Newspaper of The New York Herald, January 1, 1862, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated January 1, 1862 Page 2
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2 fee., ehottM it he denned un-afe from war or otherwtae to go to their pi-1 la of ileeunatlon. The Hoh?m u arrived off Londonderry on the evening f the 17th Oar Parle Corre?|>oudcnee. Pakib, Dec. 13, 1861. War Wttvt from England?Palmer. ' n s tiatle for Strife Dety/ned <41 a Dxvereiim of the Pofeuar .WinJ from He' farm?A'ay tieon't Policy IbwarOt Ureal Britain and America?t'nnce Wapot-vn Uo Lafet- tie of the Day?The London Prett and the Iruh in Jvie ica?Cenrral Scett't Departure and the Conyeohtree if the People?The IKnancial Plant of KiiyLnoi for the Struggle?,Should the Trent be Seized at a Prize if the Commitiione t are Liberal <1? ?#r. > We hear of nothing but Immense warlike preparation* to Kugland, linefeed forward with a vigor and eagerness unsurpassed la the history of tfeat ration. If a Unco, bloody, determined v,?r w# o raging, the administration of Ureal Brit ia could not display more activity. What d >os this m tnf Why should such unsoem'y ha. te bo shown? The answer is snnply as follows:?Englafe. is eager to seise upon any pretext to bcgm a war that may divert the Kng :sh people from their sche mes of s cial reform and th< consequent downfall of the l'almeistou Cabinet *Tis tint l our and his associates, an . not t o English people, that tsh to drive the two nations into open hostilities I will here state that I do not believe there will be war, let iho decision of the United Stans adiniuistrat.iu be what it may. H he people of England will not allow the on.-orapulous politicians at the head of thoir affairs to perpetrato so foolish a piece of work. Franca wishes they would, of course: for she has all to (am and uothing to lose. Soui# of the French jourua a advocate the joirt action of Franco with England In a war against the United States; but this will not be done, /ante d'arpmt, for want of funds. Franco may, and will most likely, acknowledge the Southern confederacy in case England does; in fact I an. assured die is pledged to sucta a oourse; but as for Joining in bombarding our sea ports that she will not do. " " "?t?.uwiv<? r r - j ? ?- , mined oue, loo: and in caso ul' war, where wo had before a Lafayette, we will now, I dare assert, have a Prince Napoleon t > make common < tuse with us. He is untiring in bis eflhrts to overcome this hostility of Porsigny and eonie other ministers, who, in their inapt admiration of England, would plunge France into the war should it occur, and, thanks to his better information and butter sense, ho kecjs down the venom of those ill-advised counsellors of Napoleon III. Your Hugh liles will give you all necessary informs (ton about the irmamer ts of England. I am sorry to soy that France s about to send teu vessels of-war to the American wa vs. Wbi-1 for I cannot ascertain, un;ess it Is to be on hand at the break'tig of tho blockado at.d immediate reco nit ion of tue 1 avus government. I will not here dwell up >n the articles that the London papers havu published about the message of that tiaitur. I notice that several of the . . ting l.i ndon journa.s, the Tinui particularly, are begiunii g to write articles less spicy. They now deprecate where befu.o they fi mod and fretted. They are c mmenciug to understand that Ireland is lor us and against them, as the indignation meetings in Lublin and elsewhere go to prove, w d their rage 13 slightly calmed. As an instance of the nnblushil glies told by tho London journals.J append the ft liowing extract from the London HtralJ, aproi>o8 of the "anti-Li glish meeting in Dublin '? Of all countries in the world Ireland has least reason to love or revet nee America Her children are bondsmen there, not far from tha condition of the negro slaves, but less beloved and moro despised We speuk of the mass of poor emigrants. All Ibu sort lie drudgery of the Northern States is undergone by Irishmou and, and I hoy are the outcasts and tne pariah* of the population. Lost to the religious principles they cherished in their own country, without the bond ot biotheri.ood or country, they sink into h bits of vice and degradation nut known even to tbe poor Irish ol our ouri. great towns aud Cities. Your true Yankee abhors them. Housosth .m. or rather abuses them, und tho oughly contemns them. These are the tor whom The u'honogbue aud toe miserable followers are . h . ittng, tho magnates of the groat NorHiorn republic. No doobt there is much of the real savage, y of Old 1. eland iu ail parts of America, ana nowhero so rampant as in New York. if thu na tionalists of tne Hutunda are looking to the aid of these wo w?uld adv se them to set about i plenishing tnc:r coffer* i mined ately; for a hungriepsei ot brigands and rascals do not sxist in the world than the offscourings of the Irish in America. They are ready for any thing and everything; b t they will have to lie fo 1 and clothed and paid, and wo have a kind of idea tha; most of the nationalists are iu tho same condition. As for President Lincoln and Mr. ce wind, or any genulno American worth a dollar, ll.ey would not iccopt tho support of U'Donoghue and his g tug if even it were proffered to them without its poverty anil with the prospect of a rich acquisition in nnaiar an,I InS.iarna in.l iarl,v lk..?. ri.Ai. >,. bilually scorn the Irish in tbur own Slates?all but thoee who have fought or worked their w.iy to distinction Is there ait}'reason why they should connect their cause, hopeless as it is, with a fi w disc <ntentcd mole factors and tintir ragamuffin followers in Ireland? The Irish know who it wan that ai led them when in the day of famine and want the English government would have let them rot like sheep. America, their re fugc from the tyranny and opprension of English men, Sent them food, anil offered thorn a home, where, honored and respected, they might claim the noblest prerogative o! m.-iu?liberty. I hope that every Irishman in the United states may road the above extract from the tory organ, and that, should the opportunity occur, they may prove to England they are not the oil scouring, but the true frle.ids of America. Wehavo, as trianda in England, Bright and Cobden, while an occasi u speech made by other Englishmen goes to prove that prejudice and ignorance are not universal. Yesterday General 8co? took his departure from Paris for New York. Various rumors aro mloat as to this sudden decision of the General's, and it is rumored lie wus Charged with despatches f-om this government to ours. The General had a long interview with Prince Napolsoo before ins departure, but I am assi red he did not see the Sniper r. Tin: Latter has, i am aware, all along advocated the recognition of the Iiuvis government; but he waited for the . >iut uclloa of England Some of the English join nale, and I believe the London Pott am jug the number, make a strsuge mistake. They Msert that in case the North refuses to give up the rebel Commissioners the English government w ill at once re cognise the I 'avis government, break the blockade, and then tho United States may,if it choosog, declare war. The first e'lbrt mar.e by England to break the blockade would . be a declarati n ai war agataat the United States and an act of war, and the North would be saved the trouble of muting any n ciuruiion History will. 1 uu uoi uoum, have some severe ions to mnKc about the dastardly threat of taking advantage of another's trouble to wrong him. Natioua no more than individual* can commit such acta of moan eowaruico without being rightly judged. Wo are assured by telegraphic deoiiaicbes tliat the London Pott assorts England will fight tiic United ftiitoe, and then claim an Indemnity. They must be hard up to wunt to rob the United Mates by force <f arnn, or elae they think but little of the good senile of the English | eople, If they imagine that any such a plea will make tin m ad hero to the war. I>c idedly the fall lerston Cabinet is as base as it is cowardly. 'Tl.ey will, however, have a hard time of It to hammer into the heads of the people that war is absolutely necessary. The arlstucracj think so, no doubt, bnt the people don't. I am happy to say that the I?ndon Xhat. which at flret rather gave wn> to the popular feeling as regards the Trent aflair, now takes a more sensible view of the daugers alioad It advocates medialion, and no doubt think* of Frat.ce when It doe? so. I really hop* that the United States government, In c isu of mediation, will ask also the g'-od offices of Russia, that fower not being prejudged in the matter, and directly interested, a* France is. In ewe the rebel Coramirslonerg urn given up, will not the United Slates government have the right to demand of England the surrender of the T-ent, as having knowingly broken the Queen's piocb mation* The United Stains cruisers should se ze ber again, put a prize crew In her and send her to eom* American port to be con detuned. The I/>ndon Newt state* ofTclallv that the reason why the Hritisb goven mrtit exhibits so much ardor in sending troops and nv nit: as ol war to C euada is owlr to the i haractor or the despatches received from the |ti ti h Legation at Wasbtngtou for months past Our Berllsi lorrcspaeirienre, Bskwh, Dec 11,1*1. War or no Worm-IIopt of a Compromi m? Cotton and Con nit?Pokey of Prance?' pinion of a Pnwian Stater man?Remit <f (As fClertxom?Lou rf the Amaton? Treaty wiM Prance, tic. Will them be wer between England and America? And If there it, what part will Franc* take in lit These ore the questions which occupy the public mind and keep the mercantile world, especially, In a state of feverish an* e ty and excitement. At Srst the warlike tone of the English press caused a complete panic; It seemed as if th# British government had determined to pick a quarrej with the great transatlantic republic, wtxae growing prosperity they have k>Dg contemplated with alarm and jealousy, and the most dlsaetr * results wer* prognoetl cated from the nature or ?uch a collision upon tha Interests of Europe; hut for the last day or two more hopeful slews h??? begun to predominate, which are confirmed by lb* Seconal* from the ootton market In IJverpool and the St ick rzrhange In Loodon. it la argued that If war were oons 1.1 -d imminent, end ther* were e certain prospect of It.- Southern porta being opened to EagU*b commerce, there would hare bees a tremendous fell in the prion of cotton, which hu nil along boon kopt up ruber by tha feare of future aoaroity than by any actual want of that article, aaalng tb?t tbo stock on band amount a to over flOO 000 beles? rjuite a* much or wm mora than this tlrno last yaar; b<it although thsrs has oertalnly been a decline, It Is by no moans equal to what might b? expected from auch con tingeney, and so far from baiug maintained, tbo last reports announce s oonsl lsrablo rise, which has almost brought prices up to ?be|r former lergl. Consols, too. which wsr# much depressed, appsar to 1>e going up again, and tha signs of fair weather exhibited by Ibis unerring barometer of the political atmosphere hare frmuiy tended to relley# tbo apprehensions esclted by f % 4 hh the tone of the Fnglish Journals and the armaments Of their gove*imenl. No doubt there is a strong party in Kngland?represented by that unprincipled and ill conditioned prini, the London 'Awe?who would like nothing better than a rupture with America, which w< uld afford them a pretext for keeping up an enormous military establishment, end divert the public attention from questions of interual i eioim; but it can hardly be imagined that tbe people will a-seut to be made tbo Uxl of these reckless Intriguers. One would think, too, that Lord Paln.erston himself will ' hesitate to engage in hostilities with the United States, which will tender it necessary to dispone the English fleet ail over tho world to protect their comme-ce fr. iu then tacks of Vankeo p Ivaleers, while his act to neighbor across the Channel w It,trig in wait, uxitching Kit ippoi ttmilg and ready to take advantage of t" fe.n.naile a riu.mnt for ea: rymg out those f lata ict.u K Adue ai turtud the re) oca 1/ cci.u Bell over since the terminal i< n of the K issiuu war. Tho French press have evidently received their cue from ihe Tuilerics; they are hounding on England agaiust liie United Staler, and flattering her wi.h vague promise* of French Co operation; but, 111.! ss he is In TiU dotage, a voterau diplomatist like 1'a incrston will scarcely be the dupe of so transparent alt artiiice. If his 'great and magnanimous ally '' w.slieg him to go to war, it is as 1redly not from any afltction for England or anxiety to vindicate hec wounded honor, but only to in voh e her in difficulties by which France will be tho Hist to pri lit. Ihe Berlin National Zciiung inserts a letter from a Prussian .later man 1 u the Trout allair. in which the writer expresses his opinion, In coul'ornuty with that of other eminent jurists, that, by the principles of international law, ('apt. Wukeo was unite justitied in stopping a neutral vessel if he suspected her i f cairying contraband of war, and that despatches and emissaries of the enemy are umpiesie nahiy included under that denomination, but that it wus undoubtedly irregular 10 take them out by force, anil that the proper cottrtt mould have teen to teite the ship and m' ft r to an American port to be fried by a pi ite court. It is c ear, however, that in jioint of fact ra|>tain Wilkes has done less than he was out 11 led to do, and that his intention was to p it the neutral to as little inconvenience as ptsMble, and if, In tllis endeavor,ho fuilod against tlio stiict form of law, such proceeding ou li s part certainly docs not alloid grounds lor a rovus I Hi. In cases 01 this kind the animus must he cousidc-oil,and if no design of olfendmg can bo proved nothing i ituains I ut a venial error, lor which an apology may m-1 nuurcu i.jr one government and received hy the other without derogating from the dignity of either, :uid without itd being accompanied by tho surrender of the prisoners. 'Ihe returns of the Prm-slan elceliuns aro complete, though a number of supplemental elections will have to follow for such members as hate been chosen in several districts It MM. Thus in lierlin no Issa than (our vacancies have to be tl.ied up?two for Waldrck and two for Prussian Vlrchow; in Kouiysberg two, one for Lender ard one forScbultZi-Delitch, who profess to sit for Berlin. It is very slgnilieant that, after the iiiug's travelling about lectin Lug on thu right divine of monarch.-, M. Sehu tze, who, in declared that right r.n obs< 1 te and bankrupt idea, sh< uld have boon selected to represent both the capita^ < f tho kingdom?B-rliu and Konigsbcrg. Still more significant is the total rout of tho federal party, of whom not above fifteen have been le turned, and whose chiefs, Cerlach, Wagner and Biankenburg, have all been rejected by their former constituents. Ihe moderates have lost M. Sitnson, the eloquent but timid President of tho last Chamber; the libe al conservatives one of their most influential leaders, M. Math is. Of the Ministers lie: liven, Heranili andGoneral Bonn have been defeated, and Count Brt.storfl' has failed to be elected. According to an approximate ca.eolation, the new Chamber will consist of about, eighty democrats, one hundrod decided liberals, sixty moderates, forty liberal conservatives, and seine fifty ultranionta.iists, Junkers and Poles, 'the majority, therefore, depends upon how far the liberals will go with tho denioe ats; sud if, as is reported, the latter intend to run M. Wal.irekfor l'residentof the Chamber, this question will be decided as soon as the Lcgis'^ture meets. An unlucky star appears to reign over the infant Prussian navy. Not long since the schooner Franc lot was lost with all hands, in the Chinese waters, and now the tine corvette Amazon is believed to have lonndered en the Dutch coast. The Amazon, Lieut. H-Tmaun commander, sailed October 3(1 from Pantzic on an c\]>erim< ulal cruise to Portugal; en the 2d or November she arrived at Elsinore, and weighed anchor again next day, with a fair wind, for the j ( ba.une). Since tlieu no direct or indirect intelligence ha- ' beer received of her; but during the whole month of No vemlier s- vere g.iles prevailed in the German Ocean, by which ninny ships were forced to take reiugo in Knglish I oris, nnd.serio.-s apprehensions are entertained concorn tng lier fate, which arc corroborated by a tmail ling, with ' tho name of Amazon unon it, being picked up on the ' const of Holland, as notified by the Prussian Consul at tie-ides the commander, three lieutenants and twenty thr?e naval cadets are mentioned a.- being on beard; tr.uO numb irof crew not stnt35. The i'rimic.n Ga:rtU suggests that she may have ) assed the Channel without stopping, ami that the first accounts 01 her tuny he received fr< in Lisbon; but considering how long a time t>as elapse-! since she left Kisinore, there seems very little chance or this hope being realised. Tho commercial treaty with France is still in rwllibw. The negotiations are snsponded until Prussia has comu to on understanding with tho oth r members of the Zollvc. rein; and, as that body is as fatuous for the s.'/wnessof it? ' motions as the Frankfort Diet, many months arc sure t0 pass before any further steps are taken in tho premises THE AMERICAN QUESTION. THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE IN ENGLAND. The Opinion of tile London Times. [From ine London Times, Lee. 18.J The style of the American President has fallen with tho fo tunes of tho republic Instead of the jolly, rollicking |ieriods of ft rmer days, each of which seemou to suggest at its close a stave of "Hail Columbia," we hare now got a discursive and colloquial evay, ill arranged andwoise expressed. Nor does the matter redeem the style. It is really wonderful, when we consider the pre senv siuve 01 me American repuDiic, now any oto placed iD the position of Mr. Lincoln could have taken the trm.b.e to produce bo strange a medley, ao inc mposite a i bapsody. There are several subject* on wlmh we earnestly desire informs Ik?, and on no one is l! uHorded. At ore all things, vet van/ to know what view 'he American Calinet taker of the affair of the Trent, what ' advice it has r< ceived from its legal counsellors, and with ' what feelings it approaches the c niKJg controversy, on this point there is not a word. Then we should like to ' bear a little of the fncncial measures by whith theeyuili- 1 brtvm Lehceen rertnue and expenditure it to It treserreet in the fact of to intt an outlay. We should like to know what measures the I resident propose* to adopt with reyard to the flare }*i ulatim of the Southern Slates; whether, ict:h one half of hi.,, he isl?, einant ijsition, or, with the olhtr half of his Calnrut.Jor a maintenance of the rif,hu of the ilateou ncr On ail these points our oracle is silent. But, if he tells us very little that wo want to know, he amply indemnifies tis by telling us a great many things in which we havo no interest, lie iiu- a plan fir readjusting the circuits of the judges u.d for the codification of the statute law. He is very minute on the receipts and disbursements of the I'ost Office and the Patent office. He is anxious to extend the Listrict of Columbia into Virginia. He has something to Bay on the exliihitii n of 1862. He has. in common with most of his prede. eesors, a plan for getting rid of tree negroes by a system of colonization. and has ru< in for an argument to show, not, as he wishes, that labor is independent of capital, but how little progress the mo?t ordinary docii inca of political economy nave made in the higher circles of American politicians. It is not ensy to see why Mr. Lincoln should have omitted from his speech all notice of the case rf the Trent. If ho means to give up the persons illegally seised, cne. wmld have thought it no on wise jmcauti>n to prepare the public mtndfor inch a drcisim. If hr meant to le,p them, we cannot understand why he dors not </rotp at alt Iheptpularxty thai is to be hod in exchange for present war and future mi'e, instead of allowing it to he picked up hy ohsr ire members of Cougr> ss embarking in a contest whether the transcendent merits of Commodore Wilkes would b" best rewarded by thanks or by a gold medal, P< saiMy th# simple solution may lie that the President has as yet arrived af no conclusion at all, and that.perplexeu by the division* of bis Cabinet, he has been content to let the metier alone till events shall determine for him that which he is unable or unwilling to determine lor himself. He will I 'd have long to wait. Karh successive mail brings us the report of somo fresh Instance m which the American nation is den by step tommitting itrelf to a war fwlicy with England, till. when challenged for it* final decision, It wiH pr< hably tlnd that it hat ft' too far to hare any power of retraction. The government hns received the prisoners, the Admiralty haa thanked Commodore Wilkes. and Coigfaa haa now given il r taI of its approbation to a proceedirg deeply offen aivo to firoat Britain. It is hardly possible to imagine a government sunk no far bolow tta duties and reaponalbiligtes ua to allow all thia to go on and make no aign either of assent or dissent. The President la bound to h nd hia aid in guiding the legislature to a true decision on a matter art nearly touching the duties and therharac ter of the Kxooutive. He ought to Ml before it the principles involved in the question, and to give it every opportunity in his power of arriving at a conclusion conformable to the real interests of the country. But he haa done noli*.ug of all this, and has abandoned the vessel of the Mate to drift helpless before the gale of popular clamor. Hie President has given ua, Instead of the Information v* S> ire, hs opinion on the real cauae of the present war. The Iturth. he aays, are lighting for the integrity of th" Inioo?that it .at Ixrrd Russell raid, for empire, to compel the Sioth. ky freer/ armt, to In* under a goremmrnt whirl they detest The South, on the other hand, are lighting against the righta of the people?that it, against the rights rf the per/fie of the Ji'orth to goeerm them againtt their content. Thli deecrlption ought to put an end to the atatement, so often repieated, that slavery 1a the main matter In dispute. But the South have done still worse, and, not content with questioning the right of the North t? govern them, they liave even gone to the extent of questioning the wisdom '4 certain Northern institutions. Thus p> raons are actually found to wish for a restriction of the suffrage; to contend, in spite of the evidence afforded by the North of the purity of election, sod the high moral and Intellectual qualities secured by sucb a process, that It Is better else tlon should be confined 10 legislators and not extended to magistrates and some have sven been heard to pronounce the horrible name of "monarchy." No wilder that Mr. Unrein, luxuriating In the paradlae to which tlie will of an unbridled democrary has introduced him and looking forward to a desperate struggle with England, brought about apparently by the same cause, should feel a pious horror ol those who venture to think such experience not conclusive. and the existing conrti t'ltlrw of the United States a Utile short of perfection. We have nothing to say for slavery; but If Mr. Lincoln's description or the Ho nth is Indeed trne_ir she Is fighting to emaneipate herself from the blind tyranny of a de i tryj ?,rcj lEpm ele .Mr# .lung- * ami elocllve Governors? he r>SM givoti h!? Shtigonlsta a better title to European sympathy than they have hirti'-rto p-"es"sse<1,a0'l thrown upon bis g' vernrm-nt the ?tit rna of fighting to Impose upon other* tnalltutloM which have already brought it to the verge of ruin. I tut the moat remarliable part of Mr. Lincoln's speech ;w YORK HBRALD, WEI Is thai In which he touches tbe r Nations of bis government with foreign countries. Tbe feet seems, on hie own show lie;, to be, that ail foreign oounlrieti have hitherto pieeer red a strict neutrality; that they have reeisted all application! tbe bouih to make oumnuin cauae with it against tbe hoi tb, ami thai 'hey hare vuietly iitbmiUed to (i th-cLade wh tch grievously injures their comment ami tmtvuful' reg. These facte' would have called forth from tbo cl iefo: any otlier government in tbe world, republican or monarchical, a gracious endcu irtcous nckm wl. dgmenl of tin-re pft and forbearance with which a nation, not remarkable for carrying either of these qualities to excess. baa bo. ii treated by all other nations In Its hour of trial. Nothing can be moro ungracious, more con J ai y to the usual conditions of international courtesy, than the language with which President I.iutoln repays the consideration extended to him. " Those nations," he says, " appi ar as y t not bi have seen tholr way to tlietr t'u ci'i? ?null in, tue resioraucu ui cumniei cc? more directly or clearly through the destruction than through the preservation i f Iho I niou." This is a broad in.-It.nation that foreigu nat'i us are actuated by the meanest and most selfish motives, aid Mr. Lincoln Is content, t she cannot deny that we have hitherto done Mr lit to cxpri ss a suspicion that we dm so for reasons wo cannot avow w ithoutsh..nie. It is not wonderful that a notice of foreign relations begun in this spiri should end with Ibe exbirtition with which we are already familiar in the circular of Mr. Seward, to fortify tho s?acoast.the great lakes and rivets. After all, says Mr. Lincoln, "tho safety and stability of tho republic depend, not on foreign nations, but upon ourselves." That is IMrfrctly true at this moment, because*forcign nations cariosity desire peace and to avoid all occasion of quarrel; hut it will cease to be true the moment that Amori< a has forced us into a war; for one of the many evils of a war is that a nation is deprived by it of the control of its own destinies, and forced to shape its course, not by its own will, but by the decision of war itself. Opinion of the London Post, the Government Orgau. [From the London pi?t,i:ec. 17.1 The Message of the President of the United States bus now reacbec us in stm?; and those paragraphs which concern the foreign relations of his government certainly imply a disposition to anticipate the presentation of demands inconsistent with what is assumed to be the dignity and authority of the federal constitution. The affair of the Trent. which int-sl at this moment be provoking extraornlnary excitement at Washington and Now York, is passed by with the inferential nlti slou that "foreign dangers necessarily attend domestic diiliculties;"nnd that, therelcre, the tear a<t and northern militaiy frontier cf the .IJ.S* La .aW a. WaTS.' a- ..S - / net. It ,s bard to doubt tbat anticipated demands from this country, on Account of Mtvsrs. Slideli nnd Mason, have dictated this precautionary m<asure;for a wide (Udorei.ce mujr be traced between tbo present advice of tho I'rirideiit to his Congress and the comparatively vague suggestions of Mr. Seward to the Governors of the frontier .-tales before the stoppage of tho West India mail had become known. A direct relercnco, however, to a question ukiih had ml vet Ifout inciter <f c< ntroveriy with any other government was scarcely within the ordinary scope of u President's Message, any more than the burning or tho Harvey Birch by tho Nash\ ilie, which Mr. Lincoln passes over in silence, though the circumstance had been known at New York on (he 30th of November. Indeed, lie is probably hut following usage whon he restricts his observations to i he so matters which have been already t he subject of negotiation, such as tl.e detention of the Brli.-h ship Perthshire by tho United Plates sl.ip Massachusetts,or si me other occurrences, the correspondence arising upon which is promised to be laid before the Congress: and the case of the Perthshire was so plum a d flagrant that the Cabinet of Washington instinctively yielded a compensation which it would have been neither in decency ,,or in its policy to withhold. We wish we could think that at a time at which the federal government is saddled with an overw helming expenditure, and heavily burdened,wiih debt, it would be 1 kely to adopt, iu quarters not threatened by Confederate armies, a general system cf fortification and defence on the int-re abstract coiitiugoucy of encountering hostility ftom other quarters. Thi* preparation u cUnomly directed in 'he main cujainst oune/tvs, for, independently of the defences ordered along the coasts, whore franco alone could be her other antagonist, the fortifications are to he constructed along tho Canadian and New Brunswick !>< ntier; and it is upon these latter proposed defences that the stress of the fresident is ch.cfiy laid, lie recommends that adequate and ainplo measures be ad' pled for maintaining the public defence.-; upon every ode:" and he then specifies the great lakes and rivers a hich dcmurk Canada from the United States. On the hacks of these ho desires Congress to establish fortifications, with denote for arms aud other munitions of war, ana also to cretits "harbour und mvigation improvements at well selected points." im of "great importance to tho national defence end preservation." It would seem as though these words portended an tVenfi'onfo create Jlottilaf heitoem the astern rxtr,mily rf Lake Superior and the fhlls of ISiagarc. ' i. api ears that the Secretary of War has also issued a lengthy report, entering Into detail upon these plans. We do not desire liafclltj- to pr?jn?l 1C? t).? inlAnuitms of the government of the United States, but we must oh erve that the defensive preparations which our own government has been making during the last fortnight^ ind which the Canadian government is also making, iccording to our correspondent's letter in another oolumu, have not been commenced a day too soon, if wc tiro to present any sort of defensive counterbalance, on the Canadian sido of the frontier, to the power of attack which will soon exist on the southern side. The Senate, or Upper House of Congress, appears alone to have not yet committed itself either by words or Implication; aud the House of Representatives has gone far in advance of the Executive, since it has unanimously pass d a rote of thanks to Captain Wilkes for his seizure of the Southern Knvoys ; and it has actually goue the length, with oqnul unanimity, of requesting the government to c nfine these gentlemen in tho cells of convicted felons. If the rancour of this legislative body towards tho arrested Envoys is to be taken as any measure of Us leellngs the power which has now demanded their honorable release to the protection of its flag, toe may imagine the dorm that our demand, dated seventeen days ago, is now creating in tho Congress of Washington. It is j?,g sible that the House of Representatives may conform to the 'hiracter given by Dry den to the Dutch of his lay, "Cruel at home and crouching when abroad." He rineerety thrive that the parallel may hold, but the juxtaposition of these savage votes of the House of Representatives with the measures of fortification recommended by the President is certainly ominous. It is something, however, that the Penate has n?t yet spoken; it is possible that it may exercise a moderating influenee both on tho Executive and Lower Assembly; although, at the same time, we cannot forget that it had not been convened for forty eight hours down to the date of our Inst information. There is a marked ingratitude in President Lincoln's manner of dealing with the attitude of the maritime powers of Enrol* in tho civil war with the South. Any apprri- at ion of our long and selfdenying forbearance i? the very last sentiment that he bns to express. H# commences by attacking the Southern Ptatis for soliciting foreign intervention ; although it is quite certain that the Southern confederation has, In terms at least, refrained from doing so. He deplores that "foreign nations nre not always able to resist the counsels of so .-ming expediency and nngtuerous ambition; and arter thus insinuating onr disposition to offer an interference from which we hive, in fact, carefully refrained, he then turns round upon the Southern States, and tells them that they "have received less patronage ?nd encouragem*nt than they probably expected." Why, surely this disappointment' of tbn South ought to be made the subject of a grateful acknowledgment to our elves. But we obtain no such meed; rve arc told that, even upon commercial grounds, an intervention or recog; nition of the South would be contrary to our interestsand that If we have not acted in a directly unfriendly way to the tiovernment or tho Fnited States, it is simply because wo art not such fools is to knock our beads against a brick wall. Foreign nations," says Mr. Lincoln," can reach th< ir n:ni more rsadity anil easily ly aiding to crush this rcbollii n than by giving encouragement to it." That is. of course, on the supposition of Mr. Lincoln'!; wild throryof Foirral Oovrnmtn y.t rutinTalii.n of hen kmdrrd end f'.ty million bring lutraptiblt if frifirdiimi. The truth is that every sensible in Furope looks upon the subjugation of the Mouth aa a tried and proved impossibility; and if ho cannot kiep thirty millions together m w, what hope is there for the young est ef the agisting generation living, as ho says, to witness a united federation of two hundred and fifty millions'/ In some ten or twelve days, in all probability, we shall know the issue of our demand. Thai demand is shnple. on din iUr\f final. There Is no ultimatum, as soineof our ootcmporarlse have alleged, to succeed it. Theoriginal demand will be an ultimatum in itself. Neither Is there any possible opening for mediation or arbitration. All tbat Lord Lyons will wait for will be the usual interval allowed Tor reply to a diplomatic communication, namely, a fsw days. Indeed, U is possible that the intelligence we shall look for soon after Christmas may be conveyed to these shores either by Messrs. Mason and Mlidell th'-mnrlrtt on tht onr hand, or by Lord Lyon* himtelf on tht alter. Opinion of tho Aristocrats nnd Oligarch 1st*. [From the London Herald (Derby organ), Dec. 18.] At the commencement of the Message the President refers to foreign countries generally in terms which we cannot regard as dignified, and which appear to us inexcusable. It is first Intimated tbat the "disloyal" citizens of the l'ni< n may have invoked foreign a.d and intervention. Jte Irrm ditloyal" U man^ftely inapplicahle to any of tte. mrmhrrt of a ' oof nitration of Statu. It begs tbe whole constitutional quastion at tasue between North and 8outh. We have next sa oracular statement of the probable motive* and conduct of foreign nations that might be thus invoked "Nations thus tempted to interfere are not always sble to resist the counsels of seeming expediency and ungenarouaambition.although measures adopted under such Influences seldom fail to be unfortunate and Injurious ro them adopting them." Mr. Lincoln now runkM a Jump from the "opposition that such assistSUM hfiVP hiM>n fikkhd In Ihh filntMnnnl thai it kai been Mktd. "The disloyal citizens of the United Stat**, who have offered I be rum of our country In return for the id end comfort whfch they here invoked abroad, hare received lew patronage end encourage ment then they probably expected." And why not? No feeling of Justice or e<wi*e of international obligation*, it eeetna, can pneitibly influence the decision of there foreign court*. AH that they tbtnk of ta their own immediate intereat. To aerve that they may be expected to throw overboard all moral and ioclai obligation*. What elae can poaelbly he implied In thet following aentence, in which it la lamely aought to transfer to the South the odium of the slur that I* caat upon the honor of the great Koropean Power*:?"if n were ipst to n**ume tnat fo reign nation*, In thia cane, discarding all moral, aoclai ahd treaty obligation*, would net solely and aelllahly for the meet s|*edy reatoratinn of conimerce, including caper ally the acquisition of cotton, thoae nations nppear na yet not to l ave seen their way to their ob|ect more dirrctly or clearly through the deetruction than through the | reaervation r?f the ukkm." Thit, if not insulting, lnngvngs ran only ha umlrmlnrut lo a/fly in Kanrt ami Kngl'tnd. l'hcy may divide the compliment between them, and we ere not, therefore, surprised at the indignant retnarki which havo been elicited from the press in 1'art* by the peerage* which we h ive quoted from Mr. Lincoln'* message The inMrtt ti diaelm- '/y I the ipntrnnmi mg<in in A-to York 'e p I a hoany duly I upon importsfrrm franrt, 'that lb* proiid'ri of ApKd- an 1NESDAY, JANUARY 1, 18 prvwperitv may fori am imtared ra ruttaimng it," it no* lihtcU to add to the good fetling of our neighbor* for th A' r.hirn government. That government having already fur more on Us hands than it can manage, seems mndly bout upon irritating ail the world, and driving it, whether it will or no, to e8;<ouse the Southern Bide lu the quarrel. ihee statements are incorrect, and these intereuci a are uulair. We do not believe that the tooth I an jetitioned for the aid *of any fweign nail.ion. Mr. I avis las stated the contrary, and b" knows that un'.eaa the North should deter

inine ou going to war with England or France any trust in either would be hopeless. For ourselves, we oarly declared our neutral position, and if in any respect we have departed from our programme if has been in favor o' the North. We have recognized an ineffective block- 1 a la, which his crippled Southern commerce?a roo< gutt. o at viu-iuiice with the law of cations, ti.ios ot rillos and munitions of war have b-eu shipped i iram fnguuirt to tne North, while similar supplies to the i PouUt have been seized upon by federal cruisors. Wo < lnvo not recognized the government of tl 8->u thorn < Sates, although as a de facto <;ooemmetitit hat had a fair < claim to t ur ackn tcl tdymcnt. ThoiSoutheiner might argue 1 iUb' we have departed from our neutrality incases whore I It vhs diilir.u t to maintain it. Qonerully our government 1 h; " acted up to Its light, and been as impartial is it can. I If tho James Ailger has boon allowed to rof.t in our ports, < <> in its turn has the Nashville. If the Confederate cap- 1 lain had seized uiiou General Scott while a puwonger in f the Lover packot, of course we should have demanded his < i?? uedlate restitution. No other course was opm to us < v n we heard that four Southern geullemou itad been 1 ft cibly ahductvd from the mail steamer Tronl. News- 1 p ijier articles, votes of Congress, and rejiorts of the Nuvy ' 1 apartment notwithstanding, Mr. Lincoln will have to I choose between a prompt surrender of his captives and ' i in alternative of a war which will annihilate America on t the sea and do her some mischief on the Isnd, and at ths < same time settle forever the question of the great seces- J sion. OPINION OF THE REPORT OF SECRETARY WELLES. The Blockade a Failure and the "Stone Fleet" n Crime Against the Human Kind, [From tho London Times, Dec. 17.] * * e We turn, then, to the report of Mr. Oidoon Welles, the Secretary to tho federal navy, for explanation of those hollow or enigmatical phrases in which Mr. Lincoln hursts that tho American navy created sinco the present difficulties began has porfo; rood de< ds which have increased the naval renown of the United Statos. No tuition hat lest reason than we haie to uudcrrat-- the renown of the American navy. f-eeT.g that it rests almost on liroly spoil the capture of three or four Knglish frigates under circuDi-tancos of extraordinary disparity, and seeing also that its victories were "gained entirely by English tailoi s who nail teen seduced from our service ty a disparity in the rate of wages, which, if our Admiralty it not absolutely insane, will never again occur, we have the best possible reasons for respecting that r noum. Our difficulty is to discover how that renown ltns been inci. ascd by the evouts of tho civil war. That Mr. Gideon Welles has used a certain industry in the d?pi-rtmuut under his control we are quite prepared toadnut. lie to'Is us that on the 4th of March last tho effective American Nuvy consisted of cniy forty-two voesels of ull carry ing 635 guns ami about 7X00 men?a very mall nlvy for a Power which proposes to defy all j the uavic* of tho world, and to take liberties with the t commercial ships ot all natieu3. He says that at tho t date of bis report he had Increased this small naval l force to two hundred and sixty-four vessels and '24.000 t seamen. This is creditable taMr. Welles as an olficial j man, but the result it rot e-aftdtVipli/tern We, especially t when he proceeds to tell us how this has been arcoru- 1 plished, by hiring all sorts of commercial vessels and n gathering togethrr every floating thine that would t carry a gun. 'lluso figures represent a naval force t which would be very terrible to Prussia, which might t alarm the fleet of Italy, and which would call forlh an i cfl'ort from P; ain.but which Franco could easily destroy, and England cannot but hold exceedingly cheap. This'is 1 not the novy of a jtr>t class Pauxr. 11 is enough for a peo- \ pie who desire to bo at p< ace, hut it is ridiculous for a i people who Insist upon being quarrc'sotne. A little tann i who ho ds his own against a big man who is trying to n bully him has every bystander's sympathies in his favor, I but nothing is moro contemptible than a little mar who it t ni isy ana qjfenth e only in reliance vpn the impunity u<hch I he ntyhtU on account of his men toeabnets and the generarity \ of those v to m he insults. To sustain tho pretensions oi s federal stnti stiten to insult all neutral nations, Mr. I Welles' incrws >d navy is still but a coutomptiblu S I Ilctiila. Very different, however, is its force as proportioned to the enen y with which it is immediately matched. The I Ooufederate .States have no navy at all. Against them < the navy of Mr. Welles is as a giant against a dwarf. If 1 ever there was an opportunity of gathering cheap laurels, it has b -en within the last few months, when the federal > government had 264 sbi| s and 24,COO men, and thoir ene- > mics ouiy two or three wretched privnieeis, and some 1 craft titled for inlaud navigation. Yet we believe that 1 ttc Humtcr ia atill plundering the federal oumm-ict, and 1 wo know that the Harvey Birch was burnt close to our own shores; wesec a "sensation heading" in tho last Now York papers that "the rebels are blockading tho channel of Tybee Island, and Fort l'u!a?klt.nd we have Mr. Welles* own testimony that, althot gh his navy "con.inuod to capture every rebel vessel which showed itself on tho Potomac,'" it ceased to do so " when the rebels erected batteries on sundry points of the Virginia shores, and thereby rendered jiassago on the river dangerous !" We confess that wo are comjndled to look beyond these facts to discover the reasons for the tone of congratulation which runs through Mr. Welles' leport, and to deserve the increase of renown claimed for tho jederal navy by Mr. Lincoln. Mr. Welles himself seems to tlbiik seme further explanation MMBT. lie urges, therefore,the ofleioi duties of blockading a nasi ot three thousand miles In length, of the active pursuit of > privateers, and of tlio organization of naval expeditions. This is all very troll, but it is necessary to show tbat the-e duller have been accomplished. Tho naval expe ditions have, indeed, reached* their destination, but, at they had no enemy worth the name of an enemy to meet, the renown of the federal navy cannot be much raised by what was iittlo more than transport service. The privateoiH have, as we said before, n -t been taken. The blockade hat been to vtorioutiy a failure that nothing but the extraordinary icrui ulouenest of the E< ropean Powers hat allowed it to continue. Ships hare pasted in and out at all timet Just at they pleated, and, to far at the harbor* are cor.rermd, there has nerrr been any difficulty in fetUngfntothrm or in getting out of them. The federal government lias itself eni[ hitically admitted the failure of their naval blockade by an art of barbarity which is unparalleled in the history of national wars. Tliey have actually endeavored to undo what Columbus had done? to shut up from all mankind forevor the porta v. hich the great discoverer opened to the humsn race, end to destroy by artilk-lal impedim- nts the gates by which men of all nati- ns enter and pa-soutof some millions ef square miles of fertile and productive lands. 7hit it a trim' against all human kind. If it doe' not call down universal opposition, it is only because the enterprise is behoved to bo us impossible as its d< sign is execrable. W o have nearly exhausted tbo deeds of the American Navy during thi- eventful year. One act, liowevor, yet remains unnoticed, rind It is just possible that it may form the staple of Mr. Lincoln's gen--ral and very guarded allusion to the groat addition of renown so ro<dolly acquired. This is the act which has made the Mayor of Poslon and the Governor of Massachusetts elopwnt with exultation, and wbirli baa excited even the Uoisc of Heprcsontatives to gratitude. Ibis act is thus dealt with by Mr. (lideon Welles:?"Captain Charles Wilkes, in command of the Sau Jacinto, while searching In the West Indies for the Sumter, received information that J.unes M. Ma-on and John Piidell, disloyal citizens, utid leading conspirator*!, were, with their suite, to embark from Havana In the English steamer Trent, on their way to Europe. to promote the causa -if the insurgents. Onlslng in the Bahama Channel he intercepted tho Trent, on the stti of Xovcmber, atid took from her these deugerous men, whom he brought to the I'nfted bliiles. His vessel having bc?n oiflcred to retl; for oervuia at Chai lest own, the prisoners were retainer! onboard, at I conveyed to Fort Warren, whero ttioy were commuted to tiie ruatody of Colonel Htmmick, in command of thnt fortress. The prompt and decisive action of Captain Wilkes on this occasion merited and r-coivtd the emphatic approval of the detriment; and, if a too generous forlicuronce was exhibited by blm in not rapturing the vessel which had these rebol rnctnics <n board, It may, in view of the special circumstances, and of its patriotic motives, bs excused; but it must by no means bo pe rmitted to roi stitute a precedent hereafter for the treatment of any case of similar Infraction of neutral obligations by Fireign vessels engaged iu c m morce or the earr) ing trade." There is no disputing the boldness of this act. nor, indeed, the boldness of this threat; but whether It Is likely to Increase the renown of the federal navy fill,ire events yet must show. Mr. Welles will want more than 24.000 men to make good these foolish words. That he oau get more,end will got more, we are well aware; for we do not undervalue the power or energy of our rugged kins men if they put their hoart tn a matter, hut ne will get little "renown." for hie department In su<*? a cause aa that he so unnecessarily proclaims, or against the an- , I laaonlsl he so rashly defies. If either the diieretitm of Mr. Welles or the ability of Mr. Lincoln it to bo estimate/! by their State papers, they are not enemies greatly to be /eared either in national or in civil warfare. THE MASON-SLIDELL AFFAIR. DlScnltlN of the Washington Cabinet. ITS COMMRRCUL AND ABOI.ITIONI8T KNUtllN. [From She London Time*, Dec. 14.] Tbe condition of the federal cause In America Is that of the man who has just suffered the amputation of a limb, only to revoal the terrible fact that the disease lay far t> igoer than where the knife and the saw tried to intercept i it. Against greater odds, and with less vitality, the work has to be done again, and the gangrene followed upwards 1 to its mysterious source. The Southern States, with all I their Institutions, and, as it appears, without much break in (heir history and social character, have separated themselves from the Northern, and the Potomac now di- I vides two countries as distinct, almost as different, and far more antagonistic, than those divided by the Straits of Dover. We all aeo this here, and the commonest school Atlaa would hardly fall to distinguish by different hues tbe Northern and Southern federations. But It Is now evident the mischief stops not here. While statesmen, msrrhants and barkers are laboring to carry on a suicidal war in a conservative spirit, and to spars the int< rests and prejudices of the foe, a more numerous cl is- from the Atlantic to the Mississippi have no such scruple, and go to the root of the evil. Slavery, they are tol lby one of the mart elnauent of the agitators?htmie/a martyr in the cause?it the original tin of the ffnin, tbo oa< se of every subsequent dissension, "the occasion of this war, and, what is more, the strength of the wrong cs se and the weakness of the right. Mr. Sumner refers to slavery every misory, cverv mishap, every difficulty of tbo federal cause, and tells listening thousands that all tin y do, tli' sacrifices tl^r make, their taxation, their Ufa blood, (heir commermal interosts?everything they have, sillier, do or hope, Is all flung into that maelstrom, not' r to rea;qienr The whole American nation, with all i't i nlth ami alf its (/lory, is flung as a holocaust bfore the :hr\ne of thu hideout idol. The remedy ho procl<lms 1st give up theweak scruple which paiUlyxes s right#, on# arm Mr. Humner sees In this war, not merely 62. call to rally round a constitution, to punish treason and reinstate a mighty Povor; bo noes a oall to a higher level of humanity and a sub: inter doctrine. "Nut Vr ion, but j fiatfi'to," Tie bis crj This to the fated wuwpoii for the decuion of the c itaat. ? Could a word ohntige the allegiance of several million slaves, and make tlium a weakness instead of a strength to their mustois, that word might aooh be spoken. But the mercantile classes u the federal side are deeply ooinpromised in the continuance of slavery, ami hit* their hearts in the South. The men who find the in ney,aii(l find It now with dally increasing difficulty, hate debts' and stocks, ami invoatmeets in the South, and re.-urd abolition us tliey would soother dohtge. What is to become of thorn whou there is u > mors cotton, or sugar, or to' ac co* It is, indeed, hard to tay.eicopt that commercial revolutions are not always so ruinous or so entire as they threaten to be. Hut Memtrnt, anting from C-'Ufuinut and the West, and Surhter, frutn Mama husitis, may not so mmh of martgages, stocks, and hal nees as !he merchants of New 1'urk or the manvj aeturers if Lowell. Here, however, are the two rides at d>en wai?the sentimental and the commercial; :>n tho one side the fighting mm, on Uio other those who find tlio money. How will the progress of the war alloc I themf Should the war nroeeed as it has lithcrto (lono, without decided results, with great financial pressure and general distress, opinion is likoly to oeat interest, and iminion curry the day when credit ia {?ne. At all MMtf, this it a dunyeroiu divisu n in the amp, when the ti-ies are. so equal, the positions so pirallel, mil tho collision daily expectod. Should the Cat not or Washington proceod with thoir usual ruckle? mors, the 'edcral causa will lind itself not only terribly confronted, iividod, and half rotton to the ear*,but outflank*d and ,akcn in tho roar. We can scarcely Imagine a worse utuation, and it Is ono that nothing but the conillence in a sacred cause should load a govern ucnt nto. Yet, wo do not see tho 8aor?l issue that can ustify such fearful risks against overwhelming odds. Ms-. Bright and the Reformers and the New York Herald., [Front the London Herald (Derby orgau), Dec. 13 ] Tho teal of Mr. lhight's organs is worthy of a hotter jauso, and if it wore combined with knowledgo might >o dangerous. They have stupidly adopted the cause )f the North, and justified all its hloodlhirstao ss, iltbough, if they bad uny intimate acquaintance with the irlnciplos uj>on which tbey t)rolcss to bAse their political treed, they m. st admit that tho South is, according to ,hetn, fuily justified in secession. Utterly careless of interuitional law, they hate ado, led one afttr the other the 'alsified precedents of Afettrs. Sumner, Kxere't and the Nkw ITobk Hxicai.n, declaring each to bo a conclusive Justillcaion of Captain Wilkes, and perhaps in their recklessness lelicving what they b..y. Driven at last from that con ?ntion, they now, in lang nge as vile as their law, illus.rate thoir profe-sion of 'he Christian virtues of charity md moderation hy impu ing iu'orestod motives to the obi i>i mo pimo .iuii v lupcruuug me wuoie uuuun an miniated by .1 savage passion for war. * ? * * Had wo wished for war with America wo havo long ago iad reasons enough i .r if. But, anxious to avoid it, wo lavo born.' <;ro. i- insult j, allowed une xampled violations >r international law.aud schooled ourselves to boar as veil as we ea t famine in Lancashire and Yorkshire, aud lidiculty and distress everywhere. We are anxious to sscape war now, bocause w> havo no un'sh to ai.,j our(lv<J with lh>' South, or have tlit recagniti n of Us i Llepenluce appear dve to > or irtrposUion. Wo do not want var, arid Ic Is a foul untruth for any itutn.wh ther a out nalist or minister or the Gospel?au uutr; lb fo which here Is no pretence.?an untruth, which no man who nkisitie smallest trouble to look around him tun put brth in g<o>l faith?to protend that we o. We 1j not wish tor wir, but we are preparing for it. Vn insult has been otfcre.l to our flag, for \vl>tch wo must obtain ample reparation, o.' submit to bo nsulled aud plundered by tho whole world. We hav-> iskod lirraly but temperately for that :cparatlou, and here is not an KngUshmaq, savo, porhaps, the vo.y creaiircs who live by prating about peace, who dees n it oarroetly pray that tho American government may concede t, and by doing so in a t ank and coreial maimer, con rl\e to win good will out of an incident which threatens o destroy it. But we know the temper of the class rliich exorcises an overwhelming iuMience over tho \mericau govcrnmout. We know the rock/cAri-v, the selfs.iii'U of the men who, unhappily for the world at thit trionerUons juncture, compote that government. Wo know tho one towards this country which has prevailed unio.ig hoso governing c asses for tho past few years, and, mowing these things, we dare not b(>i>e that Mr. Lincoln vill comply with the demands which Lord Lyons is in tructed to molto upon him. ?lr F. Baring on British Neutral Rights. [from the London T imes, Iter 13. ] Tho anniversary of the Portsmouth and Portsea He rcw Hencvolout Institution was colobratcd on Thursday ivcnlug, Lec. 11. Tho toast of "The Borough Members'" laving been given and duly honored, Sir F., after acknowledging the condiment .\bich hail been paid turn and bis colleague, said:?'lhero vas one question now agituting tho public mind which lad nothii.g whatever to do with party or local politics? io alluded to the great American questh n. (Cheers.) He npproaclied thai quostion with great pain, and al .hough Iiin words might not have gieat wotght, he knew ;hcy would lislon to bim whilo ho gave his opinion ou :liat matter. Thoy knew that it wsb not liis liqbit nl ways to think England in the right. (Cheers.) lie had aioi-t narrowly watched the conduct of this country towards America, and he was satisfied that neither party?the North or the youth?had the slightest tausu of complaint prior to the act of Captain IVilkes. (Cheers.) If this country had been ttalled upon to express an opinion at the oafortunate disruption, it would have hen utihcsintingl) one of sympathy and sincere rogret at the cala mity which had fallen upon them. (Hear.) He might to u little further,and say that, although they were neural in the matter, Me falingwtu a little iijffaror of thr Xorth, at they wore believed to be favorable to freedom, in<l that there was not suflieient cause for the seres-Ion. iCheers.) Those were the opinions which wete generally utertained by the people of this country. If they wore .hanged now, it was not the fault or Knglund. (Hear, aear.) It was not necessary that he should ruke up the :ai.res which had irritated the public mind. (Cheers. 1 It was perfectly right?nay, it was their duty?that th -y should consider the two parlies In-the state of aifuirs is belligerents. This act of Captain Wilkes coo.1<I act have justified any search except that givou as t belligerent. (Clieers.i TTic act naturally roused .1 ilrei.g feeling, as it touched upon two points which wore probably more sacred with Kngli-hmeu than iny other?he referred to the honor of the Rrittsh lag. and to the right of protection to strangers. (Iwmd h ers.) No doubt thoy, living in the brst naval port u the kingdom, felt very warmly ou the subject, jut they must not think th> y -were more earnest for he honor of the lirltish Uag than those rop|o|-ig In the nost remote inlund district. The fame feeling i eigne! ill throughout England. (Cheers.) With regard to the tecond question, there was no matter of which wo worr more pioud?and which we liad the right t" he?than cue leteimination to prTftict the stranger. (Hear.) The Protestant refugee under Luris BV, found a homo bore, .he Catholic priest iu the French Revolution was received ind protected?(cheers)?the8|>anlsh patriot, the Italian exile, the Hungarian, tlie'From h of all classes and opin **ds. all were re< oived: and, w ithout wishing to know so itucn as their o in tons, thoy at least found a resting ;ilnce. (Ixrad cheers.) Mad, indeed, must lie the man who would arouso the country on such p tuis. (lloar.) I was no wonder tliat the feelings of the people should ,ave hreu aroused, but it wuh not by their feedings that hey must be actuated. (Hear, hour.) They must deal with the (juostion in a strictly legal manner: not what hey would wish, but wdiat they had the right to enforce. [Bsar.benr.) that view ilie question required al] .he calmness which it was possible to command. II? war io lawyer?(u laugh)?yet ho bcHeved that which liad aeon demanded by our government wiih right and iroper. (Cheers ) It is not a question whether they wero uiliaudim <m . lucMoui ii.uuun si> m un earrh for coutrabuiid of war, but not to take possession >f it?not to set up nn oflicer's opinion an conclusive of ho law of nations?but to convoy the vowel into a neighxirlng port, and to take the opinion of a competent trl tuiial. (I h'-TS-i) Until that was done tint notion was illegitimate. riiser, hear.) Ho would not go into tbo picsliou ol what was wns ipilto aside. If that ah p had contained arm a and ammunition for the Southern Slate* Captain Wilkes would liavo had no tight to have touched a single gun or a particle of'the powder jntil ho had obtained the function of a competent court. (I/tud cheers.) The honorable baronet proceeded at some length to show that the act was an Illegal one, and that this country mi at bare restitution of the prisoners at the lianda of the Americans. In conclusion. ho said that war was inconvenient, but they must be procured at cortaln Limes to nmko a great manv Inconveniences Ho exorcised hi* fervent nope that ibey should hare peace, hut said this couutry could not go beyond a certain point. JTiey cmltl no'Iv tramplnl uvrn?(cheer-)? and he hoicd America would, by her reply, save herself from the consequences of the foolish act of takiug the prisoners from I lie Trent. (Loud applause.) The Financial Aspect. [From the Londou Post (Oily Article), Dee. 14.J Tbo English funds have been quiet to day (lath), and the market baa been free from the numerous rumors so prevalent during the week, anil which it is unnecessary to particularly advert, as they die ax soon aa th'-y aro Itorn. The sudden departure of General Scott from Paria for America, to which some importance was ai lirst attached, is now said not to be connected with any political movement, the veteran General's ob.oct being only to return to his country from a sense of duty. The retorted Kin union n mu| in ill" nuwi ivau uiiiii. iiij nin< fallrd to produce anv eltect, It being pretty well uoderatood that nnfbing will talitfy the goeemment and <*' nation at large but the surrender of M>urt slideil and Mourn? though other marten might b? taken inb- consideration hereafter It la Satisfactory that the various speeches lie lirervd by members of Parliament 01? both partlee to their constituents concur in upholding thu policy of the government In thla maitcr. The nimagc of President Lincoln la anxiously awaited. aa it may, perhape, tend to anllghten Uio public oe tli All absorbing subject which at present excites attention. Indeed, auch ia tho anilcty for informal ion that the Stook Exchange it to le Icjt men tomorrow until hatf -jxut two. In the meantime the British government are .hastening with all poaetbl# despatch the reinforcements for Canada. Engl* nd Contemplatai ? War la Aajr vtnti (London (Dec. II) correspondence of Manchester Guar1 dtan.l The conviction forcea Itaclf upon many that the day it not far dutant when the Southern confederation mart he rcrognited: and that rn ngnition may be expected to bring about a froth difficulty, in which <vc mutt be prepared to maintain our policy. It it with thie new, and at a demon ttra'i'n of our intention u> hold our own 'way, that the government are sebdtng out 10,000 mon to Canada without any rcfarence to the reply of the American Cabinet. If Messrs. Mason and fllldoll landed at Uvorpool to-morrow n<i a toldier the leu wntbl be tent out If we are to hire a war with the North, in connection arifA this t'niinI Stain hitm, there cm Id lie no more fararabb time than the pre a id. It would be a abort and declaim war. and would have a vital lnllucnce on the preservation of jieace and the uninterrupted freedom of Commerce (o many years to come without our having to pnss thi uugh tho ordeal of a cial and mercantile confnaion which wars, aa a gene al rule, entail. Our miliary departmenta are working double time. The cl'jthlng establishment at Pimlioo waa at full work all last) night and tne preceding one. I; It Is a very common anticipation among persons i Canadian as periooce, that a war with this country if likuller to en I in our arqitintion of Portland, than in lb capture of Kin treat by the federal armies. In ai.y citse there arc reclideations of our Oatrad 1*11 frontier which can scarcely fail to follow upon war. The States I rant a an seltie.1 by the Aahburton Treaty, dosely hu^t the P> tape road?m-.r Canadian hurhway from Out roar ?ah<y <& at pail of i 1 Uvy h. Thi United States liuvn 1 w 0 fortjliod ports cl a unoii that roail which ivoilH hutu tola taken at the outbreak of a war, as woll us ("tip Rous# (which they have baon lately strengthening) wilhti thirty miles or Bo or Moat real. The London )>bsrrverot l\n 22 d of December (mir,Uteri* organ) rays tliut Higland wubes for pence, but that sh will gain by v.vr, a* It will enable her to rectify ho-A mm can frontiers, open the ports of (As Houlk and give a Ution b the Untied Stales. Lateat lie port of the Hostile Intentloni I of Great Britain. ' Iu this connection wo have the following iniportan ] despatch:? ' Halifax, Dec. 31, 1861.' The steamships Adriatic and Persia have arrived Halifax with troops. Posscngors by tho Asia report it rumor thU the blocking up of Charleston harbor with stone it likely to lead to difficulty with European Pounrs. It is further rumored that England's warlike preparer lions will continue in view there/if, and thai the surrendm of Messrs. Mast/a and SliielX is not the whole of England', demands. Tho steamers Cleopatra and Parana are likely to b hero to-day. Opinions of the French Frets. . [From /sSieclo, of tho llih December.] "Tills is a sty o of reasoning which might involve us in numerous qus't rols, and indoiiniUtiy postpone tho disarming which tho C mituu.ionnel lately announced at the sutael time with the tax on pianos and lucifor matches. Out contemporary raises a song in favor of the Anglo-French altiauce:?'It ispence and general security, the foundation of civiliztition, the pivot of the world, as we think,' it exclaims; 'wo wish with our whole soul that this union of iho two great, intellectual, powerful and may bo eternal I' Wo cliorisli the sumo wis.; and since .tho Conxtituti'miel thinks it would bo 'main s* for tht French government to toko tho chivalrous pa. t of second n tills quarrel,' v hut can it ask if not neutral .ty or mediation? It is useless to remind the Conslilu'u mi el of th? part taken by i'lnnce in tho emancipation of tho United Slates, as ever since Sunday last tho United! States have ceased to exist in tho eyes of thai I journal ; it looks for thorn in vain on the ma|f { they have been * wallowed up In the ocean, hi d tho South a' mo appears above water?tho poor, oit.cb abused South whoso cause is stigmatized us boiug 'identified will s!rvcr.v.' Tho Con titutimnel has new, forsooth, Tiis covered that s!u\ ery has nothing to do with thequarre between the Norlli and tho South, but that the matter* m disputo aro in lividual liberty, the liberty of the press liberty of spoecL , sud freo trade, which it is curious Id soe the Cunstituti mnel (iefoud against tho Americans." Altor son.o observations of a similar tendency the Siech terminates in those words:? England does not require our aid to break the blockade o, the Southern ports, and qpen them to the comm ace if On uorld. Our intervention may prevent bloodshed, ant givo u pacific character to iho result, about which then can bo no doubt. Tbo advantages of neutrality and mo dialiou aro so evident that wo cannot b Hp wotxlerin) why our coniem .orury, who was decidediy of our opus ion, has so suddenly changed its tono. Happily thos( changer: winds are common in the latitude of the Cot} stituihm: ',?nd wo aro not without hopes of soon scotus a now t oeze drive it from the South to tho North. i I' rem iho Journal de?*l>bats, of Doc. 11.] I' The f tiiMi' iinei oponly takes thopart of the SontherlJ States against the Northern, and supports Ills grievance^' set foriii in tho Message of President Davis. It quote! and appropriates the language employed by that geuti } man in . rder to show tho pioiuaice which the commerct V interests Of Franco sustain liy the war going on bey or. I tho Atlantic. Tlio Constitutionnel goes furtbor, sinoot>' those persons who. to Justify the noutridity of Francs It too uu.iug vukivi, tout uo iu iiuoii.n iiju glorious guar which she had token in the heroic struggle of ladeiioMl once, aud in the foundation of tbo groat Aino icao rnpab lie, it r -piit* sharply (tat for titty years the Uirihtd Stall haw responded by the b'aekest ingratitude to that >tenerous da ty-tediums' and that France owes nothing to those who hate, for* gotten tr seriicM. But who said that, wo should like'< know? Who spoke of serviced rendered by France to ti 4 United Stales? And li?io we aro fo. cod to ask the Conetfi tution ici of Ties Jay it it has read the Oovritotumn* of Sunday? lto that as it may, the fact is that tho sam' .ml which on Sou Jay las', uiuintutncu with very got I row ous that both the political traditious and interest! of 11 ance made it a duty for her to maintain neutrality! in tlio conflict which apiiesrs inevitable, now affirms that "it 000s not po; 1, 'ive the shadow of a good reason for roj 'fusing Iter sytni.athios to the Southern Slates," and not to leave any double as to its opinion, that journal adds, in | conclusion, "tli it it greatly wishes to see the moment at which the tmi>< t tan t markut of America shall be reopened ' to Krpm.h in in noctures and commerce, both of which are languishing In onse<iuenco of a crisis which may bo pro longed to tli j detriment ol the whole world." To speak cl-'urly, wh it the C'unslUutior.n'l asks and wishes for i* the recognition of the southern States. What we under.-land less is the appropriateness of the warm protests which the C<n Unbound thinks ltsoll oldigcd to mako In favor of the English alliance, which, in its opinion, ought not to bo sacrificed hi the present conflict. On that important point our opinions and sympathies are known. But if wo do not see how the recognition of tho Southern States can be concftinted, if not li gaily at least m il ally, with the neutrality which, to RC'ird with thu C'.nsiitutuninel, wo advme France to maintain in tile coutlict between England and tho American t nion, we do not aeo in what respect the great affair of the English alliance cau to compromised by tl.e neutrality which F. ance may maintain in the conflict, and which we should bo the first to dofend if it were in peril. A few days back the C'/n.iituii< nnel took pleasure in noticing the contradictions which it fancied it could pcrccivo in the Jivrnal da Isebats in a certain number of |>olitical questions. We will not use reprisals; we will not say that the Conslilulie.nnel contradicts itself. h*o; but it is very cloar thai our contemporary entertains no scruple in discussing with itself, hi replying to ltaelf, and in refuting itself. [From the Journal dee Ik-bats, Dec. 13.] This paper closes a lengthy article on tho probability <4 war between Kngland and Aruorlca, arising out of the Trent allalr, in the following terms ? The executive power In the United States exorcises a great ascendancy as regards international relations, and It will always hare tho strength to resist every ntt-rnpt of passions hostile to Kngland, becau e it uklI hare a solid point of support in Ike good sense and intelligence i f the count i y itcelf. no long as A'ngt ind .'halt not 6y threats or armgant proceedings hare furnished (,r>runds of complain' against herself. The American ?emocra cy. energetic and iulelligert, which reasons and calculates, (ices not atand in need of a great elfort to appreciate the dangers of the situation, aud the fresh perils to which it would be ex|xi?ud if Kngiund should declare war. Its foreign comtnerco, already restricted by it" struggle against the South, wo'.i<l be annihilated. Thu South, which the North Hatters Itself will be put down, would inovltably escape from It, nnd by having the sea reojtened would be able to exixrrt -cr cotton and therefrom derive resource* for cmlinait g the war, and assuming a more aggressive California, deprived of her communications v. ith tho Niu th, which are carried on exclusively by sea, would with dilliculty resist he temptation of constituting itself into an indooeodeal1 republic. T> carry that out it would be necessary to im|Hise fresh taxes, with manufactures considerably diminished. It is Impossible to siipp ae that the democracy of the North, in presence of snrh a |>ersr>ective, will not lend itself to ah urrang nvnt w ith Kuginiid, provided the Itritish Cabinet does not lay down conditions that cannot be accepted by men of honor, anlmntod by a legitimate pride. To sum up, therefore, we say that there are no visible motives which would render war more difliciiH to be avoided lu the present conjuncture between Amerloo and England, than if, Instead of America, it bad been any great Stale iu Europe engaged in tho aflhlr. [From the Journal lobata, Doc. 14.] e Tho executive power in the Hutted stales exercises I great ascendancy ne rogarils international relations, and it will always h ive the strong'ii to resist every attempt I of passions hoslilo to Kngland, because it will iuive a 1 hi ltd [mint of suonort in Iheoood sense and inlelfiacsu* at the country itself, a > long an F.i gland shall nut by*tbr< sic < or arrogant proceoclnj^g have furnished grounds o< com, plaint against herself. Itao American <1 utocrecy, entrjfrtic and inldiiyrnt, which rea* n? and calculates, dooe not aland iii tieo l of n xraal eflurt to appreciate the dangers of the situation, and tha Irosh poriis to which it would l-o exposed if ijigland abould declare war. Ita foreign commerce. already restricted by ita struggle against tnc -outh, would be annihilated. The South, whicb tba North tiuttara Itself will be put down-, would inevitably escape from it, and by having the aeu reopened would be able to export her cotton, and therefrom derive rosourcea lor oontlnuiDg the war, and assuming a more aggressive attitude. California, <Uptivod of bar communications udih the North, which ate carried on mrlnnwty hy if a, would with difficulty resist >he temptation of rontti Wi ny ilt'lf into an \nJt]mden I r.yuWie To carry that out it would be neceeeary to imp.-so fresh Uxce, with mauufacturee considerably diminished. It is Impossible to aupi?>#ej that tha deinociaoyuf tha North, in presence or such a pers|iectlve, wdl not lend itself ta an arrangement with Hn ft land, provided I he liritiah Cabinet docs not lay down conditions that .ot bo accepted by men .of h nor, animato<l by a legitimate pride. Te sum tip, there.ore, wo say that there are no visible molives which woirid render war niore diffloi It to be avoided in the present oomunclure between America and Knglund than If, taaiead of America, it ha<l been any great state la Europe engaged n the aflhir. [From tho (lonstituti onnel of ?> ?. -12.] This paper publishes a very 'eiigthy ai licit on the nm-euiiv of n.urro emancinstioii. fr-ui which wa detract the statistical |iortlon ? Slavery does not merely chain the human creature, by the mere Tact of doatroying )n? liberty ami reepuaeih.Uy It rentlore him incapable of entertaining the family ?mllioanl.or the deaire of acquiring the morutand religlron lOMrucuons which regulate* man'* in eoeieflh Why hIoiiM the slave marry? Why ntauiid be wtahli hare children born alavea like hbnsulf, uud destined lb., endure the eame mlserteeT Why ebould he wlab to ka\ 1 the obligation* of a enalety from which he le exclude V and which regerde him ee a chattel and not ae a mbyt The I hike do Urogtle baa alylod slavery a etau of p4,' mlecuoue and universal cuucublrage. Such wae * luaiity tho moral etalue et tho elave populatlea %' lore IMS. In ten yanrs, from lH3g to 184 ? lliere were In the French colonics 1,7M mtf4 rlagee of elevee end C175 of free p-reone, maklb t gcth-r 7,W'19. In the nine yearn, 1848- 50, there 38,488 uierriagcs^and In the first few years the aum(* of marriages betweom the enwnclpatcd blacks van* I an 1,000 to 3 .MO. The aver ego la ntlll, if we cent#* 1840 with 185b, In HarMnti|ue, 837 Instead of 48; Intljd:\louj e. 007 Instead of 101. In Guyana, 138 instead of Hi In Reunion, 1127 Instead of 225. Paring the eight y?* from 184^ to 1858 tho number of children 1 gltlmtsed # nearly ifl,000; and of rcccgnlicd, nearly 30,0M 'Till J thousand ma.Tlnges, 20,0*0 children legltlmleed, Hft 30.000 itcngni/ed? eucli Is the call lying r suit prss^^^H in leva than ten years by em anelpnllon,' el<?v?ntfH^H marks M. Cochin, In ? recent publication on the au . M

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