinary courts can be re-established in peace. SV.TTJK.MKNT Ol CLAIMS AO A INST THE GOVUtMIMiT It is important that some more convenient mewis i should bt provided, if possible, for the adjust | nient of claims against the government, especially j in view of their increased number by reason of the war. It is as much the duty of government to ren der prompt justice against itself, in fav<ir of cili Kens, as rt is to administer the same between priv ate individuals. The investigation and adjudication of claims, in their nature, belong to the judicial de partment: besides it is apparent that the attention of Congress will be more than usually engaged, for some time to come, with great national questions. It was intended by the organization of the Court of Claims mainly to remove this branch of busi ness from the halls of Congress: but while the court has proved to be an effective and valuable means of investigation, it, in a great degree, fell* to effect the obiect of its creation, for want of p:>wpr to make it* judgment* float. Fully aware of the delicacy, not to say the dan ger, of the subject. I commend to yoor careful conulderation whether thin power of making judg ments ilual may not properly be given to the cmirt, reserving the right of appeal on question* <?f law to the Supreme Court, w ith audi other provision* a* experience may have shown to bp necessary. POSTAL KKV iiS'l'K AND KXl'ESOiTli US. I ask attention to the report of the Postmaster General, the following being a summary statement of th<> condition of the department: ? The revenue from all sources during the dual year ending June 30, 1861, including the annual perinnneut appropriation of sevon hundred thou sand dollar# for the transportation of free mail matter, wan nine million forty-nine thousand two hundred and ninety -six dollars and forty cents, being about two per cent leas than the revenue for I860. The expenditures were thirteen millions six hundred and six thousand seven hundred and fifty-nine dollars and eleven cents, showing a de crease of more than eight per ^ent, as compared with those of the previous year, and leaving an ex cess of expenditures over the revenue for the last fiscal year of orer Ave hundred and tU'ty-seven thousand, four hundred and sixty-two dollars and seventy-one cents. The gross revenue for the year ending June 30, 1862, is estimated at an increase of four per cent on that of 1861, making eight millions six hundred and eighty-three thousand dollars, to which should be added the earnings of the department in carrying free matter, viz:? Seven hundred thousand dollars, mak ing nine millions three hundred and eighty-three thousand dollars. The total expenditures for 1802 are estimated at twelve millions Ave hundred and twenty-eight thou?and dollars, leaving an estimated deficiency of three million one hundred and forty five thousand dollars to be supplied from the Treasury, in addition to the permanent appropria tion. VIRGINIA PORTION Or TBI DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. | The present insurrection shows, I think, that the I extension of this District across the Potomac river, at the time of establishing the capital here, was eminently wise, and consequently that tho relin- j quishment of that portion of It which lies within the State of Virginia was unwise and dangerous. 1 submit for your consideration the expediency of regaining that part of the District and the restora tion of the original boundaries thereof, through negotiation* with the Stute of Virginia. DEPARTMENT OK TTIK INTKMIOB. The report of the Secretary of the Interior, with the accompanying documents, exhibit the condi tion of the several blanches of the public business pertaining to that department. The depressing influences of the insurrection have been especially felt in the operations of the Patent and General Land Offices. The cash receipts from the sales of public lauds during the past year bare exceeded the expenses of our land cyatem only about two hundred thousand dollars. The sales have been entirely suspended in the Southern States, while the interruptions to the business of the country aiul the diversion of large numbers of men from labor to military service have obstructed settle ments in the new States and Territories of the Northwest. 1'ATK.NT OFFICE RKCKIPT8 DECLINED. The receipts of the Patent Office have declined in nine months about one hundred thousand dol lar*. rendering a larjjc reduction of the force em ployed necessary to niuke it self-sustaining. PENSION 02* PICK rKlIANDS INCREASING? KKBEI.S TO BR BTSUCK OI K THTi 1. 1ST. The demands upon the Pension Office will be largely increased by the insurrection. Numerous applications for pensions, based upon the casual ties of the existing war, have already been made. There is rra?on to believe that many who are now ' upon the pension roll, and in receipt of the bounty of the government, are in the ranks of the insur gent amy, or giving them aid and comfort. The Secretary of the Interior has directed a suspen sion of the payment of the pensions of such per sions, upon proof of their disloyalty. I recommend that Congress authorize that officer to cause the names ot such jrenwiu iu be stricken from the pension roll. INDIAN TBOVBLKS CATSUP BV THE REBELLION. The relalious of the government with the Indian tribes have been greatly disturbed by the insur rection, especially in the Southern Superinten dency and iu that of New Mexico. The In dian country south of Kansas is in possession of the insurgents from Texas and Arkansas. The agents of tho United States, appointed since the 4th of March for this soperintendency, have been unable to reaih their posts, while the most of those who were In office before that time have es poused the insurrectionary cause, anA assume to exercise the powers of agents by virtue of the commission from the insurrectionists. It has been Btated in the public press that a portion of these Indians have been organized as a military force, and are attached to the anuy of the insurgents. Although the government has no official informa tion upon the subject, letters have been written to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, by several prominent chiefs, giving assurance of their loyalty to the United States, and expressing a wish for the presence of the federal troops to protect them. It is believed that upon the reposse.?*ion of the country by the federal forces the Indians will readily ceasc all"hostile demonstrations and resume their former relations to the government. BI BKAI OF AOKICLLTrRK JiECOMMENDKD. Agriculture, confessedly the largest interest of the nation, has not a department nor a bu reau, bnt a clerkship only assigned to it in the government. While it is fortunate that this great interest is so independent in its nature as not to have demanded and extorted more from the government, I respectfully ask Congress to con sider whether something more eannot be given voluntarily with general advantage. Annual reports exhibiting the condition of our agricul ture, commerce and manufacture*, would pre sent a fund of information of great practical value to the country. While I make no suggestion as to details, 1 venture the opiniou that an agricultural and statistical bureau might profitably be organized. SI. AVE ti:ai>e REPORT. The execution of the laws tor the suppression of the African slave trade has been confided to the Department of the Interior. It is a subject of con gratulation that the efforts which have been made for the suppression of this inhuman traflic have been recently attended with unusual suc cess. Five vessels being fitted out for the slave trade have been seized and condemned. Two mates engaged in the trade, and one per son iu equipping a ve-sel as a slaver, have been convicted and subjected to the penalty of a fine and imprisonment, and one captain, taken with a cargo of Africans on board hit ves sel, ha* been convicted of the highest grade of offence under our laws, the punishment oi which is death. 1RF vsw TEKtt HOWES !N THE WEST. The Territories of Colorado. l)ac.of,.li hi .1 Nevada, created by the last Congress, hav* been organized, and civil administration has been inaugurated therein under auspices especially gratifying, when it is considered that the leaven of treason was found existing in some of these new countries when the federal tfficers arrived there. The abundant natural resources of these Territories, with the se curity an>l protection afforded by organized gov mcnt, will doubtless invite to them a large immi gration when peace shall restore the business of the country to its accustomed channels. I submit the resolutions of the Legislature or Colorado, which evidence the patriotic spirit of the people of the Territory. So far the authority of the United States has been upheld in all the Territories, ns it is hoped it will be in the future. I commend their in terests and defence to the enlightened and g'ne rous care of Congress (NTHtBSrg IN THR KUTKIOT Or OOlUJlBjA TO T\? COM HTDSRII). I recommend to the favorable considera tion of (,'ongross the interests or th.? District oi Colombia. The insnrrection ha* (teen tlie cause Of much suffering and aacritlco to it* inhabitants; uiid us they have uo representa tive in Congress that body should uot overlook their just claims upon the govcrnnisnt. I'll 8 EXHIBITION or INIK'STRT Or 1662. At your late a joint resolution via adopt e l autlu-rizing the President to take measure* f?i facilitating a proper representative of the industrial interests of the United States at the Exhibition of the Industry of Hit Nations, to be liolden at London in the year I8G2. 1 regret to say I have been unable to givo per sonal attention to this subject? a subject at onoo so interesting in itsolf and so extensively and in tricately connected with the material prosperity of the world. Through the Secretaries of Stat? and of the Interior a plan or system has becu de vised and part!) matured which will be laid before yon. COLONIZATION OF EMANCIPATED (ILAVM. Under and by virtue of the act of Congress, en titled "An Act to Confiscate Property used for Insurrectionary Purposes," approved August 6, 18?1 , the legal claims of certain persons to tha labor and service of certain other persona haro become forfeited, and numbers of tho latter thus liberated are already depend ent on the United States and must bo provided for in some way. Besides this, it is not impossible that some of the States will pass simi lar enactments for their own benefits respectively, and by the operation of which persona of the WW class will be thrown upon them for disposal, la such case I recommend that Cougress provide for accepting such persons from such States, according to some mode of valuation, in lim< protantoot direot taxes, or upon some other plan to be agreed m with such States respectively that such persons, o* such acceptance by the general government, be at once deemed free; and that in any event steps bo taken for colonizing both classes, or the one first meutioned, if the other shall not be brought into oxistence, at some place or places in a climate con feui&I to them. It might be well to consider, too. whether the free colored people already in the Unl" ted States could not, so far as individuals may de sire, be included in such colonisation. To carry out the plan of colonization may involve the acquiring of territory, and also the appropriation of money beyond that to be expended in the territorial acqui sition. Having practised the acquisition of territo ry for nearly sixty years the question of constitution al power to do so is no longer an open one with us. The power was at first questioned by Mr. Jeffer son, who, however, in the patrtiase of Louisiana, yielded his scruples on the pica of great expe diency. If it be said that the only legitimate object of acquiring territory is to furnish homes for white men this measure effects that object, for the emi gration of colored men leaves additional room for white men remaining or contiug hero. Mr. Jefferson, however, placed the importance of procuring Louisiana more on political and com mercial grounds than on providing room for popu lation. THE 1NTMRITY OP THK I'MON TIIK FKTMAKY OBJECT OP TUB WAlt. On this whole proposition, including the appro priation of money with the acquisition of territory, does not the expediency amount to absolute neces sity, without which the government cannot ba perpetuated? The war continues. In considering the policy to be adopted for suppressing the in surrection I have been anxious and careful that the inevitable conflict for this purpose shall not degenerate into a violent and remorseless revolu tionary struggle. I have, therefore, in every case, thought it proper to keep the integrity of the Union prominent as the primary object of the contest on our part, leaving all questions which are not of vital military importance to the more deliberate action of the legislature. In the exercise of mj best discretion I have adhered to the blockade of the porta held by the insurgents, instead of putting in force, by proclamation, the law of Congress en acted at the last session for closing those porta. So, also, obeying the dictates of prudence, aa well as the obligations of law, instead of tran acending I have adhered to the act of Congress to confiscate property, and for insurrec tionary purposes. If a new law upon the same subject shall bo proposed, its propriety will bt duly considered. The Union must be prewvei, and hence all dispensable meansraust be employed. We should not be in haste to determine that radi* cal and extreme measures, which may reach the loyal as well as the disloyal, are indispensable. The inaugural address at the beginning of tha Administration, and the Message to Congress at the lute special session, were both mainly devoted to the domestic controversy out of which tha in surrection and consequent war have sprung. No thing now occurs to add to, or subtract from, the principles or general purposes stated and express ed in those documents. The last ray oi hope for preserving the Union peaceably expired at the assault upon Fort. Sumter, and a general review of what has occurred sinco may not be unprofitable. What was painfully uncertain then is much better defined and more distinct now, and the progress of events is plainly iu the right direction. TtlE SLAVE STATES OF MARTI. ANO, KENTUCKY AND MISSOURI UNCHANGEABLY RANGED ON THE SITOS OV THE UNION. The insurgents confidently claimed a strong support from north of Mason aifd Dixon's line, and the friends of tlx) Union wore not free from apprehension on the point. This, however, was soon settled definitely and on the right side. South of the line noble little Delaware led otr right from the first. Maryland was made to seem against the Union our soldiers were as saulted, bridges were burned and railroads torn up within her limits, and we were many days at one time without the ability to bring a single regiment over her soil to the capital. Now her bridges and railroads arc repaired and open to the govern ment. She already gives seven regiments to the causo of the Union and none to the enemy, and her people, at a regular election, have sustained the Union by a large majority, and a larger aggregate vote than they ever before gave to any candidate or any question. Kentucky, too. for some time in doubt, is now decidedly and, I think, unchangeobly ranged on the side of the Union. Missouri is comparatively quiet, and I believe cannot again bo overrun by the insurrectionists. These three States of Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri, neither of which would promise a single soldier at first, have now an aggregate of not lean than 40,000 in the field for the Union; while of their citizens, certainly not more thau a third number, and they of doubtful whereabouts and doubtful cxissence, are in arms against it. After a somewhat bloody struggle of months, winter closes on the Union people of Western Virginia, leaving them masters of their own country. EASTERN VIRGINIA BVIVRN8 TO lJEr. ALLXOLANOB. An insurgent force of about fifteen hundred, for mouths dominating the narrow peniusular region constituting the eb unties of Aceomae and North ampton, and known as the Eastern Shore of Vir ginia, together with some contiguous parts of Maryland, have laid down their arms, aud the peo ple there vc renewed their allegiance to and accepted the protection oi the old flag. This leaves no armed insurrection north of the Potomac o^ vast ot the Chesapeake. VCCCPATION OF HATTKRA8, roRT ROY At. ASI) I'YBEK ISLANDk Also we have obtained a footing at each ol the isolated points on the Southern coast of Hatteras, Port Royal, Tybee Island, near Savannah, and Ship Island, and we likewise have some general

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